Population Change Quiz – here are my answers!!!!
1) What are meant by the terms birth rate and fertility rate? And why is infant mortality a good indicator of a country’s level of development? Birth rate is the number of live births per 100 population Fertility rate is the number of live births per 1000 women between the ages of 15 and 49 OR the average number of children each woman in the population would bear. 2) Give three reasons why a national census is useful to a country. Population planning – it can be the only way to paint a true picture of population including migration Government Planning – to maximize the efficiency of resource allocation e.g. health and education Future Revenues and Costs – what are future tax revenues and social costs going to be 3) Explain how traditions and changes in education can affect birth rates. Some religions/cultures perceive large families as a status symbol Many societies place a much greater emphasis on having a male heir Education can improve a woman’s ability to choose; this may be a choice to use available contraception, a decision to remain in full time education, to enter into a paid profession. All these choices will affect birth rates. 4) What is the under “2.1 club”? 2.1 refers to the fertility rate of 2.1 which is seen as the “replacement rate” where a population in an MEDC is maintained. According to the UN there will be 88 MEDC’s in the club by 2016 5) Suggest how each of a) economic development and b) disease influences death rates. Economic development increases the resource wealth of a country. More efficient use of its own resources will lead to greater wealth generation. Greater wealth within the country should give its population greater access to medical supplies e.g. vaccines but also it should improve things such as education levels and sanitation which all will assist in reducing death rates. Disease rates vary. Any increase in disease will lead to an increase in death rates. Particularly if the country is impoverished and medical supplies are limited. Many countries have
persistently high incidences of disease (particular those borne in water) and this one factor alone accounts for much of the high death rates seen there.
6) Draw an annotated diagram of the Demographic Transition model. Stage 1 High Fluctuating
High BR and DR
Stage 2 Early Expanding
Falling DR High BR
Stage 3 Late Expanding
Falling BR Dr still Lower
Stage 4 Low Fluctuating
Low BR and DR
Stage 5 decline
Low Dr falling BR
Can you draw the BR, DR and total population lines? Why do countries move through the stages? 7) Give three reasons why the DTM may be useful and three reasons why its use may be of limited value. Positives Negatives Basic starting point for demographic studies The original model did not include a fifth stage (let alone a six / seventh Universal concept all countries can be placed Based on evidence from Europe (Eurocentric) somewhere No time scale Does not include the role of government planning Facilitates asy comparison between nations Migration is not accounted for (think impact on recent immigration on UK birth rate) 8) Distinguish between forced and voluntary migration. According to the text book: “Forced migration is where a migrant moves because of circumstances …….and a voluntary migrant makes the decision to move”. I would go on to say that a forced migrant may been facing a real of perceived threat to their health or wellbeing (war, famine, intolerance, injustice, forced resettlement) 9) Explain why the numbers of refugees and asylum seekers have increased in recent years. Volatile situations in certain areas of the world e.g. Iraq and Afghanistan Increased environmental pressures e.g. the Sahel or Lake Chad Possibly as a response to an increase in legal restrictions on international migration. NB international migration has increased as a whole. Take care not to confuse Asylum Seekers with International Migrants as a whole. Pages 158 to 161 in your Core text 10) Define the term “population structure.” The composition of a population according to age groups and gender. It is shown by a population pyramid
Population Change Quiz – here are my answers!!!!
1) Give three characteristics of the UK population structure. Large proportion of people over 80 – wider apex Low motality rates - relatively straight sides (column shaped with some bulges) Baby Boom in their late 30’s – high birth rates in 1960’s and 70’s Also slight bulge showing post war baby boom Tapering at the base showing declining birth rates 2) Identify three trends in the UK population structure between now and 2050. Population projections show that by 2021 the number of people aged over 80 will reach 3 million (5%), whilst the number of those under 16 will fall.
3) Outline three challenges faced by a country with an aging population.
Increasing costs associated (remember cost savings in young care) e.g. health costs (bed blocking, rehabilitation, prescription costs) social coast (sheltered housing) welfare costs (pensions, transport, other benefits, re-training) All this at a time when the size of tax paying workforce (and therefore revenues) may be shrinking in proportion to the aging population
4) Outline three challenges faced by a country with a youthful population.
Costs associated with childbirth and post natal care, vaccinations, education and nursery places. The future demand for job creation and housing.
5) How does outward migration affect the population of an area? Costs can be classified as social, economic. Particular example of migration may have different effects both benefits and costs Consult pages 172 to 173 of your core text and be aware of the costs and benefits of your migration case studies 6) How does inward migration affect the population of an area? See above 7) What have been the impacts of economic migration on an area you have studied? Write about Poland to UK, alternatively Mexico to USA or Asia to Dubai. Remember to write about both the source and destination countries
8) Define both underpopulation and overpopulation.
Underpopulation is where the number of people living in an area is insufficient to allow the most efficient use of resources with a given level of technology. Characterised by high wages, low unemployment. Over population is the opposite. Remember optimum population is where the GDP per capita is maximized BUT it is a dynamic concept – this means that both the available resources and level of technology is constantly changing.
9) In context of population and resources summerise the views of Malthus, Boserup and
Lomborg. This is potentially a big question. (Read pages 178 to 180in your core text) Remember in simple terms Malthus – 1798 – pessimistic view – based on agricultural economy – land is the main resource – population growth will outstrip any increase in food production – will restrict population growth Increasing weight given to neo Malthusians by rising food prices, predictions of imminent water shortages and environmental meltdown Boserup – 1965 – Danish lady economist – technology can change any limits placed on food production by the environment – the pressure of population growth has been a driving factor on technological advances – particularly within agriculture. Lomborg – Danish Economist – famous for the book Skeptical Environmentalist – states that imbalances between resources and population and resources are local – often not caused by population growth but by inefficient government, conflicts or poverty. Free trade and economic development would help – after all a lot of the world consumes too much food
10) What is meant by unsustainable development? In order for development to be sustainable it must be economically sustainable, environmentally sustainable and socially sustainable. If any of these factors is itself compromised by the development in such a way as to adversely affect the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is unsustainable.
Population Change Quiz – you need the answers first!!!!
1) Distinguish between economic sustainability and environmental sustainability. To be economically sustainable levels of wealth must be maintainable without resorting to financing through unpayable debt or exhausting raw materials to such an extent everything becomes too expensive. To be environmentally sustainable the economic activities undertaken by any society must not be adversely damaging the ecological balance to such an extent that it will hinder that same society in the future.
2) Describe the policies used in on case study example to successfully control population.
China is the obvious one here and the policies there have had success in reducing the growth in China. Mauritius achieved success through education and family planning whilst at the same time industrial development and agricultural reform enabled the country to cope with a larger population.
3) What were the main features of a case study you have studied where migration was
successfully controlled? Difficult question: the term “successfully” is a subjective one. Was the policy successful in the host country or in the source country or in both? One obvious one would be Indonesian transmigration – CORE TEXT & PowerPoint Even with this example text have been criticisms of the policies aims and results Immigration into Dubai is strictly managed and no doubt the country has benefited for very cheap imported labour particularly in the construction sector. Though the policy is vigorously enforced and the migrant workers themselves are treated poorly at times. Germany benefited form widespread immigration from the guest workers that helped rebuild it. Many might argue social tensions were created that ma y still exist. You might want to argue that Polish immigration to the UK has been successful. In this case the policy adopted by the UK was a liberal one. Placing no restrictions and simply requiring a registration.
4) What is Agenda 21? The 21 refers to the 21st Century.It is UN devised scheme which aims to promote sustainability. It states that it is individuals not governments that undertake development so therefore it is a local issue. In the UK it is very much driven by local authorities who seek to promote things such as recycling and energy efficiencies
5) Suggest three ways in which the demands of Agenda 21 can be met.
Recycling precious resources tat will reduce the need for new resources and save energy. Encourage greater efforts to reduce economies dependency on fossil fuels e.g. renewable energy provision and energy savings. Stricter governance on pollution to maintain water quality and conserve habitats Drive to more efficient public transport. (useful to give examples for each!!! E.g Manchester Metro, tax on landfill, 6) Outline three consequences for rural areas in the UK where population is declining. Those that remain are often elderly who may rely on basic welfare. Empty houses are bought up as second homes which will lead to empty settlements outside tourist seasons. Deprivation may set in. Isolation is common as transport services are reduced and services close.
7) Outline three consequences for rural areas in the UK where population is growing. Increased congestion as many incomers are commuters and rely heavily on cars. The villages may become dormitory sites where little happens during the day. Tensions between established residents and those that are new arrivals. The demand for housing may lead to new estates that not affordable to those in the village. Loss of rural identity. 8) In general, how many services in a rural area have changed for the better following population change? I feel this is a misleading question. Very few services would have changes as a result of depopulation in remote areas. A better question would seek a candidate to maybe state ho services may have been affected for the worse and then offer ways in which efforts have been made to combat this. The table on page 189 in your CORE text is good for this
9) For one small scale area you have studied, describe how the population changes in the area have affected both housing and services provision. You could link this to Hulme, recent changes in population can include Rising number of single occupancy households Increase in non white ethnic groups (international immigration from LEDC’s) Increasing incidence of single parent households. Relatively high percentage of under 16’s Increasing differences in life expectancy and high incidences of disease. Increasing disparities in educational achievement. Relatively high levels of unemployment and dependency of welfare. Housing requirements – social housing (particularly smaller units), cheap privately rented for low paid excluded form buying.
Health – targeted spending on reducing diseases associated with poverty (coronary heart disease and lung cancer), Education to combat drug and alcohol addiction.
Education – more quality primary education, greater levels of support for those to who English is an additional language, efforts to retain more young people in training and education after the age of 16. Adult training to help combat high unemployment 10) Give five contrasts between two cases studies you have undertaken of either: an inner city, a suburban area, an area of rural/urban fringe, an area of rural settlement. The census data we looked at was for the Manchester wards of Disidsbury West (suburban) and Hulme (inner city). Amongst other things we noticed; Hulme – rising proportion of non white ethnic population higher percentage of under 16’s rising proportion of those living with low incomes more single parent households relatively high unemployment (decline in traditional manufacturing jobs) low take up of further employment relatively poor health to many areas in Manchester
Didsbury West -
higher % over 70 greater levels of employment in professional occupations high levels of education and school retention greater levels private house ownership higher percentage of over 80’s
We also looked at how service provision (health, education, housing etc) differs in each area. Another way of looking at it is how should government best target resources to reduce welfare problems in each of the areas. We also briefly looked at the city centre of Manchester; Young professionals, single occupancy households, few children, high incomes etc