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INDUSTRIAL FURNACES

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Industrial Furnaces, Sixth Edition. W. Trinks, M. H. Mawhinney, R. A. Shannon, R. J. Reed and J. R. Garvey Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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CHRONOLOGY of Trinks and Mawhinney books on furnaces INDUSTRIAL FURNACES Volume I First Edition, by W. Trinks, 1923 6 chapters, 319 pages, 255 figures Volume I Second Edition, by W. Trinks, 1926 Volume I Third Edition, by W. Trinks, 1934 6 chapters, 456 pages, 359 figures, 22 tables Volume I Fourth Edition, by W. Trinks, 1951 6 chapters, 526 pages, 414 figures, 26 tables Volume I Fifth Edition, by W. Trinks and M. H. Mawhinney, 1961 8 chapters, 486 pages, 361 figures, 23 tables Volume I Sixth Edition, by W. Trinks, M. H. Mawhinney, R. A. Shannon, R. J. Reed, and J. R. V. Garvey, 2000 9 chapters, 490 pages, 199 figures,* 40 tables Volume II First Edition, by W. Trinks, 1925 Volume II Second Edition, by W. Trinks, 1942 6 chapters, 351 pages, 337 figures, 12 tables Volume II Third Edition, by W. Trinks, 1955 7 chapters, 358 pages, 303 figures, 4 tables Volume II Fourth Edition, by W. Trinks and M. H. Mawhinney, 1967** 9 chapters, 358 pages, 273 figures, 13 tables PRACTICAL INDUSTRIAL FURNACE DESIGN, by M. H. Mawhinney, 1928 9 chapters, 318 pages, 104 figures, 28 tables

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This 6th Edition also includes 3 equations, 20 examples, 54 review questions, 4 problems, and 5 suggested projects. The 199 figures consist of 43 graphs, 140 drawings and diagrams, and 16 photographs.
** No further editions of Volume II of INDUSTRIAL FURNACES are planned because similar, but up-todate, material is covered in this 6th Edition of INDUSTRIAL FURNACES and in Volumes I and II of the North American COMBUSTION HANDBOOK.

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Reed J. Mawhinney R. (3) Lines: 7 ——— 194. J. (3) JOHN WILEY & SONS. H. . Garvey * [-3].39 ——— Normal * PgEnds: [-3]. R.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 INDUSTRIAL FURNACES. A. SIXTH EDITION W. Trinks M. INC. Shannon R.

Published by John Wiley & Sons. 2003007736 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 . W. ISBN 0-471-38706-1 (Cloth) 1. 1874.. 2. Copyright © 2004 by John Wiley & Sons. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Trinks. incidental. Trinks. (4) Lines: 11 * ——— ——— Normal * PgEnds: [-4].wiley. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department. (201) 748-6011. except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act. 111 River Street. or on the Web at www. fax (978) 750-4470. John Wiley & Sons. fax (201) 748-6008. or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.402'5—dc21 [-4]. MA 01923. Hoboken. New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada No part of this publication may be reproduced. Inc. Furnaces—Design and construction. p. For general information about our other products and services. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages. they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. including but not limited to special. without either the prior written permission of the Publisher. mechanical. [et al.0pt I. II.. cataloged under: Trinks. b.com. recording. W. Furnaces—Industrial applications. (Willibald). (978) 750-8400. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. 1874. All rights reserved. For more information about Wiley products. email: permcoordinator@wiley. outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002. Includes bibliographical references and index. W. photocopying.com. Hoboken. (Willibald). b.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Industrial furnaces / Willibald Trinks . Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Previous ed. Inc. scanning. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. electronic. Inc. b. or transmitted in any form or by any means. Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and the author have used their best efforts in preparing this book.]. please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974.copyright. — 6th ed.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 This book is printed on acid-free paper. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. . . (Willibald). 222 Rosewood Drive. NJ 07030. TH7140 . Industrial furnaces. stored in a retrieval system. or otherwise. Danvers. 1874. (4) 42. cm. visit our Web site at www. or other damages.I48 2003 621. consequential.

(5) . (5) Lines: 1 * ——— 375.93 ——— Normal * PgEnds: [-5]. ROBERT A. Ohio [-5]. REED Willoughby. SHANNON Avon Lake. Ohio RICHARD J.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 This 6th Edition is dedicated to our wives: Emily Jane Shannon and Catherine Riehl Reed whom we thank for beloved encouragement and for time away to work on this 6th Edition.

(6) Lines: 25 ——— ——— Normal PgEnds: [-6]. Brown. Co. about 1942. W. 214. . founder of North American Mfg. Trinks to Mr. .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 [Last Pag [-6].44 . . (6) Photostat copy of a hand-written note from Prof.

182 1 INDUSTRIAL HEATING PROCESSES 1.3 Furnace Classification by Fuel / 16 1.2. (1) 1.2. and out of the Furnace / 7 1.1.2.2.3 1.1 Furnace Classification by Heat Source / 7 1. (1) Lines: 0 ——— 10.2.1 1.7 Classification by Type of Heat Recovery / 20 1.8 Other Furnace Type Classifications / 21 Elements of Furnace Construction / 22 Review Questions and Projects / 23 25 1 ——— Normal PgEnds: [-7].2.2.1 Heat Required for Load and Furnace / 25 2.4 Furnace Classification by Recirculation / 18 1.1 Heat Required for Heating and Melting Metals / 25 vii .2.4 2 HEAT TRANSFER IN INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 2. and by Method of Handling Material into.2 Industrial Process Heating Furnaces / 1 Classifications of Furnaces / 7 1.6 Classification by Furnace Use / 20 1.5 Furnace Classification by Direct-Fired or Indirect-Fired / 18 1. Through.2 Furnace Classification by Batch or Continuous.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 CONTENTS Excerpts from the Preface to the 5th Edition Preface Brief Biographies of the Author No-Liability Statement xv xvii xix xxi [First Pa [-7].

7 2.3.2 Evaluating Hydrogen Atmospheres for Better Heat Transfer / 60 Temperature Uniformity / 63 2.3 Radiation Between Solids / 37 2.0pt P ——— Normal P PgEnds: [-8].2 Gas Radiation Intensity / 64 2.3.6.1 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusion / 28 2.2.5 Radiation from Luminous Flames / 46 Determining Furnace Gas Exit Temperature / 53 2.5 Definition of Heating Capacity / 71 Effect of Rate of Heat Liberation / 71 Effect of Rate of Heat Absorption by the Load / 77 3.4.5 Temperature Difference / 65 Turndown / 67 Review Questions and Project / 67 71 2.2 Pier Design / 56 Thermal Interaction in Furnaces / 57 2.4 Lines: 80 2.4 Movement of Gaseous Products of Combustion / 64 2.1 Enhanced Heating / 55 2.3.2 Heat Required for Fusion (Vitrification) and Chemical Reaction / 26 Flow of Heat Within the Charged Load / 28 2.4.1 Conduction Heat Transfer / 33 2.1 3.6.4.3.2 3.viii CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 2.5.6.6 2.3 [-8].2 2.1 Effective Area for Heat Transfer / 63 2.3 3.1.1 Avoid Deep Layers / 83 Effect of Load Thickness / 84 . (2) 2.1 Interacting Heat Transfer Modes / 57 2.2 Convection Heat Transfer / 35 2.2 Lag Time / 30 Heat Transfer to the Charged Load Surface / 31 2.3.4 Radiation from Clear Flames and Gases / 42 2. (2) 2.4 3.3.5 ——— 6.2.5.8 3 HEATING CAPACITY OF BATCH FURNACES 3.6.1 Major Factors Affecting Furnace Capacity / 77 Effect of Load Arrangement / 79 3.3 Solid Radiation Intensity / 64 2.6.

Incinerators / 122 4.CONTENTS ix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 3.8.8.1 Pelletizing / 138 Axial Continuous Furnaces for Above 2000 F (1260 C) / 139 4.1 4.0pt P Continuous Dryers.3.2.3 Rotary Drum Dryers.4 4.1 Prescriptions for Operating Flexibility / 118 ——— 0.2 Continuous Furnaces Compared to Batch Furnaces / 117 4.3 Lime Kilns / 142 ——— Normal PgEnds: [-9].8.5 .4 Tower Dryers and Spray Dryers / 124 4. 1990 F to 2500 F / 103 3. (3) 3.1 Barrel Furnaces / 139 4.5 Catenary Furnace Size / 135 Sintering and Pelletizing Furnaces / 137 4.5.2.7 3.3 Shuttle Car-Hearth Furnaces and Kilns / 129 4. (3) 4. Furnaces.1 Batch Ovens and Low-Temperature Batch Furnaces / 92 3.4 Stack Annealing Furnaces / 99 3.8.8.1.2.5.5. 1200 to 1800 F (650 to 980 C) / 127 4.3.5 Tunnel Ovens / 124 4.9 3.8 Vertical Heating / 85 Batch Indirect-Fired Furnaces / 86 Batch Furnace Heating Capacity Practice / 91 3.1 Conveyorized Tunnel Furnaces or Kilns / 127 4.8. and Furnaces for <1400 F (<760 C) / 121 4.3 4.6 Air Heaters / 127 Continuous Midrange Furnaces.3.4.3.3. Ovens.5 Midrange Heat Treat Furnaces / 101 3.6 3.8.2 Drying and Preheating Molten Metal Containers / 96 3.2 Roller-Hearth Ovens.1 Explosion Hazards / 121 4.2.8 Batch Furnaces with Liquid Baths / 108 Controlled Cooling in or After Batch Furnaces / 113 Review Questions and Project / 114 117 [-9].7 High-Temperature Batch Furnaces.3 Low Temperature Melting Processes / 98 3.4 Sawtooth Walking Beams / 130 4.2. and Kilns / 129 4.10 4 Lines: 1 HEATING CAPACITY OF CONTINUOUS FURNACES 4.6 Copper and Its Alloys / 102 3.2 Mass Transfer / 122 4.2.2 Shaft Furnaces / 142 4.8.

1 Flue Gas Exit Temperature / 177 Heat Distribution in a Furnace / 182 5.4 Side-Firing Reheat Furnaces / 153 4.8 5 ——— Normal P PgEnds: SAVING ENERGY IN INDUSTRIAL FURNACE SYSTEMS 5.2 Poc Gas Temperature History Through a Furnace / 184 Furnace.2.6.4 Losses to Containers.1 Continuous Liquid Bath Furnaces / 168 4.3. Supports.7.3 Losses from Water Cooling / 187 5. Rollers.3.2 Partial-Load Heating / 187 5. (4 Lines: 21 4.1.9 Slot Heat Losses from Rotary and Walking Hearth Furnaces / 165 4.7. and Car-Hearth Furnaces / 188 [-10]. Conveyors. Top and Bottom / 153 4.5.8 Eight Ways to Raise Capacity in High-Temperature Continuous Furnaces / 162 4.1 Concurrent Heat Release and Heat Transfer / 182 5.5 Pusher Hearths Are Limited by Buckling/Piling / 155 4.1 Factors Limiting Heating Capacity / 144 4.3 .7 Continuous Furnace Heating Capacity Practice / 160 4. and Charging Equipment.3. plus Gap Losses from Walking Hearth. Spacers.3.1 5.2 Continuous Liquid Flow Furnaces / 170 Review Questions and Projects / 172 175 [-10]. Walking Beam.5 4. Methods for Saving Heat / 175 5. Kiln Furniture.2 Furnace Efficiency.7 ——— -0. Rotary. Trays.6 Fluidized Beds / 143 High-Temperature Rotary Drum Lime and Cement Kilns / 144 Continuous Furnaces for 1900 to 2500 F (1038 to 1370 C) / 144 4.6.2.10 Soak Zone and Discharge (Dropout) Losses / 166 Continuous Liquid Heating Furnaces / 168 4.1 Losses with Exiting Furnace Gases / 185 5.6. Slots.6.6.5.6.06p 4.3.3 Front-End-Firing.6.x CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 4.6.6. Packing for Atmosphere Protection.5 Losses Through Open Doors.6 Walking Conveying Furnaces / 158 4. and Dropouts. Cracks. Including Hand Tongs and Charging Machine Tongs / 188 5.6. and Oven Heat Losses / 185 5. (4 5. Boxes. Kiln. Piers.2 Front-End-Fired Continuous Furnaces / 152 4.4 4.

1 Factors Affecting Flue Gas Exit Temperature / 196 Effect of Load Thickness on Fuel Economy / 197 Saving Fuel in Reheat Furnaces / 198 5. Project / 238 243 5.13 6 [-11]. Location / 243 6.2 6.2.2 Rotary Hearth Reheat Furnaces / 198 Fuel Consumption Calculation / 201 Fuel Consumption Data for Various Furnace Types / 202 Energy Conservation by Heat Recovery from Flue Gases / 204 5.3 Side Firing Reheat Furnaces / 245 6.2 Flame Types / 247 6.10 5.7 5.6 5.1.11.4 Oxy-Fuel Firing Saves Fuel.0pt ——— Normal PgEnds: 5.3.11.3 Saving Fuel by Preheating Combustion Air / 212 5.2 Steam Generation in Waste Heat Boilers / 209 5.3.11 [-11]. (5 OPERATION AND CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 6.2. Improves Heat Transfer.4 Longitudinal Firing of Steel Reheat Furnaces / 245 6.4 5.5 5.3 Flame Profiles / 247 Unwanted NOx Formation / 247 Controls and Sensors: Care.3 6.6.1 Preheating Cold Loads / 204 5.2.1.11.CONTENTS xi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 5.1 Luminous Flames Versus Nonluminous Flames / 246 6. Location.1 Side-Fired Reheat Furnaces / 198 5.7 5.1.1.1 Side-Fired Box and Car-Bottom Furnaces / 243 6.8 Wall Losses During Steady Operation / 192 Wall Losses During Intermittent Operation / 193 Heat Saving in Direct-Fired Low-Temperature Ovens / 194 Saving Fuel in Batch Furnaces / 195 Saving Fuel in Continuous Furnaces / 196 5. (5 Lines: 2 ——— -4. Problems.1 Rotary Hearth Furnaces / 253 6.5 Roof Firing / 245 Flame Fitting / 246 6.11.8.4. and Lowers NOx / 231 Energy Costs of Pollution Control / 233 Review Questions.1.8.1 Burner and Flame Types.12 5.2 Side Firing In-and-Out Furnaces / 244 6. Zones / 251 6.4 .9 5.6 5.

1.9.6. Flue Port Size and Location / 313 Flue and Stack Sizing. Top-Fired Soak Pits / 286 6.8 6.1.3 Dampers for Furnace Pressure Control / 276 Turndown Ratio / 278 6.2 Air/Fuel Ratio Is Crucial to Safety / 265 6.1 Use More Zones.10.2 7.6.1 Buoyancy / 309 7.5 Zone Temperature in Car Furnaces / 261 Melting Furnace Control / 264 Air/Fuel Ratio Control / 264 6.3 Effects of (and Strategies for Handling) Delays / 301 Review Questions / 306 309 6.7 [-12].3 Heat-Soaking Slabs / 288 Uniformity Control in Forge Furnaces / 290 6.11.1 Visualizing Furnace Pressure / 272 6.6.1 Air/Fuel Ratio Control Must Be Understood / 264 6.12 7 GAS MOVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL FURNACES 7.2 Fluid Friction.11. Velocity Head.5.3 Air/Fuel Ratio Affects Product Quality / 270 6.1 Heat-Soaking Ingots—Evolution of One-WayFired Pits / 283 6.9 ——— -5.2 Problems with One-Way.3 . Shorter Zones / 293 6.7. (6 6.10.2 Control and Compensating Pressure Tap Locations / 273 6. Location / 319 7.7.9.9. Flow Induction / 311 Furnace Pressure.5.2 6.1 Laws of Gas Movement / 309 7.5.11 6. (6 Lines: 35 6.5.2 Turndown Ranges / 280 Furnace Control Data Needs / 281 Soaking Pit Heating Control / 283 6.2 Suggested Control Arrangements / 295 6.2 Temperature Control Below the Load(s) / 291 Continuous Reheat Furnace Control / 293 6.900 ——— Normal P PgEnds: [-12].4.1 The Long and Short of Stacks / 319 7.6 6.1 Turndown Devices / 279 6.4 Minimizing Scale / 271 Furnace Pressure Control / 272 6.1 Temperature Control Above the Load(s) / 290 6.xii CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 6.10 6.4.3 6.11.3.

Walls.3 Furnace Specification Procedures / 392 Review Questions and Project / 396 Lines: 4 341 ——— -2.6 8 [-13].3 Baffles and Bridgewalls / 324 7.CONTENTS xiii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 7.3 Recuperators and Dilution Air Supply Maintenance / 380 8.4 Multiple Flues / 320 Gas Circulation in Furnaces / 322 7.1.2 Controlled Burner Jet Direction.5 Load Positioning Relative to Burners. Slag. and 8.2 8. 8.4. Scale.3. Timing.4 Heat Balance—to Find Needed Fuel Inputs / 366 Maintenance / 378 8.4 Exhortations / 381 Product Quality Problems / 381 8. Roofs.5.4.4.4.1 Mechanical Circulation / 322 7.6 Oxy-Fuel Firing Reduces Circulation / 333 Circulation Can Cure Cold Bottoms / 334 7.4. and Flues / 326 7.4. Hearth.3. and Reach / 323 7.4 8.1 Calculating Load Heating Curves / 341 8. (7 8. Dross / 381 8.2.4 Melting Metals / 389 Specifying a Furnace / 390 8.1 Enhanced Heating / 334 Review Questions / 337 7.3 Plotting the Load Temperature Profile / 357 8.2 7.2 Decarburiztion / 388 8.1 Oxidation.1.4 Impingement Heating / 324 7.1.5 7. Zone by Zone on Figs.3 8.2.3.1 Sample Problem: Shannon Method for Temperature-Versus-Time Curves / 343 8.1.3 Burned Steel / 389 8.1 Furnace Fuel Requirement / 390 8. 8.7.4.2.4.5 .2.2 Air Supply Equipment Maintenance / 380 8.4.3.2 Applying Burners / 391 8.6.1 Furnace Maintenance / 378 8.8 / 348 8.03p ——— Normal PgEnds: [-13].3.2 Plotting the Furnace Temperature Profile. (7 CALCULATIONS/MAINTENANCE/QUALITY/SPECIFYING A FURNACE 8.

7. Hangers.8 9.3 Alloy Steels / 420 Review Questions.2. Warm-Up.9 ——— Normal P PgEnds: [-14].2. Problem.7 [Last Pag [-14].7.9. Anchors / 407 9.1 9. Drying. (8 Lines: 50 ——— 93. Repairs / 406 Coatings. Roof.2.9. (8 9.1 Information a Furnace Designer Needs to Know / 397 Refractory Components for Walls. Hearth / 398 9.1 Thermal and Physical Properties / 398 9.279 9. Mortars.3 Hangers and Anchors / 411 Water-Cooled Support Systems / 414 Metals for Furnace Components / 416 9.9.2 Basic Elements of a Furnace / 397 9. Project / 421 397 9.3 9.5 9.2.xiv CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 9 MATERIALS IN INDUSTRIAL FURNACE CONSTRUCTION 9.2 Carbon Steels / 418 9. Cements / 407 Hearths.1 Hearths / 408 9.6 9.4 Fiber Refractories / 403 Ways in Which Refractories Fail / 404 Insulations / 405 Installation.1.4 9.1 Cast Irons / 417 9.3 Furnace Construction with Monolithic Refractories / 403 9.2 Monolithic Refractories / 400 9. Skid Pipes.10 GLOSSARY REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING INDEX 425 457 461 .2 Skid Pipe Protection / 408 9.7.

who has brought to the book a wealth * PgEnds: of personal experience with furnaces of many different types.79 and are used on every continent of this globe. has been on the market for 40 years. which Lines: 0 together with Volume II. ——— The 5th Edition of Volume I is the result of the combined efforts of the original Normal author. 1961 xv . is known as the “furnace-man’s bible. the authors made many changes and [-15]. Mawhinney Salem. Trinks Ohiopyle. Sobek for his assistance in the collection of operating data. and of M. Both volumes have been translated into four foreign languages * 115. S.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 EXCERPTS FROM THE PREFACE TO THE 5TH EDITION [First Pa [-15]. Volume I. H. W. The book. W. (1 improvements. We acknowledge with thanks the contributions of A. H. Pennsylvania M. Mawhinney. F. Trinks. Ohio April 15. While retaining the fundamental features of the earlier editions. Robbins for many of the calculations and of A. (1 Industrial Furnaces.” was originally written to rationalize furnace design and to dispel the mysteries (almost superstitions) that ——— once surrounded it.

The lifetime of most furnaces extends through a variety of sizes and types of loads. and Garvey have lived through many tough years. (2 . through a number of managers and operators. Few industrial furnaces are duplicates. in-furnace flow patterns. our goal will be reached. If others can find help with their furnace problems by reading this book. heat transfer. and experience to find practical solutions. They conclude that “the engineer cannot wait for such an understanding to evolve. shapes. experiment. thermodynamics.” he also helped operators and managers to better understand how best to load and operate furnaces. as an example. controls. heat recovery. electric heating. sensors and their positioning. “Combustion Engineering. and use of oxygen. which are at the frontiers of current science. and fluid dynamics. and properties of the variety of furnace loads in the world should encourage furnace engineers to apply their imagination and ingenuity to their own particular situations. Volume I deals primarily with the practical aspects of furnaces as a whole. and through a number of reworks with xvi [-16].” This 6th Edition of Trinks’ Industrial Furnaces. (2 Lines: 24 ——— 0. Three retired engineers have given much time and effort to update a revered classic book. Such discussions must necessarily touch on combustion. dealing with furnace problems that may occur again and again. Readers of this 6th Edition will realize that the current authors have greatly extended the coverage of how to best use furnaces. Most are custom-made. The content of Professor Trinks’ Volume II is largely covered by Volumes I and II of the North American Combustion Handbook.” improving industrial furnaces requires understanding chemistry. Reed.5499 ——— Short Pa PgEnds: [-16]. so their designs present many unique and enjoyable challenges to engineers.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 PREFACE There has not been a new text/reference book on industrial furnaces and industrial process heating in the past 30 years. They cite. but must use a combination of science. providing valuable insight in areas where experience counts as much as analytical skills. As Professors Borman and Ragland imply in Chapter 1 of their 1998 textbook. Coauthors Shannon. The sizes. loading practice. that a detailed understanding of even the simplest turbulent flame requires a knowledge of turbulence and chemical kinetics. While Professor Trinks’ stated objective of his book was to “rationalize furnace design. mathematics. and to add many facets of their long experience with industrial heating processes—for the benefit of the industry’s future and as a contribution to humanity.

Inc. and many others who helped make possible this modern continuation of a proud tradition dating from 1923 in Germany. John Hes. particular emphasis has been given to a very thorough Glossary and an extensive Index. (3 Lines: 5 * ——— 329. R. Vernon Garvey [-17]. for assistance in making the Index very complete so that this book can be an easily usable reference. Shannon Richard J. so it is essential that everyone involved with furnaces have the know-how to adjust to changing modes of furnace operation. and sometimes changed fuels. a host of abbreviations are included. Robert A.56 ——— Short Pa * PgEnds: [-17]. The authors thank Pauline Maurice.PREFACE xvii 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 newly developed burners and controls. Reed J. For the benefit of readers from many lands. The Glossary is a schoolbook in itself. (3 . Thanks to John Wiley and Sons. Sandra Bilewski. In this edition.

he published three. He was educated in Germany.S. he emigrated to the United States of America. respectively. if a man is wrong 15 percent of the time.” During his long academic career. One of the first appointments to the faculty of Carnegie Institute of Technology. After two years as a Mechanical Engineer at Schuchstermann & Kremen. Matthew Holmes Mawhinney was a graduate of Peabody High School near Pittsburgh.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF THE AUTHORS Professor W. and Russian. During that time. He authored Practical Industrial Furnace Design (316 pages) in 1928. and headed that department for 38 years. (4 Lines: 69 ——— 11. and the U. Spanish. he was in touch with most of his department’s 1500 graduates. In industry. 1874 in Berlin. some translated from English into German. Trinks was born Charles Leopold Willibald Trinks on December 10. A witty philosopher. governors. Government. may be on the honor roll. in what became Carnegie-Mellon University. He also wrote a famous technical paper on heating steel that he presented before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. he became a member of Sigma Nu. respectively.S. Professor Trinks organized the Mechanical Engineering Department. While attending Carnegie Tech (now Carnegie-Mellon University). American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Ohio (later Salem-Brosius). if he is willing to learn something after graduation. in 1921 and 1925. two. An authority on steel mill roll pass design. degrees in Mechanical Engineering. and M.S. where he was an engineer at Cramps Shipyard. and two books on each subject. Mawhinney became a Senior Design Engineer with Salem Furnace Company. Mr. and industrial furnaces. he kept his students thinking with admonitions such as: “A college degree seldom hurts a chap. at Southwark Foundry and Machine Company. (4 . French.” “If a college student is right 85 percent of the time. both from Carnegie Tech. he gets a B. Professor Trinks died in 1966 at the age of 92. and graduated with honors from Charlottenburg Technical Institute in 1897. Salem. and then Chief Engineer at Westinghouse Machine Co. an invitational honorary scientific fraternity.519 ——— Short Pa PgEnds: [-18]. he gets fired. Professor Trinks was a Consulting Engineer for many companies and Associated Engineers. He received B. Germany. an eminent engineer and the world authority on industrial furnaces. xviii [-18].

Merchant Marines during World War II. Co. as the Technical Information Director. Reed is a Consulting Engineer. Electrical Engineering. coordination. R. Shannon has a B. He has an M.BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF THE AUTHORS xix 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Mr. Richard J. (5 of the North American Combustion Handbook. cooling beds. Heat Transfer. He planned a Cascade Steel plant reported by the International Trade Commission to be the finest mini-mill in operation at that time. and technical quality of steel plant design and construction projects. Shannon served in the U. Garvey served in the Air Force Corps of Engineers and is a registered Professional Engineer. and on Volume II. rolling practice. Garvey’s technical experience involved upgrading many facilities—basic oxygen processes. Mawhinney formed and led his own consulting engineering company. * PgEnds: Mr. and forging furnaces. published in 1961. and industrial boilers. . Reed was the second of six persons “Leaders in Thermal Technology” listed by Industrial Heating Journal in February 1991. Combustion. Short Pa degree in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University. Robert A. and material handling. waste disposal.S. degree in Chemical Engineering from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie-Mellon University) in Pittsburgh and is a registered [-19]. he served on the Engineering faculties of Case-Western Reserve University and Cleveland State ——— University teaching Fuels.S. reheat furnaces. Shannon was previously a world-wide consultant for USSteel Engineers and Consultants. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Ohio and was an officer in the ——— U. He has degrees in Mechanical Engineering. Mr. and a chapter for McGraw-Hill’s Handbook of Applied Thermal Design. Shannon has more than 50 years experience with engineering work. Before that.” J.S. He has several patents relating to industrial heating processes. electric furnaces. retired from Director of Steelmaking Projects at H. He is the author of both volumes [-19]. Mr.S. four chapters for the Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook (by John Wiley & Sons). Mr. Mr.’s authority on steel reheat furnaces. Ferguson Company. and Fluid * 21.83p Dynamics. degree from Case-Western Reserve University and a B. Thermodynamics. He has been North American Mfg.S. Mr. At the University of Wisconsin. K. gauging. and 4th Edition published in 1967. His responsibilities included supervision. pelletizing. catenary furnaces. Reed was director of courses in “Applied Combustion Technology” and “Moving Air and Flue Gas” (United States and Europe). (5 Professional Engineer. he was Superintendent of Utilities at USSteel’s Lorain Works (now USS-Kobe). Vern Garvey is a Consultant. He collaborated with Professor Trinks on his Industrial Furnaces. Reed has been involved with three courses. He continues private consulting relative to his extensive experience with steel reheat. and Business Administration from the University of Wisconsin. Prior to that. Volume I. continuous casting. At the Center for Professional Advancement. soaking pits. Co. forging. Mr. and led “Optimizing Industrial Heating Processes. recently retired after 47 years at North Lines: 8 American Mfg. bar mill. Navy. Mr. technical papers on heat transfer and combustion in industrial heating. heat treating. 5th Edition.

state. omissions. The publisher and the authors urge compliance with all safety standards and insurance underwriters’ recommendations. neither the publisher nor the authors assume responsibility for errors. (6 Lines: 10 ——— ——— Normal PgEnds: 205. [Last Pag [-20]. or misjudgments. With all industrial equipment. and consider every operation and situation.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 NO-LIABILITY STATEMENT This is a textbook and reference book of engineering practice and suggestions— all subject to local. [-20]. (6 xx .25 WARNING: Situations dangerous to personnel and property can develop from incorrect operation of furnaces and combustion equipment. think twice. No liability can be assumed for damages incurred from use of this information. While every precaution has been taken in preparing this book. to insurance requirements. and to good common sense. and federal codes. No patent liability may be assumed with respect to the use of information herein.

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