3.

1930s -1950s - The State Housing Era
State Housing – Introduction The suburb of Waterview as we know it today was largely formed during the period of the 1930s to the 1950s. This was to be the era of intensive state housing development. Within these three decades the face of Waterview was to be changed forever. More houses were built during those years than at any other time in Waterview's history. No part of Waterview was to be left untouched. It was a period characterised by intensive suburban development, a substantial increase in the area's population (especially after World War 2) and in terms of the range and amount of facilities that were needed to support this growing community. And it was during this period of state housing development that most of Waterview's more recent streets were formed. A "state-led" approach to the provision of housing was initiated by the first Labour Government, allowing for the modern suburb of Waterview as we know it today to take shape. 1 This housing approach was to be radically different from that advocated by previous administrations in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Outlying areas surrounding the city centre, like Waterview, were to be specifically targeted for such development and the state housing schemes were to be implemented on a scale hitherto unknown. Labour's State housing policy envisioned whole streets, new fully-serviced subdivisions and neighbourhoods; whole new communities were to be created, while already existing suburban settlements (like parts of Avondale, Point Chevalier and Mt Roskill etc.) were to have major makeovers. Waterview - An Early Area of State Housing Several small projects would first be trialled around the country before the scheme could be launched nationwide. By September 1936 the first state house was opened with great fanfare by Prime Minister Savage in Miramir, Wellington, closely followed by other subdivisions such as Orakei in Auckland and in other parts of the country. Waterview was to be one of the early areas chosen for state housing in Auckland. 2 A whole new "modern" suburban environment was being designed for the Waterview district. In Waterview as in other areas of state housing there was to be only a small amount of variation in the types of state houses that were actually built. The period where we see most variation in terms of state house construction was in the 1930s. 3 These first dwellings were to serve as the prototypes for future state houses constructed in the Waterview area. By the 1940s and 1950s, the type of state houses built during those decades was much more standardised.4 Most early state houses were small compact single storey dwellings, derived from the traditional shape of the English cottage. Simplicity of design was a major feature of state house construction (and was regarded as being particularly suitable for New Zealand conditions). 5 Most state houses in Waterview were to be made with a sound timber frames and with wooden or

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brick veneer coverings. Floors were to be of heart timber, roofs made of locally sourced concrete or terracotta tiles, while window frames and many internal features; in particular the internal layout of state houses was to conform to a basic standard design. 6 Such houses were typically constructed to face onto the street and orientated to take full advantage of the morning sun. 7 Often such dwellings would have stucco-covered brick bases. For the purposes of maintaining a semblance of variety, within a state housing subdivision, a small percentage (perhaps 1-2%) of the total buildings were to be constructed of other materials with some dwellings two storeys high, and others being " two-house" and "four-house" semi-detached units. All of these types and styles of state house (built from the 1930s to the 1950s) can be found throughout the Waterview suburban area, numerous examples of which still survive to the present day. 8 1930s State Houses State housing development within Waterview can be divided into three distinct periods: the initial phase of state housing development being from the mid to late 1930s; the second or main period of construction being in the 1940s and the third period, being one of consolidation and the completion of state housing construction within the Waterview area in the 1950s. The first phase of state housing construction in Waterview began in the late 1930s. It occurred in tandem with a revitalisation of private housing construction undertaken in the area (from the early to mid-1930s) through an extension of the earlier practice of making cheap government loans available to private individuals through State Advances for the development of suburban housing. 9 While many state houses were to be built in Waterview in the 1930s, the pace was initially much slower than originally anticipated. This was due to two main factors. The first related to teething problems of introducing and implementing such a new and experimental housing policy; secondly the outbreak of the Second World War in the late 1930s and lasting until the mid-1940s diverted efforts (and scarce resources) away from the housing sector towards the war effort and achieving victory. 10 Most of the early state houses built in Waterview in the 1930s were largely confined to similar areas of dwellings constructed in earlier periods. Most of the early 1930s state houses can be found in the core area of the Waterview subdivision of Allotment 16, between what is now Fir and Alverston St (and in the side streets leading off them), down to Alford Street and spreading into the surrounding areas of Allotment 15, which once formed the core the Cadman Estate (all the land between what is now Fairlands Avenue, Cadman Avenue and Seaside Avenue). In this central portion of the Waterview hill in the 1930s and 1940s there was to be a further intensification of settlement, particularly in areas closest to the Great North Road. There was also a trend towards the further subdivision of

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larger parcels of land (into smaller units) between existing properties in this area, (which were bought either by private individuals or by the state) with the establishment of new houses on these smaller-sized sections. In the 1930s, there was also an increase in the number of new houses constructed in ribbon strip fashion between the already existing dwellings along the length of the Great North Road (on the Western side) between what is now Heron Park extending down past Fairlands Avenue as far as Oakley Avenue 11 and a smaller strip of such "infill" housing development on the eastern side of the Great North Road (between what is now Waterview Downs) leading up towards the intersection with Blockhouse Bay Road. 12 Subdivisions However it was during this initial phase of state housing construction in the 1930s that a brand new area was to be opened up for further housing development during the 1940s to the 1950s. This large block of land situated in the lower half of Waterview on the western side of the Great North Rd opposite the Oakley Creek (near to Pt Chevalier), largely undeveloped rural dairy pasture land known as the "Oakley Farm" or the "Oakley Park Estate",13 first started to be opened up for intensive housing construction at this time. The first sections of this block (Allotments 17 and 18) to be opened up for state housing construction were in the immediate areas flanking both sides of Oakley Avenue and the strip of land along the Great North Road (western side) between Alford Street and Oakley Avenue (such as No's 1467,1449 and 1445 Great North Road). 14 Most of the state houses constructed in this first phase of building along Oakley Avenue date to 1938-39, and appear to be built in two or three clustered areas (at the top, middle and lower portions) along the length of this street with one or two being built in-between the few houses that were already there. 15 On the left side of Oakley Avenue (off the Great North Rd) a number of late 1930s houses still survive (No’s 3-15, 33,35, 39, 57-65) 16 and also several on the right side of Oakley Avenue (No's 2-4, 12-16, 20-22 & 22A, 30-36). 17 1940s State Houses Yet it was not to be until the 1940s, and in particular in the years immediately following World War 2, that state housing was to make the largest impact on the development of Waterview. It was in this ten year period that the bulk of Waterview's current housing stock was built. The war which had disrupted the Labour Government's plans for full implementation of its state housing programme was now over. In the years immediately following the war, there were enormous pressures to initiate large scale state housing schemes. Returned serviceman needed to be housed, 18 there was a huge back log of people on waiting lists for state houses19 and there was to be a significant increase in New Zealand's population and level of prosperity in the post-war period. 20 This was to be the start of the "baby boom years" that was to last well in to the 1960s and into the start of the 1970s. Young families and a growing workforce increased the demand for new housing stock to be built.

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The full attention and resources of the state could now be invested in state housing construction. An aerial view of the Waterview district in the early 1940s, 21 just prior to the commencement of the second or major phase of state housing construction, shows that despite all the houses that had been added in the area from the 1900s through to the 1930s, Waterview was very much a rural district. However, this map also revealed that there was still plenty of room for further expansion within Allotment 16, especially on the middle and lower portions of the main streets (Fir, Alverston and Alford Streets.) 22 leading off the Great North Road and in the side streets leading off them (Hadfield Avenue, Middlesex Road and Saxon Streets) down to the (Waitemata) harbour's edge. There was also very little development in terms of housing in the areas above Fir Street (along Fairlands Avenue and in all the areas between Cadman, Seaside and Hadfield Avenues) with only light development along Alford Street and even less so along Oakley Avenue. 23 Housing construction in the above mentioned areas in the 1940s was to follow two basic patterns. Firstly there was to be an increase in the rate of infill housing, and a gradual replacement over time of older existing housing types by state or privately built houses (especially along the portions of the streets closest to and along the Great North Road). The process of filling in the large gaps between established properties on the middle and lower portions of Waterview's existing streets and a reduction of section size to fit more houses into the area also increased at this time. 24 And secondly, the government department 25 responsible for acquiring additional land on which to build state houses would take an active role in encouraging and negotiating with the larger landowners of the district to open up the few remaining blocks of farm land in the area for housing development. Examples of this can be seen in the subdivision of the Hallyburton Johnstone and B.D. Conolly Estates 26 (the area of land between Alverston, Norman (Saxon) and Alford Streets) in the earlymid 1940's and the gradual break up of the Eyes’ Estate (which also occurred about this time). Such housing construction schemes could be handled by a process of private land subdivision or by sizeable blocks of land being sold directly to the crown and then subsequently developed as a whole unit. This process was to be controlled by state agencies but the actual construction was conducted by private contractors appointed by the Department of Housing Construction to build the new state houses (or even whole new subdivisions). 27 There were several examples of such state housing schemes developed by private enterprise in Waterview in the 1940s and into the 1950s. Examples of such development include the Davis 28 (the top part of Fir Street, left side, and along the Great North Road towards Fairlands Avenue), and the Murray and Bennett Blocks (subdivisions of the Oakley Park Estate) 29 were three such subdivisions that were initiated between 1943-47. The A & T. Burt Ltd Block in Fir Sreet 30 (which included most of the former Cadmen estate - parts of Fir St and from Fairlands Avenue, Cadmen Avenue and Hadfield Avenue as far as

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Seaside Avenue and Saxon Street) 31 started in 1940-41 with the bulk of state houses added along these streets dating to the late 1940s - early 1950s. 1940s Oakley Park Subdivision However the greatest impact of state housing within the area was to be in the lower half of Waterview, on the so-called "flat" leading towards Point Chevalier. This area known as the Oakley Park Estate had passed through many hands in the early years of the 20th century. It had once been owned by Mr. H.R. Hoffmann. Part of it bordering onto Oakley Avenue was owned by Mr Hallyburton Johnstone, who on-sold most of it in the late 1920s to Gilbert Sidney Casey, a builder. 32 The "Oakley Park" block then passed to William Newell, a retired farmer and thence on to Henry Early of Early's Ltd in the mid1930s. 33 Over the years there had been several plans for the development of this block. One such plan, in the early 1930s envisaged allowing part of Mr Casey's estate being subdivided as a centre for industrial development within Waterview. 34 Yet due to a variety of reasons (including the possible removal of a planned government recreational reserve and the fact that the proposed factory buildings did not meet with current building standards and requirements) this plan was never adopted. 35 The 1940s aerial photograph of Waterview clearly shows the extent of the Oakley Park Estate, 36 the largest piece of undeveloped land (being some 56 plus acres) 37 in the district and located on the west side of the Great North Road in Waterview. From the lightly settled Oakley Avenue down to the unnamed paved road in the vicinity of what is now Cowley Street, this entire block of land (with the exception of a few scattered houses, farm buildings and an unformed road between fields and leading down to the harbour's edge, in the vicinity of the future Herdman Sreett), was virtually uninhabited farmland. The lack of any substantial habitation in this part of Waterview, and the flat nature of its topography meant this land was ideally suited for future housing construction.38 Development here was to be significantly different here than in the upper parts of Waterview. There was to be no competition for space between existing house types and no other competing land usages. As there were no streets yet established on this block there was no need for this subdivision to conform to the same style of grid pattern or strip-ribbon street development as featured elsewhere in Waterview. This block of land could virtually be regarded as a blank canvas for future housing construction. It would be developed from the mid -1940s through to the early 1950s as a single large subdivision along the lines and principles envisioned of a modern state housing project. The Oakley Park Estate (DP 8380 and pt. DP 20832 being Allotment 18 and part of Allotment 17, some 56 acres and 37 perches of land) was secured by the Department of Housing Construction from Mr. Henry Early of Early's Ltd in 1939 for £31,050. 39 It was to be the largest state housing scheme in the area. Yet the main period of construction in this area was in the mid to late 1940s and into the early 1950s. By the 1950s when the last streets in this new sub-

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division had been formed and the final houses of the Oakley Park Estate were built, the limits of land available for new housing projects in Waterview (especially on the Western or developed side of the Great North Road) had been reached. The only new housing project in Waterview would be some 4050 years later, with the private development of the "Waterview Downs" in the late 1990s - early 2000s. 40 Some 220 individual sections (with state houses built on each section) were proposed to be established on the "Oakley Park" block, with further fully serviced sections adjoining this block onto Oakley Avenue being secured and joined to it, at £95 per section. 41 An early plan for this subdivision (as drawn up by Harrison and Grierson) featured a dozen or more new streets with proposed names such as Allen, Rose, Maurice, Margaret, Spiers, Thorburn, Mercia and Seaview Avenues. 42 However this plan for reasons as yet unknown was never implemented and none of the proposed new street names were ever to be used. Instead the plan that was finally chosen was the one which features the current orientation of streets (that still exists) in this part of Waterview. Yet several aspects of the earlier abandoned plan were to be retained 43 - there were to be a number of new streets added to this new subdivision, 44 there was also be a commercial block of retail shops, 45 and several areas of connecting reserves and recreational areas to be established. 46 There would also be a network of reserves linking the new housing areas along most of the coast line in this part of Waterview (that in the 1950s would stretch from the Howlett St Reserve along the harbour's edge, of what is now the Motu Manawa Reserve, and connect it with the lower part of Herdman/ Cowley Street (Waterview) Reserve in the vicinity of the mouth of the Oakley Creek and the North Western Motorway interchange. 47 The main entrance to this new subdivision off the Great North Road was to be the newly established Herdman Street, which in its lower portions would curve around and lead into the major street of this new area, Daventry Street, (which would loop around on itself) with two small dead end streets leading off it: Hemington and Arlington Streets. On Daventry Street's central portion a small commercial centre of half a dozen retail shops was created in the 1950s 48 that would be connected to the already established part of Waterview by an extension of Saxon Street leading off Oakley Avenue and linking it to Daventry Street. 49 The only other street to be created in this part of the new subdivision was Waterbank Crescent, which also lead off Daventry Street in a large loop and then curved back on itself. There were also several pedestrian walkways added between these streets linking the various parts of this new subdivision together and to the largest recreational reserve established here in the early 1950s, the Herdman/ Cowley Street Reserve (now known as the Waterview Reserve). 50 Waterview Streets At the same time as the Oakley block (and the remainder, especially the lower portions of Oakley Avenue) was being developed from the mid-1940s - ribbon

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strip development of state housing also occurred along the lower portions of the main road (on the western side of the Great North Road) between Oakley Avenue and Herdman Street and in the block between Herdman and Cowley Streets. The state houses built along this stretch of road were to back directly onto the Waterview reserve. 51 The only other streets added elsewhere in Waterview at this time 52 (formed through state housing construction), were Howlett St, off the lower right side of Oakley Avenue and Tutuki Street, off the upper left side of Fir Street (with a walk way through to the Great North Road between Fir Street and Fairlands Avenue). Howlett St (which was not officially dedicated until 1951) 53 was named after a local landowner who owned property in the vicinity and whose brother was a P.O.W. in the Second World War; 54 Tutuki Street, the only street in Waterview with a Maori name, may derive from the fact that it was one of the last streets to be added in the area. 55 1950s State Houses Labour's defeat at the 1949 election ushered in a new phase in the development of Waterview - it was the end of large scale state sponsored housing schemes. From now on the emphasis in terms of new housing within the Waterview area would be left to private sector development. From the 1950s we also notice a decline in state rental construction in Waterview and the introduction of policies designed to transfer older state housing stock into private ownership by encouraging existing state house tenants to purchase the houses which they had previously been renting. 56 In this way by the end of the 1950s and continuing through the 1960s and into subsequent decades, a substantial number of state houses all across Waterview passed out of state control into the hands of private owners. 57 At the same time policies were also being introduced to make state house rentals a much less attractive proposition than owning your own home. In terms of the types of new houses that were actually built in the Waterview area during the 1950s, emphasis was to be placed on smaller, low-cost homes built with new materials - there was to be experimentation with radiata pine, with asbestos cement and various plastics. 58 The typical 1950s suburban house was a detached, single storey rectangular bungalow, of approximately 1000 square feet of which 70% had at least three bedrooms and set on a ¼ acre section. 59 National and subsequent governments throughout the 1950s and 1960s would slowly move away from state housing projects, although the last parts of already existing projects within the area, such as the final phase of the of the Oakley Park subdivision would be scaled back and completed. It was in this context that the last "new" street added in Waterview in the 20th Century was to be Cowley Street in the early 1950s. 60 This is the last street on the western side of the Great North Road before the Waterview interchange and the start of the North Western Motorway. The 1940s aerial map 61 shows an un-named road in this vicinity leading down to the mouth of the Oakley Creek. It seems likely that this small street was developed in the early 1950s

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(replacing the last of the old worker's cottages established in the nearby vicinity by Mr Garrett in the late 19th century) 62 to become Cowley Street. The last house on the right side of this street which still exists there today (No.15) 63 was one of the original dwellings built there - namely a 1951 wooden bungalow. On this site and backing onto the Waterview Reserve, at the mouth of the Oakley Creek are to be found the remnants of the old 19th century mill and tannery. 64 Suburb of Waterview- Infrastructure and Streets The impact of state housing within the Waterview area from the 1930s to the 1950s occurred in the context of several other interlinked factors. The continuing improvement of roads and transportation services, the provision and extension of basic amenities and infrastructure items, the development of community services, the growth of small businesses and of local retail shopping centres, the provision of recreational facilities and reserves, all contributed to the development of a healthy community and the suburban entity we now today as "Waterview." The creation of new state housing blocks and subdivisions within Waterview from 1930 to the late 1950s allowed for a significant number of new streets being added within the area, including Daventry, Arlington, Hemington, Howlett, Herdman and Tutuki Streets, as well as Waterbank Crescent and Cowley Street and aided in the development of housing and services within existing streets - in particular within Cadman and Hadfield Streets and Fairlands, Seaside and Oakley Avenues. It also led to an increase in the supply of basic infrastructure items and amenities (including the provision of electricity supplies 65 and telephone connections, of street lighting, of drainage and sewerage facilities, the provision of adequate water supplies for drinking and household use and of adequate waste water facilities, regular street rubbish collections etc.) needed to support and service them. Numerous examples of this close connection between the provision of basic infrastructure and that of state housing construction can be seen in Waterview where private developers and contractors vied for the government tenders of the various blocks (to be developed) awarded by the Department of Housing Construction. Between 1943-1947 Andrew Murray won the contract for the development of the Oakley Park Estate valued at £49, 101-6s.-1d. 66 As well as constructing all of the state houses, Mr. Murray was responsible for the provision of the "entire carriage way"- including all roads, footpaths, sewers, landscaping, roadside curbs and other amenities 67 (including verges and drains), while the Grinter Bros. Ltd won the sub-contract for the provision of all the sanitary and gantry sewers on this sub-division. 68 The Grinter Bros. Ltd appear to be one of the major contractors for sanitary related infrastructure within the Waterview area - on the Davis Block (Fir Street to Fairlands Avenue) they won the tender valued at £1,237.16s for the provision of all sanitary sewers, drains and waste water systems related to this subdivision and may have been responsible for the provision of such amenities elsewhere in Waterview, including along the Oakley Creek. 69 J. H.

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De Maar who had the contract for the development of the A & T Burt Ltd Block in Fir Street was required to provide a metal- surfaced road and a section of footpaths throughout this subdivision. 70 The developer responsible for the development of the H. Johnstone Estate (from 1937) on the corner of Alford and Norman (Saxon) Streets was required to ensure the roads and pavements in this subdivision were both sealed and metalled, with 15 '' culverts built at each end of a swampy watercourse to the rear of this section of land. 71 Transportation and Transport Links The development and further extension of regular public transport services in the form of buses travelling through Waterview and to suburbs further west (such as Avondale, New Lynn and beyond) and into the city took place from the 1930s to the 1950s. Waterview was ideally situated to take advantage of its close proximity to major transport routes to and from the city. In 1939, Waterview was estimated to be only 4¾ miles from the Central Post Office; 1¼ miles from regular tram, bus or train services and to be only 4 tram sections and 1 bus section from the city. 72 Charles Cavanagh's service (Cavanagh & Co. Ltd), 73 Waterview's first home grown motorised bus company, was still operating in the area (out of No. 1568 Great North Road, eastern side near the Blockhouse Bay intersection) by the late 1940s. 74 At this time, there was a regular bus service through Waterview travelling along the Great North Road between Avondale and Point Chevalier. One long term Waterview resident remembers travelling to and from Avondale Primary school in the mid 1940s on these buses - the bus stop (still in use today) being outside the Waterview shops, near the corner of Alford Street, on the Great North Road. The buses were originally red but at a later date had changed to blue. 75 During the 1930s -1950s other motorised vehicles, namely the car, had become the most dominant form of personal transport. In Waterview this can be seen, even as early as the 1920s but in an even more pronounced fashion from the 1930s onwards. Most new houses constructed during those years were to have garages built on their sections to accommodate a family car. Great North Road, Traffic, Roads and Motorways The growing reliance of Auckland's population throughout the twentieth century on cars allowed for the growth of an increasingly mobile population - it was now made very easy for people to commute to work, to shop and to seek recreation in areas far removed from where they actually lived 76 in the suburban areas further away from the central city. The growth in the popularity of cars had a positive spin-off in terms of the development of suburban areas and the continuing development of the Great North Road due to vehicular traffic allowed for Waterview to be opened up for residential development, serving as a means of funnelling traffic through the area. Waterview was to become an increasingly important link between the city and Auckland's western suburbs.

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The growth in the volume of traffic using the Great North Road through Waterview meant that it would require constant upgrading, widening and resurfacing in new materials over the ensuing years. Over time, we notice a progression in the types of materials used to surface, maintain and repair Waterview's roads from the cement surface of the "Great Concrete Highway" 77 (the Great North Road), to the introduction of macadamised surfaces, through to the use of various methods of tar-sealing, new techniques and methods of road construction and the use of various (experimental) road chip materials. The use of such materials allowed for the quicker laying of new roads and footpaths, for the use of cheaper and longer lasting materials and allowed for these roads to be easily dug up so infrastructure items 78 could be laid beneath them (and repaired) with a minimum of effort. The smaller roads and side streets in the area would also have to be similarly upgraded to feed traffic from resident's houses onto these main roads. State housing projects from the 1930s through to the 1950s had an important part to play in the development of Waterview's new streets. The provision for the growth of motorised traffic also needed to be taken into account. It was no coincidence that by the end of the 1950s (at the end of the state housing era) that we see most of Wateview's streets (and footpaths) right down to the harbour's edge, were now properly formed and paved 79. As has previously been noted the paving and construction of new roads was an integral part of the developer's responsibilities when working on the state housing subdivisions created within Waterview during this period. By the end of the1950s and in the decades since then, most of Auckland and the rest of the country would be linked by a network of paved roads, motorways and highways designed with motorised vehicles in mind. Towards the end of the 1950s, Waterview would be linked via an interchange just below Cowley Street with the newly established North-Western Motorway. 80 The close connection between this new motorway system and its connections to the Great North Road and the interchanges below Point Chevalier would have important implications for Waterview's development in future years, especially in terms of traffic flow and congestion problems in the surrounding areas. Amenities, Reserves and Playgrounds The creation of open "countrified" spaces within suburban areas in which children could play and grow up was seen as a necessary step in creating the right sort of environment in which to raise New Zealand families. 81 The aim was to produce the next generation of productive, healthy and well-adjusted citizens. The provision of such spaces within suburban areas was to be incorporated as an integral part of the design of state housing projects in the 1930s -1950s. In Waterview this was to manifest itself with the addition of a number of new "green spaces", children's playgrounds and additional reserves, where both active and passive forms of recreation could occur. Yet the main green belt area in the Waterview district was the Oakley Creek and the vast stretch of "green space" along the entire eastern side of the Great North Road that served as the farm land and grounds of the Carrington and

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Oakley Mental Hospitals. Many generations of Waterview children who grew up in the area, played along the banks of the Oakley Creek, in the surrounding farm land or swim in the waterhole beneath the creek's waterfall. In addition to the already existing Saxon Street Reserve (0.3 acres 12 roods 7 perches), 82 a park on the corner of Saxon Street and Oakley Avenue, that was set aside by the Crown in 1928 as a children's playground (although it was not developed as such until the 1930s and 1940s). Several new reserves were to be added in Waterview during the state housing era. Along Seaside Avenue (on the harbour's edge), in 1930, two parcels of land were obtained from the nearby Cadmen Estate to serve as a landing reserve and as a plantation reserve. 83 At the bottom of Oakley Avenue, on Crown land off Howlett Street (the site of the former radio transmitting tower and station), 84 the Howlett Street reserve (a 2 acre and 3 perch piece) of coastal land facing onto the Waitemata was established in the early 1950s. 85 A further 1 acre.02 perch block of land was set aside off the end of Tutuki Street as a reserve for this new subdivision in 1946. 86 The largest area of undeveloped land (10 acres and 23 perches) 87 to be set aside as a major recreational reserve for the district was one of the last "untouched portions" of the old Oakley Park Estate. This was to become the Herdman Street or Cowley Street Reserve (now known as the "Waterview Park Reserve") and was dedicated in 1953. 88 The bulk of the land which formed this public park consisted of the undeveloped portion of land behind the Great North Road (western side) between what is now Herdman and Cowley Streets. It had two main entrances- one from Herdman St and the other from Cowley Street with a pedestrian access way linking it to Waterbank Crescent and the rest of the state housing subdivision. A strip of coastal land also formed part of this reserve and connected it to this park all the way along the mouth of the Oakley Creek, linking it to the Howlett St Reserve at the bottom of Oakley Avenue. 89 Community Facilities - Schools, Churches, Clubs etc. The only other major part of the Oakley Park estate left to be developed, was the large block of land (4 acres 3 roods 08.9 perch) 90 on the left side of Herdman Street. In 1950, Waterview Primary School (the area's only school) was to be established there, with its main entrance being off Oakley Avenue and other entrances off Herdman Street. 91 This school provided (and continues to provide) a major service to the local community. 92 It offered the primary aged children of local residents a chance to be educated within their own local community. Children of primary age no longer needed to travel outside the area for a "state school education. 93 From the 1930s to the 1950s, Waterview's only church was still the Methodist Church on the corner of the Great North Road and Fir Street. It continued as in previous decades to offer a wide range of services to its own congregation and to the local community. Youth groups and Sunday school meetings were regularly held there. The church also offered a kindergarten service two mornings a week. It ran holiday camps and had holiday activity programmes

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for local children. It served as venue for a variety of community meetings and fairs and fund raising gala were also periodically held there. 94 Local community groups such as the scouts (before their hall was built at 1600A Great North Rd) and guides held their meetings there. 95 As the congregation of the Waterview Methodist Church continued to grow in the local area, more land was needed along the Great North Road and on Fir Street on which to expand. Between the 1930s and 1950s more land was purchased from neighbouring properties,96 until it had expanded to its present size. The buildings on this property continued to be moved around on site; the present configuration of church buildings (the L-shaped pattern that we see today) was not finalised until 1953. 97 The only other church building in the area during these years, was a small wooden church hall 98 located behind the strip of houses along the eastern side of the Great North Road, leading towards Avondale. It may have had a connection (perhaps serving as a hall) to the nearby Church of Christ (now the Avondale Lions Club). This small wooden hall provided an important service to the local community in the 1930s and '40s. It was to serve as a focus for recreation for the youth of the district, being a venue for Waterview's Scout troop meetings and for the local branch of the Girl's Brigade (both groups had previously been using the Waterview Methodist Church facilities for such meetings). 99 By 1949, Waterview's Scout Troop was looking for a more permanent base of operations within the local area. An early attempt to persuade the Auckland City Council to sell them the small plantation reserve in Seaside Avenue for the purpose of erecting a Scout Den thereon was unsuccessful. 100 The next site chosen for such a development was the small church hall previously mentioned. It was here (at 1600A Great North Road) that a large concrete block hall with a flat iron roof was erected in 1956, it was to serve many generations of local children as the scout den for the Waterview branch (Te Auaunga/ Blockhouse) for more than forty-five years.101 It was only in early 2000s that this building stopped being used for this purpose - it has now been converted into a private residence. A wide range of community facilities and services were established in Waterview during the state housing era (between the 1930s-1950s) to support the growing population of the district in the post-war years. Many of these facilities, services and landmark features of the district are still present and operating within the area today, while others have been lost over the ensuing years. One such facility, that was to serve the district well for nearly fifty years (but has been demolished in recent years), was the Waterview Tennis Club which was established on the Herdman Street Reserve. 102 All that remains of it today (2006) are the concrete foundations of the club house and the asphalt surface of the tennis courts. In its heyday, the tennis club was one of the most popular (and for many years the only) sporting venues in Waterview. It had four tennis courts, a small tennis pavilion/clubhouse (from the 1960s) 103 with attached toilet facilities, and a practice wall.

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Another community facility that was a major Waterview landmark for many years, which no longer survives, was the 523 foot tall 1ZB transmitter tower and a large brick transmitter station built in 1938 on land near the harbour's edge towards the bottom of Oakley Avenue. The small unformed access road to this site was later developed in the late 1940s-early 1950s into Howlett Street when this area was opened up for state housing. 104 The transmitter tower was demolished in 1952/3 but there were several proposals put forward to re-use the old brick transmitter station buildings, which had been used as a mess room for employees in connection with the erection of nearby state houses. 105 It was suggested that this building could be used as a kindergarten, or if unsuitable for that purpose it could be used as a Doctor's surgery, or as a community hall. Unfortunately none of these suggestions came to fruition and this building was subsequently demolished in the 1950s. 106 The land on which it stood was to become part of the Howlett Street Reserve. The lack of any proper dedicated community hall or civic centre was a source of great frustration for Waterview's residents over many years. There would be many (unsuccessful) attempts between the 1930s and 1950s by the Waterview Residents Association to secure a suitably sized building, large enough to hold regular community meetings, socials and dances and for a variety of other community functions. Negotiations with the Auckland City Council to secure such a facility became bogged down over where in the community to place such a structure. Possible venues considered for the citing of such a community centre included the old transmitter station building in Howlett St, in the Saxon Street Reserve or in the newly established Herdman/Cowley Street Reserve. 107 For a variety of reasons each of these venues were to be declined. A temporary solution was found with the donation of an old small World War Two army hut which was converted into a community hall. 108 This single storey stucco over fibrolite structure with a gabled tile roof was placed behind the Daventry Street shops and refurbished as a hall in 1948. 109 It would be used from then on as a community hall until a more suitable and larger structure could be found. However bureaucracy and red tape then came into play. The Auckland City Council would not consider the provision of a new facility for Waterview as it was considered that one was already there, namely the small Daventry Street Hall. This building was to serve as Waterview's only official community building until the early 2000s when it was finally demolished and a modern block of town houses were erected on the site. As this structure was to prove too small to hold any sizeable function, other buildings in the area, such as the Waterview Primary School's Hall and the Waterview Methodist Church hall, came to be used as the unofficial community centres of the district (a function they still fulfil today). Shops and Businesses In tandem with the state housing developments in Waterview between the 1930s and 1950s, we notice the establishment of several shops, small

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business and other services in the area that are indicative of a certain level of community and suburban development. In Oakley Avenue, a late 1920s wooden bungalow (at No. 28) near the Saxon Street Reserve was converted from a private residence into a local grocery store which operated from this site from the 1930s to the early 1970s (and for most of that time was known as the Oakley Stores Ltd). 110 During the development of Oakley Park Estate, in the late1940s - early 1950s, a group of several shops was erected on the central part of Daventry Street 111 close to Saxon Street and Oakley Avenue, designed as an integral part of the state housing scheme for this part of Waterview. The Daventry Street shops (as they collectively came to be known) consisted initially of 4 shops and later expanded in the late 1950s into a block of half a dozen individual stores consisting of a grocery store, a dairy, a greengrocer's, a butcher's shop and a stationery shop with a small stuccoed fibrolite Community Hall established behind them. 112 This was one of two main clusters of shops that were to grow and serve as the local shopping centre for the inhabitants of the surrounding streets and of the subdivision that supported them. 113 The other main block of retail shops operating in Waterview during the state housing era (1930s-1950s) and still exists in the area today, includes the Waterview Dairy and Superette (1479-1481 Great North Rd), located on the corner of the Great North Road and Alford Street and its associated block of three shops built behind it on Alford Street (right side off Great North Road), which are collectively known as the "Waterview Shops. " 114 The central location within the district, a good supply of off-street parking (a diagonal parking bay on Alford Street and close to other areas of roadside parking in nearby Oakley Avenue) and its ideal position on the major transport routes of the Great North Road and proximity to the North Western Motorway, allowed these shops to take full advantage of vehicular traffic travelling through the area. These factors allowed this group of shops to survive and thrive in Waterview when other shops in the area struggled or were forced to close due to lack of business. Over the years the shops were able to establish themselves as the commercial/ retail heart of the Waterview district and are a vital community asset for local residents. The shops started life as a small wooden private residence which was converted into a dairy by William Kyte in the late 1920s. The original shop is still there but has been extensively added onto and altered over the years. 115 Between the 1930s and late 1940s, this small local business continued to operate as a general grocery store under Eric Armishaw, then operated by Colin Campbell and later by Hubert Lancaster followed by Stanley Catchpole. 116 It was Mr Catchpole, who had previously been a storekeeper at Terry Street in Blockhouse Bay, who extended the premises into Alford Street. 117 He added the block of 3 concrete shops, designed and erected by the well known architect, Rigby Mullan in 1955, to the original 2 (wooden) lock-up stores that served as the dairy and grocery store. 118 The original retailers who operated from this new block of shops were a green grocer (Mr Parbhu Yogi),

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a butcher (Mr Gavin Symons) and a pharmacist (Mr Bruce Aimes) 119 and were still in business there more than 20 years later. Both the dairy and the block of shops have had many occupants over the years. 120 The Waterview Superette and Dairy is currently run by the Kumar Family. Further up the Great North Road (west side), about the third house from the corner of Alford street (at No. 1495), is an early 1930s wooden bungalow that was originally the residence of William Richard Battersby, who as the only undertaker in the area provided an important community service during this period.121 Mr Battersby resided at these premises until his death in the 1960s. 122 This long established family business (now into the third generation as undertakers) being the Battersby's Funeral Services, is still to be found today in the Avondale township. 123 Heron Park & Oakley Creek The large open grass paddock that led down to the harbour's edge on the Avondale/ Waterview boundary, that was once the district's night soil depot and formed part of the old Cadman Estate (Allotment 15), had close connections with the transport industry. Nearby and just outside the boundaries of this study in the 1940s lived Fred Axon Cooper, a bus operator (No.1661 Great North Rd). This entire block of land, that was later to become Heron Park, was taken by the crown in the early 1950s for future railway purposes (to link Avondale with Pollen Island). 124 This designation (as railway land) would have important implications for the future development of transport routes through Waterview in the late 20th and early 21st Centuries. Along the banks of the Oakley Creek (especially in areas outside of Waterview, such as Mt Roskill and Mt Albert through which it flowed) major improvements were to be seen from the 1930s to the 1950s in terms of pollution control and the discharge of waste materials into the creek. 125 It is from this period that we see sewer pipes, storm water overflows and culverts being laid at strategic points along the creek to carry effluent and pollutants away from the creek itself. The Grinter Bros. Ltd, who won major contracts in the development of waste water and sewerage infrastructure items within many of the state housing developments undertaken in Waterview during this period, may also have been involved with some of these developments along the Oakley Creek. 126 It is also likely that it was during this time the small bridge crossing the creek below the waterfall and small track leading to the hospital grounds was built. It should also be noted that by the end of the 1950s most industry (and in particular most quarrying activities) had ceased to operate along the Waterview stretch of the Oakley Creek. Another visible aspect of development in this area of Waterview in the post war period (i.e. after 1945) was the planting of an avenue of fast growing cottonwood popular trees as a war memorial, (which as they matured were to become a prominent landmark feature of Waterview for many decades) along the eastern side of the Great North Road above the banks of the Oakley Creek. Most, but not all of these trees, were removed (in controversial fashion) in the mid-1990s when the Great North Road was widened to its

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present size. 127 The remnants of these trees can still be viewed growing along the area known as the Waterview Glades.

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1 In its first budget (1936) the new government announced the preparation of plans for the construction of some 5,000 new houses [annually] at a cost of approximately £3 million; Barbara Brookes (ed), At Home in New Zealand, History, Houses, People (Wellington 2000), Ben Schrader "Chapter 8: Labour at Home" page125 & n.6; Nash, NZ Parliamentary Debates, 246, (1936) 263. The scheme was to be funded by Reserve bank credits (Hereafter referred to as "Brookes, Chapter author & No., and page"). In Waterview this was signalled by the opening up of new blocks of land for housing development such as the Oakley Park Estate, being some 56½ acres of land lying on Western side of the Great North Road between the Oakley Creek and the Waterview Estate area of Avondale. See HD.3/438/S4/RI in Ak City Archives, ACC -275/-39/498 (Dept. of Housing ConstructionSubdivision Pt Allots. 17/18, Parish of Titirangi, Great North Road -Oakley Park Estate."' 2 Brookes, Schrader Ch.8 page 126; Dominion, 18 Sept. 1987, page 11. 3 A good example of an early 1930s style state house that still survives in Waterview today (2006), is No.1467 Great North Road, which has been extensively added to over the years but still preserves its original state house shape. It is situated half way between Alford Street and Oakley Avenue. According to Ak City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets, ACC213/59d, this three bedroom (originally two bedroom) wooden house with stuccoed concrete base was built c. 1939. Its earliest occupants were Maurice Herbert Tompkins, a tiler and his family, (CT 474/98) and is currently occupied by Mr. A.R. Dragicevich, retired physical education advisor. Other examples of early (1930s) state houses in the area include No's 22, 33, 56 & 22 Alford Street; No.'s 3 & 8 Cadman Avenue; 13 & 13A Fir Street; No's 13 & 13A, 15 & 15A, 17, 19, 21A 723 Alverston Street; No.'s 14 & 20 A Seaside Avenue; No.'s 6, 7, 12, 14, 15, 16 & 37 Fairlands Avenue and No's 2, 3 & 3A, 4, 5, 7-7A, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 & 15A, 16, 20, 22 & 22A, 23, 33, 34, 36, 37&37A, 39 & 57 Oakley Avenue and the Great North Road No's 1487, 1499, 1503,1511, 1525, 1527, 1575, 1577, 1605 & 1608. 4 Brookes, Louise Shaw, Chapter 11- A Women's Place? page 170. 5 Brookes, Schrader Ch. 8, page 133 6 Brookes, Schrader Ch. 8, page 134ff; Firth page 33 "The standard method of construction is timber frame with concrete foundations. Various types of finish are used. The intention is to make the fullest use of all available materials of suitable type and to use the labour of as many trades as possible; this has the further object of adding variation to the external appearance of the houses”; Page 80- Houses are finished in a variety of materials: timber brick, asbestos cement, concrete. Roofs are of tiles, bituminous fabric, or asbestos cement'. 7 Brookes, Schrader ibid, “The largest room in all state house plans was the living room, which was orientated towards the north to catch the afternoon sun, while kitchens were sited towards the morning sun. Firth page 31, describes a tenant's survey which revealed that kitchen's were the preferred venue for the taking of meals and that sunlight is regarded as essential and the preference is for morning sun.” 8 Brookes, Gatley Ch 9, ibid.Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498 gives information (in a letter between the Town Clerk, and the Director of Housing (39/378) dated 24 Nov. 1941) on the amount "2 house" and "4 house" units built on the Oakley Park Estate (in the lower part of Waterview between Herdman and Cowley Streets). In 1939 there were 36 double units on the Oakley Park subdivision by 1941 this had increased to 48. In 1939 there were no "4-house units" on this estate, by 1948, there were two such "4 unit" dwellings. Some examples (ACC 213-111f) of double unit and two storey double unit dwellings which still survive include No's 7 & 7a (double unit wooden flats), No’s 15 & 15A (double unit brick flats), No's 2 & 4 (double unit stuccoed plaster over brick and wooden framed units) in Oakley Avenue; No. 1 & 3 (2 storey-2 unit dwellings in brick) Daventry Street (ACC213/38g). See Tentative Scheme Plan of Oakley Park Estate Housing Subdivision by C.F. Bennett Ltd (H.D.3/438/S4.) 9 Brookes, Schrader ibid page 130. 10 ibid & n.13, n.21; "Labour's 'post war battle for homes' was therefore to 'house those people who war deprived of homes'." 11 ACC Valuation Field Sheets, Great North Road, West side, ACC 213/59d. No.'s 1467 for H.M.Tompkins (CT 474/98); No.1471 for Frederick Arthur "Frank" Humphries (later residence of Raymond Kilgour); No. 1487 for Helena Christina Blows; No.1491; 1495 for

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William Richard Battersby, undertaker (later residence of Dr. A. Musialkowlski); No. 1499 for William Edward Holier (store man); No.1503; No.1507; No.1511; No.1523; No.1527 (CT 585/316); No. 1575; No.1577; No. 1601; No. 1605 & No. 1647. 12 ACC Valuation Field Sheets, Great North Rd, East side, ACC 213/59c. No. 1592 (CT 498/100); No. 1596 & No.1608. 13 National Archives, Ak Branch,"Land for Housing 1938-50", BAAZ 1178, 238c, D3/1624"all land on DP8380 & pt. DP 20832 being pts.of Allotments 17/18, totalling 15 acres 2 roods and 2.3 perches. 14 Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheets, Great North Road (West side, Odd Numbers), ACC 213/59d. 15 See Map attached to CT1562/83 & CT 1122/173; being Lots 6 &7 DP15528; Lots 1-4 DP 20944; Lots 9 & 10 DP 37864; Lots 1 & 2 DP 38641; Lots 1 & 2 DP 45592 and Lots 2-4 DP 45855 being part of Allotments 16 & 17 Parish of Titirangi. 16 Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheets, Oakley Avenue, ACC 213-111f. 17ibid. 18 Gael Ferguson Building the New Zealand Dream (New Plymouth,1994) (Hereafter referred to as "Ferguson"), page 156 states that by the early 1940s (1942/3), the government had set aside between 25-50% of state homes for returned servicemen and their families. Numerous examples of houses provided for returned servicemen can still be found throughout Waterview in 2006, especially in the new state housing areas formed out of the Oakley Park Estate. These include (ACC 213/38g) : No. 44 (Lot 40, a brick house dating from 1944) Daventry Street for John Jardine, a naval rating and his wife (Agnes Georgina Jardine); No. 38 Daventry Street (Lot 40, a wooden house from 1944) for William Miles Ronald, an Airforce man and his wife, Joan Lorraine Ronald; No. 34 Daventry Street (Lot 35, a brick house c. 1944) still occupied by its original tenants (now aged in their 90s), Ernest George Carter, a soldier and his wife Nora Phyllis Carter and No.12 for Angus Alexander Taylor (Lot 27 a brick house, c. 1944), a soldier and his wife, Edna Mary Taylor, to name a few. 19 See Firth page 67; as "At 31st March, 1948, urgent applications [for state houses] numbered 25,544. The total number of unsatisfied applicants numbered 52,186 at this date. 20 Ferguson page 178, Between the 1940s and the late 1960s some 225,000 immigrants came to New Zealand and the overall population rose from 1.7 million in 1945 to 3.1 million 30 years later. Also added to this was a rapid increase in birth rates from 16 per thousand in 1935-6 to 26 per thousand in the late 1940s.; Ben Schrader, We Call it Home. A History of State Housing in New Zealand (Auckland, 2005) page 134, describes this as the era of large families, with many having 4 or more children. "This was the era of the post war baby boom, when most couples married by their mid-twenties and the birth rate reached levels not seen since the 19th century." 21 NZ Map No. 6725, D 995.11 ap 1940, Title: Auckland and Environs, sheet No. 1 showing Waterview (Aerial Map) in Special Collections, APL. 22 ibid; See Wise's P.O. Directories 1935-42 eds. for Fir (ACC 213/50c), Alford (ACC 21314f) and Alverston Streets (ACC213-5f). Note that Tony Goodwin "Alford Street, Waterview, Mid 1940s" reveals as you progressed down Alford Street towards the water's edge, the distances between the properties got larger (the further you got from the main road). 23 ibid; See Wise's P.O. Directories 1935-42 eds. for Hadfield Avenue (ACC 213-64b), Saxon Street (ACC 213-157g), Middlesex Road, Cadman (ACC 213-24d), Seaside (ACC 213159g) and Oakley Avenues (ACC 213-111f). 24 See NZ Map No. 6725, D 995.11ap 1940, and compare it to the section size and development of the Waterview area as shown on NZ Map No. 77, C 995.11 bje 1924-31 and later with NZ Map No.3500, D 995.11 bje Planning Map 4, 1950, from Special Collections., APL. Tony Goodwin "Alford Street, Waterview, Mid 1940s" notes that it was not uncommon in those days for sections to be greater than half an acre and that there were many property owners (like his grandfather's section at 43 Alford Street) who had double sections. 25 Department of Housing Construction See National Archives Files, Ak branch, BAAZ 1178, 238c/D3/1624- "Land for Housing, Waterview, 1938-50" ; BBAD 1054,2596h,4/17/973- "A and T Burt Ltd, Fir Street Waterview, 1940-1"; BBAD 1054, 264b, 34/19- "State HousingDavis, Morey and Bennett, Waterview 1943-1947" and BBAD 1054, 2633b,34/13- "State Housing- Oakley Block, Waterview, 1943-1947."

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26 See Plan showing the proposed re-subdivision of Lots 12-16, D.R.O.7 & Pt. Allotment 16 Titirangi Parish of the Conolly and Johnstone Estates in Waterview, Avondale (dated 1941) & H.D. 3/600/S129 (dated 1946) in National Archives, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054 [2455], 2399a, 4/17/46- "Hallyburton Johnstone Estate, Waterview". 27 Burrows, Schrader ibid page 126; See Firth page 6 who reports that "the Department [of Housing Construction] was actively engaged in buying extensive areas of land already provided with roads and other services and had entered into large contracts for house construction". 28 National Archives, Ak branch, BBAD 1054, 264b, 34/19- "State Housing- Davis, Morey and Bennett, Waterview 1943-1947". 29 ibid, BBAD 1054, 264b, 34/19 & BAAZ 1178, 238c/D3/1624- "Land for Housing, Waterview, 1938-50" gives the developers name for the "Morey" Block as a Mr Andrew Murray, who had a major contract in 1945 on the Oakley Park Estate. The main subcontractor to supply all the water and sewerage facilities on the estate including gantry sewers was the Grinter Bros. Ltd. The main contractor for the Oakley Block from 1938, was Mr C.F. Bennett of Waterview, Avondale (See Tentative Plan H.D.3/438/S4 in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498). He was to develop the land (being Allotment 18 & Part of Allotment 17 Parish of Titirangi; CT 144/120 and being 56 acres and 37 perches more or less of) land originally purchased by the Crown from Early's Ltd for £12,000. The contract for the Oakley Park Housing scheme (in 1945) was valued at £49, 101-6-1 while the cost of purchasing Early's land in 1939 amounted to £31,000. 30 The contractor for the A & T. Burt Ltd Block being J. H. De Maar See BBAD 1054,2596h,4/17/973- "A & T Burt Ltd, Fir Street Waterview, 1940-1". 31 Note that the Certificates of Title for these properties (such as CT's 28/231, 87/108, 355/181 & 397/246 and DPs 15150 & 177) give the company's name as "T.M. Burke Land Investment "A" Company Ltd" which developed from the Cadman Estate Ltd in the late 1920s. 32 See Deeds Indexes A2.115 & A2.116 & Vol. 19 Folio 157 and Deeds Index 22A.143; Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheet, ACC 213/50c, c. 1927-8 33 ibid; ACC 213/59d, William Newell obtained the property c. 1932/33 and on-sold it to Henry Early of Early's Ltd c.1934-5. 34 ibid, Letter referred from ACC City, Recommended the adoption of City Engineer's report dated 11/6/31.See Deeds Indexes A2.115 & A2.116 & Vol. 19 Folio 157 and Deeds Index 22A.143. 35 ibid, according to the City Engineer's report: "it must be clearly understood, however, that the site of the factory upsets the arrangements of the existing subdivision and absorbs the greater portion of the proposed Recreation Reserve..." 36 NZ Map No. 6725, D 995.11ap 1940, in Special Collections, APL 37 Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498 describes it as being 56½ acres. 38 See preliminary report of Department of Housing Construction to Commissioner for Crown lands dated July 1938, detailing the benefits of this site [Oakleigh Park Estate], as being particularly suitable due to its relatively flat nature for future housing developments, including topographical information on the Oakley Block; National Archives, Ak Dept., BAAZ 1178, 238c, D3/1624- "Land for Housing Waterview,1938-50." 39 National Archives, Ak Dept., BAAZ 1178, 238c, D3/1624- "Land for Housing Waterview, 1938-50." Note there were to be a number of variations in the amount of units planned for this subdivision. For example the original plan submitted by Grierson and Harrison (c.1938/9) shows 220 sections; while C. F. Bennett's plan submitted (by Dept. of Housing Construction) and approved by Ak City Council meeting 23 October 1941, provided for 154 lots of which 36 were to be two unit houses making 190 units in total, with the minimum size of lots being 26.6 perches or 1/6 of an acre. Of the 56½ acres, 5 acres would be set aside as a school site, 6 acres for streets, 32 acres for building sites and 13½ acres for reserves. See Plan HD 3/438/39 in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498. 40 According to Auckland Street Search Database, APL, Waterview Downs was created as a private road, off the eastern side of the Great North Rd. It was named on the 17/9/1997 and confirmed 5/1/1998 (but not completed until the early 2000s). 41 National Archives, Ak Dept., BAAZ 1178, 238c, D3/1624 -"Land for Housing Waterview, 1938-50." 42 bid, see Map "Pt Allot.17 & Allot. 18, Parish of Titirangi" by Grierson & Harrison.

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43 Also retained from the original plan (HD 3/438/39 in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498) would be features that identified this part of Waterview as being typical of a 1940s-1950s state housing development. There was to be a similar use of curved shaped streets with smaller cul-de-sac's and dead-end roads leading off them, a similar pattern of pedestrian walkways linking various parts of the new subdivision, the retaining of as much existing vegetation as possible for streetscape appeal, the same orientation of houses in relationship to the new street frontages and way the individual state houses were set back from the road with their front lawns leading down to footpaths would also remain the same. There would even be similar sized sections (a minimum of1/6 of an acre per unit as opposed to the by-law limit then in force of 1/5 of an acre per unit). 44 The five new streets that were to be created in this new sub-division were A) Herdman Street B) Daventry Street C) Waterbank Crescent D) Arlington & E) Hemington. See Map Of the Oakley park Estate in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498. 45 The Daventry Street Shops; ibid; See sub-division Plan of Lot 139, SO Plan 33341 (dated 1954) for shops sites in Daventry Street also CT's 231/74; 1121/291 and plan of shops CT 1978/91. The 4 original shops being a Green grocer's, a diary, a butcher's shop and a stationers/Post Office, Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/38g for No.'s 27, 29, 31 & 33 Daventry Street 46This included the Waterview (Herdman/Cowley Street also known as the Oakley Park) Reserve and the Howlett Street Reserve, ACC 275/429/56/248. See also NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL. 47 ibid. 48 See Map Of Daventry Street Shops Plan of Lot 139, SO Plan 33341 and CT 1978/91, DP41951(Lots 1-4), Ak City Archives, Valuation Record Sheet Files, ACC 213/38g. 49 Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498; See letter from the Works Committee, ACC dated 20 April 1944 recommending amongst other things a short extension of the road linking Daventry Street with Oakley Avenue be named (as an extension of) Saxon Street. It was recorded as such in SO Plan No.3341. Consent for such a name change as well as the proclamation for legalising of street names in the Oakley Park Estate is recorded on SO Plan 33805 (30 April 1947). Page 639 of the NZ Gazette No. 27, dated 29 May 1947 relates to the proclamation of an area of 7 acres 0 roods and 37.1 perches to be streets. These new streets being situated in the Oakley Park Estate, Avondale included this extension of Saxon Street. 50 ibid; See NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL. which shows it as a Crown Reserve of 10 acres and 23 perches with a narrow strip of coastal land stretching as far as the Howlett Street Reserve (another 2 acres and 3 perches of reserve land). See also Ak City Archives, ACC 275/429/56/248 on the Waterview Reserve (Herdman Street). 51 See Plan of Oakley Park Estate- Avondale Reserve Development, from Department of Housing Construction dated 261/61 in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/39-498. 52 According to Ak City Archives, Valuation Field sheets, ACC 213/183a, show that virtually all the houses in Tutuki Street date from c. 1945-6 ; while the houses (ACC 213/72f) in Howlett Street date from c. 1951-2. 53 According to Auckland Street Search database, APL - Howlett Street was dedicated 10/5/1951. According to Ak City Archives File, ACC 275/249/39/498, the old 1ZB Transmitter site at the end of Oakley Avenue was earmarked as early 1949 (See NZ Gazette No. 49, page 1621 dated 4 August 1949) as an area for future housing development. It was on this land that the Howlett Street subdivision was formed. 54 Ak Street Search database ibid; Ak City Archives, ACC 213-111f reveals that Howlett was named after Laurence Farrar Howlett, a local land owner & manufacturer, who owned the property of the corner of what is now Howlett Street and Oakley Avenue. He lived in a timber weather board house built c. 1938 at No. 63 Oakley Avenue. National Archives, Ak. branch, BBAD 1054, 2821k, 4/17/1426 confirms Mr L.F. Howlett was the owner of Lot 34 (and of Lot 32) which was set aside by the crown in the early 1940s for the future purpose of housing construction. 55 Davenport page states that the name Tutuki Street derives from the Maori word meaning " to strike against an object, to stumble, to reach the farthest limit, or to be completed." Here the word may have a local reference. 56 Ferguson, page 178, From the 1950s the government began to cut back on building state houses and began selling off existing stock. The remaining state houses were to end up

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being used for welfare recipients. Page 180, at the same time the government offered generous lending rates to purchase state houses. By 1955, 10,657 state houses had been sold nationwide into private ownership. 57The exact number of state houses constructed in Waterview (between the mid 1930 and the 1950s) is not known but a careful look at Auckland City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (for Waterview's streets) shows that somewhere between a half to two thirds of the original state housing stock of this area was transferred into private ownership in this way by the 1970s. Examples of this process can be found all across the suburb including (ACC 213/38g) No. 11 Daventry Street sold to Leslie George Hatton, a warehouseman in 1954; No.13 sold to Ivan Vivian Mc Crystal, a driver, in 1956; No. 15 Leonard Reginald Thomas, an electrician in 1953, No. 53 sold to Kenneth Thomas Fergus Samson, a Police officer in 1952 (re-purchased by the crown in 1954), No.57 sold to Raymond Charles Leslie Manderson, a draper in 1955, No 54 to John Ross Samuel, a labourer in 1953, and No. 34 sold to Ernest George Carter, a salesman in 1954; to name a few. 58 Brookes, Louise Shaw, Ch. 11, page 170. 59 ibid. 60 According to Davenport page 57, Cowley Street may have been named after a town of the same name in Oxfordshire, England. Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/35b reveals this subdivision was developed c. 1950-1. 61 NZ Map No. 6725, D 995.11ap 1940, in Special Collections, APL. 62 A.H.W. page 42; and letter in A.H. Walker's Papers referring to the row of small cottages erected just over the hill towards Waterview for Garrett's Tannery Workers; See Map in Price showing approximate location of these cottages page 47. 63 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets for Cowley Street, ACC 213/35b; this two storeyed wooden bungalow (1-1½ storeys from street level) was built in 1951 by Seymour Blain, a builder (CT 958/249) and is the current residence of Ms. R. Mason and Mr. P. McCurdy . See "Rowing Into History" by Robyn Mason & Peter Mc Curdy in West Auckland Historical Society Inc. Newsletter, August 2006 page 16 ff. 64 ibid; Note further archaeological investigation is needed to reveal the full extent and precise location of the Star Mill and Garrett's Tannery sites and how they relate to the surrounding topographical features of this area. 65 For example, Auckland City Harbour News (ACHN) 4/8/2004 page 4, reveals that because of rationing of electricity during the war, the Auckland Electric Power Board in 1944 said there was not enough power to light the streets of the new housing subdivision (i.e. the streets of lower Waterview in the Oakley Park Estate). Via the efforts of well known residents like Violet ("Vi") Campbell of Daventry Street and of the Waterview Residents Association, street lighting was achieved within six weeks of lobbying the national office of the electricity supplier in Wellington. 66 National Archives, Ak Dept.,BAAZ 1178, 238c/D3/1624- "Land for Housing, Waterview, 1938-50" See footnote 43. 67 ibid. 68 ibid. 69 National Archives, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054, 2633b,34/13- "State Housing- Oakley Block, Waterview, 1943-7"- The Grinter Bros. Ltd got the tender for sanitary sewers for the Housing Department's Davis Block in 1946. 70 National Archives, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054, 2596h, 4/17/973- "A & T Burt Ltd, Fir Street, Waterview, 1940-1." 71 ibid. 72 National Archives, Ak Dept.,BAAZ 1178, 238c/D3/1624- "Land for Housing, Waterview, 1938-50". 73 According to the NZH 18 March, 1948- Obituary for Mr Charles Cavanagh (page 8 (8)), he was the founder and managing director of Cavanagh & Co. which he established in 1922 (originally in Symonds Street). An Irishman from Tipperary, he came to Auckland in 1899 and joined the firm Pullen & Armitage, coach builder and livery stable proprietors, which were later one of the first companies to introduce motorised taxis in Auckland. Mr. Cavanagh was a member of the Masonic Order, (Lodge Auckland, No.87) a keen sportsman (especially in shooting) and was survived by his wife and two daughters. Died at his home in Avondale at age of 74. For further information see the Omnibus Bulletin, Article on "Cavanagh & Co. Ltd.", Issue No.104.

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74 See Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (Even No.'s 1510-1628, East Side), ACC 213/59c. 75 Tony Goodwin "Alford Street, Waterview- Mid 1940s" page 2. 76 Challenge of the Whau page 125; HOW page 98. 77 ibid page 64, for references to the types of materials used refer pages 61-4 and HOW page 98: “With rising car ownership, the construction of all weather concrete or bitumen highways became a significant factor in suburban expansion." (from Auckland Boom or Bust, Auckland Museum, (2000), page 13). 78 Such as water mains, sewerage and waste water pipes, gas mains, electricity lines, telecommunications cables and the like). 79 Note NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL reveals that while most of Waterview's streets were paved by the early 1950s, there were still some patches of unfinished roading, right on edge of the waterfront properties of Saxon Street, Fir Street, Alverston Street, Alford Street and Oakley Avenue. 80 Challenge of the Whau Page 61, "The North-Western Motorway, linking Point Chevalier, the Rosebank Peninsula and Te Atatu was opened in 1956." See also "Map of Avondale Streets... 1990", showing the route of the North Western Motorway. According to HOTW , the construction on this motorway system began in the 1950s and controversially sought to redirect traffic flows from the Great North Road, bi-passing Avondale and New Lynn. It was seen at the time as a major advancement in the progress of Auckland's Western suburbs. See pages 115-6, 118 & 121. 81 Firth, page 10 notes that government guidelines for the creation of reserves and open spaces were to account for up to a minimum of 10-15% of the total gross area of a state housing subdivision. 82 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-111f - Reserve land, Oakley Avenue being Lot 17 DP 15528; CT 61/124. 83 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-159g note that both the Plantation and Landing reserves in Seaside Avenue were set aside as public reserves as early as 1927 but were left undeveloped until 1930. The Plantation Reserve being 32.2 perches of land on DP 18786 of Allotments 14/16 Titirangi Parish and the Landing Reserve (cnr Seaside and Fairlands Avenue) being 3 roods and 33 perches of land on DP 18786 Allots.14/6. 84 A large radio transmitting tower, 523 ft tall and a substantial brick building housing the old National and later 1ZB radio transmission station established here in 1938 for broadcasting purposes was a major visible landmark in this part of Waterview for many years. It was finally closed down and demolished by 1952, when the land on which it stood was used for the Howlett Street Housing sub-division and the creation of the Howlett Street Reserve. See National Archives Files, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054, 2821k, 4/17/1426- "Crown Old National Broadcasting Transmitter Site, Oakley Avenue, Waterview, 1948-1951" and BAAZ 1109, 148c,21/2/2, 2- "Housing- Kindergarten site-Waterview 1ZB Transmitter site, Waterview, 1950-1953". 85 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/72f- being ACC Reserve Lot 5 of Allotment 17, DP 38919, Titirangi Parish, CT 466/120. In 1951-52 declared this portion of land available for reservation under the Land Act 1948. Vested in the Ak City Council as a reserve from 24/3/1953 (NZ Gazette 18 of 1/453) C3 of 4/531. 86 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/183a- the Tutuki Street Reserve is to be found located between No.'s 21 & 23. It is a Crown Reserve being Lot 13, Sub lot 1 DP 321316 of Allot 16 & Lot 7 of Part Allot. 15, Parish of Titirangi & Being 1 acre and 0.002 perch, Titirangi S/D, Block 3. 87 NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL. 88 This reserve was also known as the Oakley Park Reserve; See Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/68f records the bulk of this land (being Lot 106 of DP37887 of Allotments 17 & Part Allot 18) was vested under the Ak. City Council (NZ Gazette 1953 page 255) as a recreation ground. However a notice vesting the reserve for recreational purposes was published as early as 1950 in the NZH 26/8/1950, "comprising a compact area of more than 7 acres with a wide entrance off Herdman Street and a strip following the shoreline of the Oakley Creek." See Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498"Oakley Park Estate" & ACC 275/429/56/248- "Herdman Street Reserve & Proposed Waterview Community Centre". 89 NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL..Note that while the reserve was designated for recreational purposes from the early to

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mid-1950s. It was not developed in any substantial way until the early 1960s. There had been several proposals for the reserve's development including the creation of a multipurpose community centre or a Marist Veteran's Football Club. Plans were finally drawn up in 1961 for the development of the reserve, which included a large football field, 4 tennis courts and pavilion and 2 bowling greens. A late change in the design saw the bowling greens replaced with a children's playground and toilet block. See Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498- "Oakley Park Estate" including maps showing the development of the reserve and its planned future layout (dated to 1961) and ACC 275/429/56/248 for letters relating to these proposals. 90 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/68f - Lot 21 became a school site (4.4.1950); being lot. 226 Parish of Titirangi, being DP 20823 part of Allot 17, CT 782/15 & being 4 acres 3 roods and 17.0 perches. See also NZ Map No. 3500, D 995.11bje Planning Sheet No.2B, 1950 in Special Collections, APL. 91 See Auckland Scrapbook Collection (ASB) May 1956 in APL, page 476 which gives the date of the completion of the primary school as 1950; ACHN August 4, 2004 page 4 reveals Violet Campbell as being instrumental in the successful lobbying to increase the size of Waterview Primary school from the two classrooms as originally envisioned by the Department of Education to a block of six classrooms as it was when it first opened in 1950. 92 Today (in 2006) within the primary school grounds can be found Waterview's only Kindergarten centre, which was established here in the early 2000s on the site of the old adventure playground and swimming pool near the school hall and Herdman street entrance. In recent years, Waterview Primary school has been involved in a number of educational programmes aimed at improving literacy and numeracy skills of its pupils (in a low decile ranked primary school) and for children with learning disabilities and behavioural problems. ASB May 1956, page 476; ACHN 2 April 2004 page 2; W.L. January 18, 2005 page 15;NZH March 29,2006. 93 Prior to the 1950s residents sent their children to be educated in the surrounding districts such as to Avondale Primary School, to Gladstone Rd School or to Point Chevalier School. However once resident's children had grown beyond the primary school years, they were still forced to look further afield for their secondary education. The closest and only state school in West Auckland in those days (dating from the mid-1940's) was the Avondale Technical College, which was later to become Avondale College. See WL 4/8/1995 & 2/11/95; Challenge of Whau page 96 & 98. 94 See Laurenson's, “Waterview, the Story of a Little Church”; Ak Star October 17, 1965 page 14. 95 Laurenson ibid page 12-3. 96 ibid page 12. 97 ibid page 15, Laurenson refers to this episode as the "Great Removal." 98 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/59c- the denomination and origin of this building is unknown. 99 Laurenson page 12-13. 100 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/159g contains a letter from the Town Clerk dated 19/10/46 reporting that the Waterview Scouts Committee requested the Auckland City Council sell them the plantation reserve in Seaside Avenue, Waterview (for a sum of £80) for the purpose of erecting a suitable hall thereon for scouting purposes. Despite the positive recommendation that this proposal be accepted, doubt was raised as to the Council's legal power to sell this property. 101 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/59c. The church hall built here in the 1930s (CT 1025/189) was replaced by the present concrete block hall, covering an area of 60ft by 25 ft, in 1956 at No. 1600A Great North Road. It was constructed by the voluntary labour of parents and friends of the Waterview Scout Group and was part of a campaign to combat juvenile delinquency in the Waterview district. By 1990, the Waterview scout group celebrated its 60th anniversary of its association with the local community. See the Avondale Advance 17/6/57 in ASB December 1956, APL page 236 and WL Nov. 29, 1990 page 10. 102 According to the records of the Waterview Tennis Club, Minute Book, NZMS 1270, in Special Collections, APL, it was formed on the 10 October 1954 at a meeting held in the Waterview Community Hall (a small building which no longer exists, which was located behind the Daventry Street shops). The foundation meeting was called by the Waterview Resident's Association and attended by 32 people.

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103 Ak City Archives, ACC 275/429/56/248- Tenders were called (8 November,1956) for the construction of 4 hard Tennis Courts at the Herdman Street Reserve for an estimated cost of £5,500 see Avondale Advance, June and September issues 1956 & Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/68f records that the small tennis pavilion was built here (on Lot 106, DP 37887) c. 1960 for £500, toilets were later to be added to the pavilion for an extra £35. 104 See National Archives, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054, 2821k, 4/17/1426- "Crown Old National Broadcasting Transmitter Site, Oakley Avenue, Waterview, 1948-1951" and BAAZ 1109, 148c,21/2/2, 2- "Housing- Kindergarten site-Waterview 1ZB Transmitter site, Waterview, 1950-1953". 105 ibid; It was used by Mr Stan Goffin of 59 Asquith Avenue, Mt Albert as a storeroom and mess room for employee in connection with the erection of nearby state houses. 106 ibid. A letter dated September1950 showed that the Minister of Works approved the transfer of these buildings for use as a kindergarten. However as late as 27/2/1952, proposals were still being discussed whether it was still possible if the old 1ZB site could be purchased by the council and leased back to the community (through an organisation like the Waterview Residents Association). It could still be used for kindergarten purposes and as a Doctor's surgery, and a combined facility for holding various community functions, cultural, social and local business meetings. By 1952 this building was no longer there. 107 ibid. See also ACC 275/429/56/248- "Waterview Reserve, Herdman Street Reserve & Proposed Waterview Community Centre" 108 ibid; Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/38g. 109 ibid; This small army hall c. 1943 was moved onto this site (Lot 5 DP 41951 of Allotment 17, Titirangi Parish) c. 1948. See CT 1121/291. 110 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/111f and Building Permit Plan for 28 Oakley Avenue shows that the residence and shops were extended by Mr. Raymond Hector Hieatt (storekeeper) who ran it as the Oakley Stores Ltd until early 1960s. It still operated as a grocery store up to the early 1970s. See Wise's PO Directories 1940s-1971 eds. 111 See Plan H.D.3/438/S4 in Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498; See Map Of Daventry Street Shops Plan of Lot 139, SO Plan 33341 and CT 1978/91, DP41951(Lots 1-4), Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/38g. 112 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/38g; Shop sites being Lots 1-4, DP 41951 of Lot 139 of Allotment 17 Parish of Titirangi and the community hall site being Lot 5 DP 41951. 113 The other block of shops established in Waterview was the block of shops on the corner of Great North Road and Alford Street. Note Ak City Archives, ACC 275/249/39/498 reveals that the Department of Housing Construction originally desired to establish a shopping centre on the Oakley Park Estate (i.e. at Daventry Street) comprising a total of 160 feet of shop frontages. There was to be up to 10 shops established here and the estate was to comprise of c. 220 units with the possibility of a further 150 units at a later date, making a total of 370 units in total. This would give a ratio of 1 shop per 37 units. As it turned out in the long term the surrounding community could not even support the 4-6 shops that were actually established there. 114 Ak City Archives, Building Permit for 1479-1485 Great North Rd, P.No. 5370 "Shops at Waterview for S. Catchpole, Esq." dated 1 March 1955. Designed by Rigby Mullan, Architects. 115 Ak City Archives, ACC 213/59d No. 1479-1481 Great North Road being CT 529/256; William Kyte is listed as being a dairyman c.1927-8. Mr Kyte is listed as residing in a brick veneer house (No.1529; CT 774/238) next door to Walter Ravenhall, a bricklayer at No.1551 Great North Road and the Waterview Methodist Church on the corner of Great North Road and Fir (then Dale) Street, presumably after his stint as a shop owner. 116 Mr E. Armishaw appears in Wise's Post Office Directory 1936 ed.; Colin Campbell in the 1941 ed.; Hubert Lancaster in the 1944 ed. and Mr Catchpole in the 1949 ed. In 1953 he established his business (with his wife Margaret May Catchpole) under the name the "Waterview Store Ltd". See National Archives, Ak branch, BADZ 5181, 2071, 20530, 1952/397- "Waterview Store Ltd, 1952-c.1975". 117 Ak City Archives, ACC 213/59d No. 1479-1481 Great North Road; Ak City Archives, Building Permit for 1479-1485 Great North Rd, P.No. 5370 "Shops at Waterview for S. Catchpole, Esq." dated 1 March 1955.

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118 ibid; Tony Goodwin "Alford Street, Waterview- Mid 1940s" states that: "This shop eventually became Catchpole's and Mr. Catchpole added the new buildings at a later date. Mr Catchpole was Brigadier Catchpole [presumably in the Salvation Army?], and after retiring from the grocery business went on to be Civil Defence Officer for the New Lynn Borough Council," page 2. 119 They were still recorded as being in business there in the mid 1970s See Wise's PO Directory 1975 ed. 120There have been a number of different stores operating out of the block of shops in Alford Street since the 1970s including a battery repair shop, an aquarium and pet store. See Wise's P.O. Directories 1975-1982 eds. 121 Ak City Archives, ACC 213/59d, built c. 1933. Note that while Mr Battersby's residence was on the Great North Road in Waterview he operated his business from 1934 (at various sites over the years) in the Avondale township, Challenge of the Whau page 120-1; HOTW Page 103-4. Though it is likely that he operated a "pick up" service in the [Waterview] area ferrying the recently departed to his funeral home. 122 ibid, Avondale Advance 18/6/1962. 123 ibid. 124 Ak City Archives, ACC 213/59d. This land was taken by the Crown and NZ Railways as part of the future Avondale-Pollen Island rail line under the public Works Act of 1928; NZ Gazette No.22 of 5/5/55 C.23/4/55. 125 National Archives, Ak branch, BBAD 1054, 2670a, 15/109/2/1- "Local Bodies-ARADrainage Division-Oakley Creek Drainage- 1953-1956"; See NZH 14/4/56; 6/2/56; 6 May 1954 & 23 April 1954. 126 National Archives, Ak. Branch, BBAD 1054, 2633b,34/13- " State Housing- Oakley Block, Waterview, 1943-7"- The Grinter Bros. Ltd got the tender for sanitary sewers for the Housing Department's Davis Block in 1946. 127 See NZH 15 March 1995 Sec.2 page 1 & NZH November 9, 1994 page14 Sec.1.

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