Higher Order Thinking Skills in Science & Mathematics (HOTsSM

)

BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

2012

Di akhir sesi ini anda akan dapat: • Memahami apa itu HOTs dalam Matematik. • Menerapkan HOTs dalam kalangan murid. • Menyampaikan taklimat berkaitan HOTs kepada

guru-guru lain.

Sesi Taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen: 1) Penerangan & Perbincangan 2) Perbengkelan

Apa itu HOTs dalam Matematik? .

explanation. perform a simple operation.LOWER ORDER THINKING (LOTs) Resnick (1987) Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge to familiar situations and contexts. Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact. Beckman. or proof required. . applying algorithms already familiar to the student. often with no justification. or. & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving tasks where the solution requires applying a well-known algorithm. and where only a single correct answer is possible Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while working in familiar situations and contexts. It does not require the student to work outside the familiar” Senk. or solve a familiar type of problem.

et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no algorithm has been taught. task instruction.” Senk. non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is not a predictable. or a worked out example.” Stein and Lane (1996) describe HOT as “the use of complex. .HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs) Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as “non-algorithmic. Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT involves solving tasks where an algorithm has not been taught or using known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations. where justification or explanation are required. well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task. and where more than one solution may be possible.

evaluating. . and creating.HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs) Higher order thinking skills are normally those skills in the top four levels of the revised Bloom’s taxonomy: applying. analysing.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)
“Higher-order” questions promote learning because these types of questions require students to apply, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts.

HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS (HOTs)

Termasuk pemikiran kritikal, pemikiran kreatif, pemikiran logikal, pemikiran reflektif dan meta-kognitif.

HOTs dicetuskan melalui masalah bukan rutin, masalah yang tidak jelas atau dilema.

Mengapa perlu HOTs dalam Matematik?

reason. and problem solve then we need to start with high-level.Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas. cognitively complex tasks. kreatif dan inovatif bagi memenuhi cabaran abad ke-21 agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia. Stein & Lane 1996 . If we want students to develop the capacity to think.

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Studies TIMSS 2007 Average Achievement in the Mathematics Content and Cognitive Domains Malaysia performed below TIMSS average in both Mathematics Content and Cognitive Domains .

. • Meningkatkan keupayaan murid dalam menyiasat dan meneroka idea matematik memerlukan HOTs. • Konsep matematik dapat dipelajari dengan lebih berkesan melalui HOTs. • Meningkatkan tahap kefahaman • Meningkatkan kemampuan menjustifikasikan penyelesaian dan dapatan.• Berubah ke arah lebih daripada kefahaman asas dan rote memorization.

HOTs DALAM KURIKULUM MATEMATIK • Pernyataan Standard Kurikulum ditulis menggunakan kata kerja mengikut Taksonomi Bloom. Kata Kerja Metaperwakilan • Bagi HP yang menggunakan kata kerja seperti menyatakan dan menerangkan turut menuntut guru menyediakan aktiviti yang menekankan HOTs .

kurangkan chalk and talk. perbanyakkan hands on • Menyoal (ms 4 & 5) • Memotivasi • Mentaksir • Tingkatkan kualiti tugasan yang diberi kepada murid .Bagaimana meningkatkan HOTs? Perlu kepada transformasi dalam PdP: Guru perlu berubah cara: • berfikir • Mengajar .

PELAKSANAAN HOTs MENUNTUT Sikap Positif Pelbagai Pendekatan Pelbagai Perkaitan Engaging Pemikiran Reflektif Peruntukan Masa Non-algorithmic Kritikal & Analitikal Komunikasi Penaakulan & Pembuktian Pelbagai Strategi Membuat & menguji konjektur Penerokaan & Penyiasatan Kefahaman Mendalam Kreatif & Inovatif Bahagian Pembangunan Kurikulum Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia .

PELAKSANAAN HOTs MENUNTUT Guru perlu merancang soalan. Worthwhile and Rich task . tugasan dan aktiviti yang menuntut murid berfikir. berlatih berfikir secara berterusan dan menilai pemikiran mereka dan pemikiran individu lain.

Different levels of response by Robert Sternberg (American Cognitive Psychologist) Teacher should answer children's questions in a way that promotes HOTs. .

" .“ "Because I said so.Level 1: Reject the question Example: "Why do I have to eat my vegetables?" "Don't ask me any more questions.

" "Why is it so cold?" "Because it's 15° outside." "Why is that man acting so crazy?" "Because he's insane.Level 2: Restate or almost restate the question as a response Example: "Why do I have to eat my vegetables?" "Because you have to eat your vegetables." .

" or. .Level 3: Admit ignorance or present information Example: "I don't know. but that's a good question. Give a factual answer to the question.

Level 4: Voice encouragement to seek response through authority Example: “Let's look that up on the internet.” “Let's look that up in the encyclopedia.” “Who do we know that might know the answer to that?” .

or maybe everybody in Holland wears elevator shoes. or…" etc. or maybe it's diet. or consideration of alternative explanations Example: "Why are all the people in Holland so tall?“ "Let's brainstorm some possible answers." "Maybe it's genetics. .Level 5: Encourage brainstorming.

Level 6: Encourage consideration of alternative explanations and a means of evaluating them Example: "Now how are we going to evaluate the possible answer of genetics? Where would we find that information? Information on diet? The number of elevator shoes sold in Holland?” .

make telephone calls.Level 7: Encourage consideration of alternative explanations plus a means of evaluating them. and follow-through on evaluations Example: "Okay. conduct interviews. Then we will get back together next week and evaluate our findings." . let's go find the information for a few days — we'll search through the encyclopedia and the Internet. and other things.

so which level shall the teachers pitched on? . so what? • Teacher should answer children's questions in a way that promotes HOT.Bring a closure to Sternberg.

MENINGKATKAN PEMIKIRAN MATEMATIK MURID (MS 310-311) .

Soalan Bukan Rutin yang memerlukan tahap kognitif yang tinggi dapat membentuk HOTs dalam kalangan murid. .

” . and may have more than one solution.RUTIN BUKAN RUTIN “Problems can be solved using methods familiar to students by replicating previously learned methods in a step-by-step fashion.” Routine problem solving stresses the use of sets of known or prescribed procedures (algorithms) to solve problems” “Problems that require mathematical analysis and reasoning. many non-routine problems can be solved in more than one way.

RUTIN BUKAN RUTIN • Perlunya keseimbangan antara soalan rutin dengan bukan rutin. • Penekanan kepada soalan bukan rutin penting bagi:  Membentuk modal insan yang berfikrah.  Merealisasikan hasrat negara untuk mencapai satu pertiga teratas dalam TIMSS dan PISA. .

Contoh Soalan TIMSS & PISA .

into each box so that this expression has the largest possible total? 5 6 3 9 .CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS Place either + or .

CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS Which circle has approximately the same fraction of its area shaded as the rectangle above? A B C D E .

CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS What is the perimeter of a rectangle whose area is 100 square meters? Answer: .

nombor yang mana berbeza? Mengapa? 23. 15. 25 .CONTOH SOALAN LAIN Antara nombor-nombor berikut. 20.

The Hague . Copyright © 1994 by IEA.CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS Brad wanted to find three consecutive whole numbers that add up to 81. He wrote the equation (n −1)+ n + (n +1) = 81. What does the n stand for? A) The least of the three whole numbers B) The middle whole number C) The greatest of the three whole numbers. TIMSS Population 2 Item Pool (Released Items). D) The difference between the least and the greatest of the three whole numbers.

CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS A car salesman placed this advertisement in the newspaper: “Old and new cars for sale.000. and half would cost more than RM50.000 and RM60. average price RM 50. 22 37 . C) At least one of the cars would cost RM50. which of the following must be true? A) Most of the cars would cost between 68 RM40.000.000. different prices.” From the advertisement.000. D) Some of the cars would cost less than RM 50. 28 Daripada 153 orang pelajar hanya 18% yang menjawab dengan betul.000. B) Half of the cars would cost less than 35 RM50.000.

CONTOH SOALAN TIMSS John and Cathy were told to divide a number by 100. By mistake John multiplied the number by 100 and obtained an answer of 450.045 C.45 D. 0. 4. What was her answer? A. Cathy correctly divided the number by 100.0045 B.5 TIMSS 2003 8th-Grade Mathematics Concepts and Mathematics Items 38 . 0. 0.

2) Nick wants to pave the rectangular patio of his new house. . (b) Describe a method for estimating the area of figure C.CONTOH SOALAN PISA 1) (a) Which of the figures has the largest area? Show your reasoning. Calculate how many bricks Nick needs for the whole patio.00 metres. He needs 81 bricks per square metre.25 metres and width 3. The patio has length 5.

CONTOH SOALAN LAIN Mary claims that you can find the area of any 30-60-90 triangle given the length of only one side. Is Mary correct or not? Justify your answer. .

Berapa kalilah lebih besar luas B berbanding luas A? Segiempat sama A Segiempat sama B .CONTOH SOALAN LAIN Panjang sisi sebuah segiempat sama B adalah empat kali ganda segiempat sama A.

Extra: Can you come up with another method? .CONTOH AKTIVITI Broken Pottery A “sherd” is part of a piece of pottery that one might dig up at an archaeological site where pottery-making people once lived. devise a method for determining the diameter of the original plate. Archaeologists usually want to figure out how big the original piece of pottery was. Using the sherd shown on the right. as that can tell them something about who might have made the piece and when it was made.

CONTOH AKTIVITI Nombor Perdana Bagaimana cikgu mengajar Nombor Perdana? .

FAKTOR BIL.CONTOH AKTIVITI NO. FAKTO R KUMP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 13 . FAKTOR BIL. FAKTO R KUMP Nombor Perdana NO.

6 1. 24 1.4. FAKTO R KUMP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 1.2.3.13 2 B . FAKTOR BIL.14 1.2.5.11 1.2.12 1 2 2 3 2 4 2 4 3 4 2 6 A B B B B 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 1.9 1.7.3.25 4 4 5 2 6 2 6 4 4 2 7 3 B B B B 24 25 13 1.19 1.7 1.2.2.5. 4.2.8.3.8.9.7.3.2.11.CONTOH AKTIVITI NO.2.2.20 1.10.3.17 1.10 1.18 1.23 1.12.5. 2.5. FAKTO R KUMP NO.6.3 1.2 1. Nombor Perdana FAKTOR BIL.6.22 1.8 1.16 1.6.4.3.5 1.4 1.2.4.21 1.15 1.3.

CONTOH AKTIVITI 1) How many one-by-one tiles are required to surround a 5x5 pool? 2) Develop a generalization that predicts the number of tiles required to surround a square pool of any size. 3) Explain how your generalization relates to the size of the pool and the number of border tiles. .

CONTOH AKTIVITI .

Menukarkan Masalah Rutin kepada Masalah Bukan Rutin .

10 sen dan 20 sen? Terangkan jawapan anda? .55 dan sebungkus biskut dengan harga RM1.55 dan sebungkus biskut dengan harga RM1.00 kepada jurujual. Dia memberikan RM4.70.MASALAH RUTIN KEPADA BUKAN RUTIN TUGASAN 1 LOTS Maria membeli sekotak susu dengan harga RM1. Berapakah bilangan syiling yang diterima oleh Maria sekiranya jurujual itu memberikannya beberapa syiling 5 sen. Berapakah jumlah wang yang dibayar oleh Maria? TUGASAN 2 HOTS Maria membeli sekotak susu dengan harga RM1.70.

Cari panjang sebuah segi empat tepat yang mempunyai luas 48 meter persegi dan lebar 6 meter. LOTS . Dia mempunyai 20 meter wayar pagar. 1.MASALAH RUTIN KEPADA BUKAN RUTIN TUGASAN 2 HOTS Mamat ingin membina pagar bagi reban ayam yang berbentuk segi empat. Bentuk manakah yang terbaik? TUGASAN 1 1. 2. Apakah saiz segiempat yang boleh beliau hasilkan? 2. Cari perimeter segi empat tepat yang mempunyai panjang 8 meter dan lebar 17 meter.

lukiskan rajah. terangkan.  Bolehkah sisiempat mengandungi tiga sudut cakah? Sekiranya boleh. terangkan. and 130. Sekiranya tidak. Sekiranya tidak.MASALAH RUTIN KEPADA BUKAN RUTIN SOALAN RUTIN: Satu sisiempat mempunyai sudut-sudut 100. 60. lukiskan rajah. Apakah nilai sudut yang keempat? • Boleh Dikembangkan Kepada:  Bolehkah sisiempat mengandungi empat sudut cakah? Bagaimana anda tahu?  Bolehkah segitiga mengandungi lebih daripada satu sudut cakah? Terangkan. .  Bolehkah sisiempat mengandungi dua sudut cakah? Sekiranya boleh.

MASALAH RUTIN KEPADA BUKAN RUTIN Bundarkan 726 kepada ratus yang terdekat? LOTS HOTS Apakah nombor yang boleh dibundarkan kepada 700? .

• . Menggalakkan lebih daripada satu cara penyelesaian dan strategi. Jawapan dan prosedur yang perlu digunakan tidak serta merta jelas. • • • • • • • • • • SOALAN BUKAN RUTIN Memerlukan tahap pemikiran pada aras tinggi. Berupaya membentuk murid yang kreatif dan inovatif Penyelesaian memerlukan lebih daripada membuat keputusan dan memilih operasi matematik. Terdapat lebih daripada satu jawapan. BUKAN RUTIN SOALAN RUTIN • Tidak memerlukan murid untuk menggunakan kemahiran berfikir pada aras tinggi. Memerlukan masa yang sesuai untuk diselesaikan.MASALAH RUTIN VS. Menggalakkan perbincangan dalam kumpulan dalan mendapatkan penyelesaian. Meningkatkan kemahiran menaakul. Lebih mencabar. Operasi yang perlu digunakan adalah jelas.

Skema Pemarkahan TIMSS & PISA .

SKEMA PEMARKAHAN TIMSS .

SKEMA PEMARKAHAN PISA .

SKEMA PEMARKAHAN PISA .

Tidak semua tugasan sama. Tahap pemikiran di mana murid melibatkan diri akan menentukan tahap pembelajaran mereka. tugasan yang berbeza menggalakkan tahap dan jenis pemikiran yang berbeza. .

2.PERBINCANGAN DALAM KUMPULAN KECIL: Mengembangkan Soalan Rutin(LOTs) Kepada Bukan Rutin(HOTs) 1. Bentukkan kumpulan 2 orang. . Tukarkan soalan rutin yang diberi kepada soalan bukan rutin.

median dan mod bagi data berikut: 15. 1) 825  5 = 2) Cari perimeter bagi rajah dibawah. 37. . 39 4) Cari isi padu kotak yang mempunyai dimensi 4 cm x 2 cm x 8 cm.Kembangkan soalan berikut agar menjadi soalan bukan rutin. 18. 16. 8 cm 3 cm 3) Cari min.

. 3) Find five data values so that the mean is 25 and the median is 18. Explain your answers. If she sold them in packages.CONTOH JAWAPAN 1) Marcella had 825 cupcakes and sold all but 5. 4) Can two different boxes have the same area for the base but different volumes? Can two different boxes have different dimensions for the base but the same volume? Explain. what might be the size and number of the packages? How do you know? 2) Is it possible for two rectangles to have an area of 24 sq cm but have different perimeters? Explain how you know.

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Soalan dan skema Gerak Gempur akan disediakan secara berpusat dan pelaporan perlu disediakan. Semua guru Sains dan Matematik menggunakan soalan HOTs dalam pdp. • .Tindakan Susulan Guru • • • • Adakan taklimat dalaman di sekolah masingmasing kepada semua guru Sains dan Matematik. Guru Sains dan Matematik Tingkatan 1 mula menyediakan murid untuk Gerak Gempur HOTsSM pada Jun dan Okt 2013 & 2014 untuk persediaan murid ke TIMSS 2014 dan PISA 2015. Gunakan kandungan dan tempoh masa taklimat seperti yang diterima.

TERIMA KASIH .

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