Stands for: Definition: Gross Domestic Product >An estimated value of the total worth

Gross National Product >An estimated value of the total worth

of a country’s production andservices, on its land, by its nationals and foreigners, calculated over the course on one year. >means the total of all business production and service sector industry in a country plus its gain on overseas investment. In some cases GNP will also be calculated by subtracting the capital gains of foreign nationals or companies earned domestically.

of production and services, by citizens of a country, on its land or on foreign land, calculated over the course on one year. >the total worth estimated in currency values of a nation’s production in a given year, including service sector, research, and development. That translates to a sum of all industrial production, work, sales, business and service sector activity in the country. >is also a calculator of economic
activity. However, GNP also encompasses the value of net income made abroad. Moreover, when calculating GNP, the value of what foreign countries earn in the given country is subtracted from the value.


>is a commonly used calculator of
national income and measures the economic activity in a country. Essentially, the GDP is a figure which measures the value of the goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (usually one year).

GDP = consumption + investment +

GNP = GDP + NR (Net income inflow from assets abroad or Net Income Receipts) - NP (Net payment outflow to foreign assets)

Formula forCalculation:

(government spending) + (exports − imports)

"C" is equal to all private consumption, or consumer spending, in a nation's economy "G" is the sum of government spending "I" is the sum of all the country's businesses spending on capital "NX" is the nation's total net exports, calculated as total exports minus total imports. (NX = Exports - Imports)



e. calculated over the course on one year.GDP Stands for: Definition: Gross Domestic Product >An estimated value of the total GNP Gross National Product >An estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production andservices. in a nation's economy "G" is the sum of government spending "I" is the sum of all the country's businesses spending on capital "NX" is the nation's total net exports. > is a measure of a country's economic performance. calculated over the course on one year. goods and services) and whether they produced these items within its borders. calculated as total exports minus total imports. worth of production and services. (NX = Exports . on its land or on foreign land. by its nationals and foreigners. Difference >are both measures of economic development. or what its citizens produced (i. Formula forCalculation: GDP = consumption + investment + (government spending) + (exports − imports) where: "C" is equal to all private consumption. > The monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. or consumer spending.NP (Net payment outflow to foreign assets) SALVIE MARIE DRILON BSACT 3-1 . on its land. though GDP is usually calculated on an annual basis.Imports) GNP = GDP + NR (Net income inflow from assets abroad or Net Income Receipts) . >refers to the GDP added to the total amount of capital gain from all investments made abroad with the amount of income that has been earned by foreign nationals in that country subtracted from the total. When you calculate the estimated value that defines the worth of any country’s services provided and production carried out over a whole year. by citizens of a country. then you refer to it as that country’s GDP.

especially indicated. .The Rule of St. that the nuns might guard against or repent any infringement of it. it too gives more general principles. St. Before making their profession the nuns divest themselves of all their goods. obedience. for the purpose of restoring harmony in their community. the inferiors. Prayer. Pachomius or the anonymous document known as theRule of the Master. is by no means onerous and the Bishop of Hippo tempers it most discreetly. but attaches no less importance to fraternal charity. Nevertheless. Augustine enters into no minute details. Mercederians. detachment from the world. Augustine Letter 211 The letter written by St. the apportionment of labour. which consists in living in peace and concord. The superior. and whatever they may earn or receive is turned over to a common fund. the sick and infirm are objects of the most tender care and solicitude." St. leaves her free to determine the nature and duration of the punishment imposed. apart from the issue of obedience and behavior at the Divine Office. another of the cellar. Although the Rule of St. and when the saint speaks of obligatory fasting he specifies that such as are unable to wait for the evening or ninth hour meal may eat at noon. in some cases it being her privilege even to expel nuns that have become incorrigible. and another Rule called: "De vitâ eremiticâ ad sororem liber. this being characteristic of all primitive Rules. Augustine. Overview employed by a large number of orders. their monasteries being responsible for supplying their wants. During meals some instructive matter is to be read aloud to the nuns. occupies an important place in their life. including The Rule governs charity. poverty. Those sisters desiring to lead a more contemplative life are allowed to follow special devotions in private. Sermons 355 and 356 entitled * a Rule known as Regula secunda. The nuns make their habits which consist of a dress. the monasteries having right of possession. the Bishop of Hippo was a law-giver and his letter was to be read weekly. such as that of St. Later. in particular. being said in the chapel at stated hours and according to the prescribed forms. to the extreme of omitting to chastise the guilty. before entering religion. the Benedictine Rule was to be specific in certain elements of monastic life. to be sure. The section of the rule that applies to eating. psalms and readings. The nuns partook of very frugal fare and. of course. in common. fraternal charity. Certain prayers are simply recited while others. The superior shares the duties of her office with certain members of her community. it dwells at great length upon religious virtues and the ascetic life. but as St. Fasting and abstinence are recommended only in proportion to the physical strength of the individual. one of whom has charge of the sick. abstained from meat. and Augustinians. in all probability. although severe in some respects. but. and certain concessions are made in favor of those who. another of the wardrobe. Servites. it is to be supposed that each monastery conformed to the liturgy of the diocese in which it is situated. However. led a life of luxury. while still another is the guardian of the books which she is authorized to distribute among the sisters. De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum In his sermons 355 and 356 the saint discourses on the monastic observance of the vow of poverty. however. Augustine is a religious rule the Dominicans. fasting and abstinence proportionate to the strength of the individual. This document. Augustine contains but a few precepts. He considers poverty the foundation of the monastic life. care of the sick. minute prescriptions as are found in later monastic Rules. are chanted. silence and reading during meals. a cincture and a veil. and comprising hymns. prayer in common. contains no such clear. History Letter 211 addressed to a community of women. deals with the reform of certain phases of monasticism as it is understood by him. is recommended to practice this virtue although not. Augustine to the nuns at Hippo (423).

was greatly disturbed by the conduct of monks who indulged in idleness under pretext of contemplation. This idea was . Augustine. He dwells upon charity. Augustine. a veritable monastery. St.De vitâ eremiticâ ad sororem liber "De vitâ eremiticâ ad sororem liber" is a treatise on eremitical life by St. Gabriel Pennot. subjecting it to any rule. ipso facto. who died in 1166. detachment from the world. Prior of the Canons Regular of St. fraternal charity. the gaining of one's livelihood rendering it indispensable. "De opere monarchorum". and his episcopal house in Hippo was for himself and some of his clergy. These. Several of his friends and disciples elevated to the episcopacy imitated his example. monasterism. The Bollandists withhold their opinion. that the monk is obliged to devote himself to serious labour. for a long time. and meanwhile he took occasion to elaborate upon some of the virtues and practices essential to monastic life. he knew how to combine the practices of the religious life with the duties of his office. and at his request St. Abbot of Rievaulx. 1564). reading during meals. was not perpetual. In his treatise. In several of his letters and sermons is found a useful complement to his teaching on the monastic life and duties it imposes. Augustine. care of the sick. and Boniface at Carthage. Giles of the Presentation. Gandolfo. prayer in common. Profuturus and Fortunatus at Cirta. Monastic life of St. Pierre de Saint-Trond. poverty. Martin of Louvain. it follows that none but Letter 211 and Sermons 355 and 356 were written by St. The silence was imposed. fasting and abstinence proportionate to the strength of the individual. Evodius at Uzalis. These are easy of access to Benedictine edition. England. incident to the nomination of a new superior. Augustine. Monks of couse. Ælred. Augustine published a treatise entitled "De opere monarchorum" wherein he proves by the authority of the Bible. obedience. An examination of these sermons discloses the fact that the bishop and his priests observed strict poverty and conformed to the example of the Apostles and early Christians by using their money in common. monastica vita. This was called the Apostolic Rule. from which observance the infirm are legitimately dispensed. as the two preceding Rules are of unknown authorship. etc. without. silence. Lupus. where the accompanying table may be consulted under the words: monachi. Letter 211 is addressed to nuns in a monastery that had been governed by the sister of St. however. and the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were resumed between the Canons and the Hermits but all to no avail. and even the exigencies of life. His object in writing it was merely to quiet troubles. sanctimoniales. Nicolas Desnos and Le Large uphold the thesis of the Canons. In his two sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum suorum" Augustine seeks to dispel the suspicions harbored by the faithful of Hippo against the clergy leading a monastic life with him in his episcopal residence. Augustine. expounded upon the monastic life and its obligations on other occasions. among them Alypius at Tagaste. the apportionment of labor. Augustini" (Louvain. and Noris sustain that of the Hermits. however. St. a matter of dispute between the Canons Regular and the Hermits of St. he inculcates the necessity of labour. this fact stands out unmistakably in the reading of his life and works. the example of the Apostles. and in which his cousin and niece lived. the mutual duties of superiors and inferiors. De opere monarchorum Aurelius. Bishop of Carthage. Although a priest and bishop. tells the story of these quarrels in the Preface to his "Examen Testamenti S. the quarrel would have continued indefinitely had not the Pope Sixtus IV put an end by his Bull "Summum Silentium" (1484). Possidius at Calama. are the most important monastic prescriptions found in the rule of and writings of St. Augustine followed the monastic or religious life as it was known to his contemporaries and neither he nor they even thought of establishing among those who had embraced it any distinction whatever as to congregations or orders. monachae. then. each of these two families claiming him exclusively as its own. and. and as both sides could not in the right. devoted to the ecclesiastical ministry observe. It was not so much the establishing of an historical fact as the settling of a claim of precedence that caused the trouble. however. There were still other monks who were priests and who exercised the ministry outside of the episcopal The religious life of the Bishop of Hippo was. Augustine Augustine was a monk. the precept of labour.

Bishop ofMetz (742-766). like him. was nowhere stronger than in southern Gaul in the fifth and sixth centuries. and. for example. For want of exact information we cannot say in which monasteries this was done. and of some military orders. together with those of Cassianus.conceived in a subsequent epoch. Augustine. the great organizer of religious life in that section chose a some of the most interesting articles of his rule for monks from St. at Sainte-Croix of Poitiers. the author of the regula Tarnatensis (an unknown monastery in the Rhone valley) introduced into his work the entire text of the letter addressed to the nuns. He made laws for the monks and nuns of Roman Africa. It does not seem to have been adopted by the regular communities of canons or of clerks which began to be organized in the eighth and ninth centuries. Benedict. Letter 211. both for the redemption of captives. St. The teaching concerning religious poverty is clearly formulated in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericoreun suorum" and the authorship of these two works is sufficient to earn for the Bishop of Hippo the title of Patriarch of monks and religious. The rule given them by St. Aurelian.of the Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit. in turn." The letter to virgins was adopted almost immediately and became the rule of the canons and canonesses. Juxamontier of Besançon. Sts. of the Friars Preachers. and in his "Codex regularum" St. of hospitaller communities. The influence of Augustine. certainly constituted a part of the collections known under the general name of "Rules of the Fathers" and used by the founders of monasteries as a basis for the practices of the religious life. it is true. dedicated to the care of the sick in the hospitals of the Middle Ages. which. and of canonesses either gathered into congregations or isolated. Monasteries of women or of canonesses were formed on the same plan. and he helped to increase their numbers. Augustine and Caesarius were animated by the same spirit which passed from the Archbishop of Arles to St. both men and women. revered him as their father. Lérins and the monks of that school were familiar with Augustine's monastic writings. one of his successors. St. that has done so much towards furnishing an accurate statement of the doctrine commonly accepted in religious orders. Augustine. it is easy to understand why his writings should have so influenced the development of Western monachism. Archbishop of Arles. and in his rule for nuns quoted at length from Letter 211. For this influence we must await the foundation of the clerical or canonical communities established in the eleventh century for the effective counteracting of simony and clerical concubinage. of the Trinitarians and of the Order of Mercy. but not according to the rules laid down in the sermons "De vitâ et moribus clericorum. Augustine's influence on monachism When we consider Augustine's great prestige. This adaptation was surely made in other monasteries in the sixth or seventh centuries. The first communities of canons adopted these sermons as their basis of organization. a monastic Iawgiver. which may be considered the real constitutions of the canons Regular. Caesarius. Augustine cannot be said to have belonged to any particular order. while they. and no more decided traces of Augustinian influence are to be found in it than in the decisions of the Council of Aachen (817). . But it was not always enough merely to adopt the teachings of Augustine and to quote him. and whether they were numerous. having previously adapted it to a community of men by making slight modifications. Augustine's influence also extended to women's monasteries in Gaul. such as the Bishop of Hippo had caused to be practised in his episcopal house and had taught in his two sermons heretofore cited. The Council of Lateran (1059) and another council held at Rome four years later approved for the members of the clergy the strict community life of the Apostolic Age. as. where the Rule of Caesarius was adopted either wholly or in part. which has thus become the Rule of St. Chrodegang. and Chamalières near Clermont. Benedict. however. Benedict's chapter on the labour of monks is manifestly inspired by the treatise "De opere monachorum". St. Benedict of Aniane published a text similarly modified. but they cannot be classed as members of any special monastic family. hence it was the religious code of the Premonstratensians. who borrowed several important texts from it for insertion in his own rule. His Letter 211 was read and re-read by St. is almost entirely drawn from that of St. This reform movement spread rapidly throughout Latin Europe and brought about the foundation of the regular chapters so numerous and prosperous during the Middle Ages. hence St. were the mine from which the principal elements of their rules were drawn. of the houses of Canons Regular.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful