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THE DIRT
The VNLA Quarterly Newsletter
Volume 39, Issue 1
Spring Issue, 2013
the road not
taken
2013
Vermont Flower Show
2
3
Inside this
Issue
president’s letter
New Green Works
Members
4
Board of Directors 5
The Road Not
Taken-2013 VT
Flower Show
6
Designing with
Native Plants
8
Learning to See,
Not Jut Look
9
Green Works
Winter Meeting
Draws Record
Turnout
11
New Member
Profile - Miller Hill
Farm
12
Horsford’s Nursery
Pays it Forward
14
News from the U 15
Research Report
from UVM
18
Phenology and
Spring
20
Big Divas 21
The Power of Apps 22
It Takes a Village to
Find the Emerald
Ash Borer
24
Japanese Beetles 26
Industry Calendar 27
The state of our Association is strong! I
confidently make this assessment as I look
back on the events of the past year and think
about the success of so many of our recent
endeavors. At a time when so many
professional associations are struggling to
survive, the VNLA continues to thrive. I
attribute this trend to the unique group of
individuals that make up our membership
who understand that the benefits that they
derive are directly related to their willingness
to take an ‘active’ role in all that we do.
Those who have chosen to host a twilight
meeting, regularly attend VNLA functions, or
play a part in the Vermont Flower Show surely
recognize that there is much to be gained
both professionally and personally. As the
cleanup of the Flower Show was coming to a
close, I approached one of our members to
thank her for all that she had done to make
the show a success and she said, “ I met so
many great people and learned so much”.
Clearly she had found her experience to be
worthwhile and will likely continue her
involvement in the show in the future.
Among the objectives listed under our mission
statement in our by-laws are: to promote to
the public a greater awareness of plants and
landscape products and services, provide
opportunities for members to network and
exchange ideas and information, and
promote ethical business practices and high
standards of professionalism. Our board of
directors continues to focus on these
objectives as we plan for events throughout
the year. But, I have come to realize that
nothing that we can do as an association
does more to advance all these objectives
than the Flower Show.

Having played a role in the Flower Show since
it’s very humble beginnings, I have always
viewed it to be a collective marketing effort
on the part of the association that would
ultimately benefit our industry while providing
much needed income. Following the success
of this year’s show it is more clearly evident
than ever that there is nothing that we can
do as a group that could do more towards
promoting our purpose. Over the course of
the three-day show, I spent a great deal of
time wandering through the central display
talking with people from every corner of the
state. I answered hundreds of questions
about specific plants used in the display and
watched as many show attendees took notes
and photographed plant name tags so they
could look for these specific plants in the
spring to add to their landscape. All the while
I was reminding people to support their
locally owned retail garden center and to
refer to our website to find professionals in
their area who could help with all their
landscape needs. The nearly forty seminars
that were scheduled over the course of the
show were well attended with most filled to
capacity. In addition, I really felt that the
general public is beginning to recognize the
continued on page 4
Correction: - Winter Issue 2012-2013.
2012 Industry Award Winner Sarah Stradtner, Distinctive
Landscaping, Special Project - “The Burial Garden” was
mistakenly listed as a “Merit Award” when, in fact, the project
received an “Honor Award”. All projects (present and past)
can be viewed at http://www.greenworksvermont.org/
Flower Show Photo Credits:
William Kneen, Stephen Mease,
Ed Burke, David Flaschenriem, and
Kristina MacKulin.
4
Green Works logo and have come to understand who
we are and what we do.

Another important benefit of the show is the fact that we
involve so many from outside our Association who
contribute to the show’s success. This includes UVM
master gardeners, students from the Essex Technical
Center, and horticulture students from UVM and the
Northland Job Corps. By involving these groups we not
only expand the exposure of our Association but also
cultivate relationships that may result in future VNLA
members and leaders.

In addition to the success of the Flower Show in
advancing the VNLA’s mission, a preliminary review of
the show’s finances at our recent board meeting
revealed that our net income from the show is likely
more than double of what we had conservatively
projected. Proceeds from the show will allow us to
improve the marketing and manual of our VCH
program, initiate additional marketing of Green Works,
procure quality speakers for future meetings, and have
something left to add to our cash reserves, thus
contributing to our nest egg. In summary, the Flower
Show will benefit all of our members.

One concern that was shared among board members
and Flower Show committee members alike was that in
order for the show to be sustainable in the long term, we
need to enlist the help of a greater number of our
members. It seems that this endeavor while far-reaching
in it’s positive impact to our industry, is shouldered
repeatedly by relatively few from the Association. Upon
reviewing the program from this year’s show I came to
the determination that less than ¼ of our membership
were involved with the show in any way. While I realize
that many in our Association believe that given their
geographical location in relation to this show they simply
do not realize any benefit from it, I respectfully disagree
for the many reasons that I have outlined here. I am
certain that much of the discussion and planning for the
future of the flower show will revolve around how we
can encourage the participation of a greater
percentage of our members. There are so many ways for
members to get involved that do not require huge
commitments of time or resources that will collectively
help to lighten the load for the rest of us and ensure the
viability of the flower show in the future.

As we look ahead to the coming season I am certain
that the VNLA is moving in the right direction and that if
we all commit to taking a more active role we will all
continue to reap the benefits both professionally and
personally. I would like to thank so many who have so
generously committed their time, talents, and resources
to our many successes over the past year, I look forward
to seeing you all in the coming months and wish you all
a prosperous and productive season.
Depot Home and Garden
36 Park Street
Essex Junction, VT 05452
802-878-8596
depot05452@aol.com
www.depothomeandgarden.com
Category: Garden Center
Active Member
Holly Rae Taylor
1915 Notch Road
Jericho, VT 05465
802-373-6896
hollyraetaylor@gmail.com
www.hollyraetaylor.com
Student Member
Carl Phelps and Nan Jenks-Jay
Miller Hill Farm-Native Nursery
2127 Route 73 East
Sudbury, VT 05733
802-623-7373
mhfarm@shoreham.net
www.millerhillfarmvt.com
Category: Nursery Retail, Nursery Wholesale,
Propagator
Active Member
Perennial Pleasures Nursery
Rachel Kane
PO Box 147
63 Brick House Road
East Hardwick, VT 05836
802-472-5104
rkane@perennialpleasures.net
www.perennialpleasures.net
Category: Nursery Retail
Active Member
Woodbourne Cultural Nurseries, Inc.
Thomas A. Kiser
301 Colonial Spring Road
Melville, NY 11747
800-343-4564
woodbournensy@yahoo.com
www.woodbournenurseries.com
Category: Nursery Wholesale
Associate Member
Thanks for joining and welcome!
New Green Works Members
2013
continued from page 3
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PRESIDENT
VJ Comai
South Forty Nursery
184 Tamarack Rd * Charlotte, VT 05445
802.425.6222 * vjcomai@gmavt.net
VICE-PRESIDENT
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
806 Rocky Dale Road * Bristol, VT 05443
802-453-2782 * ed@rockydalegardens.com
SECRETARY/TREASURER
Claybrook Griffith
Long Leaf Landscaping, LLC
4379 Ethan Allen Hwy.
New Haven, VT 05472
802-999-4558 * claybrook.griffith@gmail.com

DIRECTORS
Nate Carr
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
287 Church Hill Road * Charlotte, VT 05445
802.425.5222
nate@churchhilllandscapes.com
Carrie Chalmers
Quoyburray Farm
239 Lawrence Hill Road * Weston, VT 05161
802.375.5930
carriechalmers6694@gmail.com
Hannah Decker
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc.
7 Blackberry Hill Road * Fairfax, VT 05454
802.849.2775
perennialfarm@surfglobal.net
Sarah Holland
River’s Bend Garden Design, LLC
7386 VT Route 100 B
Moretown, VT 05660
802.279.4352
sarah@riversbenddesign.com
Ron Paquette
Paquette Full of Posies Nursery
10236 Williston Road * Williston, VT 05495
802.434.2794
ron@vermontnursery.com
Brian Vaughan
Vaughan Landscaping
40 Mt. Pritchard Lane
St. George, VT 05495
802.482.4228
vaughanlandscaping@gmail.com

ADMINISTRATIVE SECRETARY
Kristina MacKulin
Green Works-VNLA
P.O. Box 92 * N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473
Toll Free: 888.518.6484; 802.425.5117
Fax 802.425.5122
Kristina@greenworksvermont.org
www.greenworksvermont.org
COMMITTEES
BUDGET AND FINANCE
COMMITTEE CHAIR
Claybrook Griffith
Long Leaf Landscaping, LLC
802.999.4558
EVALUATION & PLANNING
COMMITTEE CHAIR
Brian Vaughan
Vaughan Landscaping
802.425.6222
INDUSTRY AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
802.453.2782
LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
Dan Redondo
Vermont Wetland Plant Supply, LLC
802.948.2553
MARKETING & EDUCATION
COMMITTEE CHAIR
Ed Burke
Rocky Dale Gardens
802.453.2782
MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
South Forty Nursery
802.425.6222
NEWSLETTER COMMITTEE CHAIR
Brian Vaughan
Vaughan Landscaping
802.482.4228
PROGRAM COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
South Forty Nursery
802.425.6222
RESEARCH & AWARDS
COMMITTEE CHAIR
VJ Comai
South Forty Nursery
802.425.6222
VERMONT CERTIFIED HORTICULTURIST
COMMITTEE
Claybrook Griffith
Long Leaf Landscaping, LLC
802.999.4558
board of directors

For information on
Advertising
in The Dirt
contact
Kristina at the
Green Works Office
888.518.6484
6
With a two year hiatus of putting on the Vermont Flower Show,
we were set to open the doors to the 2013 Vermont Flower
Show on March 1-3, 2013 held at the Champlain Valley Expo.
The Flower Show Committees had spent countless hours
organizing and planning our signature event over the past 18
months – you could feel the excitement in the air! The theme
for this year’s show, The Road Not Taken, was a true inspiration
to all who worked on the show, as well as the public who
attended. The weather was in our favor as we entertained a
crowd of some 9,000 people over the three days.
Our secret formula to ensure success is the fact that we have so
many wonderful people who participate in bringing the show
to fruition. Association members, master gardeners, students,
and community members – literally hundreds of volunteers –
commit themselves for 3 ½ days to build a masterpiece. Others
help staff the event during the three days we are open and
then finally an amazing “clean up crew” shows up to help
break everything down. It is like magic – the venue is broom
clean by Monday at noon. Association members and
supporters donate almost all the plant material, provide labor,
trucks, tools, gasoline, expertise – you name it. We also have
very generous cash sponsors that help us defray expenses.
Please take the time to read through the list of people who
donated items/plants as well as the list of cash sponsors on
page 8. We could not continue to produce the Flower Show
without their help.
I would also like to acknowledge the Flower Show Committees.
This core group of people continue to be the motivation and
inspiration which brings the show to life. They give up
numerous hours of their own time, often taking away from their
own businesses and home life, to meet monthly, coordinate
donations, send so many emails, and basically see to all the
aspects and details of the show. And believe me, there are
many! In particular, the central display co-chairs, Melita Bass,
Ed Burke, and Claybrook Griffith, deserve so many thanks and
recognition for pulling together a team that embodies
collaboration. The Flower Show is collaboration at it’s best, is
what makes our show like no other in the U.S., and is a true
testament to what a group of people can accomplish. We are
also very lucky to have Alison Johnson and the staff from
Delaney Meeting & Event Management who help organize the
facility, vendors and the many detail in between during the 18
months we prepare for this show. Their hard work and expertise
also contribute to our show a success.
We had many students involved with the show this year.
Students from the Natural Resources Department at the Center
for Technology at Essex grew a multitude of sod for the display;
students from the UVM Hort Club helped set up multiple days/
evenings; students from the Building Technology Department at
the Center for Technology at Essex built the Robert Frost Cabin
and Viewing Platform; and students at Vermont Technical
College helped grow the animal topiaries used in the central
display. Students at Northland Job Corps were instrumental in
helping hang trees, close to 200, as well as helping with set up.
They were also instrumental in clean and brought their chipper
to help with those efforts. See the separate article on these
students on page 9.
When the doors open and the public enters it makes it all worth
it and reinforces why Green Works continues to produce this
show. With 9,000 people attending we can spread the
“horticultural” word as well as educate and inspire. We offer a
precursor to Spring – the sites and smells unfold before their
eyes. One of the best aspects of our show is that it appeals to
all ages – there is really something for everyone. In three short
days we greet so many visitors and get to talk about plants,
gardening, landscaping, bark mulch, insects, cooking, worms,
and so much more!
Here are some highlights of the show in case you were unable
to be there.
The Central Display, with the theme, The Road Not Taken,
offered a variety of places to be. The entrance, the Yellow
Wood, offered a road through a quiet woodland filled with
daffodils. The road continued on the the Urban Block and
Graffiti Wall which illustrated producing food on a micro scale,
creating gardens in tiny spaces, as well as an alleyway with
plants bursting through the rubble. The graffiti wall was a true
work of art!
Next, the road led you to the Robert Frost Cabin. Students from
the Center for Technology, Essex - Building Technology visited
the real cabin in Ripton, VT and built an amazing replica. With
smoke coming out of the chimney, it was a step back in time.
Recordings of Robert Frost himself reciting his poetry were
playing and when you peeked into the cabin you half
expected to see him sitting in his chair. The students held a
raffle for the cabin during the show, which helped recoup some
of the building costs as well as support their program.
The road then meandered on and led to a magnificent dry
stone sculpture created by the Show’s Featured Artist, Dan
Snow of Dan Snow Stoneworks, LLC. Dan is a renowned
stoneworker from Dummerston, VT. and was assisted by a group
of stone wallers certified by the Dry Stone Walling Association of
Great Britain. It was a true masterpiece and collaborative
effort by Jamie Masefield, Charley MacMartin, Jared Flynn,
Dave Fielder, Brian Post, and T.J. Mora. You can see more of
Dan’s beautiful work at www.dansnowstoneworks.com.
The road continued on through a Homestead, complete with a
front porch, chicken tractors (and chickens!), and vegetables
growing. The Orchard came next - a beautiful sight! Green
grass was lush underneath with a life sized deer grazing under
the apples (yes it was a topiary deer!). On the way out you
could climb up to the Viewing Platform, built by the Essex Tech
students, to get a complete view of the display from a
completely different angle.
As if that alone is not enough, there were many other areas of
the show to peruse. We had 96 vendors participate this year -
which is a record! Vendors offered products and services that
related to plants, gardening, landscaping, composting, and
much more. We were pleased to offer the first ever “Vermont
Specialty Food Room” with vendors selling their VT products.
Dr. Leonard Perry organized over 40 seminars and workshops,
the road not taken - The 2013 Vermont Flower Show
by Kristina MacKulin
continued on page 7
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Dear Green Works,
This is long overdue! Your 2013 VT Flower Show
was the tops! ‘The Road Not Taken’ was fantastic
- can’t imagine the energy it took putting it on.
Thank you all, I have fond memories.
Kaley Wallace
which we offered over the three days, with our Friday
featured speaker, Dan Snow, and keynote speaker,
Stephanie Cohen, The Perennial Diva, on Saturday and
Sunday. The seminars were almost all at capacity. The
Federated Garden Club of Vermont held a National
Garden Club Standard Flower Show, open to all garden
club members as well as a special division for students and
the general public. The arrangements and plant
specimens were spectacular! Once again, the Vermont
Garden Railway Society joined us again with a landscaped
train display that delighted all ages.
Cooking demonstrations, back by popular demand, and
organized by committee member David Loysen were again
well attended. Chefs from Mary’s Restaurant, The Essex,
King Arthur Flour, Crop Bistro & Brewery, and Michael’s on
the HIll were inspiring and the food samples were delicious!
Dr. Leonard Perry organized our first ever Student Essay
Contest. This contest was held state-wide and open to
students ages 6-18. We had 66 entries. There were three
age groups awarded first, second, and third place cash
prizes. The prompt for the contest was “Describe your road
not taken . . . ”. Essays were on display at the show and
you can view the winning names on the Green Works
website by navigating to the the Flower Show pages.
Essays had to be 250 words or less. This was an exciting
addition to this year’s show.
The very popular Family Room was filled to the gills with kids
and parents creating necklaces, planting seeds, digging for
worms, and watching some awesome entertainment
provided by Tom Verner, Magicians Without Borders,
DoubleTree by Hilton presented “Share Your Care for the
Planet”, milk, cookies and seed planting, Robert Resnik and
Gigi Weisman, and No Strings Marionettes. And of course,
hat making was at it’s best with a wide array of “floral” hats
being created by kids and adults!
Lastly, the silent and basket auctions, organized by Mary
Sullivan Cliver and her husband Blaine, were held all three
days of the show and raked in some funds we put towards
Association educational programming.
I have just given you a “snapshot” of what the 2013 Vermont
Flower Show had to offer this year. If you have not had a
chance to attend a show put it on your list for 2015!
However, the real joy and satisfaction of the show is
participating in it, listening to the public and watching their
faces. I invite you to attend the 2015 show as well as
participate! New committee members are always
welcome and even if you just have a couple hours to give
during set-up - it is the group effort that makes our show so
wonderful.
Meanwhile, the talk has already turned to 2015 and we will
be looking to secure dates for our next show soon. In the
meantime, we have a couple growing “seasons” to work
through, all the while dreaming up what comes next!

continued from page 6
A note we received in the mail:
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Talks were inspiring at the New England
Grows trade show held at Boston’s
Convention Center Feb. 6-7.
Richard Hawke of the Chicago Botanic
Garden spoke about new perennials for
the Northeast which are grown in varying
sites at the CBG Trial Gardens in
Glencoe, IL, and tested for adaptability,
winter hardiness, disease and pest
resistance, and ornamental value for at
least four years. Plants successfully
trialled go into the display gardens
around the campus.
Horticultural staff at CBG Trial Gardens
have been studying new coneflower
introductions (along with cultivars of
cranesbill geranium, meadow rue, and
false indigo) . Hawke’s handout listed 32
new coneflower cultivars as top
performers however some have only
been under observation for two years.
I have grown the dark orange
‘Sundown’ (‘Evan Saul’) and ‘Summer
Sky’ (‘Katie Saul’) with success in a mixed
planting with Shasta daisy
‘Becky’ (Leucanthemum x superbum
‘Becky’) and Helenium ‘Mardi Gras.’
Another new top performing coneflower
on Hawke’s list is E. ‘Flame Thrower’
which sounds like a good plant for
energizing a dull border!
Coneflowers, false indigo, and alumroot
(Heuchera spp.) are under intense
cultivation with new colors introduced
every season but are dependable for
massing in color blocks, very useful
where soils are poor, with good foliage
that stays interesting three seasons of the
year. Taprooted false indigo can also
help stabilize a slope.
Roy Diblik, co-owner of Northwind
Perennial Farm in Wisconsin, showed
examples of the Lurie Garden at
Chicago’s Millenium Park (next door to
the Chicago Art Institute) which was
designed by Dutch plantsman Piet
Oudolf. This public garden resembles a
large meadow and is crossed by
boardwalks; ribbons and swirls of grass
and sedge push up through masses of
wildflowers.
Showing photos of some of the Midwest
landscapes he’s designed, Diblik pointed
out the value of using a matrix scheme
for planting in blocks to allow repetition
and flow, with the goal of letting
everything blend to block light from the
ground, ultimately eliminating the need
to mulch and weed.
Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis,
zones 3-9) a native grass that grows 2-3’
tall, is drought tolerant and makes a
good lawn alternative especially on
slopes. In garden settings it looks
particularly good with purple stemmed
salvia (Salvia nemerosa ‘Caradonna’)
and the long blooming ‘Blue Hill’ sage.
Last spring I visited Monticello and the
new Jefferson Visitor Center and Smith
Education complex in Charlottesville, VA.
This LEED Gold complex was designed by
Baltimore architects Ayers Saint Gross
and features an impressive landscape
Designing with Native Plants
by Charlotte Albers
Thank you to our Flower
Show Sponsors!!!
continued on page 27
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Students from the Northland Job Corps School in Vergennes
made a significant contribution to the success of the 2013
Vermont Flower Show providing an estimated 400 plus hours
of labor during the three-day set-up and Monday morning
cleanup of the central display. About twenty students from
the Urban Forestry program led by Jeremy Riemersma and
David Gross joined an army of VNLA members and Master
Gardeners in the building of the central display. The truth is,
we couldn’t have done it without them.

This group of young men constructed hundreds of tree
stands, unloaded trucks, shoveled mulch, moved pallets of
stone, and helped in the planting of more than 10,000 bulbs. I
found them to be focused, enthusiastic, and reliable in
completing whatever tasks they were instructed to do. As the
construction progressed they seemed to be inspired by the
positive energy around them and took great pride in their
contribution to the finished display. On Monday morning they
returned fully equipped to chip and dispose of the hundreds
of plants that had been removed from the building.

The Northland Job Corps Center is a no-cost education and
career technical training program administered by the U.S
Department of Labor that helps young people ages 16
through 24 improve the quality of their lives through career
technical and academic training. Students from all over the
northeast choose the Job Corps program as a place to
complete their high school diploma or GED and receive
training in a variety of career fields that will help them to
secure employment in the current job market. The center
helps to place students in jobs following their completion of
the program.

Many of our member businesses struggle annually to find
good help in our seasonal industry. I strongly encourage you
to consider looking into hiring a Job Corps graduate for the
upcoming season. The young men that I met at the Flower
Show may choose to stay in the area upon completion of
their training and would likely prove to be reliable employees
if given the opportunity and some positive mentoring. You
can contact the Northland Job Corps Center at 100A
MacDonough Drive, Vergennes, VT. 05491 or call (802)
877-2922.

Northland Job Corps Students
Contribute to Flower Show Success
by VJ Comai
After reading VJ’s plea for help to grow our memberships,
it became obvious were it not for this organization, I
wouldn’t have been introduced to Doug Tallamy, much
less so moved by his presentation at the annual meeting
in February. Nor would I have begun to question things
like, why don’t those garden centers open till we’re ready
in May? Mr. Parson’s article on Pussy Willows last issue
made me think. Professor Tallamy’s words have changed
the way I look, feel and listen to my surroundings. I’ve
learned from The Dirt, Green Works and especially from
everyone behind this organization. For that, I thank you.
So why do we wait with wonder and excitement for the
most obvious signs of life to ‘spring’ up telling us it’s time?!
Business, sure, but habit plays a big part, and just because
it has been, doesn’t mean it should be. There’s always
something to learn from, look at, wonder and admire
about plants. Nature has her way of winding up and
winding down, pacing herself but never stopping. So why
do we so abruptly close up shop and work like mad to
open up again only because the calendar says to? It’s a
funny thing, habit, I mean I get that nature doesn’t run a
business, so her model is quite different, but if we could do
our part to tap into it, maybe we’d learn a thing or two, or
maybe at the very least, lend a helping hand. Hey, we do
actually benefit from it after all.
Which leads me to why I wanted to share in the interests
of Tallamy’s words. I can honestly say he changed the
way I look at my surroundings. I like to think I’ve always
been acutely aware, or at least attentive to them. Now I
see nature in a new light, one that’s looking for help and a
little giving back. I truly believe that’s something we are
all capable. I also believe we are at the forefront of this
movement toward preservation. It’s not a new one, but
one that bears constant reminding, even for those of us
who act as stewards of our land. The more we become
aware of what goes on to make our life cycle forward, the
more we appreciate those little things we call bugs. The
more we see not just look at butterflies, bees, insects,
birds, you name it, we notice more, we listen more and
we appreciate more. They all play an important role in
helping us play ours. Let’s give ‘em a little nudge.
Ashley Robinson is a Green Works member and landscape
designer in Charlotte, VT.
Learning to see, not just look
by: Ashley Robinson
the Northland Job Corp “Crew”
10
PAGE 9
THE DI RT VOLUME 35, I SSUE 2
Pleasant View Gardens receives record-setting
grant -- Pleasant View Gardens in Loudon, NH has
earned a half-million dollar renewable energy grant to
power its biomass burner efforts, which has drastically
diminished its dependency on oil. This new system has a
potential 85 percent cut in heating costs. The biomass
burner, which is fueled by wood chips, will cut oil use to
zero. For more information, visit www.pwpvg.com.
Educational Resource -- UMass Extension has released
its Massachusetts Nursery Best Management Practices
(BMP) Handbook. To access this, and other helpful
industry information you can visit http://
www.umassgreeninfo.org/fact_sheets/plantculture.html.
Emanuel "Manny" Shemin passed away on January 28,
2009. He was 78 years old and suffered from
leukemia. Mr. Shemin is the founder of Shemin
Nurseries, Inc. and was credited with pioneering the
landscape distribution model. Shemin Nurseries now has
30 distribution centers across the United States. Mr.
Shemin also founded an organic seed company in Israel—
Genesis Seeds, Ltd. Donations in Mr. Shemin’s name can
be made to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer
Center Leukemia Program at Johns Hopkins.

Gary Vermeer, founder of Vermeer Corporation,
passed away at age 90 February 2, 2009. Gary and a
cousin started the business in 1948 after inventing a
wagon hoist five years earlier, which made it easier to
unload corn. Demand for the labor-saving device led to
opening Vermeer Manufacturing Company. Vermeer
Manufacturing Company has grown into an international
organization that manufactures agricultural, construction,
environmental and industrial equipment.
Ken Lagerquist -- Rhode Island Nursery & Landscape
Association (RINLA) Executive Director, NENA Past
President, and great green industry friend -- passed away
on March 25, 2009 surrounded by his family. Many of the
VNLA board members and myself got to know Ken over
these last few years at NENA leadership meetings. He
was always quick to say hello, shake your hand, and talk
about the green industry.

Ken founded Evergreen Tree & Landscape, a business he
ran for many years before retiring. Ken was very active in
his town and his church, and was past-president of both
RINLA and NENA. Ken was the beloved Executive
Director of RINLA from 1991 until 2009 and was
(Continued on page 12)
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11
The Green Works, VNLA winter
meeting was held for the
second year at the Davis
Center at the University of
Vermont on February 13
th
.
About 180 people attended
the daylong event, our largest
ever for our annual meeting.
The morning began with our
annual business meeting.
During the business meeting
Industry Awards were
presented to several of our
members for their landscape
projects in three different
categories. A complete listing
of recipients is available on our
web site as well as in the winter
edition of The Dirt.
In addition to these awards,
Julie Rebaud of Red Wagon Plants in Hinesburg was named as
our first ever Retailer of the Year. Claussen’s Florist and
Greenhouses was presented with Green Works Environmental
Awareness Award, Brian Vaughan of Vaughan Landscaping
was named the NENA Young Nursery Professional of the Year,
and Don and Lela Avery of
Cady’s Falls Nursery received
Green Works prestigious
Horticultural Achievement
Award. The UVM student merit
award was given to John Bruce.
David Loysen of Shaw Hill
Nursery, who served as VNLA
treasurer for several years, was
nominated and unanimously
approved by membership vote
to be recognized as an
Honorary Member beginning in
2014.
Sarah Holland of River’s Bend
Garden Design and Hannah
Decker of Fairfax Perennials
were elected to two-year terms
on the VNLA board of directors
to replace departing board members Dan Redondo and Chris
Thompson. We are most grateful for their years of service.
The business meeting also included a review and discussion of
the budget and an overview of the Flower Show before ending
Green Works Winter Meeting Draws Record Turnout
by VJ Comai
continued on page 16
Member Judith Irven has her book signed by Doug Tallamy,
keynote speaker and author of Bringing Nature Home.
12
Miller Hill Farm, founded in
the late 1700s by the Miller
family, overlooks the
western slopes of the
Green Mountains from its
location along the Otter
Creek 15 miles south of
Middlebury in the town of
Sudbury, Vermont.
In the early years, the farm
was a producer of
charcoal, then cattle and
corn and in the last years
of the twentieth century,
the hillsides were covered
with sheep. In its latest
incarnation, Miller Hill Farm
has been operated as a
small wholesale nursery
specializing in locally sourced and grown native trees,
shrubs and herbaceous plants.
Here at Miller Hill Farm we believe the time has come to
recognize native plants as the standard in landscape
design. By using native plants as the foundation of our
landscaping and then placing selected proven exotics
into this frame we will achieve a greater balance with
the environment.
Having gained experience on our family’s nursery and
from other growing operations over the years, we set out
to begin growing native stock from seed and cuttings
here on our 185-acre farm along the Otter Creek in
Sudbury. Among other shade trees all grown in root
pruning containers above and below ground, our
selection of oaks now runs
from 1 gallon to 3 inch
caliper.
After years of wholesale only,
we have broken new ground
with a garden shop, an
expanded variety of shrubs
and perennials, and lots of
paint. When this spring
arrives we plan to open to
the general public for the
first time. We hope you can
come visit us! For complete
information on the nursery
you can also visit
www.millerhillfarmvt.com.
new member profile - Miller Hill Farm - Native Nursery,
by Carl Phelps
Oak Seedlings - hand watered!
Miller Hill Farm
Miller Hill Farm - potted Oaks.
13
14
Charlie Proutt is a tree man. In fact, he is a nurseryman. Owner
of Horsford Nursery on Route 7 in Charlotte, Proutt knows well
the suite of benefits that trees bring to communities and
believes it is important to connect youth with trees in order to
foster future tree stewards. Twenty years ago, this belief
motivated him to approach the principal at Charlotte Central
School with an idea for a school-wide Arbor Day celebration.
National Arbor Day, founded in 1872 in Nebraska by J. Sterling
Morton, is celebrated on the last Friday of April, though many
states, municipalities, and organizations have their own Arbor
Day celebrations on alternate dates. Vermont celebrates Arbor
Day on the first Friday in May. Proutt remembers past Arbor Day
celebrations in Burlington when he would send three foremen
to help supervise big volunteer tree planting events. Now, he
spends his Arbor Days at Charlotte Central.
Here is how the celebration goes: it is a Friday afternoon and
all 420 students in the school’s 22 pre-k-8
th
grade classrooms
congregate outside on the hill next to the school. Charlotte
Central’s co-principals, Greg Marino and Audrey Boutaugh,
present an overview on the value of trees and then Proutt
takes the stage. Each year, Horsford Nursery donates two trees
to Charlotte Central School and a couple of students from
each grade are chosen to maintain the school’s existing trees
as well as plant the new ones. Proutt poses a series of riddles,
jokes, and questions about trees to the students to determine
the crew. While the tree crews are hard at work planting,
mulching, and fertilizing, the rest of the school continues with
the celebration, which varies from plays to songs to tree
dedications. Twenty years of this annual event have provided
the school with 40 trees, cleaner air for the students, a lot more
shade under which to play, and an annual event rich in
tradition and meaning for the Charlotte Central community.
Principal Marino says that Arbor Day is a really great tradition
for the school and one that they hope to keep going for years
to come.
In addition to the environmental and energy-saving benefits
additional trees can provide, Proutt says that one of the best
parts of the Arbor Day event is its perennial nature; students
that leave Charlotte Central after 8
th
grade grow in tandem
with the trees that they helped to plant in kindergarten. As a
long-term commitment, a school-wide Arbor Day celebration
can foster a lifelong and tangible connection to trees. This is a
concept that Proutt would like to see spread to other schools in
Vermont, and so several years ago he began collaborating
with Vermont’s Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation to
develop the Greening Schools on Arbor Day Program.
Now in its fifth year, the Greening Schools on Arbor Day
Program offers a free large shade or ornamental tree to ten
schools in Addison or Chittenden Counties. Participating
schools must agree to plant the tree on Vermont’s Arbor Day
(this year that date is Friday, May 3
rd
) as part of a school-wide
Arbor Day celebration. The school must also agree to pick up
the tree from the nursery and to maintain it once it has been
planted. All trees for the program are donated by Horsford
Nursery, which has been in business since 1883 and has been
Horsford’s Nursery Pays it Forward with a
Gift of Trees to Local Schools
By Elise Schadler, VT Urban & Community Forestry Program
owned and run by Charlie Proutt and Eileen Schilling since
1985. The nursery spans 42 acres and grows 90% of the plants
they sell either from bare root liners, cuttings, seeds, or root
division.
To learn more about the Greening Schools on Arbor Day
Program, visit the State’s Urban and Community Forestry
webpage at: http://www.vtfpr.org/urban/arbor.cfm.

Have you or your business considered how you can pay it
forward and pass on the understanding and appreciation for
the work you do? Charlie’s example of providing trees for
Arbor Day school celebrations is a simple act that will pay
back for years to come. It will not only enhance school
grounds in the region, but also grow our next generation of
tree stewards.
For more information about Horsford Nursery visit http://
www.horsfordnursery.com/
15
Spring is a time of anticipation as well as dread for me--
dread of all the end-of-semester meetings and grading.
The latter is especially heavy this year, with a record 130
students in my 5 CE courses. The anticipation is of all this
being done, with time then to devote to flower trials and
research. You can view a powerpoint overview online of
the summary I gave of our current floriculture research at
the Tri-state Nursery meeting in March in Portsmouth, NH.
(http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/pertrials12.pdf). Included there is
a summary with a few sample photos of Annie White's
pollinator research on native perennials and nativars, and
her new website where she'll be posting future results and
other useful information(pollinatorgardens.org). Related to
the research overview, is my listing of coneflowers and their
ratings from this past year-- the first year of trials for most of
them (perrysperennials.info/VTechinacea12.pdf).
As in the past, we'll have our annual display garden of All-
America selections at the Burlington Waterfront, made
possible as always through collaboration with Burlington
Parks and Recreation, and support from you through Green
Works. Thanks! You can view past results online of which
flowers we had each year (usually 100 or more different
ones), which rated the best and still going strong at the end
of summer, plus bed photos. (perrysperennials.info/
aaswp.html)
This spring I'll be rating plants from my winter controlled
freezing studies. With pots in freezers, controlled to specific
temperatures, I continue to look at hardiness of individual
perennials, as well as factors affecting hardiness. This past
winter, on the latter, I looked at deacclimation of both
'Becky' shasta daisy and 'Route 66' coreopsis. Plants were
exposed to either the baseline 40 degrees (F) as the
control, or 1, 3, or 5 days of 60-65 degrees during day and
back to 40 at night. They were then frozen to our usual
temperatures of 28, 23, 18, 12, or 7 degrees (F) before being
placed back into the cool greenhouse. Other perennials
merely dropped to these various temperatures, both in
early January and late February, were Ozark bluestars
(Amsonia hubrichtii, the 2011 Perennial Plant of the Year),
'Redshift' coreopsis (one of the recent Big Bang series from
Darrell Probst), 'Lucky Star' coneflower, PowWow Wild Berry
coneflower (a recent All-America Selection), 'Arizona
Apricot' gaillardia, 'Filigran' Russian sage, Crown of Gold
evening primrose, and 'Joanna Reed' catmint.
In 2012 I began a trial site for a National Ornamental Grass
trials, with 17 sites nationwide all testing several plants each
of 17 switchgrass (Panicum) cultivars and 5 little bluestem
(Schizachyrium). Due to the small size of many plugs, per
our usual trial procedures, here they were potted shortly
after receipt into Jumbo square pots, ProMix medium with
Osmocote 16-11-11 incorporated at 3.6oz. per cu.ft. (6lb.
per cu.yd). Weak or poorly-
rooted plugs were first planted
into 4-inch squares, then when
sufficiently rooted shifted into the
Jumbo pots. Plants were grown
in a nursery area throughout the
summer, with planting delayed
until early September due to an
unusually dry and hot summer for
this climate. Due to trial beds
being unable to be watered
often or easily, plants would have suffered or died if
planted this past summer, plus all plants were not sufficiently
and equally rooted until then.
The trial site is a full sun, rocky loam of low fertility (formerly a
fallow grass field). At planting, 2 cups of local compost and
slow-release 5-3-4 (one tbsp) were mixed with backfill soil.
Plants were watered in, with little subsequent watering
needed due to rain. No additional compost or fertilizer
applications are planned for this coming season.
Soil and air temperatures are being recorded continually
on hour intervals. With little snow cover during some quite
cold periods this winter, this winter should be an excellent
test winter for hardiness (with some replacements
expected). Although the site is listed in USDA 4b, this is the
first winter over the past decade it has not reached -20F air
(missing by one degree on one day, 3 degrees off on
another), making this a zone 5 winter at my trial site. Yet one
week later the air temperature peaked at 54F, a 73 degree
range from the coldest point days earlier. Due to lack of
snow cover during some of the colder periods, bare soil
temperatures reached 23F for several days-- the coldest in
the 20+ years I have been recording such. However, with
only 2 inches of snow (as was on the grass trial bed,
usually), soil temperatures only dropped to 27-29F, but
remained there for up to 3-day periods, again the coldest
such soil temperatures I've recorded in the past 10 or so
years.
Switching to the 2013 Flower Show, now a semi-distant
memory, I thought you might be interested in some
evaluation results from the seminars. As always, it was my
pleasure to help the show by coordinating these. Over the
3 days, an estimated 562 unique individuals attended
educational sessions, attending an average 4.3 sessions per
individual. This is a similar number of sessions per person to
the past two conferences (held on alternate years), and up
from the average of 440 unique individuals attending talks.
Specifically, 53% attended 1-3 talks, 10% attended 4-6, and
28% attended 7 or more talks. Participants rated talks either
good or excellent (100% combined), with an overall rating
of the speakers of 3.7/4 (with 3 being good and 4 being
news from the U
by Dr. Leonard Perry - UVM Extension Horticulturist
News from the U—Dr. Leonard Perry
PAGE 12 THE DI RT VOLUME 35, I SSUE 2
Summer is a great time at universities if you like it quiet
with no meetings, and ability to park even with the much
reduced spaces due to construction! I'm spending much
time outside with perennials, building stock for next year's
freezing studies, working on field trials (currently 190
different plants), and accumulating coralbells (Heuchera)
for both field and freezing studies funded this past year by
the NH Plant Growers Endowment. I"m currently up to
about 60 cultivars of coralbells, including very new
introductions and new villosa hybrids which some growers
question their hardiness (as they are from France), hence
this study. I'll keep you posted here and on my website
(perrysperennials.info) of this and other research your
association has helped fund. Data is collected, I'm just
waiting for some rainy days to get it written up.
We once again planted about 100 varieties of annuals at the
All-America Selections Display Garden at Burlington's
Waterfront Park the first week of June, thanks again to
help and collaboration with Burlington Parks and
Recreation. This is the garden that we won a national AAS
award for this past year. As in previous years, I'll be
posting the plant listing and ratings at the end of the
summer on my website. Here also you can find lists and
results from the past several years. This year my assistant
Sarah Kingsley Richards and I think we have some great
combinations put together, with a focus on about 20
different petunias (near the boathouse), several new coleus
and several new sweet potato vines. One of my favorites
and perhaps most unusual is the new Pretty Much Picasso
petunia, violet purple with a lime green rim. Another
outstanding new and unusual selection is the mealycup
sage Salvia Sallyfun Blue Emotion, tall, blue florets with
white eyes.
This year's AAS garden features about 50% plants from
Pleasant View Gardens (Proven Winners and Selections
and trials), about 40% from DS Cole Growers, and about
10% from seed (All-America Selections and others). I hope
you get to see these gardens if in Burlington (at the foot of
College St. by the ECHO center and boathouse), not only for
the plants, but as the beds are planned to be different next
year. Due to planned construction and road reconfiguration
beginning after Labor Day this year, the main two front
beds will disappear forever, with a new front bed planned
closer to the boathouse in the grassy area.
On campus, the good news is that thanks to federal
stimulus money, the state greatly reduced cuts to UVM and
Extension. Coupled with support from the college, no
on-campus Extension faculty member (to my
knowledge) was cut this coming fiscal year. However once
this money runs out in a couple years, we may be back to
round two of big budget cuts.
So if opportunities arise in your future to support Extension
with your legislators or even UVM administration, it can
surely help. Our new plant science building (Jeffords Hall)
is now enclosed, with connection underway to the UVM
greenhouse. We are still scheduled to move in next
summer. In our department, our fairly recent faculty
member Sarah Lovell will be returning home to take a
similar position in landscape architecture at the University
of Illinois, so her design courses will be taught by yet un-
known person this next year, with a new search hopefully
in our future. Main research at the Hort Farm now
includes two projects of Dr. Lorraine Berkett-- a USDA
funded large project (recently refunded and highly rated) on
organic apple production (the reason many of the crabap-
ples were cut down in order to reduce scab and other
diseases) with full details online
(http://www.uvm.edu/~organica/), and the third year of
trials on hardy grape varieties (http://pss.uvm.edu/grape/).
Submitted by Leonard Perry
instrumental in the development of the Learning Landscape
Project at URI. In 2008, he was recognized for his many
contributions to the green industry and received the
prestigious honor of being one of the first to be inducted into
the RINLA Hall of Fame. He was also inducted into the
Rhode Island Agricultural Hall of Fame.

Donations in Ken's memory may be made to The Kenneth
Lagerquist - RINLA Horticultural Scholarship, URI
Foundation Acct ED99, 79 Upper College Road, Kingston,
RI, 02881.

Scott Pfister, former VT State Pathologist and Green
Works supporter has left his position in June at the
Vermont Forest Protection Department. Scott has taken a
position with USDA-APHIS in Washington, DC and will be
coordinating the USDA’s programs for the Asian longhorned
beetle, emerald ash borer, and firewood pest mitigation. We
will miss him and wish him and his family well.
(Continued from page 9)
continued on page 16
16
excellent), similar to and consistent with
previous shows.
A majority of participants (83% or 466) had
been to a previous flower show, consistent with
the past 3-show average of 85%. From
information from talks in past shows (organized
similarly to this one), and as a result of
information learned there, 64% or 360 had
changed their gardening practices
(compared to the 3-show average of 59%),
60% or 338 had begun to use more
environmentally friendly gardening techniques
(compared to 3-show average of 66%), 53% or
298 had used less pesticides and practiced
IPM, and 62% or 348 had purchased new or
appropriate plants for their sites. In the
previous shows, an average 68% had grown
new plants and varieties.
A separate market survey of participants at
the show with my grad student Grace Matiru,
on 2012 lawn and garden spending habits,
found that on average participants surveyed
spent an average $300 per person over the
past year on plants. Specifically, 85%
purchased vegetable garden plants and
herbs with an average spent of $82 per
person; 48% purchased fruit plants with an
average spent per person of $145; 88%
purchased ornamental plants with an
average spent per person of $178. We'll have
more results in future newsletters.
Finally, if you can spare a day off July 8, and
need a break or some inspiration, check out
the Montreal tour I'm excited to be working on
again with your association as sponsor.
(pss.uvm.edu/ppp/mbgm13an.pdf) Not only
will we see the gardens, BUT also the
International Mosaicultures Competition at the
gardens. This began in 2000 in Montreal by the
waterfront, only happens around the world
every 3 years, and this year is returning to
Montreal. Over 200 garden artists from many
countries are expected to enter at least 40 of
these larger-than-life sculptures, all made of
growing plants (in media, compared to
topiaries which are vining plants trained onto
frames). Note that Green Works members
receive a discount on registration, deadline of
June 21, so I hope to see you on this tour.
News from the U
continued from page 15
to allow attendees time to visit our
vendors.
Following the brief recess, the group
reconvened for the keynote address
given by Doug Tallamy. Doug is the
author of Bringing Nature Home and is a
professor and chair of the
department of entomology
and wildlife ecology at the
University of Delaware in
Newark, Delaware. His
research has focused on
gaining a better
understanding of the many
ways that insects interact
with plants and how these
interactions determine the diversity of animal
communities. His message was delivered
simply and effectively and captivated the
audience, resulting in a question and answer
session and discussions among VNLA
members that continued throughout the
day. Many commented that his address was
one of the best they had heard at a VNLA
meeting and that his message would have a
significant affect on how
they would approach
their work in the future.
In the afternoon, winners
of the Industry awards
gave brief presentations
on their award winning
landscape projects. Other
presentations included an
update on plant diseases
and their control by Ann
Hazelrigg of the UVM plant
diagnostic clinic and a
seminar on the use of
social media in marketing
by a representative from
Constant Contact.
VNLA members who were
present at the
meeting found it to
be a day filled with
valuable
presentations and
overwhelmingly
expressed their desire
to hold the meeting
at the UVM Davis
Center again in 2014.

2012 Industry Award Winners: front row - Marie
Limoge, Tricia King, and Sarah Stradtner; back row:
Jack Rossi and Caroline Dudek.
Top: Brian Vaughan receives NENA Young Nursery
Professional of the Year Award. Middle: Julie
Rubaud receives Green Works 2012 Retailer of the
Year Award. Bottom: John Bruce of UVM receives
Green Work’s student merit award.
Green Works Winter Meeting
continued from page 11
17
P.O. Box 92
N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473
18
Green Works/VNLA provided research grant dollars in
2012 and 2013 for a research project on the brown
marmorated stink bug. Below is a report regarding the
research conducted in 2012.
Insect -killing Fungi: An Eco-Friendly Solution to the
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: The Continued Threat to
Vermont’s Landscape Industry.
A report of our Progress to the Vermont Nursery and
Landscape Association.
January 14, 2013.
Submitted by: Bruce L. Parker,
Margaret Skinner, Svetlana Gouli
& Vladimir Gouli,
The University of Vermont
Entomology Research Laboratory,
661 Spear Street
Burlington, VT 05405-010,
Tel: 802-656-5440, Fax:
802-656-5441 Email:
bparker@uvm.edu
.
The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug,
Halyomorpha halys (BMSB) (Fig. 1),
continues to cause widespread
damage throughout many states in
New England, and in the South and
Midwest. Their distribution is expanding
across Vermont, though populations
are well below damaging levels (Fig. 2).
Though populations are a bit higher in
New Hampshire, they are more widely
distributed in Vermont than the other
two nearby states. Given its rapid
spread across the Eastern states,
Vermonters can expect the incidence
to rise in the future years. That is why
we are testing effective products now
to find environmentally sound solutions.
Insect-killing fungi represent a viable option for
manageing BMSB. They specifically attack and kill
insects, NOT plants or mammals. Our research has shown
that the Beauveria bassiana isolate (GHA) found in the
commercial product Botanigard
®
has a high level of
virulence against BMSB (V. Gouli et al. 2012). When GHA
(B. bassiana) was sprayed on BMSB adults, 100%
mortality was obtained within 9 days. This work showed
the potential of insect-killing fungi for use against BMSB,
but it is essential to know the effect of this fungus on the
nymphal stage. Funding from the VNLA has allowed us
to start that assessment.
Research Objective: Assess efficacy of several
commercial fungal formulations against the nymphal
(immature) stage of the BMSB.
Methods. BMSB nymphs were obtained from field-
collected adults, reared in the laboratory on green
beans and allowed to lay
eggs. Lab tests were
conducted on the 2
nd
stage
nymphs. Five treatments
were tested (Table 1). The
treatments were applied to
the insects with a hand
atomizer and allowed to dry.
They were transferred to
plastic containers held at
25°C. Nymphs were
inspected every 3 days after
treatment for 12 days to
determine the number of live
and dead BMSB. The trial will
be repeated 3 times.
Results to date. A clear
effect was observed among
the stinkbug nymphs treated
with the fungal preparations. Mortality was faster and
greater among those treated with the Botanigard ES
than the Botanigard WP formulation (Fig. 3). Significant
mortality was observed in the Botanigard ES formulation
within 3 days of application, whereas mortality in the
Botanigard WP formulation showed a slower response
rate. By Day 12, mortality was significantly higher in both
of the two fungal treatments than the controls. Unlike last
year, mortality among the untreated and control insects
was not a problem for this series of tests. We developed
a different chamber in which to hold the insects after
treatment which reduced natural mortality among the
Research Report from UVM Entomology Research Lab -
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
Table 1. List of treatments for laboratory tests with BMSB Table 1. List of treatments for laboratory tests with BMSB Table 1. List of treatments for laboratory tests with BMSB Table 1. List of treatments for laboratory tests with BMSB
Trt
#
Trade Name Fungal species/Active ingredient Concentration
1
BotaniGard
®
WPBeauveria bassiana
7 x 10
7
2
BotaniGard
®
ES Beauveria bassiana
7 x 10
7
3 ES Carrier
Control
ES carrier for Botanigard
®
ES without
the fungus
Not applicable
4
Water Water only, no fungus or carrier
Not applicable
5
Control blank No treatment
Not applicable
continued on page 19
19
untreated insects. We also found that feeding them on
green beans was more effective than apples.
Outreach activities associated with this project.
1. Poster at the Champlain Valley Exposition,
August 27 – September 5, 2012
2. Ongoing interactions with the public to identify
suspect specimens. Several people who
contacted us had picked up information from
the Champlain Valley Exposition.
Future plans.
We have made good progress on developing effective
lab testing methods to assess the effectiveness of
fungal-based products against BMSB. However, there
are other commercial fungal-based products that need
to be evaluated to more completely understand the
potential of fungi for managing BMSB. We seek funds
from the VNLA to continue this work. We also need to
assess the efficacy of fungi against the other immature
life stages, including the eggs and the late nymphal
stages.
What has this project achieved with support by the
VNLA?

Research was done to assess the effectiveness of
commercial fungal-based products to manage a
pest likely to plague Vermont growers in the future.
Initial results are promising.

Outreach activities were continued to spread the
word about the insect and the potential for
biological control.
 
continued from page 18
20
Everybody has their own phenologies, their own timing
of spring. First day the snow shovels get put away
(unused in my driveway all last winter, I might add), first
day of working without long johns on, or maybe the first
day of wearing shorts. I've always dreamed as a
horticulturist of keeping a journal, tracking of events
throughout the years such as first frost, peepers in the
pond, first robin at the feeder.
One of my harbingers of spring is the opening of
forsythia. It's a plant I grew up with in our backyard, and
the bright yellow flowers, more than anything else, speak
spring to my weary winter frame. After arriving to work
last year, I saw the 'Vermont Sun' Forsythia in bloom next
to the service building parking lot earlier than ever. I first
wrote about this hedge of Forsythia when in bloom on
April 13, 2009, and wrote about it again in 2010 when it
way 11 days earlier in bloom, on April 4. The bloom date
last year was March 20. I heard peepers in my pond the
day before, the 19th of March, a blog post on them in
2010 was April 2.
Phenology, not brought to you by the letter "F", comes
from the greek phaino, meaning to show or appear. It's
the study of recurring life cycles of what is around us, the
timing of insects, plants, mammals, and the relationship
of time to weather and climate. There is even a USA
National Phenology Network (http://www.usanpn.org/) ,
using volunteers across the nation to study these
cycles. A great example is the Cloned Plants Project, a
partnership with the aforementioned USANPN and the
National Weather Service, where clones of either a lilac
or flowering dogwood are planted in an observer's yard
and bloom times noted throughout the years.
Obviously, this is wonderful data for global warming.
More inputs than air temperature factor into when trees
leaf out in the spring. Daylength certainly plays a part, as
well as moisture conditions the previous fall, and amount
of cold temperatures in the winter. But air temperature is
the biggie. A study of oak leaf emergence in
England (http://www.ecn.ac.uk/iccuk/indicators/
25.htm) since 1947 has indicated that a 1 degree rise in
global temperature is associated with a 7 day earlier
tree leafing. This is called Season Creep,
and scientists point to this as one of the first effects of
global warming that we can actually see in the present,
with most of the other detrimental effects taking place in
the future.
So where does this put us right now? I've been getting
many questions on if this early spring will hurt the trees or
landscape, and the best answer isn't cut and dry. The
worry is a late frost or freeze after the buds have
opened, or shoots emerged from the ground. Short
answer? The plants will be fine. Trees losing their first set
of leaves can regrow new ones from secondary buds.
Like beer on a work night, it isn't something to make a
habit of, but once in a while it isn't going to hurt
anything. And bulbs and perennials emerging from the
ground know just when it is safe to come out-a frost
never seems to bother them.
The impact of a freeze will be bad for us humans. For
example, apples bloom before the leaves emerge, so
should they bloom and get pollinated, a late freeze will
destroy most of the crop for the year. There are no
secondary buds for flowers.
The mild and early spring will cause other problems as
well. Those suffering from allergies are miserable all the
sooner. And the short, mild winter did nothing to mitigate
the deer tick population, so extra care should be taken.
If you are interested in tracking the spring and summer
phenologically, I can't speak highly enough of
the UMass Landscape Message (http://
extension.umass.edu/landscape/landscape-message),
posted weekly.
Phenology and Spring
by Tim Parsons
Fairfax Perennial Farm Inc.
WHOLESALE PERENNIAL GROWERS
Growing a large variety of quality,
Vermont grown plants.
7 Blackberry Hill Road ~ Fairfax, VT 05454
perennialfarm@surfglobal.net
802-849-2775 ~ 849-2630 FAX
21
Once seen...never forgotten
A plant with enormous leaves hovered over the pond at
Chartwell, Sir Winston Churchill’s home in Kent, England.
More than twenty years has passed, but I can recall that
plant as if I saw it yesterday. It was a Gunnera (most
probably Gunnera manicata which is sometimes called the
Giant Rhubarb) and at the time I really coveted it.
However, Gunnera is only hardy to Zone 7---no good for my
Zone 4 Vermont garden---and if our climate was warmer it
can be invasive.
But I can and do grow big-leaved plants in my Vermont
garden!
Plants with huge leaves may not suit the timid, but for the
adventurous gardener they deliver texture, punch and
drama. And, unlike flowering perennials that put on their
display for perhaps a month, bold leaved plants will be a
presence in the garden all season.  
We are all familiar with hostas, and plant hybridists have
obliged our desire for foliage plants by creating hundreds
of hosta cultivars in a dizzying array of sizes and leaf
patterns...and a few, like Hosta ‘Sum and Substance’,
certainly produce extremely large leaves.

Most big-leaved plants are typically associated with the
humidity and low light of a rain forest, where their leaf size
allows them to gather more light for photosynthesis. But
there are several large leaved beauties other than hostas
that will thrive in Vermont’s climate.
Here I will focus on four of the largest players that also
behave well in a garden setting---no thugs like Petasites
please--- and how to combine them with contrasting
companions to create beautiful, long-lasting garden
pictures.
While not native to our region, none of these four have
invasive tendencies in the northeast. (However Ligularia is
listed as invasive in Maryland and Darmera in the
southwest…something we all need to watch as our climate
changes).
Astilboides tabularis
In my garden the prize for the largest leaves goes to
Astilboides tabularis, a plant that hails from Korea and
Northern China. Its flat floating discs are more than two feet
in diameter and supported, slightly angled, on relatively
short stubby stems. Thus the overall height of the leaves is
only about 30 inches, making them excellent companions
for low growing plants.
Astilboides appreciates consistent moisture and partial
shade. Also be sure to choose a sheltered spot for these
plants, as gusty winds will rip the leaves to shreds. I grow
Astilboides strictly for its leaves. Its small plumed flowers
seem to pop up as an afterthought on 5 foot stems, way
above the leaves, and I usually cut them down in short
order.
For a lovely pairing of opposites, try positioning some
Astilboides near the fringed bleeding heart, Dicentra
eximia, with its delicate leaves and pink flowers, or the
Japanese Painted Fern Athyrium niponicum var. pictum ,
with its finely-textured gray tinted leaves.
Darmera
peltatum
Visitors to my
garden
always admire
the umbrella
plant, Darmera
peltatum,
which
originates in
northern
California and
Oregon. Each
twenty-inch
leaf rides solo
at the top of the tall straight stem---hence its common
name 'umbrella plant'. And the center of the leaf forms a
Big Divas: Great leaves bring texture, punch,
and drama to the garden
by: Judith Irven
The delicate texture of Dicentra exima is a lovely foil for the
huge Astilboides leaves in Judith’s garden.
A large clump of Darmera makes a bold
statement in a moist section of Judith’s garden.
continued on page 23
22
I am not the most technologically advanced person in
the world and when my wife surprised me with a new
Ipad for Christmas I looked at it and had no idea how to
use it. After figuring out how to use an apple product (I
have a pc at home) I started searching for Applications
(Apps). I quickly learned the value of Apps on an Ipad,
especially when you can take and download a picture.
The first App I found is called Landscaper's Companion.
This is a comprehensive plant guide where you can
create your own list of favorites or commonly used
plants in your business. Each plant comes with a
detailed decription, images, cultural requirements
including: zone, light, water, size and growth rate. I
often have clients that have no idea what a plant looks
like and within seconds I can show them on site while I
am holding my Ipad.
The second App I discovered is named Iscape. This
application was probably designed for homeowners
that want to design their own landscapes. The beauty
of this product is I can take a photo of any landscape,
house, yard and do a 3D design on-site. You can drag
plants and objects such as walkways, stone walls and
put place them on the saved photos. I see utilizing this
app as an on site selling tool to clients as I often have
clients say “what is it going to look like, I cannot visualize
it”. This product is not all inclusive so I would not use it to
create a finished design but I think it is well worth the
investment.
The third application I searched was Garden Designer.
This app is for designing in 2D mode and you can drag
and place objects onto the design. I anticipate using
this app in the early stages of the design process to
move plants and objects around freely before the final
design. Again this app is not all inclusive and I would
not use it to create a finished design instead as a
landscape design tool.
If you currently own an Ipad I would encourage you to
try these applications. Each app only cost around $10
which seems like a minimal cost if it can land you some
landscaping jobs. I also want to mention there are
some great free apps you can download such as Plant
Pictures and FlowerSnap. We live in a world where
people want information quickly and these products
can deliver this to your clients in minutes.
The Power of APPS
by Brian Vaughan, Vaughan’s Landscaping
23
little hollow which intriguingly holds a small a puddle of
water where the occasional bird will take a sip.
Darmera grows best where it will get constant moisture and
dappled shade. About ten years ago I started out with a
single plant. I chose a spot behind our gazebo where the
rain running off the roof provides that little bit of extra
moisture and a small crabapple tree casts some shade.
Over the years, it has rewarded me by expanding as a single
clump which is now about 7 feet across, and with the leaves
over five feet high. It's still growing strong, but for all its size, it
is well behaved, with no running roots in a garden setting. I
pair it with Artemesia ‘Guizhou’ for a stunning impact.
Rodgersia aesculifolia
The crinkled palmate leaves of Rodger's Flower, Rodgersia
aesculifolia are different and delightful. Their overall
diameter is over 12 inches, and they are reminiscent of the
leaves of a horse
chestnut tree---thus
the name. The leaf
stalks come directly
from the base of
the clump, giving
the plant a sturdy
grounded look and
a pleasing sense of
presence in the
garden. The
flowers----attractive
creamy plumes that
arise in late spring
and last a long
time---also
contribute to the
overall effect.
Like Astilboides,
Rodger's Flower
originates in Northern
China, and it too
needs moisture to do
well. Under really wet conditions, such as at the edge of a
pond, a single plant will grow over five feet wide, and
eventually naturalize via spreading rhizomes. However, in
normal garden situations I have not found it to be overly
aggressive.
There are other Rodgeresia species, especially R. podophylla
and R.pinnata, which offer bronzy leaves. However they are
somewhat more expansionist spreaders, and I would suggest
avoiding them for a client’s garden.
Ligularia dentata
My fourth choice goes to the striking rounded foliage of
Ligularia dentata, another plant coming to us from China. 
Ligularia dentata also puts on a prolific display of yellow
daisy-like flowers in early fall, and the progeny from my one
original plant have created a large colony in a difficult spot
under the cherry tree on the north side of our house.
However it is neither weedy nor difficult to keep in bounds.
Three cultivars worth seeking out for the coloration of their
leaves are L. ‘Desdemona’ or the very similar L. ‘Othello’,
and L. ‘Britt-Marie Crawford’, which has leaves that are
described as chocolate colored.
Like other plants with good-sized leaves, Ligularia grows well
in the shade, where it will produce larger leaves, and is far
less prone to the ravages of voracious grasshoppers. Moist--
but not wet--- soil is also a plus.
Plant a picture…using big leaves in the garden
Great leaves provide an architectural presence to your
overall composition and, against each month’s changing
parade of flowers, they go along way to spice up the
garden all season long. Here are three suggestions for using
them successfully:

The best companions complement---but never
compete---with the stars. So pair big leaves with
their textural opposites such as astilbes and ferns.

Especially in moist conditions, big leaved plants
need room to expand, so be sure to allocate
adequate space for them in your initial design.

Consider the overall scale of the garden you are
creating--- a plant like Darmera, which grows both
wide and tall, will prove overwhelming in a tiny
space. Astilboides, on the other hand is shorter and I
have used it to very good effect in a small garden.
Judith Irven is a Green Works member and a landscape
designer, garden writer and speaker, as well as a Vermont
Certified Horticulturist. Her website
www.northcountryreflections.com is devoted to her garden
writings.
Darmera creates a great contrast  to some Artemesia ‘Guihzo” and
late season daylilies in Judith’s garden.
Rodgersia against to a carpet of Lamium
on a recent Garden Conversancy Tour.
continued from page 21
24
Volunteers, state and federal staff team up to survey for EAB
Finding an early infestation of the Emerald Ash Borer is much like
searching for a needle in a haystack—so many trees, far too
many places to hide, such a small insect.  Yet, Johnetta B. Cole
reminds us that “Faced with what seems like an impossible task,
a group of folks will do well to remember the African proverb:
When spider webs unite they can tie up a lion.”
Vermont’s cooperative EAB survey project is aptly named.  In
2012 alone over 100 volunteers and staff employed by four
different state and federal agencies teamed up to survey for
the Emerald Ash Borer.   The Emerald Ash Borer is an insect that
was introduced to the U.S. from Asia in 2002.  It attacks all
species of ash native to North America and has led to the death
of millions of ash trees from Michigan, where it was first
introduced, to New York.    If we can find EAB early we have
many more management options available to slow its spread
and preserve specimen trees.   Staff and volunteers used a
broad array of techniques to search Vermont’s trees and woods
for EAB—visual surveys, biosurveillance, girdled trap trees and
purple prism traps. 
One technique favored by staff and volunteers alike involves
chasing wasps (yes you read that correctly) as a way to survey
for EAB.  Biosurveillance—watching the predatory wasp,
Cerceris fumipennis, and collecting the prey that the female
brings back to her nest, is currently a promising way to monitor
for EAB. In fact, in Connecticut volunteers identified an initial
infestation of EAB by wasp watching.  To feed her young, the
female wasp stocks her nest with buprestid beetles, including
EAB, when present.  Between July and August volunteers and
staff with The Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation
surveyed over 50 sites in 11 Vermont counties and collected
Cerceris prey in 24 of those sites in 9 Vermont counties.  Little
Tree, a volunteer Forest Pest First Detector, reflected, “You have
to appreciate the beauty of a wasp being able to help us
detect one of the emerald ash borers that’s there.” (Rosenholm,
2012).
By now, many of you have seen the purple traps hanging in
trees along roadways.  While ideas abound as to what they are
—portals to the 4th dimension, a way for Fish and Wildlife to
mark fish stocking areas, or modern art, these panel s are
loaded with a lure and sticky substance to trap EAB.  A total of
1195 purple prism traps were set throughout Vermont in 2012
following a protocol set forth by the U.S. Forest Service.  The
USDA-APHIS team set 85 traps in Washington County, the VT
Agency of Agriculture set 90 traps in Chittenden and Grand Isle
Counties, and a contractor set 1020 traps in the remaining 11
counties.  In the five years Vermont has participated in the
National EAB Survey it has always been a challenge to find the
‘perfect’ ash tree in the’ right’ spot to set an EAB trap. This year,
using the new protocol, the sites were predetermined so finding
the ‘right’ spot was easier; finding a suitable ash or even one
ash within the one kilometer block the Forest Service assigned
still remained challenging.  While state and federal staff are
responsible for this survey method citizens have been critical in
reporting downed and missed traps.
And yet another cool tool in the EAB detection kit involves
girdled ash trees.  Several studies conducted by Michigan State
University and USDA Forest Service scientists since 2003 have
shown that EAB beetles are attracted to stressed ash trees and
tend to lay more eggs on stressed trees than on healthy trees. 
Girdled trees, called trap trees, are currently used for EAB
detection and survey in many states.  Girdling, or removing a
band of bark and phloem around the trunk of a tree, interrupts
the ability of the tree to transport carbohydrates – the food
needed by the tree. Girdled trees become increasingly stressed
over the summer. As stress increases, the chemicals emitted from
the foliage, bark or
wood of the tree
change. Beetles can
detect these
changes and are
often more attracted
to the stressed trees
than to surrounding or
nearby ash trees.  In
2012, the Department
of Forests, Parks &
Recreation, with help
from 16 volunteers,
girdled a total of 20
ash trees in 19 towns. 
A total of 145 three
foot ash log sections
were peeled in
December by
volunteer First
Detectors and staff
from Forests and
Parks, Agency of
Agriculture, USDA
APHIS, and UVM. 
Finally, the easiest
way to look out for
forest pests is to look
up.  Visual surveys
were conducted across the state—from Highgate to Woodford,
by staff, volunteer First Detectors and even middle school
students from Essex Junction who went door to door surveying
trees in their neighbors’ backyards.  A number of First Detectors
also helped state staff respond to calls from concerned
community members, such as one woman who noticed sick ash
while strolling down Kennedy Ave in S. Burlington.
In 2012, all of the traps, nests, and trees turned up empty for
EAB.  Yet the state remains vigilant.  As Helen Keller said, “Alone
we can do so little; together we can do so much.”   
Take action by: Know the pests, Stop the spread, Look up and
Get involved!
NOTICE: EAB found in New Hampshire. The VT Agency of
Agriculture, in a press release on April 10, indicated EAB was
recently found in an ash tree located near Interstate 93 in
Concord, NH.
It Takes a Village to Find the Emerald Ash Borer
by Caitlin Cusack (reprinted w/permission)
Volunteers make an impact!

New Cerceris nest sites were found,
including four in Bennington County,
where none had previously been
located.

Some volunteers celebrated their
fourth year of wasp watching!

Volunteers have become wonderful
advocates for the program and have
persuaded others to become involved
or to seek additional information about
EAB detection.

Volunteer efforts have enabled us to
continue adding to our knowledge of
Cerceris wasp biology and behavior, as
well as to document the variety of
buprestids they collect.

We’re learning more about other
ground-dwelling wasps, their prey and
their predators.

The focus on early EAB detection has
become more widespread as volunteers
learn more and become more engaged
and comfortable in survey and
outreach efforts.

To become a First Detector contact
Caitlin Cusack, UVM Extension, at
802.656.7746.
25
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26
Gardeners, and especially Vermont ones, seem to like to
share maxims. Like "Don't like the weather? Wait 5 minutes."
My Nebraska wife said she'd heard that one out there too,
so don't go thinking that our weather is stranger in the
Green Mountains. The one I was thinking of a couple of
days ago was on Japanese Beetles, and their annual
appearance on the Fourth of July.
It held true this past year, at least in my yard, with a small
collection of them on some wild grape leaves. They're a
particularly nasty little pest, as their voracious appetite can
seemingly eat anything in their path. In reality, though, they
favor certain plants above all others, but it would be a
dreary yard indeed if you didn't have at least one plant
they found tasty.
Japanese Beetles were introduced in August of 1916 in the
Henry A. Dreer, Inc. Nurseries, about 2 1/2 miles east of
Riverton, New Jersey. Closed in 1944, this very famous
nursery owned the very first plant patent, the New Dawn
Rose, a climber still in production today. Rutgers and the
U.S. Department of Agriculture made a valiant effort to
control the spread of the beetle, including attempting to
keep sprayed a half mile
radius of land around the
point of discovery with
Arsenate of Lead. The
beetles turned out to be
strong fliers, and would
quickly fly to un-sprayed
foliage. Control efforts
moved to containment,
but the Beetle was too
strong for that as well. By
1920 the beetle occupied
50 square miles of New
Jersey, 213 square miles in
1921, and by 1925 was
over 500 square miles.
(Read about the
complete battle at
the Rutgers Department
of Entomology.)
Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, are very recognizable
and familiar to many of us working outside. It's bronze
colored back is a dead give-away, with a metallic green
body. Harder to identify, but equally destructive, is its larval
phase, a white grub in prolific in lawns almost 2 inches long.
The grubs are strong feeders of turf roots, but most people
complain about the turf damage caused by raccoons and
other creatures digging for a fast grub meal.
Excerpt from UVM Extension EL 37: Japanese Beetles by by
G.R. Nielsen, Former Extension Entomologist, Plant and Soil
Science Department
Life Cycle: Adult Japanese beetles appear on the foliage
and flowers of favored host plants about July 1 in Vermont.
Unlike May and June beetles, they fly only in the daytime.
They are very active on warm, sunny days over a 6- to 8-
week period. The female beetles lay their eggs in the soil.
The larvae or grubs feed extensively on the roots into
the fall. After passing the winter in an earthen cell at
depths of 4 to 8 inches below the surface, the grubs
resume root feeding in the spring. Pupation takes
place during June in the soil near the surface.
Control:
Natural: Extremely dry weather during summer
destroys many of the eggs and kills newly hatched
grubs. Wet summers are favorable for their
development and are usually followed by seasons of
increased numbers of beetles. Parasitic insects, birds
(especially starlings), moles, skunks, and occasionally
raccoons also feed on Japanese beetle grubs.
Japanese beetles and grubs are subject to several
diseases. The most important is known as milky
disease. It kills grubs after causing their normally clear
blood to become milky in appearance. The milky
disease spores live in the soil for long periods, ready to
infect and kill successive broods of Japanese beetle
grubs as they move about in the soil, feeding on plant
roots. The disease is harmless to human beings,
warmblooded animals, other insects, and plants.
Milky spore disease does not work well under conditions of
cool, wet, heavy soils (common to much of Vermont). Milky
spore powder is available commercially. Infected grubs are
incorporated into dust mixtures that can be spread over
lawns and other infested areas to kill healthy grubs.
Japanese Beetles
by Tim Parsons & UVM Extension Excerpt
continued on page 27
27
June 6, 2013
Green Works Summer Twilight
Champlain Valley Landscaping
Azalea/Rhododendron Tour
www.greenworksvermont.org
June 19, 2013
Green Works Summer Twilight
Wetland Plants Exploration by Canoe/Kayak
Winona Lake, Bristol, VT
(rain date June 26, 2013)
www.greenworksvermont.org
July 8, 2013
Montreal Botanic Gardens and Mosaicultures Tour
sponsored by Green Works & UVM Extension
Contact: leonard.perry@uvm.edu
Registration deadline: 6/21/13
July 13-16, 2013
OFA Short Course
Greater Columbus Convention Center
Columbus, OH
www.ofa.org
July 21-27, 2013
Perennial Plant Symposium
Vancouver, British Columbia
614.771.8431
www.perennialplant.org/events
August 15, 2013
Green Works Summer Twilight
Arcana Gardens & Greenhouses Tour
www.greenworksvermont.org
Industry Calendar
design with mass plantings of fothergilla (Fothergilla spp.),
summersweet (Clethra spp.), and oakleaf hydrangea
(Hydrangea quercifolia) lining the entrance to the Visitor Center.
These shrubs are all outstanding choices for landscape use in our
area, and while summersweet is late to leaf out, its adaptability
to wet soils, fragrant flowers, and yellow color make it one of my
favorites.
Finally, the long awaited New Native Plant Garden at the New
York Botanical Garden, designed by Oehme van Sweden
landscape architects, is opening next month with a dedication
on May 3. This garden has been years in the making. That one of
our greatest (and oldest) public gardens has invested millions of
dollars in the design and execution of such a space is a
testament to the importance of this flora.
I hope to visit this summer and look forward to seeing what’s on
display.
Charlotte Albers is a Green Works member and owns Paintbox
Garden, a landscape consulting business in Shelburne and writes
about gardening in the Northeast for HOUZZ.
Treatments are most effective when they are made on a
community-wide basis. Do not use on areas treated with
insecticides.
Mechanical: Japanese beetles can be hand picked and
destroyed if not too numerous. Attractants and traps are
available for trapping these beetles. These methods may
provide satisfactory control in some gardens. Trapping is more
satisfactory for surveying beetle presence than controlling
them. Extensive larval and adult damage may occur within 10
to 20 feet of traps collecting many beetles.
Cultural: Good horticultural practices, including watering and
fertilizing, will reduce the damage caused by these
beetles. Plant corn to avoid silking out during period of adult
beetle activity. Destroy favored weed hosts.
Chemical: Larvae in turf: You can protect lawns, golf courses,
and ungrazed grassy areas from Japanese beetle grub injury
by applying insecticide granules or sprays. For best results,
apply treatments in late summer and water grass thoroughly
with 2 inch of water after application. Annual treatment may
be necessary. Contact your local lawn and garden dealer or
local Extension office for current chemical recommendations.
Adults on Plants: Most foliage and flowers can be protected
by spraying or dusting with insecticides. But insecticides will
not fully protect roses, which unfold too fast and are
especially attractive to beetles. When beetles are most
abundant on roses, nip the buds and spray the bushes to
protect the leaves. When the beetles become scarce, let the
bushes bloom again. Timeliness and thoroughness of
application are very important. Begin treatment as soon as
beetles appear, before damage is done. Use insecticides only
on plants for which they are indicated.
Hazard to Honeybees: Many dusts or sprays are highly toxic to
honeybees. If application of these materials to plants is
necessary during the bloom period, do not apply during hours
when bees are visiting the flowers. If larger than yard and
garden plantings are to be treated, you may need to contact
nearby beekeepers in advance so that they can protect their
colonies.
continued from page 8
August 20, 2013
Green Work Summer Meeting & Trade Show
Shelburne Farms
Shelburne, VT
www.greenworksvermont.org
September 16, 2013
Montreal Botanic Gardens Tour
sponsored by Green Works & UVM Extension
Contact: leonard.perry@uvm.edu
continued from page 26
28
PO Box 92
North Ferrisburgh, VT 05473
visit us at www.greenworksvermont.org