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Factors of IT Failures Literature Review Lack of mission and IT complexity Team, suppliers, customers and stakeholders Consultant and

client alignment Uncertainties during project Time management and Support Miscommunication and skills System and service IT operations Overdue period Limitations of Intelligence Low technologies Insufficient support, information, planning Fund and time delivery Risky Human and technical Actual Cases Problem to integrate 9 modules Legal issues Problematic database Constant change from users Incompetent contractors Change by users Challenge in the work culture Pioneering project Unparallel HRM with the system Uncoordinated function of HRM Ambiguity to evaluate performance Incompetent HR personals Incomplete database Unplanned human resource activities

Based on the comparison from the literature review and the actual cases that had been stated earlier, the problem factor from E-Tanah which was the problem of integration among 9 modules in the land department in the federal state levels and from EG-HRMIS which was the Human Resource Management Strategy was not in line with the objective and strategy of the organization are the same with the problem the literature review stated that the FBI Virtual Case File Project which is it lacks of mission and the complexity of its design are some of the reason failure are having a similar factor. The next comparison from the actual cases are from E-Tanah Core Business which was the constant change of request that keep on change made by the client to cater their specific modules and from EG-HRMIS which was the ambiguity in the criteria and measure to evaluate performance and some human resource activities that done relating to ad-hoc basis without good planning are the same with problem of Coverdale Organization states that poor planning, unclear goals and objectives and also changing objectives during projects that finally resulting to unrealistic time resource are the same. Then, the problem from the actual case that stated in the case of E-Tanah Core Business that the consultant that Ministry and of Natural Resources and Environment hired was an incompetent software developer and this has the same problem from the literature review which was the case of FBI Virtual Case File Project that the project team who were the project manager, programmers, suppliers, customers and stakeholders are capable for being factor to IT failure that was causing by unsynchronized alignment from the IT specialist within the organization itself. Next, the problem factor from the actual case of E-Tanah Core Business which was challenge in changing the work culture of users or migration from the previous system is sharing the same problem of Executive Information System in New Zealand that the failure was resulted by inadequate or inappropriate technology and lack of commitment from executives involved because

they were hesitate to adopt to new technology or system that finally will fail to meet the needs of consumers. Other than that, from the literature review, the problem factor that caused GARDENCO, a manufacturing company based in New Zealand that tried to implement Executive Information System was found by the researcher was the failure to meet the requirement as the technology was not there yet and still far beyond its time to install while from the actual case that stated the ETanah Core Business was still in pioneering stage, thus still went through a trial and error process in land management system and for sure will consume a lot of time are both sharing the same problem factor. Plus, the problem factor from the actual case that happened in EG-HRMIS project was there were no enough efforts in any coordination, cooperation, and integration between the various functions of the human resource managers and staffs and from the literature review, the Coverdale Organization problem factor which were lack of executive support and user involvement and the failure to communicate among the developers and working as a team are the same for the actual case and literature review. Then, the next comparison for the actual case which was EG-HRMIS was the lack of knowledge in the basics, approach and techniques of human resource management among some of the human resource personnels and for the literature review was from a Japan based manufacturing process company in Singapore to produce electronic components and wanted to develop a procurement system named E-PRO was also due to organizational, political and human related factors rather than technical matters are sharing the same problem factor. Lastly, from the actual case which was from EG-HRMIS was the data collection and information regarding employees and positions are hard to acquire, incomplete very often, sometimes not up to date and the information are not shared among different departments while in the literature review, the research done online by Marin County California stated that the SAP employers who were young and inexperienced caused the IT project to fail and reasoned to abandon the ERP software project. However, for the actual case of E-Tanah Core Business, there are three factors that are not found in any cases referred to the literature review which were problems related to legal issues during predevelopment of the project and the aftermath of the project. Second factor was the problematic database and thirdly was the constant change in users of both came during the post development of the project. While in the literature review, the factors that were not found in both actual cases are slow system that was prone to crash and resulted to drop the quality of service in the Greyhound Lines case and high risk for the system to be implemented because when the development of the project takes too long, then there will the belief that the project will never work well from the EIS software project that GARDENCO tried to develop. But, many factors share the result problem of time like overscheduled process even though it came from different factors.

Furthermore, the main problem that had been discussed in the conclusion of both actual cases which were the state of readiness to implement the projects that made the time consumed to develop the project overdue the period given share the same factor from the literature review that the delivery system takes too long in the GARDENCO case. It is also stated that by the time that the system viable, ready to be used by the government, new technology and system have come to replace the old system. This will result to incompatibility of new technologies against the previous system and therefore the time, cost, efforts, to build the system are completely such a waste. Obviously, a lot of studies with a lot of spaces needed to fulfil to find the solutions and avoidance precautions that needed to critically consider in managing a project and developing it to be a success project as well as business agreements and deals that needed to be satisfied for both parties who are the clients and the developers in the future. Even more specific studies should be conducted to enhance for the process and manufacturing stage to understand the needs of the projects and how it will solve the problems.