2.

1900 - 1930 - The Move Towards Suburban Development
Early Community It was during the early decades of the 20th century, from 1900 to the 1930s, that the Waterview area grew from a small village hamlet, nestled between the two larger townships of Avondale and Point Chevalier, into a more substantive pattern of settlement. At the beginning of the 20th century, Waterview was still very sparsely populated, with most of its residents still living within the confines of the original 1861 subdivision of Allotment 16, between Browne and Albert Streets (present day Fir to Alford Streets). A census conducted in 1916 revealed that Avondale's population (which also included Waterview's residents) had doubled itself within a period of only 10 years, to 2404 residents. 1 Rev. G. I. Laurenson describes Waterview at the turn of the 20th century in the following terms: "This [Waterview] was still a rather isolated and lightly settled community. There were no street lights, and very lightly formed gravel roads 2." The centre of the community spread in a fan-like fashion (on the Waterview Hill, to the west of the Great North Road) opposite the large farm of the Avondale Mental Hospital and reaching down to the shores of the Waitemata Harbour 3. There was also some light ribbon strip settlement activity along the banks of the Oakley Creek on the eastern side of the Great North Road and on its upper portions, in the vicinity of what was then known as the Manukau Rd (in the early 1900s this road was to become Station Road and later Blockhouse Bay Road 4). Early Farms and Subdivisions During the period from 1900 -1930s, there was a trend towards further land subdivision within the area, and a further intensification of the settlement in the area defined by the original "Waterview block". Above Allotment 16 on the Waterview hill, the land was divided into several large (dairy) farms, one being the extensive property owned by Mr. (later "Sir") 5 Alfred J. Cadman, which included a small part of Allotment 14 and all of Allotment 15. This property was later to be known as the "Cadman Estate" and included all the area of land that is now Heron Park and most of Fairlands Avenue, Cadman Avenue and down to what is now Seaside Avenue 6. There were also several other farms and large agricultural-related properties on the Waterview hill at this date. The Eyes' family whose origins in the area date to the early 1920s 7 operated a large diary farm consisting of all the land 8 (DP18842) between Alexandra St (now Alverston) and Dale St (now Fir St) and bordered by Saxon St (which was then known as Norman St 9). On the lower part of Fir St where the land drops steeply into an as yet unnamed gully 10, and continues on past the concrete aggregate footbridge down to the water's edge was located the original Eye's family homestead - this being the home of Charles and Sophia Eyes (at No. 68 Dale St in the 1930s 11). His children, Charles Herbert Eyes (a carpenter) and Charles Maxwell Eyes (an engineer) had their residences at the bottom of Alverston St (then Alexandra St) near the water's edge 12. Another large farm in the area that was later to be sub-divided for state housing (in the 1930s and '40s period), was that belonging to the well known figure of Mr. Hallyburton

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Johnston, who as a former politician 13, wealthy farmer 14 noted businessman, land speculator, and noted philanthropist 15, also had important connections with the neighbouring district of Point Chevalier 16. The land on which Point Chevalier's Ambassador Theatre now stands once belonged to him and the Hallyburton Johnstone Sports Clubs 17 which he founded in that suburb still bears his name. Mr Johnston's farm consisted of the entire lower portion of Albert St (now Alford St) bordered by Norman St (present Saxon St) 18, right down to the beach front; also the large block of land known as the Oakley Park Estate (all the area of land between Oakley Avenue and Cowley Street) 19. Mr. Johnston died at his Alford St (No.70) residence in 1949 20. His original single storey timber weatherboard Colonial-style cottage still survives, though it has been substantially altered (with parts of its exterior decorated in brick veneer) 21. The Elling's and Ashbury's also had farms on the left side of Dale St 22 (now Fir St) from the mid-1920s while William Gardiner Rainbow's property (his occupation is listed as a gardener) 23 covered most of Cameron Street (now Middlesex Rd).There were many smaller properties in the area that had connections with agricultural related activity. There were a number of gardeners, poultry farmers, market gardeners (both of Chinese and European origin) and fruiterers located on Waterview's hill and on the upper portions of the Great North Road (above Alverston Avenue) in this period. 24 The Oakley Park Estate On the flat beneath Allotment 16, most of the land between what is now Alford and Cowley Streets (Allotments 17 &18) was still largely undeveloped. There was only one large farm located in this vicinity-known as the "Oakley Farm" or the "Oakleigh [Oakley] Park Estate".25 This property was once owned by Mr. Wilhelm R. Hoffmann, a prominent Auckland musical dealer and property speculator, who also had important connections with early Point Chevalier and Avondale in the late 19th and early 20th centuries26. Prior to that Robert Garrett, of the Garrett Bros. fame, who operated their tannery out of the old former "Star Mill" site at the mouth of the Oakley Creek (Allotment 18A), owned the property. 27 It was here in the late 19th Century that Mr. Garrett had a row of workers' cottages built for the labourers of his tannery (being in the vicinity of the present day Cowley Street, which was not formed until the 1950s). These workman's cottages still existed in the area until the late 1930s/ mid1940s when this whole block of land was opened up for State Housing development. 28 The old Star Mill/Garrett's Tannery, located at the mouth of the Oakley Creek and which was such a significant landmark feature of the Waterview area from the 1860s onwards, went out of business in the Long Depression of the 1890s. It then fell into disuse and was subsequently demolished c.1911/12. 29 According to the Thomas family history, the original grindstones for the mill and tannery may well have been re-used as part of the foundations for the North Western Motorway/Waterview interchange when it was built in the 1950s and 1960s. 30

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Development of the Great North Road and of Waterview's Streets The development of Waterview in the first decades of the 20th century was aided by the considerable improvements in the quality of the Great North Road and of the district's other streets and transport services. At the start of the 20th Century, the Great North Road (which in those days was only a single lane road each way) was the only properly formed and constituted road in the district. Repairs were constantly being made (by the Avondale Roads Board) to improve and up grade its metalled surface from the 1880s onwards. Yet it was not until after 1925 31 that the Great North Road was finally paved, and in concrete, along its entire length through the Waterview District. From Henderson to the Avondale township, to Point Chevalier and all the way into the city this stretch of the Great North Road was to become known as "the concrete highway 32". However, the streets that were formed off the western side of the Great North Road (the roads between what is now Fairlands Avenue and Oakley Avenue) were not paved or even had footpaths for another 20 years or more until the area was opened up for state housing in the late 1930s/mid 1940s period, while the bottom portions of these streets, closest to the harbour's edge were not properly formed or paved until the1950s or early 1960s33. In fact it wasn't until the 1920s that any of the streets in the entire Avondale district (which included Waterview) were paved. 34 A photograph taken in 1925 at the top part of Alexandra St (now Alverston St) shows that the road was little more a grassed over track35. Brett's Almanac for 1926 36 shows which Waterview streets had formed by that stage: they included the five streets of the original settlement (Dale, Alexandra, Albert, Cameron & Norman Streets), although some of the names had changed - Browne Street was now called Dale St and Alexandra St had replaced Victoria St. In addition to this there was now a street called "Oakleigh Rd" in the vicinity of what is now Oakley Avenue; an unnamed and only partially formed road in the vicinity of what was to become Fairlands Avenue and an un-named fully formed road in the area of what used to be the Star Mill and Garrett's Tannery that was later (in the 1950s) 37 to become Cowley Street. Wise's Post Office/Street Directories reveal that Fairlands Avenue, Hillcrest Avenue (later Hadfield Avenue), Cadman Street, Oakley Avenue and Seaside Avenue were all formed by the early 1930s38. It was also during this period that many of the street names in Waterview were changed to their present recognisable forms. This was precipitated by a major review of street names in September 1932 39 which took place in areas then under the jurisdiction of the Auckland City Council, in order to avoid duplication and set down criteria for the naming of future roads. As a general rule (though not always applied) suburban streets which had identical names to those in the city were to be changed to avoid confusion with existing ones. Thus Albert Street/Rd in Waterview became Alford Street; Victoria Street/Road in Waterview was renamed Alexandra St c.1921 and from 1932 became Alverston St (perhaps named after Lord Chief Justice Alverston) 40 and Browne St, which briefly became Crown St about 1900 and then Dale street c.1920 was renamed Fir St in 1932. 41 Cameron Street became Middlesex Road (which was probably named after the English County42) and Norman St became Saxon Sreet43.

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Hillcrest Avenue underwent several name changes during this period before finally settling on its present one - Hadfield Avenue. Hillcrest Avenue was named in 1929, then it became Hadfield (named after Bishop Octavius Hadfield (1814-1904), the third Anglican Primate of New Zealand) from 1939 44 then briefly Nesbitt Avenue (after a well known local resident45) and then changed back to Hadfield again around 196746. And lastly, Oakley Avenue appears as a named road for the first time in the Wise's Post Office Directories c. 1930 but had previously existed under the name of the "Oakleigh road" from 192647. It was supposedly named after Edwin Oakley, the prominent civil engineer who in 1855 surveyed the Oakley Creek (also named after him) as a possible source of Auckland city's fresh water supply 48. However, it was Western Springs (dominated by Low & Motion's steam driven flour mill) that was ultimately chosen while the Oakley Creek was earmarked as a potential back-up if necessary 49. Another possibility for the name of this road, is that it refers the name of the large block of land on which it was formed, that previously under Robert Garrett's ownership was referred to as the "Oakleigh Park" and under Wilhelm Hoffmann it was known as the "Oakley Farm50". Provision of Transport Services The provision of regular and affordable public transportation was another key factor in the development of Waterview towards suburban status in the early decades of the 20th Century. Prior to that date, the major forms of transportation in Waterview was by walking from one place to another; travelling by small water craft, such as dingies and small yachts; by rail (from the 1880s a rail link out to Avondale had been established) 51 or by horse drawn vehicles. Bicycles also became a popular form of personal transport in the early 1900s but horse drawn vehicles were to remain the dominant form of public (as well as personal) transportation in the Waterview area well into the 1920s and early 1930s. Horse drawn transportation was gradually to fade in importance as the years progressed as other forms of motorised transport began to make their presence felt; omnibuses, motorised coaches (buses), trains, trams and later cars were all to have an important impact on reducing Waterview's isolation and aiding in its development towards becoming a fully fledged suburb by the late 1930s. Many of Waterview's residents in the early decades of the 20th century had important links with the provision of transport services (and its associated industries) in the district. Several drivers, carriers, coach builders and blacksmiths lived and worked in the area in this period: Abraham Fletcher (jnr.) who was "a currier" in the 1920s lived in Albert St (left side off Great North Rd52); Mr Harry Tainton, a blacksmith (who later in the 1940s became an engineer), 53 lived on the right side of Alexandra Street (now 5 Alverston Street) in the mid-1930s 54; William Francis Ellis and William Hardman who were both drivers, lived near the Methodist Church on the Great North Road55 and Ralph G. Spencer of 28 Albert Rd (now Alford St, near the corner of Middlesex Road) in the 1930s was a coach builder56. There was even a large paddock with attached stables located in the vicinity of Mr Eliot R. Davis' residence on the Great North Road (No.156157) in the stretch of road above the Waterview Methodist Church, near what is now Tutuki Street from the mid 1920s. By the mid 1920s there were a number of motorised bus companies operating in the area: the General Omnibus Co., the Mt Eden Bus Co., the Progressive Bus Co. and

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Thomas' buses to name a few 58. It was also in this period that Waterview had its own motorised coach service, Cavanagh & Co., which was set up by Charles Cavanagh (a coach builder) on the eastern side at the top of the (No. 1568) Great North Rd59, above present day Waterview Downs. His company operated from this site for many years. While a certain Joseph Cavanagh, (1592 Great North Road), presumably a close relative of Charles Cavanagh is listed as being a blacksmith in Waterview in the late 1930s/early '40s and worked for Cavanagh & Co. building the bodies of motorised buses 60. While the arrival of trams in the early decades of the 20th century (firstly, of horse drawn ones, then of steam and finally of the electric tram 61) had by the 1930s, led to an expansion out from the city centre which aided the development of suburbs like Mt. Albert, Point Chevalier, Waterview and Avondale- people could now easily live in these outlying areas and commute daily to work in the city. Yet Waterview was not to receive its own tram service; this necessitated a brisk walk by local residents to Point Chevalier or Avondale (via Blockhouse Bay Rd), who were then able to connect with the regular tram services to and from the city. Charles Augustus Harris, who lived near the Tatton's on the Great North Road, near the intersection with Station Road (future Blockhouse Bay Rd) was a tram foreman 62, and many of the district's coach builders, motorised mechanics, mechanical engineers, upholsterers and other allied professions were engaged not only with the building and servicing of trams, but also with other forms of transport as well such as buses and train carriages. With the arrival of motor cars, a number of Waterview's residents were able to set themselves up in small private businesses to service them. Development of Basic Infrastructure The establishment of such basic infrastructure items (as improved roads, new streets, paved footpaths, public reserves etc.) and amenities (such as the installation of sewerage facilities and water pipes, street lighting, electricity, telephone connections and the like) allowed for the area to be opened up for further settlement. Slow (sometimes, painfully slow) but steady progress was being made in the early decades of the twentieth century in terms of Waterview having its basic infrastructure needs met. However, the provision of many of these basic amenities were not made widely available to Waterview's residents until after 1929 and in some parts of the district they were not available for many years after that. The placing of a night soil depot in Waterview in the early years of the 20th century was an early attempt by local authorities to deal with the district's sewerage problems. 63 Located on the former Cadman estate, in the vicinity of what was is now Heron Park, the plant was established there around the turn of the century and proved to be deeply unpopular with Waterview's residents. Fears of pollution and disease being spread over the neighbouring streets as the night soil carts travelled (and often spilled parts of their load) around the Waterview district led to a citizen's revolt in 1914. 64 Local residents in a feat of active protest erected barricades on some streets leading to the night soil depot. The furore that this created eventually led to the night soil depot being closed. 65 It was not until the late 1930s and into the1940s that Waterview's sewerage and drainage issues were to be effectively addressed by the laying of adequate sewerage and drainage systems throughout the district.

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Prior to that date the Auckland City Council (which was the territorial authority under which Waterview now fell) had been levying unpopular quarterly sanitary charges of £2 10s on residents66. Because of the unpopularity of this charge, Waterview's residents refused to sign up to any street rubbish collection system until many years after that in Avondale township had already been successfully operating one for nearly a decade. 67 Waterview's resident's were also very slow to get connected to electricity supplies or to get telephone connections established within the area. By 1929 only 160 people in the entire Avondale district had telephone connections, and very few of those were from Waterview. 68 While the Avondale township first received electric street lighting from 1907 69 and had gas street lights from 190470, it would be well into the 1930s or 1940s; before any form of street lighting was widely available in Waterview. A newspaper report on the progress of Waterview by 1910 noted that there was still no street lighting in the area at that date and that the Primitive Waterview Methodist Church on the Great North Road, (the only church in the area) was forced in the winter months to conduct its evening services by candlelight and issued a lunar calendar (1915) so that moonlight could also be used, to provide adequate light for parishioners. 71 It was also noted that this church did not receive electric lighting until after 1953 72 when it was finally established in its present position on the corner of Fir Street and Great North Road 73. Churches Another major development in terms of the growth of the Waterview region in the early decades of the 20th Century can been seen in the expansion and growth of the Waterview's only church. The Primitive (now the Waterview) Methodist Church located near the corner of Dale/Fir Street since 1883 was viewed (as it still is today) as an important community asset. As a result of the area's expanding population and an influx of younger children into the area in the early decades of the 20th century, this necessitated the construction of a much larger church74. The old wooden 1883 building was moved further back on its section in 1910 with a newer church built in front of it. The old (1883) church was again moved further back on the property in 1914 and was to be used as an infant department and parish hall 75. By 1925, plans were under way to obtain an even larger structure to be used as a Sunday School and Youth Hall. Instead of paying for the construction of a brand new church building, a cheaper option was implemented whereby the old 1897 Dominion Road Methodist Church was purchased (as the new parish hall), refurbished and moved to the Great North Road site, being placed behind the 1910 church and the original 1883 building 76. All of this juggling and moving of church buildings on this site necessitated the purchase of more land nearby on the Great North Road from Mr. Davis and others 77. Even more land would be needed for further expansion in the mid 1940s and the present arrangement whereby linking all three parts of the present day Methodist church (the 1910 church being closest to the road; the original 1883 church, now unrecognisable as the middle part linking it in an L-Shaped pattern, with the 1897 former Dominion Road Methodist church at the rear) would be not be joined together in its present configuration until the 1950s 78.

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Developments along the Oakley Creek (Industry and the Asylum's Farm) The 1900s-1930s period saw the growth in the number of small industries set up along the banks of the Oakley Creek in Waterview, including a number of working quarries. In 1920, the Waitemata County Council purchased a block of land from Mr Mattson on "the flat at Oakley Creek" and established an up to date quarry there on its eastern bank 79. This quarry was to operate from this site for many years with thousands of yards of blue stone metal taken from this quarry - being barged and then transported overland to the North Shore, to be used to form roads around Albany and East Coast Bays 80. While directly opposite, on the other side of the Great North Road on the banks of the Oakley Creek, Mr Pyke operated what was reputed to be New Zealand's largest duck farm consisting of over 8,000 birds. The noise of which at feeding time could be plainly heard as far away as Point Chevalier Road 81. Most of the eastern half of Waterview that was defined geographically speaking by the Oakley Creek and its surrounds, during the early decades of the 20th century, was concerned with the running and development of the Mental hospital's farm. By the turn of the century this farm which formed the bulk of the hospital's grounds had grown to massive size from its original position in Point Chevalier, on the road towards Mt Albert (now Carrington Rd). It now consisted of nearly 200 acres of poor clay and light volcanic soil with its border being along the Oakley Creek and the Great North Road in Waterview and extensive operations were to be carried out on this land throughout the year 82. Working on the land, especially in the large vegetable and flower gardens attached to the hospital, was considered an important part of patient's therapy and recreation. Produce that was surplus to the needs of the mental hospital (in which it aimed to be as self-sufficient as possible) could be sold and the money reinvested in the institution. 83 The hospital farm was run on the most modern up to date farming methods and was operated by a professional staff under the direction of a farm manager. Not only did the hospital's farm have large flower and vegetable gardens, it also had large herds of milch cows of the finest breed as well as cattle bred for eating. There was also a large piggery on the farm where prize winning Berkshires and Yorkshires were be bred for fattening or for sale. The farm also possessed an unlimited supply of fresh eggs which it obtained by raising an enormous stock of various breeds of poultry. Part of the land was even turned into an experimental sewerage farm, which proved a great success 84. Progress in Housing The 1920s was a period of rapid growth in terms of house construction in New Zealand, with the Massey Government and subsequent administrations of that period introducing cheap loans through State Advances (whereby as much as 95% of a loan needed to purchase or build a house could be borrowed on very low interest rates 85) for the purpose of suburban housing construction. These policies, which were initially aimed at providing servicemen returning from the First World War with an opportunity to get their own homes, initiated a housing boom across the country which led to many thousands of homes being built in this period 86. The pace of this construction only started to slow once the adverse economic effects of the Great Depression started to bite. Unlike later

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housing policies of the 1930s and '40s, this housing scheme was to be dominated and led by private enterprise rather than through the state 87. In Waterview during the late 1910s -1920s, this housing boom led to many of the district's 19th century dwellings being replaced with buildings in more modern 1920s architectural styles, distinguished by various types of bungalow 88, small cottages 89 or stuccoed Art Deco-style dwellings 90. Along Waterview's streets, buildings constructed in these newer styles were erected along side and filling in the gaps between existing building types. There are even a few examples of 1920s style houses being shifted into the area and being placed on already existing lots. An example of this can be seen with the 1920s George Troup styled railway cottage being placed at 52A Alverston Street in 1959 91. Houses - 1900 to 1910s Approximately half a dozen or so houses dating from the period 1900 to the 1910s still survive in Waterview today 92, most of which are small single storey timber weatherboard cottages or Edwardian villas. Two such dwellings (No. 1574 and No.1602 93) are to be found on the eastern side of the Great North Road near the Avondale border. These are the last remnants of a row of such villas that were established there in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. No. 1574 Great North Road was originally a classic small wooden Edwardian villa/cottage. It has been much altered over the years with bays added at the front, on both sides of the main entrance, presumably enclosing what was originally a verandah extending along the front porch from the original roof line. 94 According to Auckland City Archives, No. 1574 Great North Rd 95 (until the 1970s, its street address was No.1594) was built c. 1905 96 for the Tatton Family 97. However the Certificate of Title for this building 98 suggests that the property (being 3 acres and 9 perches more or less being Lot 3 of the subdivision of part of Allotment 62, parish of Titirangi) was transferred from James Neville Newbold of Auckland, a settler, to William George Tatton of Avondale, a settler and fruit grower99 in 1900 100. Mr Tatton took out a series of mortgages between 1902 and 1904, presumably to develop the property and to build his house 101. The probate of Mr. Tatton's will dated to 1910 reveals the house was definitely built by that date102. The property, including the house, passed to Mr Tatton's wife Fanny Eliza Tatton and later to his son Reginald Brooking Tatton103. The house has had many owners since that time104. This building is in good condition as its current owners have been carefully renovating it for modern usage. A little further up the road (towards the Blockhouse Bay intersection) is a tiny single storey flat fronted wooden Edwardian villa at 1602 Great North Road . Auckland City Archives estimates this property to have been built c. 1906 for Charles Augustus Harris, a tram superintendent106. However the Certificates of Title107 relating to this building suggest a slightly later date of c. 1911 as this was when Henry Mills Hawkes of Auckland, a gentleman, transferred the property to Charles Augustus Harris of Auckland, mechanic108. The Harris' lived there until the late 1950s109. This house is currently (2006) under going extensive renovations, it has been moved forward onto the property and a number of units are being erected behind it110.
cv

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Another dwelling of 1910s vintage in Waterview can be found at No. 43 Alford Street, being Lot 20 Section 1 Deeds Plan 7111 . This classic single storey wooden Edwardian bay villa is in excellent condition and sits on a large double section112 (or 3/4 of an acre)(on the right side from the Great North Road) near the intersection with Middlesex Road. This building which was the original residence of John Francis Goodwin, of Waterview, an asylum attendant was built in 1907113, the property being purchased in that year from George Arnold of Avondale, a carpenter for £ 285114. The Goodwin's are one of Waterview's oldest residents and the property is still in possession of the family115. Mrs Edith Goodwin, the widow of the late Stanley Thomas Goodwin, a printer116 and son of J.F. Goodwin (the original owner) still lives there today (2006). Another building in Alford Street that may be of 1910s origin, is No. 70117, a single storey timber weatherboard semi-hipped roofed bungalow/cottage which was the former residence of Mr. Hallyburton Johnstone118, an early pioneer of some importance in Waterview. Auckland City Archive records suggests this building may date from c.1912. 119 This building has been extensively altered over the years (it even has brick cladding on parts of its exterior) but its basic villa/bungalow shape is still clearly visible and is in fairly good condition. Another private residence in Waterview that dates to the early 1900 is number 73 Alverston Street 120 (the last building on the right side of the road from Great North Road), set on the edge of the Waitemata Harbour. However this building was not originally from Waterview; it was moved here from Sarawia St, Parnell in the 1990s 121 and reassembled on what was a vacant lot that had once been part of the large farm belonging to Charles Eyes, which operated in this part of Waterview from the 1920s122. There are several other residences in Alverston Street (all of which appear to be in an excellent state of repair) which may also date from the 1910s - including No. 10 Alverston Street, a small classic wooden cottage executed in bay villa style (possibly built c. 1913) 123 and two or three of the bay villas at No’s 55A, 59 and 63 Alverston Street. 124 Houses - 1920s to early 1930s A fair number of 1920s buildings (possibly upwards of 25-30 buildings), 125 in several different architectural styles (though mainly bungalows, cottages or transitional villas), and mostly constructed in timber with a few in other materials such as brick or stucco still survive in 2006, to give us a reasonable impression of what Waterview may have looked like during that period. As most of the population of the district at this time lived in the area around Allotments 15 and 16, it is hardly surprising that the largest concentration of 1920s buildings that still exist in Waterview today are to be found in these areas - between Fairlands Avenue, Fir Street, Alverston Avenue and Alford Streets, with some examples on the top parts of the Great North Road, leading towards Avondale and also a few in Oakley Avenue. 126 There are many examples of the types of 1920s buildings that reflect the range and style of houses erected during that decade and that can still be found today (2006) in Waterview. These include the only surviving example of a large 2 storey Arts and Craft style wooden house at 10 Fairlands Avenue executed in mock Tudor Style with a large stucco plaster over brick chimney built in 1925 for Robert White Hendle, of Newton, a

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butcher. 127 In Alverston St, there is a fine example of a wooden bungalow built c. 1929 for Henry J. Peale, a traveller at No. 9 128 and a unique example of a 1920s wooden railway cottage that was moved into the area c.1959 at No.52A129. Other examples of 1920s wooden bungalows that still exist in the area include: two houses in Oakley Avenue (No. 6 built c.1923-24 130 & No.8 built c.1926); 131 two on the east side of the Great North Road (at No. 1610 built c. 1927 for William Garden Spence, a labourer132 and No. 1598 built c. 1927-28 for Osmond Le Page, a builder) 133 and one on the west side of the Great North Road (No.1617 built c. 1928); 134 one in Alford Street (No. 36 built c.1928 by Ormond Gilbert Brightwell, a builder) 135 and one in Fir Street (No. 57, a large house much modified over the years with an extra storey added and straddling the gully at the bottom of Fir Street. This house was the residence of Charles and Sophia Eyes built in the 1920s)136. In Alford Street there also exists a good example of a 1920s style small wooden cottage with a gabled roof. This structure was built c.1927-8 for Neil Hugh, an engineer. It was the residence for many years of Arthur Edwin Humphries, a boot maker from 1928-29 (CT 527/268)137.

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1 The News, 11 November 1916 in HOTW. page 69. It is very difficult to get accurate figures of Waterview's original population as the statistics for this area are not separated out but included in the figures for the wider Whau (Avondale) district. Electoral rolls from the period only list property owners with land valued at over £50, therefore it would exclude small landowners and individual house owners who fell below that threshold. However it is likely that in the first twenty or so years of the Waterview settlement's existence, its total population was somewhere in the region of 20-30 families. 2 Laurenson page 5. 3 ibid. 4 Keith G. Rusden, Why "Blockhouse Bay? (July 2005, compiled for the Blockhouse Bay Historical Society) page 33: " The main road into the Bay from the beginning at Great North Road, was called Station Road' from the top of St Judes Street to the intersection with Taylor Street was called Manukau Road and the road from there down to the beach, Wynyard Road. In 1934/35 these names were changed and the full length was called Blockhouse Bay Road"; See also NZ Map 4559 dated 1882; Auckland Street Search database (APL) on Blockhouse Bay Road and ASB November 1971January 1972, page 29 in APL. 5 NZH 27 June 1903 page 5. 6 See map outlined in CT 937/246 which shows the bulk of the "Cadman Estate" and its boundaries. Note that Sir Alfred's children Alfreda Ruby Cadman and his son Francis Bell Cadman were still living on the property in the early 1920s. The estate was administered by the T.M. Burke Land Investment "A Company Ltd from 1923 and by the subsidiary company Fairlands Estate Ltd in 1924. The T.M Burke Investment "A" Company Ltd changed its name in August of that year to the "Cadman Estate Ltd"; WL 21 November 1995; WL 4 August 1995. 7 Deeds Index 11A/164; R347.131, Deed 293026 dated 2 December 1920 shows that Andrew John Robertson a farmer of Avondale, Auckland conveyed all the property being all of Sections 8 & 9 of Allotment 16, Parish of Titirangi to Charles Eyes, farmer of Avondale, Auckland for £1300. 8 ibid; This was verified with Mr Charles H. Eyes of 78 Alverston Street, Waterview (the son of the original Mr Charles Eyes, farmer and his wife Sophia Hannah Eyes) through a telephone conversation in May 2006; See also the map showing the extent of the Eyes Estate (sections 6-9 of Allotment 16) and locations of their residences dated to 1932 in Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheets (ACC 213/50c). 9 ibid. 10 Plans to have this gully and small stream named after the Eyes family, in recognition of the contribution this family have had on this area of Waterview since the 1920s has reached an advanced stage with the Auckland City Council. These plans include naming the gully the "Eye's Reserve" and giving the previously un-named stream, a Maori name (Wai-iti , meaning "little or small stream"). 11 See Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheets for Fir Street, ACC 213/50c; now known as Fir Street, Wise's PO Directory 1930 ed; CT 501/66. 12 On the left side of the road from the Great North Road. In 1956 Mr Charles Herbert Eyes' (carpenter) residence was No 80 Alverston Street (being CT 642/246) built c. 1933 and his brother, Charles Maxwell Eyes (engineer) lived next door at No. 78 (CT 808/35) built c. 1953. Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheet, ACC 213-5f. Both of these houses still exist in the area today (2006). 13 According to Tony Goodwin "Alford Street, Waterview Mid 1940s" (May 2003) page 3, Mr Hallyburton Johnstone whose residence was located at the end of the road, "had been before my time a Member of Parliament"; was mentioned in Simon Upton's Valedictory Speech 12 December 2000 as a former Member of Parliament for the Raglan Electorate. Is also listed on the Dictionary of NZ Biography(DNZB), Biographical database website by the Ministry for Culture & Heritage as a project/ subject name to be investigated for future updated editions. 14 In the court documents relating to the divorce of his second wife Margaret Isabel Johnstone in 1921, Mr Hallyburton Johnston's total wealth in terms of property was estimated at £60,000 or thereabouts. It also records he had substantial holdings in the Waikato around Raglan and Ngatea, in Howick and South Auckland, in Epsom and elsewhere throughout the Auckland Metropolitan area and provincial district, National Archives, Auckland branch, Divorce Files -"Johnstone, Hallyburton- Margaret Isabel (1921)" BBAE 4984, 1898. Mr Johnstone also had substantial holdings in Point Chevalier (see A.H.W. page 54-5ff; The Sun 3 August, 1927; and property in Mt Albert (25 Hendon Avenue, National Archives,Ak branch, BBAE 5632, 120be, 1944/6216). In Waterview he had a large farm at the end of Alford street (then known as Albert Road) being the whole block of land between Alford and Alverston Streets and bordered by Saxon (Pt Allotment 16, Lots 12/14 & Pt Allotment 15, Section 5, Avondale district) ; National Archives. Ak Branch, "Hallyburton Johnstone Estate, corner Alford and Norman Streets, Waterview, Auckland,1939-43", BBAD 1054,2399a, 4/17/46).

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15 Mr. H. Johnstone had a notable passion for a wide range of sports. He gave endowments to many sporting codes, many of which have trophies bearing his name including the Hallyburton Johnstone Shield for women's cricket (a biannual 2 day tournament involving the provincial teams from Auckland, Wellington (A.H. Lintock, Encyclopaedia of New Zealand (1966ed.)), the Hallyburton Johnstone Rose Bowl competed for as part of the National Rowing Championships (see national rowing clubs website) and the Hallyburton Johnstone Cup being one of the highest awards of the Auckland Rifle Association (refer to their website). However his most well known endowments were in Point Chevalier where he founded the Hallyburton Johnstone Sports Clubs (including clubs for Men's and Ladies Bowling, Croquet and Tennis Clubs), Ak City Archives, ACC 219 Box 58, 27/145; NZH August 3,1927. For other organisations (including non-sporting bodies) which Mr Johnstone financially supported see the probate of his will (in National Archives, Ak branch- "Johnstone, Hallyburton, Auckland, Gentleman,1949", BBAE 1570, Box 895, 661/1949). 16 ibid; see AHW ibid. Note that while Mr Hallyburton Johnstone lived in Waterview, he was also a figure of some standing in Point Chevalier district as well, from the 1920s until his death in the late 1940s. This is reflected in the fact that a street near Point Chevalier beach (near Dignan Street) is named after him. 17 The Hallyburton Johnstone Sports Clubs and the associated trusts which Mr Johnstone set up to secure these new institutions on a firm financial base for the future (including clubs for Men's and Ladies Bowling, Croquet and Tennis Clubs), as well as playing fields and a large house to be used as clubrooms can be viewed in the files of Ak City Archives, ACC 219 Box 58, 27/145; NZH August 3, 1927. All of the sporting organisations were to receive generous endowments in his will with the largest being to the sports clubs in Point Chevalier which he founded. Refer to National Archives, Ak branch- "Johnstone, Hallyburton, Auckland, Gentleman, 1949," BBAE1570, Box 895, 661/1949; AHW ibid. 18 Pt Allotment 16, Lots 12/14 & Section 5 of Pt Allotment 15 ; Norman Street changed its name to Saxon Street in 1932 following the Auckland City Council's newly instituted policy to avoid duplication with already existing street names. Refer John C. Davenport, Street Names of Auckland (1990) page 203. It was probably named after Robert Saxon Nicholls, who had a large farm in the area at that time. 19 Allotments 17 & 18. 20 Died 23 April 1949; National Archives, Ak branch, BBAE 1570, Box 895, 661/1949); Obit. in NZH 26 April 1949 page 8(7), NZSB Feb. 1959 page 77. 21 CT's 529/184 & 1345/81; Deeds Plan No.7, Lot 4 DP 38023; Deeds Index 22A.143 - Conveyance of property from Henry Francis Holbrook and John Brennan, clergyman to Hallyburton Johnston, retired farmer (R517.728) in 1927 for £1450. 22 John Elling, gardener and Charles Ashbury, farmer. There residences were located on the left side of Dale Street (later Fir Street), from the Great North Road, Wise's PO Directory 1925 ed., were the only recorded properties listed on that side of the street at that date. The next listing is "here is the beach". 23 ibid, Right off Albert Road (later Alford St) is the only property listed on Cameron Street, Avondale. The end of the street is described as a "Blind Road". 24 John Henry Letcher, fruit grower (left side Albert Road, Waterview); Benjamin Bradbury, poultry farmer (Great North Road, right side from Point Chevalier district); Lee Chong, gardener (ibid); Frederick Walker, market gardener (Great North Road between Dale Street and Seaview Road); the Tattons - Ms. Eliza Tatton, widow of former fruit grower, William George Tatton (left side of Great North Road) Wise's PO. Directories 1920-25 eds.; W.Quoi, market gardener and Song Tai, market gardener (Great North Road, Right side from Point Chevalier district) Wise's PO Directories 1925-30 eds. to name a few. 25 See A.W.H. pages 41 and 45. 26 Mr. Hoffmann in 1891 (Deed Index 7A:463, R42.87) purchased a large chunk of Garrett's land holdings (some 88 acres of land) in Waterview from the Auckland Providential Building Society, and built a substantial home there (on the eastern bank of the Oakley and placed a manager on the property- AWH page 45) following the collapse of their tanning operations on the Oakley Creek in 1890. A letter from Mr G. Woodlock (an early Waterview resident) dated 23 June 1955, in AH Walker's Papers, Special Collections recalls: "I understand Garrett's also had a tannery on the banks of the Oakley Creek and down on this flat was Hoffmann's brick house (recently demolished). I remember the old brick kiln on this property and the bricks were made on the ground." The Hoffmann's owned this property (which he variously called the Waterview farm or the Oakley ParkA.H.W. ibid) until 1904 when it was transferred to a Mr. Donaldson (see Deeds Index references R86.546 & R101.139).

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27 The Garrett Bros. in 1879 bought 8 acres of land near Thomas's Mill and named it Oakleigh Park and Robert Garrett built his large two storey house there. The Garrett's later in the 1880s expanded their holdings in this area (Allotments17 and 18) to 150 acres. See references in footnotes Chapter1 and A.H.W. page 41. 28 See references by an unknown author of an unpublished article entitled "The History of Point Chevalier" (this information was sourced to George Graham) in A.H. Walker's Papers, Special Collections, APL : "This house [occupied by Mr Craig, Mr Hoffmann's farm manger], which has since been demolished, stood at a point where the northern outlet crosses towards the water [from the culvert beneath the Great North Road to the mouth of the Oakley creek]. The row of small cottages just over the hill towards Waterview were built for Garrett's tannery workers." See also National Archives File, Ak branch- "State Housing- Oakley Block, Waterview 1943-1947", BBAD 1054, 2633b, 34/13 and file relating to the Department of Housing Construction subdivision Pt Allotments 17/18 Parish of Titirangi, Great North Road, Oakley Park Estate -ACC 275/249/Item 39/489. 29 No fixed dates dates can be been given for the demise and final demolition of the old Star Mill/Garrett's Tannery, as it had been abandoned and in decline since the 1890s, no one bothered to record its passing. Waterson page 8 believes no trace of it remained by 1913. Price gives a date of c. 1911, page 74. gives a date of c. 1911. However the last photograph that is recorded of this building was in 1909, the vague poetic description of it at that time (''My song has died into an echo") may suggest the main part of the structure was demolished by then; Photograph in Special Collections, APL (Neg. No. A1730, 995.1108 Ps 75 (1900-09) dated 1909), From NZ Graphic 11 August, 1909; A.H.W. claims (page 42), "The works were demolished about 1912 after having been one of the earliest landmarks in the district." Also refer to article by Robyn Mason & Peter Mc Curdy "Rowing into History" page 20 In West Auckland Historical Society Inc. Newsletter, August 2006 vol. 285. 30 Price, page 74. 31 Challenge of Whau page 64, "In 1925 the main Highways Board undertook to lay an 18 foot wide strip of concrete down the centre of the Great North Road between Point Chevalier and Avondale." HOTW page 93 states that the last section of this new road to be concreted was the portion between New North Road-Station Road- Brown Street in 1926. See DP 6229 dated May 19, 1925 and SO 23367 showing the alignment of the "concrete highway", the Great North Road at the Oakley Creek, Waterview in Ak City Archives, ACC 219 609b. 32 See picture showing part of the concreting of the Great North Road in 1925 between Rosebank Road and Avondale Primary in Challenge of the Whau, ibid. HOTW page 87-88, "At a meeting in Auckland on February 28th [1925], it was approved by all the town boards involved, that they would build a concrete road over the often impassable clay road from Oakley Creek at Point Chevalier, all the way to the end of the Henderson Township. Each Town Board's ratepayer bore the cost for their own section of the new highway." [Henderson's Mill, Anthony Flude, 1977] "..... The point of commencement will be at Blake Street Avondale, and the paving will be pushed on as far as the Whau bridge, after which the section from Blake St to Oakley will be undertaken." See Map 5017/1showing the Plan of the Great North Road From Henderson Town District to Oakley Creek c. 1925/6 in ACC 219/609b. 33 See NZ Map No. 3500, ACC planning Map Sheet No 2B, 1950 and Map sheet 2D, 1950, D (& B) 995.11 bje 1950 in Special Collections, APL. 34 Challenge of Whau page 61 "Until the 1920's none of Avondale's road was sealed. The surfaces were mostly loose metal over clay. Surfacemen were employed to inspect the roads and do minor maintenance"; and page 62 "Many streets had no footpaths. Sometimes residents constructed their own", "From 1922 the Avondale Roads Board purchased a stone crusher and road-making plant and in 1923 the Avondale Borough Council (under whose jurisdiction Waterview fell) trialled the use of bitumen for sealing a few roads in the district....Just the centre of roads were sealed". 35 See Photograph in the Avondale-Waterview Historical Journal, Vol.5 Issue 29, May-June 2006 page 3 and also the photograph of children playing on an old horse-drawn road grader (an Austin Junior) near 17 Alexandra Street (now Alverston Street), Waterview, c.1925, ibid. Photographs Courtesy of Jo Marris of Waterview. 36 Brett's Auckland Almanac and Dairy (1926), showing Map of Point Chevalier and Avondale (it gives the names of all of Waterview's streets that were formed by that date), Courtesy of Helensville Historical Society. In the Avondale Public Library, Historic (Local History) Reference Collection. The streets named are the Oakleigh Road (now Oakley Avenue), Albert Street (now Alford Street), Alexandra Street (now Alverston Street), Dale Street (now Fir Street), Norman Street (now Saxon Street) and Cameron Street (now Middlesex Street). See also NZ Map A7336 (1861 "Kinloch" Map of

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original Waterview subdivision); Deeds Index 14D.190 Dedication of Roads or Streets on Allotment No.16. 37 ibid, See close up of lower portion of NZ Map 6725, Auckland and environs, sheet no.1, NZ Aerial Mapping, 1940, D 995.11ap, 1940 in Special Collections showing an unformed road/pathway near what was later to become Cowley Street leading down to the mouth of the Oakley Creek. Below that is a much larger un-named road presumably leading down to the site of the old Star Mill and tannery site, that is apparent on both the 1926 Brett Almanac and on earlier maps such as DP 8447 from CT 213/202 dated to 1913. 38 Wise's PO Directory for 1930 shows all of these streets were already formed and in existence by that date. 39 See John C. Davenport Street Names of Auckland (1990) page 42 ; Auckland Street Search Index Database, APL. 40 ibid, page 15 ; Auckland Street Search database on Alverston Street, APL ibid. 41 ibid page 77 ; ibid on Fir Street. 42 See Auckland Street Search database, APL on Middlesex Street. Cameron Street may also have been named after General Alexander Duncan Cameron, Commander of the Imperial Forces in the land wars of the 1860's and was responsible for the formation of the Great North Road and its use as a major military road in that period. 43 ibid page 203; Auckland Street Search database APL on Hadfield Street. 44 ibid. 45 Mr R. B. Nesbitt was the chairman of the Avondale Roads Board c. 1918-9, HOTW page 71. 46 See John C. Davenport, Street Names of Auckland (1990) page 41 ;Auckland Street Search Index Database, APL for Hadfield Street. Cadman Avenue (like Fairlands Avenue, Seaside Avenue and Hadfield Avenue) had its origins as an unformed road on the Cadman Estate (part of Allotments 14 and 15). It first appears in the Wise's Post Office Directories after 1915 but before 1920 and was named after Sir Alfred Cadman, a prominent local landowner, businessman and successful politician who served on the Auckland Provincial Council, as a member of the house of Representatives and held several important cabinet posts in successive Liberal Government ministries. Cadman's original residence a single storey colonial style timber wooden cottage known as "Karimana" (located on the upper part of Fairlands Avenue) burned down in the late 1870s and a larger residence was built nearby. Neither of these residences have survived. See photograph of "Karimana" in AIML (DU 436.1256, prints 27/28. Cool Store 2), see also Auckland Museum Streets Record Detail for Cadman Street[sic], Waterview. 47 Brett's Auckland Almanac and Dairy (1926), showing Map of Point Chevalier and Avondale, Courtesy of Helensville Historical Society. 48 A.H.W. page 40-1. 49 ibid; page 32 and 40-1. 50 For reference to Robert Garrett naming his estate "Oakleigh Park" refer to his Obituary In NZH 10 October 1887, Monthly Summary; A.H.W. pages 41 and 45. 51 HOTW page 29-30; Challenge of the Whau page 22 "The railway between Auckland and Avondale was opened in March of 1880. In its first year of operation 1485 passenger tickets were issued from the local station. A small building housed the ticket office, waiting room and, from 1881, the Post Office as well." 52 Wise's Post Office Directory, 1920 ed. 53 ibid, 1940-1 ed., Harry Tainton still living there as late 1949, ibid 1940-1949 eds. 54 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets ACC 213/5f. No.5 (CT 585/308) was a timber weatherboard house built on land formerly owned by Thomas William Sansom, who sold it in 1934 to William John Tait, land agent. The current house dates from c.1935-6 and was the residence of Harry Tainton, blacksmith and his wife Rosa May Tainton. 55 Wise's P.O. Directory, 1920 ed. (on right side from Point Chevalier district) 56 ibid, 1930 ed.; Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/14f , R. G. Spencer's bungalow at 28 Albert Street was replaced c. 1946 (CT 529/244) by the current wooden state house, now No.40 Alford Street. 57 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (Odd No's), ACC 213/59d, The Hon. Eliot Rypinski Davis lived at No. 1561 Great North Road, his residence was named "Aroha" and the land on which it now stands, included a large shed and stables. The current dwelling on this site dates c. 1941. 58 HOTW page 89, by 1929 a number of motor bus companies were operating from Avondale (or nearby from New Lynn) although not all of them had routes through Waterview, although several of them did travel along the Great North Road into the city (i.e. via Waterview) such as the General Omnibus Company (see HOTW page 36), Mt Eden Bus Co. (page 89 HOTW), the Progressive Bus Co.

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(HOTW page 93), Thomas' Buses (HOTW page 90) ; and Ray H. Hieatt, the brother of Charles Hieatt, grocer, signalled his intention of setting up his own bus company servicing the Avondale district (HOTW page 91); Challenge of Whau page 71-72. 59 A timber weatherboard villa dated to the 1880s was located on this site until at least the late 1970's and was possibly still there up to the early 1990s. Ak City Archives, Valuation Field sheets, Great North Rd (Even No's 1510-1628). The residence, from c. 1920 (Wise's PO Street Directory,1920 ed.), of Charles Cavanagh, coach builder, and his wife Rebecca Jane Cavanagh. For more information on Charles Cavanagh, Managing Director and Founder of Cavanagh and Co., Symonds Street see his obituary in NZH 18 March 1948 page 8 (8) and NZ Bus Museum website. 60 Wise's PO Directory ed. 1941-2; Ak City Archives, Valuation Field sheets ,Great North Rd (Even No's 1510-1628), CT 498/100. 61 HOTW page 98." The suburbs which had already begun to develop well before 1914 came into their own. With rising car ownership, the construction of all-weather concrete or bitumen highways became a significant factor in suburban expansion. Associated with the residential growth were new suburban centres along the main roads [Auckland Boom or Bust, Auckland Museum, 2000, page 13]." 62 Ak City Archives,Valuation Field sheets, Great North Rd (Even No's 1510-1628), CT 377/169 & CT 36/7. This building (the former residence of Charles Augustus Harris,Tram Superintendent) is still to be found there. In the last couple of months (June-August 2006) this property has been undergoing renovations, it has been moved slightly forward on its site and a block of units is currently being built behind it. 63 See HOTW pages 40-41; Challenge of Whau page 60. 64 ibid; See L J. Truttman's article "A brief history of Avondale/Waterview Community Action Groups, 1867-2001"; "Avondale Angry- An Unwelcome Invasion", Ak Star 20/1/1914; NZH 21/1/1914; "Avondale Sanitary Depot/Residents Up In Arms/Suggest Drastic Action", Ak Star 23/1/1914; NZH 27/1/1914. 65 ibid; NZH 29/1/1914; Ak Star 29/1/1914; NZH 31/1/1914. 66 NZH Dec. 1929 in Ak City Archives; ACC213/50c. 67 ibid; " None speaker stated he was paying 300% more in rates under the city Council than he was under the Avondale Borough Council, whereas he contended that he was receiving less service. Residents did not desire the proposed collection of rubbish, as it would mean a further rate of 3d in the pound." Avondale (central) had instituted a street rubbish collection service since 1926, HOTW page 93. 68 HOTW page 89, from speech by H.G.R. Mason, MP, at opening of Avondale Post Office 1938. 69 Challenge of the Whau page 59; Note that most of Waterview's residents who lived in the Oakley Park (lower part of Waterview would not receive electricity until after 1944 and then would be a further several years after that that street lighting would make its presence felt in this area; Ak City Harbour News (ACHN) August 4, 2004 page 4, HOTW page 53. 70 Challenge of the Whau ibid; HOTW ibid. 71 Laurenson page 12; WL 28/10/1975 page 5. 72 ibid page 15, WL 28/10/1975 ibid. 73 The first services held on the new site were on Easter Sunday, 5 April, 1953 ; Laurenson ibid page 13 & 15; Ak City Archives Building Permit Number (on microfiche) P.No. 13162 by Mr A.C. Marshall of Mt Albert. 74 ibid page 11 & 12. 75 ibid. 76 ibid, page 12. 77 ibid; another 3 quarters of an acre of land was purchased from the estate of Mr & Mrs John Elling for a sum of £450 on the corner of Great North Rd and Fir Street. 78 ibid; Mr. T. Ravenhall (bricklayer) who lived between the two church properties (on the Great North Road) gave permission for the buildings to be moved across his land and placed in their new (present day) positions. This move known as the "Great Removal" took place in 1953. 79 AHW Page 17, and page 22. 80 ibid page 22. 81ibid. 82 Cyclopaedia of New Zealand, Vol.2 (1902), page 191; AWH page 21 and 32. 83 ibid; AHW page 29ff. 84 ibid. 85 Gael Ferguson, Building the New Zealand Dream, page 133 (hereafter referred to as "Ferguson")

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86 ibid; Cedric Firth, State Housing in New Zealand, Ministry of Works, Wellington (1949) page 5 " In 1927 more than 7,000 [building] permits were issued [throughout New Zealand] for new dwellings." (Hereafter referred to as "Firth") 87 ibid; Firth ibid, notes that by 1933 that the figures for new building permits issued had fallen to under 1,500. 88 Examples of some of the 1920s bungalows built during these years include No's.1582,1584 & 1610 Great North Road; No.'s 6, 8 & 10 Oakley Avenue,No.'s 16, 36,58,71 Alford St, No.'s 7, 9, 19, 60,58, 42 Fir Street; No.7 & 26 Seaside Avenue; No.'s 31, 35 & 10 Alverston Street. Note not all of these buildings have survived, many were replaced with newer style houses during the state housing era of the 1930s to the 1950s. Ferguson ibid, states that the simplicity of 1920s house styles can be regarded as particularly suitable for New Zealand conditions 89 Such as No.7 Alford Street; No. 10 Alverston Street & No. 52A Alverston Street to name a few. 90 Such as No.10 Fairlands Avenue & No.1617 Great North Road. 91 This building is unique, as it is the only 1920s railway cottage that still exists in Waterview today (2006). For other examples of a 1920s building being moved onto a pre-existing site see No.10 & 10A Alford Street and No. 6 Fir Street. 92 Of these dwellings; three are definitely of 1910s vintage, these being 1574 & 1602 Great North Rd and 43 Alford Street, while another four (such as 70 Alford Street, No.'s 55A, 59 & 63 Alverston Street) may also possibly date back to that period but further investigation will be necessary to confirm this. There may also be two or three other buildings of 1910s vintage that have yet to be discovered that still exist in the area today. The only public building of 1910s vintage that still survives in Waterview is the Pitt Street Methodist Church which dates from 1910 (the portion of the complex that is closest to the Great North Road). 93 Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Road (Even No.'s-1552-1614)(ACC 213-59d). 94 ibid. 95 ibid; Note that the valuation records give this building's street address in 1978 as No.1594; compare with Wise's P.O.Directories for that period and going back to the mid 1930s when street numbers were first assigned here. This reflects how much the street numbers have changed in this part of Waterview over the years and the complex nature of the subdivision of houses and properties along this strip leading towards Blockhouse Bay Road. 96 ibid. 97 Note that the Tatton's had strong connections with the growth of Methodism in Waterview in the early part of the 20th century and with the Primitive Methodist Church (as the Waterview Methodist Church was then known). See Laurenson page 12; "In 1917, Mrs Tatton who had come to Waterview in 1910, was asked to act as organist, while the then organist Mr Russell went on holiday. However, as it turned out Mr Russell did not return, and Mrs Tatton continued as organist for over 50 years....Mrs Tatton and Miss E. Kerr commenced Cubs in October 1930....Mrs Tatton & Miss Kerr also conducted a Girl's Club for a few years prior to October 1934, when it was changed to a Girl's Brigade." 98 CTs 615/76; 36/36 and DP18128. 99 Wise's P.O. Directory, 1911 ed. 100 CT 36/36; Transfer No.25200 from James Neville Newbold to William George Tatton of Avondale, settler 14/9/1900. 101 ibid; Mortgage No.19262 from William George Tatton to James William Blackwell 28/9/1902 & Mortgage No. 22365 William George Tatton to Franz Saliff 20 July 1904. 102 ibid, William George Tatton died on 25 October 1910 and the probate of his will was granted to Ernest Berthold Vaile, Estate Agent and to Harry Rolland Storekeeper, both of Auckland 21/11/1910. 103 ibid. 104 See CT 615/76, this included Reginald Brooking Tatton up until the late 1920s. In 1928/9 Bernice Marion Taylor resided there for c. 10 years , then the property passed to Ellen Maud Rickard, wife of Charles Rickard; a Ms. Doris Ethel Lloyd is recoded as living there for about 50 years when the property then passed to James George Simpson, a clerk. Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Road (Even No.'s-1552-1614)(ACC 213-59d). 105 Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Rd (Even No.'s-1552-1614)(ACC 213-59d). 106 ibid. 107 CT's 1362/3, 1144/83, 1025/189, 36/17; Pt Lot 1 DP 44418. 108 CT 36/17, Transfer No. 60842, 7/8/1911. 109 CT 1362/37. Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Rd (Even No.'s1552-1614)(ACC 213-59d) notes that the property was subdivided several times and modernised in

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the 1950s It gives some of the sub-tenants of the property of the years as including Colin Crum, the brick works manager of 69 Margan Avenue, New Lynn; a Peter James Mc Dowall, a pipe maker and his wife Moya and Mrs Mrytle Woodford, a widow. 110 c. from July 2006. 111 Being Lot 20 Section 1, Deeds Plan 7; CTs 1035/32 & 529/264; DI 22A.80 & DI 13A.873 in LINZ; Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets on Alford Street (ACC 213/14f). 112 ibid; See Tony Goodwin "Alford Street Waterview Mid-1940s" (dated May 2003) page 3, gives a detailed description of the grounds of No 43 and the surrounding streetscape at that time. 113 ibid. 114 Deeds Index 13A.873; R133.18. 115 The current certificate of title bears the name of the original proprietor as being Edith Goodwin, wife of John Francis Goodwin; ibid. 116 ibid page 1, "My father [Stanley Thomas Goodwin]...served his time as a Letterpress machinist [printer]..." He is listed on CT 529/264 as having the property transferred to his name in 1951. Edith Goodwin is currently aged 93 years old. 117 CT's 1345/81 & 529/184, DI 22A.143, R 517.728 being Lot 4, DP 38023; Mr Hallyburton Johnstone is described as a farmer, of Auckland who lived there until his death on 2nd September 1949. Mr Johnston obtained the property in 1927/28. Prior to that it had been the residence of Rev. Henry Francis Holbrook and Rev. John Brennan, and the property on which it stands once belonged to George Arnold, a farmer (and early Waterview settler) of Auckland (R 133.326) in May 1907. 118 Tony Goodwin "Alford Street Waterview Mid-1940s" (May 2003) page 3, states: "At the end of the road on this side was the old Halliburton[sic}-Johnstone residence. Before my time Mr. Halliburton[sic]-Johnstone had been a Member of Parliament, and there used to be the Halliburton[sic}-Johnstone Tennis Club at Point Chevalier." 119 Ak City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets ACC 213/14f suggests this semi-hipped roofed bungalow dates from c.1912 and was called "Moana" (water), presumably because for many years it was the last property on Albert Street (now Alford) before reaching the waterfront. 120 This dwelling was built c. 1905-1907. Deeds Index 1A.420 reveals that prior to its move to Waterview this building was set on a substantial piece of land in Parnell owned by the Melanesian Mission Trust Board. It was leased (in 50 years increments) to long term tenants such as the Haselden's and later to Michael Shugar, a journalist. The original conditions of the lease (R115.420) stipulated that from the original date of its signing (March 1905) and no later than 3 February 1907 there shall be erected "a good and substantial dwelling with proper and usual outbuildings and offices to a value of at least £500. 121 The building's current owners Mr. W. McKay & Ms. G.S. Daley confirm that this property was purchased from Sarawia Street in Parnell (No.12) in the 1990s and was moved onto this large vacant lot in Waterview at the bottom of Alverston Street bordering onto the harbour's edge. The current owners originally were in a partnership with several other individuals, each of which had a one sixth equal share (1986) but by 1994 they had taken over the property as tenants in common with equal half shares (CT 994/165). A nearby resident remembers that the building came in two separate halves and was then reassembled at its present location in the 1990s. 122 According to the Certificates of Title for this building (ibid) the land on which it now stands belonged to the Powley family from the 1960s and before that by Mr. Hallyburton Johnstone up until 1949. For additional information on how Mr Johnston acquired this property and from whom see DI 22A.143 However Mr Charles H. Eyes of 78 Alverston St recalls that this piece of land was originally part of a large dairy farm operating in this area that was owned in the 1920s by his father Mr. Charles Eyes, whose property extended all the way along the coast as far as Fir Street According to Mr C. H. Eyes his father's farm abutted onto Mr. Hallyburton Johnston's property, which extended all the way to the bottom of Alford Street More investigation may be necessary to sort out the complicated land tenure patterns in this part of Waterview. 123 Auckland City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-5f No. 10 Alverston Street being Lot1 DP 107246, SO 48443 and DPs 8321, 28815, 37039, 52492 & 73571, shows that the property was surveyed for T.J. Sansom c. 1913 and suggest that there was a building on this site at that date.( Note- Mrs. Marris, a long term Waterview resident informed me that a Mrs Nasham lived there for many years, however it appears that the Nasham's - George Nasham, being a mariner, resided at number 8), though the first recorded reference to this small cottage was as the residence of Geoffrey Shaw, a labourer in 1929. However Wise's PO Directory 1925 ed. records Geoffrey Shaw as being there several years before that date and describes his occupation as orchardist. Under his direction glass houses were built on the property from 1925 (subsequently removed in recent times) and was still living there in 1935-36 (listed as a nurseryman). In 1937/38 Alfred Walter Francis Cox , a

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mechanic resided there and from 1940/1 it was the residence of Ivan Borich , fish curer until the late 1950s. It has passed through several hands since that time. 124 A set of three bay villas located close together at the bottom of Alverston Street (right side from Great North Road) executed in a similar Edwardian style suggests that they may all date from the 1910's period. However on closer inspection only one of them (No.55A) may prove to be from that period- Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213-5f suggests this building may originally have been built c. 1905 starting life as a small cottage and then being added to over the years and being substantially rebuilt in 1949. These valuation records also suggest that No. 59 and 63 Alverston Street may have been moved into the area at a later late (c.1960 and 1946 respectively) and were either made to look from an earlier era or were older buildings that were moved into Waterview from an unknown source (and may in fact date from either the 1910s period or slightly later from the 1920s). Wise's PO Directories (1925 ed.) suggests that No. 59 Alverston was probably there as early 1925 (as the residence of Constable George Booth and his wife Mary), while No.63 (the building which has been the most modernised of these three dwellings (with the addition of a basement garage and of dormers added on the roof-line) may have been the original residence of Mrs Edith Hardman, dating from 1925. Further investigations will be necessary if this contradictory evidence is to be sorted out. If these three residences prove not to be from the 1910s, it is likely that they may be dated to the 1920s or early 30's. 125 Note that the Auckland City Archives Valuation Field Sheets for Waterview's streets suggest that by 1978 there were approximately some 65-70 residences still surviving from the 1920s period by that date. However in the last 28 years over half to two-thirds of those buildings have been demolished or moved out of the area. 126 Note that there is only one building still left on the old Oakley Park Estate that may possibly date from the 1920s this being 1441 Great North Rd (No. 1439 in Ak City Archives Valuation Field Sheets), a large wooden house originally belonging to Gilbert Sydney Casey, a builder and known as "Oakley House", According to the valuation sheets the property was extensively damaged by fire in the late 1920s and rebuilt in the early 1930s as the residence of William Newell, retired farmer and later from the mid-1930s of Henry Early for Early's Ltd, ACC 213/50c. 127 CT 422/42 & 397/246. 128 Was No. 5 Alexandra Street; According to Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (ACC 213-5f) this wooden house being situated on Lot 23 DP904 of Section 2 of Allotment 16 Parish of Titirangi was built c. 1929 for Henry J. Peale, a traveller and Fred. Stanley Hall for £833. 129 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (ACC 213-5f). The first reference in Wise's PO Directories for this property is in the 1961 edition which gives the original proprietor as Ernest F. Sigglekow, an electrician. He was still living there as late as 1980 (1980 ed.). 130 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (ACC 213-111f); According to Wise's PO Directories this wooden bungalow was the residence of Father David Mostyn Jillett, a Roman Catholic Priest from the mid 1960s (1966 -1992 eds.) 131 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (ACC 213-111f); According to Wise's PO Directories this wooden bungalow was originally the residence of Oliver Lawrence, a tiler who was still living there as late as 1960 (see 1930-1960 eds.). 132 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Rd (Even No.'s-1552-1614)(ACC 21359d); 133 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets on the Great North Rd (Even No.'s-1552-1614)(ACC 21359d); 134 Note that this house has changed its street number several times over the years, it is currently recorded as 1617 Great North Road but in the Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets (Odd No's 1363-1661), ACC 213/59d it appears as 1623 or as 1645 Great North Road. It seems to have been built c. 1928 as a rough cast house of stucco plaster over brick construction. 135 Ak City Archives, Valuation Field sheets, ACC213/14f, No. 36 Alford Street. 136 CT's 50B/246,1898/59,529/183; Ak City Archives, Valuation Field Sheets, ACC213/50c. 137 Ak City Archives,Valuation Field Sheets, ACC 213/14f, No. 7 Alford Street.

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