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4.

The Modern Era- from the 1960s to 2006


Housing Trends - From State to Private Sector Dominance

The final stage in the development of Waterview as we know it today occurred


in the period from the 1960s to the present day. In terms of settlement
patterns, there was a trend over time towards further intensification of
settlement and the subdivision of sections 1 into smaller units. There was also
a corresponding drop in the average property size 2 within Waterview in the
latter half of the 20th century, an increase in "in-fill" and more intensive forms
of housing 3 and a move away from state housing to private ownership.

By the end of the 1950s and into the 1960s all large state housing
developments in the Waterview area had come to an end. In the post-World
War Two era there was a great demand for new housing as well as
substantial waiting lists for new state houses. 4 However, successive National
administrations of those decades were determined to prove that the private
[housing] sector could deliver a better result than was possible through the
taxpayer funded state schemes.

By the 1960s and continuing to the present day, the idea of home ownership
had come to be viewed as an end in its own right. The prime aspiration of all
New Zealanders was to own their own home. This desire for home ownership
was to be epitomised by the nuclear family structure (2 parents and children)
living in a "family home" in the suburbs on a quarter acre section. 5 During
these years Labour's dream of a decently housed population living in cheap,
affordable state rentals had been replaced by this new vision. The emphasis
on providing state resources towards encouraging private home ownership
was to be achieved at the expense of the state-owned rental accommodation,
governments no longer wished to be viewed as landlords for state house
rentals. This process can be viewed as a firm and deliberate rejection of state
housing as a mainstream form of tenure. 6

From the 1960s onwards we see a "carrot and stick approach" being used to
make state housing a less attractive proposition and to make private housing
a more affordable option, within the reach of most New Zealand families.
"Carrots" offered to foster private sector housing development included such
measures as the provision of cheap loans through private lending institutions
for private mortgages towards the construction of new homes. 7 At the same
time "the stick" was also being applied in the form of policies aimed at making
it easier to sell off existing and older types of state houses. Special deals and
low rentals were offered to long term state housing tenants who wished to
purchase the properties they had been living in for many years.

In conjunction with the "stick" approach, a wide range of measures were


introduced between the 1960s and 1990s that sought to undermine the basic
idea of state housing as a secure long term tenure alternative to the private
sector. 8 There was to be a gradual increase in rentals charged to state house
tenants culminating in the late 1980s-early 1990s with a move towards full

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market based rentals charged to state house tenants and a whole raft of new
restrictions on access to state housing.

In this way, a substantial portion of the original state housing stock (especially
in the area from Fairlands Avenue to Oakley Ave) in the Waterview area was
to pass from the state into private ownership over the next forty years. This
same pattern (but to a lesser degree), was to occur along the length of the
Great North Road and in areas in the lower half of Waterview, that were
originally developed for state housing 9 out of the old Oakley Park Estate,
below Oakley Avenue, Herdman Street and down to Cowley Street. Today
this part of Waterview still contains a substantial amount of state housing, now
administered through Housing New Zealand. 10

Socio-Economic Background/ Welfare & Mental Health Housing

State housing (for new tenants) in Waterview in the latter part of the 20th
century was primarily to be used for emergency accommodation and for those
from the lowest socio-economic backgrounds. In particular it dealt with high
proportions of Maori, Pacific Islanders and other immigrant groups, those with
extremely low incomes or on various forms of welfare benefit. It should come
as no surprise then that from the late 1970s up to the present day we see a
gradual shift in the ethnic diversity make-up of Waterview's residents from
those of predominately Caucasian/European backgrounds to those of Maori,
Pacific Islander or other non-European ethnicities. 11

At the same time from the early 1980s after the closure of the former
Carrington Mental Hospital, (and its transformation firstly into the Carrington
Polytechnic and later into Unitec) there were to be a number of halfway
houses set up for former psychiatric patients in old state houses within the
Waterview area. Most (but not exclusively so) of these halfway houses are to
be found in the lower parts of Waterview, in the streets closest to the North
Western Motorway. This placement of former psychiatric patients within the
established Waterview community still occurs today. Apart from the odd
isolated incident this scheme appears to have worked well over the years - as
long as there remains adequate supervision and professional support for such
people living within the area - they can and are living healthy and productive
lives within the wider community at large.

Streetscapes and Subdivisions

From the late 1950s and into the 1960s suburban areas like Waterview
(where a high proportion of the housing stock consisted of state housing),
were to come under increasing criticism for leading to the creation of bland
uniform landscapes, where whole suburbs consisted of street after street of
houses built in almost identical style and materials.12 This lack of variety in
style of state housing subdivision was perhaps unfairly blamed for leading to
the sterile uniform environments that political opponents of state housing
claimed would become the "future slum areas of Auckland". While it is true
that state housing areas, such as Waterview, exhibit a high degree of
uniformity of streetscape appearance that is still evident in the area today

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(2006), especially in the lower parts of Waterview formed from the old Oakley
Park Estate (along the streets in between Oakley Avenue and the North
Western Motorway), it is in no way a harsh and sterile environment.

The more harsh visual aspects of these subdivisions, which one critic
(perhaps unfairly) described as epitomising a "uniformity of difference", 13 had
more to do with the newness of these subdivisions rather than with the lack of
variety in building styles and the materials used in their construction. 14 These
"defects" would be softened over the ensuing decades, as the lawns and
gardens of the houses of individual residents started to become established
and as the verges, trees, shrubs and other streetscape features that lined
Waterview's streets started to mature.

By the 1970s the basic streetscape character of Waterview as we know it


today was established. It was a pleasant, quiet, visually appealing suburban
area, typical of many areas surrounding the inner ring of Auckland's central
suburbs and was an ideal if somewhat rather uneventful place in which to live
and raise families.

Surburban Revitalisation

From the late 1980s and into the 1990s however this was slowly to change.
Waterview's close proximity to major motorways and arterial links to and from
the city and to West Auckland/Waitakere City made it an ideal location from
which to commute. Waterview was located close to schools, education
facilities (such as Unitec) and nearby shopping centres, and was served by
major public transport (bus) routes running along the Great North Road.
These factors combined with the fact that Waterview was one of the last of the
inner western group of suburbs to undergo urban renewal; that land and
houses prices were still comparatively cheap compared with other areas of
Auckland; and that there were still plenty of 'green spaces' and reserves
(including the picturesque landscape of the Oakley Creek and its surrounding
former mental hospital farm land) retained within the area in which to pursue
both active and passive forms of recreation, has meant Waterview in recent
years has become a much more sought out area in which to live.

This process of "urban renewal" in Waterview, sparked by rising house prices


and by the perceived advantages of living in a suburban area so close to the
city was a gradual one. It first became apparent from the 1980s and has
continued apace in the 1990s and into the 2000s and is still influencing the
present and future shape of this district. From this time on we notice a gradual
influx of upwardly mobile young professionals (both single, de facto or married
couples), as well as white collar workers and upper middle class families, of
students (both of foreign or domestic origin) to study at nearby educational
institutions (such as Carrington Polytechnic and its successor organisation,
Unitec), moving and settling into the area - especially into the upper parts of
Waterview closer to Avondale (in the streets leading off the west side of the
Great North Road) and stretching down as far as Oakley Avenue and Howlett
Street. 15

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Community Services

The maturing of Waterview as a successful suburban entity (from the 1970s


onwards) can be seen in the fact that it was able to support a certain level of
community services ranging from a doctor's surgery (Dr A. Musialkowski at
1495 Great North Road), 16 a local tennis club (off Herdman Street), 17 a
primary school and kindergarten (both located at Waterview Primary, off
Oakley Avenue and Herdman Street), 18 two main blocks of local shops (one
in Daventry Street, the other on the corner of Alford Street and the Great
North Road), 19 a church (the Waterview Methodist Church on the corner of
Fir Street and Great North Road), 20 a church hall (St Christopher's Anglican
Hall at 5 Alford Street) 21 and a scout den (1600A Great North Road, 22
eastern side near Blockhouse Bay Road intersection).

Retail Businesses and Shops

From the late 1970s increased competition from new forms of retail shopping
in the form of supermarkets and malls established in neighbouring suburbs,
such as Lynn Mall Shopping Centre in New Lynn, Gubay’s (later ''3 Guys'') in
Avondale, 23 St Luke's Shopping Centre (now part of the Westfield chain of
shopping malls) in Morningside, the Pak 'n Save Supermarket in Mt Albert and
Foodtown at Point Chevalier, led to a significant decline in trade for local
Waterview businesses. 24

In its heyday from the late 1950s through the 1960s and 1970s, the Daventry
Street shops established themselves as a successful block of commercial/
retail stores in the lower half of Waterview. These shops were to become a
well known Waterview landmark for many years, with many successful
businesses operating out of the half dozen stores that made up this block of
local retail stops. 25 For example, out of Mr Hefferen's stationery and book
store, Waterview's first and only post office operated from here in the 1960s
and 1970s. 26 In addition to its stationery and book sales this store also
offered a range of banking and postal facilities. It also held the (Waterview)
area's first telephone exchange and telegraph service as well as being the
venue of the local stamp collectors club for many years.

By the 1980s this small block of half a dozen shops was struggling to survive.
During this decade there was a high turnover of businesses operating from
there, including various fast food outlets, a laundry, several diaries and a
hairdressing salon. The nature of the local population on which this block of
local shops’ viability ultimately depended was changing and the increased
competition from nearby malls and shopping precincts such as close proximity
of the Avondale, New Lynn and Point Chevalier Shopping Centres was
making local community stores uneconomic. By the 1990s this block of shops,
had ceased to operate and is now vacant & boarded up, thus leaving only the
Alford Street shops/Waterview Diary and the BP Service Station, opposite
Herdman Street 27 (on the Western bank of the Oakley Creek) still in
operation in Waterview.

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The Waterview Shops (on the corner of Alford Street) and the associated
Waterview Superette (on the Great North Road between Alford Street and
Oakley Avenue) is the only block of shops that has weathered the changing
fortunes of time that the other retail premises within Waterview have failed to
do. Its centralised position within the suburb, its location on the Great North
Road, which is a major transport arterial route linking the central city with
Auckland's western suburbs and the provision of off-street parking, as well as
being the only block of local shops left within the central area of the suburb
have meant that the Waterview shops are still operating today as a
functioning and thriving business concern.

Churches

For over a hundred years there was only one church in Waterview, this being
the Waterview Methodist Church (formerly known as the "Primitive Methodist
Church"). It has been a major landmark in the area since the 1880s. The bell
and chimes added in 1956 28 ring out over the suburb on special occasions,
such as Christmas morning, adding to the charm of the district that is
reminiscent of an old English country village. The Methodist church is a key
local asset, making a contribution to the social and community life of the
Waterview district. This local church has always offered free youth
programmes and child minding services (during school holiday periods) for
local residents irrespective of their religious backgrounds; is a focal point for a
wide range of community meetings and social events, and is regularly used as
a polling booth during general elections. From the 1950s it became (and
remains) an important symbol of ecumenism between two major protestant
denominations - resulting in a union between the Presbyterian's of St. Iona in
Blockhouse Bay and Waterview's Methodists resulting in the formation of a
co-operating parish. 29 By 1975 it was the first major (community) building in
the area to celebrate a centenary. 30

It was not until the 1960s that another church building of any significance was
established within Waterview, namely the small St Christopher's Church Hall
31
(and attached presbytery) which was erected at No. 5 Alford Street, to cater
for the needs of local Anglicans within the area. From this small hall, Sunday
School classes, the occasional social event (such as a film evening) and free
religious instruction were offered to local children (of any religious affiliation).
32
But it was not to be until the late 1990s that this building was taken over
and converted into Waterview's second church catering to the Romanian
Orthodox community. Thus St Christopher's Anglican hall became the Church
of St Ignatius Teoforul - the only orthodox church of its kind in Auckland.

Development of the Modern Suburb: Housing Trends and what survives

The scale of state housing schemes in Waterview from the 1930s to 1950s
meant that by the end of that period, the physical limits of where future
housing schemes could be built had already been reached. The western or
developed side of the suburb as defined by the Great North Road had
expanded to the limits of its physical boundaries (as far as the Waitemata
Harbour's edge and the Motu Manawa Reserve down to the mouth of the

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Oakley Creek and the start of the North-Western Motorway). The eastern side
of the Great North Road, including the Oakley Creek and the surrounding
former mental hospital farmland has remained relatively untouched by
housing developments since that time, with the exception of the small strip of
ribbon development leading to towards Blockhouse Bay Road.

It was here (on the eastern side of the Great North Road) that as late as the
1990s, the last remnants of what could once have been described as a unique
and interesting mixture of late 19th century and early 20th century dwellings -
the largest surviving concentration of such buildings, could still be found in
Waterview at this time. One of the buildings from that era was the large single
storey timber weather board late-19th century Victorian transitional villa with
ornate bays (at either end of the front verandah) at 1560 Great North Road, 33
which was reputed to have been the original homestead for the Whau Mental
Hospital. This building was probably demolished (or moved out of the area) to
make way for the Waterview Downs - the last street added in Waterview in the
late1990s. 34 Many of the other residences of similar age such as that of Mr.
Charles Cavanagh at 1568 Great North Road 35 were gradually being
replaced by the several blocks of flats that were erected in the vicinity in the
1970s and 1980s up to the present day.

New houses built within the Waterview area since the 1960s were limited to
development within the confines of already existing spaces on sections along
the western side of the Great North Road. This had not yet been developed
for other purposes, such as for recreational reserves, playgrounds, walkways,
school and church grounds etc. Over time, this led to a significant loss of 19th
and early 20th century dwellings within the established part of Waterview
(from Fairlands Avenue to Oakley Avenue and in the side streets that led off
them), as buildings executed in earlier architectural styles were either moved
off their sections, moved around on existing sites so that one or more new
buildings could be added onto the original sections, moved out of the area
completely or were demolished to make way for newer house styles.

This trend towards urban renewal also included the replacement of older style
state houses in Waterview that had passed into private ownership with newer
types of private dwellings. 36 As well as new types of individual privately
owned houses there was also an increase in other more intensive types of
accommodation being built within the area -- including clusters of small
individual retirement units, town houses or blocks of flats of various shapes
and sizes. 37

We even occasionally see older style houses being moved from other suburbs
onto pre-existing sections within the area. This can be viewed as an attempt
by new residents to live in character homes that would evoke a bygone era or
would not be out of place in context of the overall settlement pattern of the
Waterview district. Examples of this can be seen in the placement of the
single storey wooden house at No. 26 Saxon Street in 1964; 38 of the 1920s
former George Troup style railway cottage at 52A Alverston Street in 1959; 39
and the colonial styled transitional villa at No. 73 Alverston Street that had
been moved here in the 1990s 40 (in two halves and reassembled) from

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Sarawia Street, Parnell onto the large vacant section on the edge of the
Waitemata Harbour in Waterview that was once used as a grazing paddock,
being a part of the former Charles Eyes Estate - one of the largest farms in
the area in the 1920s and 1930s. 41

This replacement of older houses with ones executed in newer architectural


styles and materials took place in a gradual way in all parts of the Waterview
suburb over the ensuing decades and is still happening today. Starting in the
1960s and continuing through the 1970s and beyond, there was a slow
replacement of state houses on both sides of Middlesex Road with several
blocks of low lying flats (No. 19 consisting of three flats being built in 1973; 2
units at No. 21 in 1968; 2 flats at No.2 built in 1987) 42 and multiple individual
retirement units (mainly on the right side) being erected there. There were
also several two storey dwellings of clinker style brick veneer, of concrete
block or of wooden construction (mainly on the left side) such as the large 2
storey wood and brick building at No 4 Middlesex Road erected in 1990. 43
One of the earliest examples in Waterview of this process can be seen in the
erection in the late 1950s and 1960s of a block of some 2 storey and half a
dozen single storey brick and wooden apartments along the Great North Road
(at No.1551) 44 next to the Waterview Methodist Church near the corner of Fir
Street.

This trend towards more intensive forms of multi-unit high density housing
was also happening elsewhere in Waterview in areas such as along Fairlands
Avenue (with the creation of a modern housing subdivision of 20 individual
units constructed at No. 12 Fairlands Avenue in the 1990s), 45 and parts of
Saxon Street (such as the multiple concrete block 2-storey units at No 15
Saxon Street in the 1970s and 1980s), 46 and Oakley Ave (No.'s 25-28)
including the former Oakley Avenue Stores. 47 This property was subdivided
into two units in the late seventies and was subsequently demolished 1989-
1990 (to make way for a block of new units developed by Antay Holdings Ltd)
and in Howlett Street were constructed four units at no.14. 48

Traffic: Further Developments of the Great North Road and North-


Western Motorway

As motorised vehicles became an increasingly popular form of personal


transportation throughout the latter part of the 20th century and into the 21st
century, the car came to be viewed as an integral part of the modern lifestyle
of an increasingly highly mobile population. Since the 1970s New Zealanders
have grown to have one of the highest ratios of car ownership per head of
population of any country in the world. 49 It is only natural that major transport
and arterial routes such as the Great North Road and the North Western
Motorway) which carried such traffic would have a major impact on the growth
and development of suburban areas such as Waterview that were serviced by
these routes.

In this capacity, the Great North Road has had a major and continuing
influence on developing and shaping Waterview from the 1960s to the present
day (2006). It allowed the Waterview area to be opened for further

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development and served as a major conduit for conveying traffic flows (from
neighbouring districts) through Waterview to and from the central city and
linking it to Auckland's western suburbs. Over the ensuing decades, a
continuous process of upgrading and maintenance of the surface of the Great
North Road (and of the surrounding roads and streets of Waterview which
lead off and fed local traffic onto it) was initiated to increase its ability to cope
with the increasingly heavy traffic loads.

There have been several major upgrades of the Great North Road through
Waterview since the 1960s that have involved road realignments, especially
at the entry and exit points of the district. Also there were major episodes of
road widening (including additional lanes) that were designed to handle
increased traffic volumes, reduce congestion and easy traffic flows along this
main road and feed them onto the North Western /State Highway 16
Motorway system. In the late 1970s the Great North Road throughout the
whole of its length through Waterview was widened into a two-lane each way
road. 50 This was done in conjunction with a major realignment of the road
leading up the hill to Point Chevalier and a readjustment/completion of the
interchange 51 below Cowley St (which caused significant damage and
destruction to early Maori midden and archaeological sites in the vicinity of the
Point Chevalier side of the mouth of the Oakley Creek). 52 Once completed in
the early 1980s, this upgrade was to make access from the North Western
Motorway/State Highway 16 to the central city's motorway system (via
Western Springs and Point Chevalier) much easier and more direct. It also
allowed for traffic travelling from areas further west that had previously
travelled along the Great North Road into the city via Avondale and New
Lynn, to by-pass these areas and connect them more directly with the North
Western Motorway at the Patiki, Te Atatu and Lincoln Road (Henderson) off-
ramps. 53

However in a space of less than ten years, due to the increase in traffic
volumes since the last major road upgrade; it was deemed necessary in the
mid-1990s to further widen the Waterview section of the Great North Road to
its current size (in the process nearly doubling its previous width), with the
creation of an additional turning lane in the middle of the road, and the
installation of traffic islands (as well as traffic and bus bays) at strategic points
along its length to stop speeding along the Waterview straight and to better
regulate traffic flows. 54

In conjunction with this major project the Great North Road was widened on
both sides of the pre-existing road. Bus bays, turning bays and the creation of
cycle lanes were added along the Eastern/Oakley Creek side of the Great
North Road. A long narrow swathe of land was acquired right along the
western side of the Great North Road, reducing the front yards of residents’
sections along the length of this strip. The footpaths (and driveways of
individual properties) on both sides of the Great North Road were
considerably enlarged and concreted, and bus stops on both sides of the road
were enlarged, modernised and upgraded. It was this upgrade that saw the
controversial erection of the BP petrol station opposite Herdman Street and a
major environmental battle to save the avenue of cottonwood poplars 55 (a

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former World War 2 memorial) that lined most of the Oakley Creek side (the
eastern side) of the Great North Road. While most of these trees were
eventually cut down, several were eventually saved, and extensive plantings
of both native and exotic trees and shrubs were planted on this side (of the
road) to partially compensate for this loss. 56

Motorways, Highways and Western Ring Road/State Highway 20 Link

By the mid-to-late 1950s, the first motorways were starting to make their
presence felt in Auckland, which would soon link traffic flows all across the
Auckland isthmus and beyond. The development and extension of the North
Western Motorway (State Highway 16) from the 1960s onwards near the
entrance to Waterview (Pt Chevalier end) was to become an important and
integral part of Auckland's regional road and highway systems, linking the
city's central districts with the rapidly expanding western suburbs. This
motorway was built across the Waitemata harbour via a system of causeways
and bridges extending between Traherne and Pollen Islands, across the
Rosebank Rd Peninsula as far as Patiki Rd and then on to Lincoln Rd,
Henderson and the Te Atatu Peninsula.

Over the last forty years as Auckland's motorway systems and the major
roads that fed traffic onto them have become increasingly clogged and
congested, new solutions were being sought to improve the city's transport
problems across the whole of the Auckland region. This was to involve the
linking of all parts of the city's motorway systems into one overall
comprehensive road system which would eventually cover the entire isthmus.
One part of this solution that had long been mooted was the completion of the
Western Ring route 57 linking State Highway 20 from South Auckland via
Hillsborough and Mount Roskill, through Mt Albert, to the North Western
Motorway and State Highway 16.

Since the late 1990s, two areas have been under serious consideration as the
possible route for the North-Western Motorway connection to complete this
western ring road system - either through (what is now known as) Heron Park
and the Rosebank Road Peninsula (the Avondale-Rosebank or AR1 route) or
through the suburb of Waterview (the Avondale-Waterview or AW1 route). 58
The adoption of the Waterview route would involve the creation of an entirely
new motorway system (with associated feeder roads through surrounding
areas leading onto and off of it) running parallel to the pre-existing Great
North Road through the length of the entire suburb. Both routes - the
Rosebank or the Waterview option - would involve significant and long-term
impacts for the Waterview district and its residents. 59 Investigations into both
options occurred in 2000, 2002 and 2003 leading to the local territorial and
regional authorities 60 and Transit NZ (the government agency responsible for
major national road construction projects) announcing in late 2005 that
Waterview was the preferred option - amidst much controversy and opposition
from local residents, a powerful environmental lobby 61 and people from the
surrounding districts. 62 This project has been listed as one of the top ten
national roading priorities by Transit NZ in its recently announced ten year
plan. 63

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The precise route through Waterview of this proposed new motorway,
whether through the developed western side of the suburb (i.e. through the
residential housing subdivisions of Waterview) or through the largely
undeveloped eastern side 64 of the Great North Road, being the
environmentally sensitive "green belt" area of the Oakley Creek and the
surrounding Unitec grounds, is still unknown. This decision is scheduled to be
made in the latter half of 2006. Whatever the final decision, it is likely to be
extremely controversial (as are the proposed methods of paying for the
funding shortfall to complete this project ranging from road tolls on new and/or
existing roads and a range of regional road taxes/tariffs and other forms of
users pays road charging systems). 65 Only time will tell what the long term
implications (whatever positive or negative in nature) or impact of this project
will have on the future viability (and what changes to the nature of the
character) of the Waterview district will be. However, it is likely to be
significant.

Public Transport

Between the 1960s and the present day, we notice a general trend over time
of an increase in the level and provision of good public transport services
especially in the form of bus transportation throughout the Waterview area.
From the 1960s Waterview was on the main route for a number of different
bus services travelling along the Great North Road from Avondale or New
Lynn into the city and back. These included the dark green "bone shakers" of
the Auckland Bus Company (A.B.C.) 66 up until the late 1960s and early
1970s; 67 the pale two toned green buses of the council owned ARA
(Auckland Regional Authority) Bus Company, 68 which was eventually
replaced the Yellow Bus Company in the 1980s 69 which in turn was taken
over by the present major provider of Auckland's bus services, Stagecoach, in
1998. 70

Today (2006) Waterview is well supplied with good bus coverage and bus
patronage within the area is high, reflecting that these services are well used.
Waterview is also well supplied with bus stops. Its ideal position located on
the major transport route of the Great North Road means that most buses
travelling to and from the city (that do not use the North-Western Motorway
Routes) via West Auckland will travel through Waterview. Bus services in
recent years have been extended to offer better and more frequent coverage
both in "on-peak and off-peak times", including improved evening, weekend
and holiday services. During peak times there is a bus on average travelling
through Waterview every 25 to 30 minutes during the day. In the last few
years, Stagecoach has initiated a special shopping bus service for Waterview
residents (operating between New Lynn, Waterview and Point Chevalier) as a
regular service. While Stagecoach (which has recently been bought out by
Infratil) 71 remains the major bus fleet operating in the area, other smaller bus
operators are also present including Ritchie's Coach lines, and the Urban
Express (Bus) Service.

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Transport Industry and Heron Park

Waterview has always had a long association with the automotive industry,
and in particular with buses and coach services. Down a loose metal driveway
on the corner portion of the large grass covered paddock (previously used for
grazing horses), which is now known as Heron Park, there was a large
automotive garage and associated workshops connected with the automotive
industry. 72 Several bus companies over the years used this site as a bus
depot including Reliance Transport in 1963 73 and Shears Coachline Ltd from
1975 74 which later changed in 1977-1978 to Fourways Coach Lines Ltd. 75 At
one stage there was also a car wrecker's yard located there - Marmont &
Turnwald's Waterview Wreckers in 1965. 76 This connection with the
automotive industry was only broken once this paddock become the council
owned reserve and Heron Park was established there in 2000. 77 The old
garages and workshops were demolished and removed and most of the old
driveway was grassed over. The only physical remains of these former
workshop buildings and the metalled road that led to them (in 2006) are the
remnants of their concrete foundations that are slowly being reclaimed by the
grass.

This 10 hectare block (now Heron Park) sited at the junction of Great North
and Blockhouse Bay Roads gently slopes down towards the shoreline of the
Rosebank Peninsula on the Waitemata Harbour; one of the last large
undeveloped green spaces in this part of West Auckland. 78 It originally
formed part of the Cadman Estate in the latter part of the 19th century, and
which by the early decades of the 20th century was used as a night soil depot
servicing the entire Avondale district. By the 1950s most of this block had
been acquired for future railways projects. 79 It was envisioned that at some
time in the future there was to have been the completion of an Avondale to
Pollen Island railway line 80 and that this route would eventually connect up to
future rail lines yet to be constructed in West Auckland, through to Henderson
and the Te Atatu Peninsula. However none of these proposed links were
actually acted upon, as the Labour government of mid to late 1980s sought to
divest itself of excess railway land as part of its rationalisation programme
involving the selling of State Owned Enterprises’ (S.O.E.s) assets.

The Auckland City Council saw this as an excellent opportunity to cheaply


acquire this large block of land and use it as a community asset. By 1993 and
over the next several years, a variety of proposals had been put forward for
the future use of this land ranging from the establishment of a new secondary
school on the site, partial use as a public reserve for passive forms of
recreation such as walking or gentle cycling or to be partly equipped with
sports fields and active adventure facilities (such as a flying fox) for more
active forms of recreation, to be used as a dog exercise area, or just as a
public reserve. 81 After nearly eight years, the residents of Waterview
supported by strong environmental lobbies 82 were successful in having this
block set aside as a public reserve dedicated to preserving the area's unique
natural environmental, heritage and archaeological features including its
heron nesting sites, hence the new name of "Heron Park" 83 by which it is now
known.

73
Transport Versus Environment ?

However the establishment of Heron Park at the entrance to Waterview (from


the Avondale end) as a public reserve was to create (unforeseen) dynamic
tensions in the late 1990s and early 2000s between those concerned with
saving the local environment and the character of the Waterview district and
those responsible for solving Auckland's traffic congestion problems. Heron
Park was initially viewed as an (unused) potential corridor for such use. It had
previously been designated for future transport (in this case originally for rail)
purposes and was seen as an ideal route for future motorway development.
By 2003 and again in late 2005 Heron Park was in the firing line, 84 as one of
the two major routes for the proposed Western Ring road system linking State
Highway 20 with the North-Western Motorway, that is the Avondale-Rosebank
Route (AR1). 85 By early 2006 this option was seen as less likely due to its
expense, environmental concerns and the fact that the Auckland City Council
and other territorial authorities (such as Transit NZ) were investigating their
preference for the other option. If this new motorway system would not go
through Heron Park then it either had to go through the developed Western
side of the Waterview suburb, leading to the destruction or removal of
hundreds of homes and loss of significant areas of reserve land and
community facilities 86 (such as the area's only school, its local shops and
possibly its church and its kindergarten), or through the eastern side of the
Great North Road through the Oakley Creek and Unitec grounds, an area that
is equally unique and environmentally significant. 87

Repetitive?

Marine Reserve

The establishment of Heron Park on the boundary between Avondale and


Waterview districts was complemented by the creation in 1995 of the Motu
Manawa/ Pollen Island Marine Reserve, administered by the Department of
Conservation. 88 This [reserve] recognised all the harbour area and shore line
of Waterview up to (but not including) the mouth of the Oakley Creek and
large parts of the Rosebank Peninsula as far as the Whau Creek, all of Pollen
and Traherne Islands and the North Western Motorway as a nationally
significant conservation area. 89 The creation of this marine reserve as well
recognising the importance of preserving the mangrove swamp features, and
the last remnants of salt marsh in the Waitemata Harbour (as one of the last
remaining wetland ecologies in New Zealand) also recognised that this
reserve supported a diverse range of habitats for rare and endangered
species of flora and fauna and served as a home for thousands of migratory
and New Zealand endemic wading birds. 90

Green Belt Areas/Oakley Creek & Waterfall

The only remaining area of Waterview that has largely escaped housing
development in modern times and forms a unique environmentally important
"green belt'' throughout the Waterview area, lies to the immediate east of the
Great North Road, encompassing all the land previously owned by Carrington

74
and Oakley Mental Hospitals and all the lands bordering the eastern side of
the Oakley Creek between Blockhouse Bay Road and the North-Western
Motorway.

The last vestiges of industrial activity along the Oakley Creek in the form of
quarrying on the Creek's eastern bank (near the Phyllis Street reserve)
ceased to operate in the early 1960s. 91 The Oakley Creek which had suffered
for more than a century from the polluting effects of industrial/agricultural and
other man-made activities 92 still surprisingly supports a unique range of floral
and faunal species, both of native and exotic origin.

Local residents had used the (mainly eastern) banks of the Oakley Creek for
many decades as a dumping ground for domestic and other forms of rubbish.
Top soil and other material fill was used to cover the scars of former industrial
activity along the Oakley's banks, creating issues of erosive stability and
leachate problems whereby contaminants could enter directly into the creek's
waterways.

Although sewerage facilities, storm water pipes and culverts had been
installed at strategic points along the course of the Oakley Creek from the
earliest days of European settlement along its banks right through to the
1950s and 1960s up to the present day, many of these old pipes would
periodically overflow in heavy rain, with the wastes flowing directly into the
creek and down to its mouth, discharging toxic wastes into the Waitemata
Harbour. In addition to this, the Oakley Creek's sensitive ecology 93 (including
species of native fish, land snails and bird life such as kingfishers, morepork
and fantails) was being undermined by the proliferation of a number of highly
invasive and rapidly spreading exotic plant species (such as wild ginger,
privet, wandering dew, bamboo, kikuyu grass etc) and by introduced animals
(rats, wild mice, opossums and rabbits) which threaten the habitats and the
young of native species. Despite a certain degree of recovery during the
1960s and 1970s the Oakley Creek as it flowed through Waterview was still
very much a polluted waterway system, even though generations of local
children over the years continued to play along its banks or swim in the pool
beneath the city's only sizeable surviving urban waterfall. 94

Closure of the Mental Hospital and the former hospital farm

However from the late 1970s, Waterview's residents were beginning to


become more environmentally aware and more vocal about the protection of
the Oakley Creek and its immediate environs. By the early 1980s, the large
mental hospital in Point Chevalier (that had been operating in the area since
the late 1860s) 95 known as Carrington Hospital and its associated auxiliary
units for the criminally insane (Oakley Hospital) were closed down and many
"half-way" houses for former patients were established in the surrounding
areas - including in Waterview. Today the only remaining part of the old
hospital still in operation is the relatively new high security wing for the
criminally insane known as the Mason Clinic, established near the start of the
Oakley Creek Walkway at its Point Chevalier end. It is a highly visible

75
landmark located just below the bridge at the mouth of the Oakley Creek near
the North Western Motorway interchange.
At the same time that Carrington Hospital was being sold off, a variety of
groups with a strong local and environmental focus successfully lobbied for
the Oakley Creek and its immediate surrounds to become a public reserve.
This large green belt area (which became the Oakley Creek Walkway and
Reserve) 96 extended along the whole of the western bank of the Oakley
Creek (to the east of the Great North Road). Its lower portions (closest to
Point Chevalier) was a dedicated education reserve, 97 while the creek's
eastern bank and flood plain area was a water rights reserve extending all the
way along the upper portions of the creek as far as the quarry and
recreational reserves bordering onto the Phyllis Street Reserve. 98

Oakley Creek Reserve and Walkways

It was during the major widening of the Great North Road in the mid to late
1990s that the present upgrade of the Oakley Creek Reserve and Walkway as
we know it today took shape. 99 Concrete footpaths and cycleways (as well as
bus stops were upgraded, turning and maintenance bays added) were
established all along this (eastern) side of this road.

At the same time the avenue of cottonwood poplars that lined the entire
eastern side of the Great North Road was cut down (as part of this process)
and a petrol station added on this side of the road opposite Herdman Street.
100
Long term plans to replant and rehabilitate the entire Oakley Creek Valley
(in Waterview) with native vegetation, removing and slowly supplanting
exotics are being implemented. Regular plantings and clean-ups, to improve
the water quality of the Oakley Creek, is an on going mission supported by a
host of environmental groups, largely made up of local volunteers from
Waterview and the surrounding districts. 101

New Uses for Former Hospital Farm land

The former mental hospital in Point Chevalier and all of its surrounding farm
land, which extended along the entire eastern side of the Great North Road
through the suburban area of Waterview and down to the Oakley Creek, was
taken over and run as a tertiary educational institute - Carrington Technical
Institute (later known as Carrington Polytech). 102 This facility which is still
operating today (2006), from the 1990s became Unitec (University of
Technology). 103 Over the last 15 years or so this tertiary educational institute
has been expanding its campus facilities over much of the former mental
hospital's farm land.

In the early 2000s Unitec had built several large multi-level student
accommodation blocks 104 on its Waterview property, on the eastern side of
the Great North Road, on both sides of the Oakley Creek. Several such
blocks are located across the Oakley creek on the border of Unitec's property,
in the vicinity of the old Oakley Hospital building and its new horticulture block,
close to the pathway that leads down from the Unitec campus to the Oakley
Creek. On the other side of the (Oakley) creek, on the Great North Road, just

76
below the Waterview Lodge (near the pensioner village known as the
Waterview Flats), Unitec built another complex of 2-3 large multi-storey
student accommodation blocks. These student flats are a clearly visible
landmark on the Oakley Creek side of the Great North Rd and are located in
the vicinity of the pathway leading down to the small wooden bridge that
crosses the Oakley Creek and connects with the Oakley Creek Walkway, to
the path leading to the Unitec Campus and to the Te Auaunga/Oakley Creek
Falls (which are located directly below these blocks).

The preservation and development of the Oakley Creek Green belt, has been
threatened in recent times by the prospect of the development of the State
Highway 20 extension and that of the Western ring route through this area.
Waterview's Oakley Creek has been identified several times since the 1990s,
as the probable route of this new motorway. If this route is the one finally
chosen (in December 2005 this route was given top priority for investigation
as the preferred route by the local council). Transit NZ (the state agency
responsible for the construction and development of roading projects of
regional and national significance) will issue a notice of Requirement (N.O.R.)
later this year (2006) outlining precisely where this new motorway system will
go and how much of this environmentally sensitive area will be required for
this development. A whole raft of mitigation factors will be needed to be
addressed in relation to this project before approval is granted for it to
proceed. 105

77
1 By the1960s, the last of Waterview's large farms land been subdivided for housing. As the
years progressed, pressure to make more room for new residents moving into the area,
caused house prices to rise and subdivision of larger properties a more attractive
proposition. This process happened in all parts of Waterview. It was becoming increasingly
difficult to find properties with sections greater than ¼ of an acre. Sections of greater size
were to become even more of a rarity. For example, Tony Goodwin, a former Waterview
resident recalls his family living on a double section of land, some ¾ of an acre in Alford
Street, in the 1940s. This property (No.43) is still intact (on its originally sized section) and
remains in the possession of his family. By 2003 he reported in an article "Alford Street,
Waterview- Mid 1940s" that this was possibly one of the last large chunks of land still left in
Waterview.
2 In the 1960s most of Waterview's residents, especially those who lived in the top half of the
suburb (from Fairlands to Oakley Avenues) lived on quarter acre sections. By the 1970s
this size of section was still common. In subsequent years as Waterview became a more
popular area (from the mid 1980s until today) in which to live, the average section size
shrank to roughly match those in the lower half of the suburb (from Oakley Avenue to
Cowley Street) from between a quarter to a fifth of an acre in size. For example, No.1467
Great North Rd which was built in the late 1930s on a quarter acre section has been
subdivided within the last 5 years. Today the original house still sits on the front portion of
this section, while behind it was built a modern block of 3- 2 storeyed (individual) town
houses. Next door No. 1471, has been similarly subdivided with its original house having
been moved forward and to one side to allow several other individual town houses to be
built on this section. Today this process is still occurring in all parts of the suburb.
3 From the late 1960s and 1970s we see early examples of multi-unit apartment blocks or
individual flats appearing in Saxon Street and Middlesex Road or on the top (eastern side)
of the Great North Road. Today we see numerous examples of new forms of high density
dwellings, town house complexes, new types of flats and modern housing types spread all
over the suburb (such as No. 31 Alford Street (Antay Court), No.'s 33 & 40 Alford, No'.s 4,
12 A, 17,18 & 84 Alverston St, No.4 Arlington St, No. 3 Cadman Ave, No.'s 3 & 5 Cowley
Street, No.'s 13, 18, 24 Fairlands Avenue, 5 Fir Street, No.'s 26-28 Oakley Avenue, No.'s 3,
3a and 6 Oakley Avenue, No. 21 Saxon, No.'s 1471 & 1467 Great North Road, No.'s 3-38
Waterview Downs to name a few)
4 The demand for state houses was high, between 1950 & 1972 there were 45,370
unsuccessful applications for state houses. Ferguson, p 177.
5 ibid.
6 ibid.
7 ibid page 181.
8 ibid.
9 See Chart "Selling State Houses" in B. Schrader We Call it Home (2005), p. 52. Numerous
examples of this selling off of state houses into private ownership can be viewed in the
streets laid out in the Oakley Park subdivision such as No. 2 Daventry Street sold in 1954 to
Ada Daphne Stilton (widow) in 1955, No. 48 Daventry Street sold to John Phillip Turner
(glass bender) and his wife Olive in 1957 and No. 5 Howlett Street to Benjamin Messe
(French polisher) in 1952, to name a few. (See ACC 213-38g; ACC 213-72f) While the
exact figures of how many state houses in total were constructed in Waterview over the
years is not known; G. Ferguson (page 181) reveals that some 10,657 state houses
nationwide had been sold off to private owners by the mid 1950s. This process continued
apace in the period from the 1960s to the present day. Perhaps a half to two-thirds of the
area's original state housing stock was sold off in this fashion (and into private ownership)
by 2006.
10 Statistics from Housing New Zealand reveals the current state housing stock for the entire
Waterview district as approximately 300 dwellings with the bulk of them situated in the lower
part of Waterview on the old Oakley Park Estate. See Housing New Zealand Website, URL
http://www.hnzc.co.nz/hnzc/web/home.htm
11 Although the bulk of residents in Waterview are still of Caucasian origin, a high proportion
of the population of the lower parts of Waterview (the area between Herdman St and
Cowley St) by 2006, were residents of non-Caucasian (Maori, Pacific Islander etc.) origin,
and were most likely to be from these lower socio-economic groupings. Compare with
statistics showing the gradual change in ethnic make up of the wider Avondale district from
1960-1990 in Challenge of Whau page 123.

78
12 Brookes, Schrader Ch 8 page 135-6 &138-9.
13 ibid; According to John Fletcher (son of Sir James Fletcher), "the sameness of the houses
was due to the requirement that the pitch of all roofs be set at 32º to suit the locally made
concrete and clay tile roofs. Until the vegetation grew many streets had a monotonous and
institutional look."
14 ibid; "Given that the scale of construction was unprecedented in New Zealand, some
critics also might have been reacting to the 'shock of the new'....Labour, however, was
building whole suburbs. Small wonder then that state housing landscapes had a degree of
'sameness' about them."
15 At the same time we see a gradual exodus of those in the lower socio-economic groupings
either moving out of the area into less expensive suburbs or concentrating themselves
mainly in the lower parts of Waterview from Herdman Street down to the start of the North-
Western Motorway, or in parts of the suburb that were still in state housing under the
control of Housing New Zealand. This character change between the upper (more affluent)
parts of Waterview and the lower half of the suburb has become more marked in the last
10-15 years or so. It is most apparent in the back streets of the old Oakley Park Estate, in
parts of Daventry, Herdman, Arlington and Hemington Streets and in parts of Waterbank
Crescent.
16 Formerly the residence of William Richard Battersby (undertaker), ACC 213/59d.
According to Wise's P.O. Directories 1966-1980 ed., the Musialkowski's resided there from
the 1960s and the widow of Dr. Musialkowski according to Mt Albert Electorate Habitation
Index was still living there as late as 1992.
17 Note that the Waterview Tennis Club no longer exists, it ceased to operate in the late
1990s and the pavilion, 4 tennis courts and practice wall was demolished shortly thereafter.
ACC 213/38g; ACC 213/35b.
18 Waterview Primary School's Physical address is 19 Oakley Avenue; it has two entrances
(Oakley Avenue, ACC 213-111f and Herdman Street, ACC 213-68f); the Kindergarten
which operates from the school property (No.10 Herdman Street) is the major Pre-school
centre in the Waterview district and was opened in the early 2000s.
19 Note that the Daventry Street shops closed down in the 1990s. They are still physically
there but are currently vacant and boarded up, leaving the Waterview shops on the corner
of Alford Street and Great North Rd as the only commercial premises still operating in
Waterview. See ACC 213/38g & ACC 213/59d.
20 Note that this church situated on the corner of the Great North Road and Fir Street is a
major physical landmark in the area and is the only public building in Waterview that has its
origins in the 19th century. Today it operates as a Co-operating Parish (a union being
achieved between the Presbyterian and Methodist denominations since 1972). See
Laurenson page 19; WL 28/10/75 page 5; Ak Star Oct 17. 1965 page 14.
21 This small church hall was dedicated as the centre for Anglican worship in Waterview by
the Assistant Bishop of Auckland, Bishop Caulton in 1961. It was Waterview's second
church and in recent years been converted into Auckland's only Romanian Orthodox church
(the Parish of St Ignatius Teoforul); Point Chevalier News 8/8/61 in ASB May 1961 page
135 & Ak City Archives, Building Permit No. 41299.
22 Built c 1956, CT 1025 (ACC 213/59c); in recent years this former Scout den, which still
exists in the area, has been converted into a private residence.
23 Built in 1975 for the American businessman and multi-millionaire, Albert Gubay, on the
corner of Great North Road and Racecourse Parade in Avondale, this supermarket was
later renamed "3 Guys". By 2006 this supermarket had long since been demolished. Part of
the property is now the King's Mini Supermarket, while the bulk of the site is still waiting to
be developed. HOTW page 139-140.
24 For the impact of the rise of supermarkets and large shopping complexes in the districts
surrounding Waterview and how these changing patterns of retail shopping affected the
viability of local shops see Challenge of Whau p 125 and the report on citing of blocks of
shops on the Oakley Estate in ACC File 275/249/39/498.
25 ACC 213/38g; Mr Bhikha Magan, a green grocer of 25 Surrey Crescent operated two
shops, a grocery store and a diary (Lots 3 & 4 DP 41951) for many years out of the
Daventry Street shops; Lot 2 was later leased as a butcher's shop and Lot 1 became a
bookshop. In the 1950s, Ronald Herbert Jack Sawyer operated out of the Daventry Street
shops as the local grocer (for many years) under the name of the "Daventry Foodmarket
Limited". In 1960, a tile shop was established there under N. Tompkins Tile Co. Ltd

79
(resident of 1467 Great North Road). See Wises PO Directories 1955-1980s eds. for the
changes over the years in the stores which operated from the Daventry Street shops.
26 NZ Herald 14/1/67 in ASB Nov.1966, p 4; National Archives, Ak Branch, BAAM
1593,58b,6/71- "Waterview Housing, General- 1965-1986"
27 Many successful businesses have operated from these stops over the years; including a
pharmacy, a green grocers, butcher's shop, a battery shop, an aquarium and pet store. A
Chinese travel agency, and florist shop currently operate from there. While the Waterview
Dairy/Superette (a typical local corner diary) operated for many years as a "4 Square" store,
it has for the better part of the last 20 years been the Waterview Superette. It has had many
owners over the years, each of its proprietors becoming well known figures of the local
community. The current proprietors are the Kumar family who continue to operate it as a
corner diary and grocery outlet. The recent addition (within the last six months) of a lotto
outlet operating from here, is yet another example of the range of services offered to local
residents at the Waterview Superette; ACC 213/38g & ACC 213/59d; National Archives, Ak
Branch, BADZ 518,2071, 20530, 1952/397- "Waterview Store Ltd, 1972-c. 1975." See
Wise's P.O. Directories, 1950- 1980 eds.
28 Laurenson page 15.
29 ibid page 18.
30 In 1975; See Laurenson; WL 28/10/1975 page 5.
31 Dedicated by Bishop Caulton, the (Anglican) Assistant Bishop of Auckland; Point Chevalier
News 8.8.61 in ASB May 1961, APL page 135; Ak City Archives, Building Permit No.
41299.
32 ibid; "The hall is the centre of Anglican Church life in the Waterview Area- serving both
as a church and as a meeting place for various activities, which include a flourishing
Sunday School, ladies' guild and mothers' union."
33 NZH 26 October 1994, Section 5, page 2.
34 According to Auckland Street Search Database,APL Waterview Downs was named in
1997, this being confirmed 5/1/1997.
35 ACC 213/59c.
36 Examples of this can be found at No.'s 31(now the "Antay Court" town houses) and 33
Alford Street, No. 17 Alverston Street, No.5 Fir Street; No.14 Howlett Avenue to name a
few.
37 Such as the several blocks of town house developments on the lower left hand side of
Fairlands Avenue (from the Great North Road) No.25 Fir Street, No.'s 4 & 12 A Alford
Street, No.'s 3, 7a Alverston Street, No.'s 19 Middlesex Road, No's 3 & 3a, 26 & 28 Oakley
Avenue, No.'s 15 & 21B Saxon Street, No's 3, 5, 7, 11 Cowley Street, to name a few
38 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-157g.
39 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-5f.
40 Recent research indicates that this residence was shifted from No. 12 Sarawia Street,
Parnell to 73 Alverston Street, Waterview in 1994 (CT 994/165). It was originally situated on
land leased from the Melanesian Mission Trust Board and according to Deeds Index
1A.678, R115.420 it was built (along with a series of out buildings)some time between 20th
March 1905 and 3 February 1907 (as per the conditions of the original lease) at a cost of at
least £500.
41 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-5f.
42 Refer to Ak City Archives Building Permits for Middlesex Road.
43 CT 78B/865 being a two storey wood and brick building erected in 1990.
44 Wise's P.O. Directories 1960-1961 ed. reveals that these flats were not completed by that
date were definitely there by 1966 .
45 Habitation Index for the Parliamentary Electorate of New Lynn, (1992 ed.) reveals that this
housing subdivision was not yet in existence by that date. According to the "Search for
Rates and Property Information" database on the Auckland City Council website, this
complex was built some time after 1992 but before 2006.
46 See Wise's PO Directories 1970 -1980 eds.
47 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-111f; in 1978 (according to the building
permits relating to 28 Oakley Ave, the original store was demolished in 1978 and 2 home
units (A & B) were erected thereon; while the house at No.25 was removed out of the area
in 1989 and a Mr G.B. Murray (an architect) was employed by the new owners, Antay
Holdings Ltd, in 1990 to erect 3 units on the site.

80
48 See "Search for Rates and Property Information" database on the Auckland City Council
website for No.14-14H Howlett Avenue being Lot 7 DP 35699, pt Allot. 17 Titirangi Parish.
49 According to the 2002 ed, Reader's Digest Facts at Your Fingertips page 479, New
Zealand ranks, in terms of car ownership, as the 10th highest country per capita, with 470
cars per 1,000 population.
50 In 1978 work began on a major roading project which involved the construction of a major
roundabout, an underpass (at Carrington Road) and interchange system designed to
connect the north-western motorway with the Great North Road and the motorway from
Waterview to Western Springs. By 1982 West Aucklanders were able to drive straight
through from Waterview to the central city. See ASB April 1978 page 257-9 & National
Archives, Ak branch, YCAA 4274, 1b- Sketch Plan of Carrington Hospital and Waterview
Interchange.
51 ibid.
52 See Map "New and Previously Recorded Archaeological Sites - SH 20 Study Area: Figure
2" from Beca dated 22/05/2003, update of 1998 ed. NZ Archaeological Association Metric
Site Numbers- sites R11/2214 & R11/2215.
53 ASB April 1978 page 257-9; See Map in Challenge of Whau page 124 showing the route
of the North-Western Motorway through to Waterview; HOW page 115-6.
54 The plan to widen the Great North Road through the entire length of the Waterview
"Straight" began as early as 1991, when the proposal to erect the present BP Service
station was first mooted amidst much local community opposition. Construction took place
between 1994-5. WL January10, 1991 page 1; NZH Nov. 9, 1994, Sec.1 page 14; NZH 15
March 1995 Sec.2 page 1.
55 ibid; WL Feb. 11, 1991 page 3.
56 ibid.
57 As early as 1986 the first stretch of the long planned link between Auckland's central and
southern motorway systems and the north western motorway that would ultimately result in
the creation of a western ring route across the isthmus began at Grafton. Ak Star 7 Nov.
1986 page A3. See Transit NZ's website for historical background to this project.
58 "Route debate nears moment of decision", WL August 21, 2003 page 14; "Road plan
draws more anger", CL April 3, 2002 page 1; "Highway decision threatens reserve", WL
Sept. 18, 2003 page 1; See Minutes of Auckland City Council meeting, 15 December 2005
(on the council website) including the report to council from the Acting manager, transport
policy and projects "State Highway 20 Avondale extension".
59 This includes concerns for environmentally important areas such as the Oakley Creek and
its surrounds, (and in particular of its waterfall), the effects on the Motu Manawa Marine
Reserve, water quality issues, noise pollution, issues of contamination and ground water
run off during the excavations, loss of reserves, playgrounds and green belt spaces,
destruction and or damage to important archaeological & heritage sites; significant losses of
residential housing & community facilities (shops/ businesses, schools, churches,
kindergartens etc.), effects on local communities, issues of traffic flow and road safety
through the area, where feeder roads will be located and their potential effects on the areas
involved are just a small sample of the range issues that will need to be dealt with if either
route is to proceed.
60 ARTA (Auckland Regional Transport Authority), the ARC (Auckland Regional Council) and
ACC (Auckland City Council) all see the need for comprehensive road transport policy for
the city & the greater Auckland region. The differences articulated between these
organisations reflect different strategies on how to achieve these ends. For example while
the Auckland City Council in December 2005 endorsed Transit's preferred route through
Waterview, this support was conditional on Transit being able comply with an extensive list
of mitigation measures imposed on this project.
61 Opposition to the State Highway 20 extension through Waterview is mounting. Groups
opposing the plan so far include Friends of the Oakley Creek, the Waterview Environmental
Society, the North Western Community Association and Living Communities. The $1.5
billion road is designed to link south Auckland and the airport to the North-Western
motorway. Work is set to star c. 2009-10 and take about 5 years to complete. See
"Motorway Madness", WL 7/2/2006.
62 For a selection of articles relating to opposition to this project see ACHN 15 October 2003
page 3; NZH 15/3/06; NZH 17 August 2006; see also WL 2/6/2000; CL July 9, 2003 page

81
22; NZH March 1995 Sect 2 page 1; ACHN Sept.3, 2004 page 2; and WL Sept. 13, 2005
page 14.
63 "A draft 10-year highways forecast which Transit published last month [April 2006] ranked
the western route, which includes a proposed $1 billion motorway link through Avondale to
the North-western Motorway, as the organisation's top national priority. But it has since last
year emphasised that completing the bypass by the 2015 target will depend on Transit
being able to borrow $860 million for repayment through tolls." NZH March 29, 2006.
64 See Minutes of Auckland City Council meeting,15 December 2005 (on the council website)
including the report to council from the Acting manager, transport policy and projects "State
Highway 20 Avondale extension". If the new motorway was to proceed down the western
side of the Great North Road (initially favoured by the Auckland City Council), it was
estimated that this suburb could possibly lose up to 300-350 residential dwellings which
would seriously impact on the viability of many of the services of this community; including
its reserves, school, kindergarten, churches and local businesses. However if it proceeded
down the eastern side of the Great North Road (as signalled by Transit NZ), it would have a
major environmental impact on the Oakley Creek, (including on its waterfall, its green belt
area, archaeological sites etc.). See also Transit NZ Newsletters, Issues no. 8-10, Feb.-July
2006.
65 "Transit NZ blowout points to road tolls" and "Traffic signals for Ramps", NZH July 27,
2006, page A2;"Toll support running out of steam", NZH March 29, 2006; "On-ramp lights
will aid traffic flow-Transit", NZH July 28, 2006, page A2. Note that Transit in its latest
newsletter, Issue No.10, July 2006, has announced its intention in light of feedback from
key stakeholders (city and regional councils, various community boards, environmental and
heritage groups and local community feedback) to re-investigate other options (such as
again looking at the Rosebank route, a possible variation of an earlier plan through Heron
Park and along the edge of part of the Motu Manawa Marine Reserve (as suggested by
Avondale community board member, Mr. D. Macdonald) or extensive underground
tunnelling through almost the entire length of the project from Richardson to the Waterview
interchange) for the western ring route/Avondale extension. This will delay Transit from
finalising its preferred route and issuing a "Notice of Requirement" for the project until 2007.
See also NZH 17 August 2006.
66 According to a source quoted in HOTW p 107, Mr. McCrae started the Auckland Bus Co.
in 1933. However the "NZ Bus Museum" Website, URL http://www.geocities.com/
nzbusmuseum/, "Bus Operators Past & Present" claims that the company was set up on
27/2/1929 by W. Iddeson, to provide bus services to the Western suburbs beyond the
"[Auckland Transport Board's] boundary at the Whau Bridge. The company was later owned
for many years from the mid1930s by the eccentric Rob Mc Crae.
67 ibid, "The Stage Coach Family Tree" reveals that the Auckland Bus Company ceased to
operate by 1974, it had a fleet of 37 buses.
68 ibid; "Bus Operators Past & Present", The Auckland Regional Authority Bus Co. Ltd was
established 1/11/9164 to combine the operators of the many ad hoc public authorities
operating in the Auckland region, including the Auckland Transport Board. The new
company acquired the bus fleets of many private owners and was re-organised under
(public ownership by) the Auckland Regional Authority (ARA), the forerunner of the present
Auckland Regional Council (ARC).
69 ibid; In 1991 (31/6/1991) de-regulating legislation was passed to takeover the assets and
operations of the ARA which required the reorganisation of its bus operations into a
commercial company under the Transportation Corp. Auckland Ltd.
70 ibid; From 1/10/1989-21/8/1998, the Yellow Bus Co. was the trading name of
Transportation Corp.Ak. Ltd, prior to its acquisition by Stagecoach.
71 See Stagecoach NZ website URL: http://www.stagecoach.co.nz/; In 2005 Infratil a publicly
listed New Zealand company purchased the entire Stagecoach NZ operation (including the
Fuller's Ferry Services). Infratil was granted the right to trade under the Stagecoach NZ
name for five years from its date of purchase.
72 ACC 213/59d & ACC Building Permits for No.1621 Great North Road (Microfiche records).
73 ibid; a microfiche plan showing the erection in 1965 of a garage for Reliance Transport
Services. NZ Bus Museum Website,"Bus Operators Past & Present" reveals that the
Reliance Bus Service started operating 1/11/1926.
74 ibid, Shear Coachlines Ltd, Avondale operated school and charter bus services. The
company was acquired by George Hudson in 1967 who also acquired the Green Line Bus

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Service in the same year. Australian Pacific bought part of the company in 1975 which later
became Four Ways Coachlines Ltd. In 1977 the Point Chevalier to Middlemore service was
sold to the ARA.
75 ibid; Four Ways Coach Lines Ltd operated from 1975 to the late 1980s. It had previously
operated as Shear Coachlines Ltd. The Point Chevalier to Auckland services was sold to
the ARA in 1977. The company was part owned by Australian Pacific until 1984 and was
fully owned from 1985 by the Mutual Group.
76 ACC 213/59d & ACC Building Permits for No.1621 Great North Road (Microfiche records)
show workshops constructed on this site for Marmont & Turnwald- Waterview Wreckers at
that date.
77 Also note a wreckers and salvage company operated from this site for many years, only
finally closing down in 1996-97; "Salvage Co. gives assurances on clean-up", WL
30/7/1996.
78 WL Nov. 22, 1996 page 1; see also WL 2/11/1995; 4/8/95 and 11/7/1996.
79 ACC 213/59d reveals this land was taken by the Crown under the Public Works Act 1928
for future railway purposes in 1951. See NZ Gazette No.22, 5 May 1995.
80 ibid; also note that ACHN August 6, 1997 page 3, states that "previously the park's land
had been earmarked for residential housing, a secondary school and a motorway."
81 WL 2/6/2000; 23/3/1995; 4/8/1995; 30/7/1996; 2/11/1995; 21/11/1995; 28/11/1996 page 3;
22/11/1996 page1; 1/6/2000 page 8; CL 18/4/2001; ACHN 6/8/1997 page 3; 13/6/2003
page 5.
82 WL 31/7/1998 page 4; West Weekly 8/8/2001 page 7-8; ACHN 22/11/1996 page 3; and
WL 2/6/2000.
83 NZH November 21, 1996 page A7.
84 ACHN 13 June, 2003 page 5, CL July 9, 2003 page 22 and refer to Minutes of Auckland
City Council meeting, 15 December 2005 (on the council website).
85 ibid; Note these routes are substantially the same as those advocated in 2000 except this
time there was a clear preference for the AW1 (Waterview) Route. See articles WL
2/6/2000: "One route cuts through Avondale, along the pathway of the Oakley Creek, and
joins the north-western motorway at the Waterview interchange. The other route crosses
onto the Avondale Peninsula to join at Patiki Rd, [thereby] destroying Heron Park."
86 ibid; See Transit NZ's Newsletters [Issues No. 8-10, Feb.-July 2006] and website for
information on the proposed route of the new State Highway 20 route through Waterview
and Transit's letter to Waterview householders 9/2/2006 [TNF Ref: 20/1/11/1/2].
87 For a selection of articles relating to the environmental significance of the Oakley Creek (in
Waterview) see WL Sept. 13, 2005 page 14; WL Feb. 11, 1991 page 3, notes that the 6
metre waterfall on the Oakley Creek is a unique landmark feature of the area; ACHN Sept.
3, 2004 page 2; ACHN Jan. 5, 2006 page 4 and NZH 15 July 1999 page A7.
88 Pollen Island, opposite the Patiki Road interchange on the north-western motorway was
declared a Marine Reserve (known as the "Motu Manawa" Marine Reserve) in November
1995. It was once owned by an early Avondale pioneer and former New Zealand Premier,
Dr Daniel Pollen and later owned by the Auckland Harbour Board and managed by the
Royal Forest & Bird Protection Society. Refer to Map of Pollen Island Marine Reserve in
Department of Conservation's website; see also articles in WL June 7, 1996 page 5; WL 15
Dec. 2005 page 3; NZH March 29 1999 page A7, to name a few.
89 ibid; The reserve is a renowned haven for rare and endangered insects and birds including
one of the world's rarest moth species. See CL October 31 2003 page 9; WL 31 October
2002 page 6-7; WL 25 October 2002 page 1.
90 ibid; WL 15 December 2005 page 3; ACHN 1 November 2002 page 7; East & Bays
Courier Nov. 24 1999 page 18; ACHN November 17 page 13; Forest & Bird, 1991 v.22
no.4, page 16-20; ACHN Jan. 5, 2006 page 4.
91 According to the website of the Metro Sport's Club in Mt Albert, the land (now the Phyllis
Street Reserve) was acquired in 1924 by the Mt Albert Borough Council, with the northern
part (some 3.4 hectares of land) being used as a quarry and refuse tipping site. The
quarrying operations ceased in 1945 but the tipping use continues to this day albeit of
inorganic refuse only. The Phyllis Street Reserve is home to the Metro College Sports Club
(since 1956) and the southern portion contains Akarana Dog Obedience Society (from
1974).
92 One of the worst offenders in terms of pollution of the Oakley Creek in the 19th Century
was the Gittos’ tannery which on the upper reaches of the Oakley Creek in the area that is

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now bordered by Tait Street, Blockhouse Bay Road, New North Road and the Oakley
Stream. During the 1870s numerous complaints were received from or those living
downstream from it (including from Waterview residents) about the foul stench of the
tanneries wastes, pumped directly into the waters of the Oakley Creek. The only animals
that thrived in these conditions were eels who gorged themselves on the tannery by-
products. Fears of water borne diseases in the surrounding districts and mounting
opposition to Gittos’ works, finally caused the tannery to close in the 1880s. See WL July 9,
2004 page 2; Challenge of Whau page 31 & HOTW page 26. The waters of the Oakley
Creek in the early decades of the twentieth century were so polluted that the occasional
outbreak of typhoid and dysentery was inevitable. A reference to such an outbreak is
recalled in A H Walker's Papers in Special Collections, APL where a certain Mrs. Porter
who lived in the house nearest the creek, not far from Garrett's Tannery (near the mouth of
the Oakley Creek, i.e. near the present day Mason Clinic) died of typhoid.
93 See ACHN Jan.5, 2006 page 4; WL Feb. 11, 1991 page 3; WL Sept. 13, 2005 page 14;
NZH 15 March 1995 section 2 page 2; NZH Nov.9, 1994 section 1 page 14; CL Dec. 23,
1999 page 6; CL August 27, 2004 page 4; NZH July 15, 1999 , page A7.
94 ACHN Jan.5, 2006 page 4;ACHN Sept. 3, 2004 page 2; WL Friday 11,1991 page 3; WL
September 13, 2005 page14; NZH April 6, 1998 page A3; ACHN March 28, 2001 page 10;
CL April 11,1991 page 1; CL December 23, 1999 page 6.
95 The large psychiatric hospital which opened in Point Chevalier on 9th March 1867; AHW
page 28.
96 See NZ Map No.3500, D 995.11 bje Planning Map 4, 1950, from Special Collections,
APL.; WL Sept. 24, 1999 page 3, refers to the well known Waterview resident and
environmental lobbyist, the late Dawn Perrson, who fought hard for the creation of Heron
Park and for the creation of the Oakley Park Reserve and Walkway. While a plaque at the
start of the board walk on the Oakley Creek, near the bridge leading to the Unitec campus
commemorates another well known community activist, "Bev." Price. Part of the plaque
reads :"Oakley Creek Walkway, July 2, 1994- The Avondale Community Board dedicates
this section of the Walkway in memory of Beverly Joy Price, whose research, foresight and
active campaigning provided the foundation for the development of a walkway route along
the Oakley Creek."
97 ibid; See also "Green belt area being sold", WL January 10, 1991 page1; "Residents save
roadside trees", NZH November 9, 1994 page 1; "Battle for Green Belt", WL Feb.11, 1991
page 3 .
98 ibid.
99 ibid; "Global Green Shelter" NZH 15 March 1995 Section 2 page1.The latest additions to
the cycle lanes linking the Oakley Creek and Walkway/cycleways with the recently
completed north western cycleway was completed in 2004. This completes the link up with
the nearby tertiary institute (Unitec) and the installation of an over-bridge across the
Waterview interchange beneath Point Chevalier, has already become a well known
landmark in the area. Lobbying for such an over bridge began some 25 years ago. CL
February 25, 2004 page 15; ACHN Feb. 13, 2004 page3.
100 ibid; NZH 15 March 1995 Section 2 page1 reveals that the tress along the Great North
Road were a memorial to the fallen soldiers of the Second World War.
101These include groups like the Friends of the Oakley Creek, the Waterview Environmental
Society, Friends of the Whau, Friends of the Earth to name just a few. NZH 15 July 1999
page A7; CL August 27, 2004 page 4; WL September 13, 2005 page 14; ACHN Jan.5,
2006 page 4.
102 Unitec NZ's Website reveals that this institution started off from humble beginnings as a
small scale technical institute in 1976 based in former hospital buildings on Carrington
Road, Point Chevalier. It was then known as Carrington Technical Institute. By 1987 it
became known as Carrington Polytechnic.
103 ibid; By 1992 the institute now known as Unitec, had grown substantially, by purchasing
the adjacent hospital & buildings (and grounds) it had spread over some 55 ha including all
the land bordering onto the Great North Road in Waterview and has since that time has
been striving to achieve full University status.
104 Unitec's plans to build 5 three story student accommodation blocks and a 75-80 space
car park on the Great North Road near the Oakley Creek were vigorously opposed by the
Waterview Environmental Society who feared these buildings would be intrusive to the
scenic nature of the area; that the construction would erode the natural environment; affect

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the area's unique wildlife (including the felling of a stand of pines trees that were nesting
sites for white herons) and pollute the nearby unique waterfall. However once these
buildings were erected (c. 2001) most of these fears have proved groundless, as the strict
conditions of the resource consents imposed on Unitec led to favourable design changes to
fit in with the character of the area and saw an increase of monetary resources by Unitec to
replant and upgrade the facilities (including replacing the old bridge and installing new
sewerage /storm water systems) along this stretch of the Oakley Creek. These
accommodation blocks that are visible from the Great North Rd were made to mimic the
colour scheme and low lying nature of the original hospital buildings on the opposite
(eastern) bank. CL December 23, 1999 page 6; ACHN 28 March 2001 page 10.
105 Note that within the last month Transit has signalled that it will need to reinvestigate its
costings and options for this route [through Waterview]. It will also look more closely at the
feasibility of putting most (or all) of this proposed new motorway underground through the
entire length of Waterview in order to lessen the impact on this environmentally sensitive
area. Therefore the Notice of Requirement will not now be issued until 2007.

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