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WELDING MACHINES

Brandon
What is a welding machine? How does a welding machine work? What different types of welding machines do you get? What is duty cycle? What is the difference between arc, mig, tig, gas and spot welding? What type of welding machine should one use? These are just a few types of questions you will be faced with regarding welding and after this chapter you should have learnt the basics and the technical specifications of our product range we retail at Adendorff Machinery Mart.

AdendorffMachinery Mart(PTY) Ltd 152 Rosettenville road Springfield Johannesburg R.S.A South Africa

(011) 683 8360 (011) 683 8114 9/5/2010

WELDING MACHINES

What is a welding machine?


Welding machine. This is the term used to describe the machine which converts 220-380 volt AC (alternating current) electricity to welding voltage, typically 40-70 volts AC, but also a range of DC (direct current) voltages. It generally consists of a large, heavy transformer, a voltage regulator circuit, an internal cooling fan or oil cooled system, and an amperage range selector. The term welder applies to a person doing the welding. A welding machine requires a welder to operate it.

What is duty cycle?


Duty cycle is a welding equipment specification which defines the number of minutes, within a 10 minute period, during which a given welder can safely produce a particular welding current. For example: a 200 amp welder with a 60 % duty cycle must be rested for at least 4 minutes after 6 minutes of continuous welding. The less amperage draws one uses from the welder, the higher the duty cycle. Failure to carefully observe duty cycle limitations can easily over stress a welders power generation system contributing to premature welder failure. Many welders do not have internal protection systems that prevent this sort of over stress, therefore leaving the task to the owner or operator.

What is arc welding?

Arc welding, also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding, uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, consumable or nonconsumable electrodes. The electrode rod is made of a material that is compatible with the base material being welded and is covered with a flux that protects the weld area from oxidation and contamination by producing CO2 gas during the welding process. There are generally two types of arc welders available, namely: AC (alternating current), such as an air cooled or oil cooled AC welder or a DC (direct current), such as an inverter welder which uses an air cooling system for cooling. Furthermore, arc welding process is generally limited to welding ferrous metals, though specialty electrodes have made possible the welding of cast iron, nickel, aluminium, copper and other metals, which are non ferrous metals. The versatility of the method makes it popular in a number of applications including repair work and construction.

What is mig welding?


Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun(mig torch).Also known as a CO2 welder. A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with GMAW, but constant current systems, as well as alternating current, can be used. The most common gases used are carbon dioxide for general purpose welding. It is the cheapest of the welding gases, and creates a good weld. On a MIG welder you can adjust the voltage, amperage and speed at which the wire is fed through the welder. The tensioner on the welding wire is variable as well. They will also have a valve to control the flow of gas, which will be the flow meter on the gas bottle

It is also possible to use a MIG welder without shielding gas. This process is called flux core arc welding (FCAW). Most welders have the option of switching the polarity of the welding arc for use with flux cored wire. In this welding process the welding wire has a hollow core that is filled with flux. Flux cored arc welding can be done outside, because there is no need to worry about the shielding gas being blown away. The flux core wire has a hotter arc and therefore can be used to weld thicker pieces of metal. The disadvantages of FCAW are that you have to remove and clean the slag from the weld, similar to welding with a standard stick welder. Because of its hotter arc force, it cannot generally be used to weld thinner sheet metal and other light metals. MIG welders can be used to weld aluminium, tin, copper, zinc and brass and steel. There are dozens of different compositions of MIG welding wire to choose from. When welding the non ferrous metals, it is advisable to change the Teflon liner, which is situated inside the MIG torch. The reason for this is that generally the welding wire used for this process is a lot softer, and tends to kink easily. MIG welders are the ideal choice if you only want to buy one welder, and still be able to weld on a variety of metals. If you want to start welding, a MIG welder would probably be your best choice for a welder that is very versatile and easy to learn on

What is tig welding?

Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding is basically a welding process that works with the help of a tungsten electrode. TIG stands for Tungsten Inert Gas and is technically called Gas Tungsten Arc Welding or GTAW. The process uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode that delivers the current to the welding arc. A shielding gas, such as Argon gas is used to protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination. A filler metal is normally used. TIG welding is most commonly used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non- ferrous metals such as aluminium, magnesium, and copper alloys. The process grants the operator greater control over the weld than when comparing it to procedures such as Mig and Gas welding. One can get two types of TIG welders, such as a DC (direct current), which are generally used for the welding of ferrous types of metals and the other being the AC/DC (alternating current, direct current) which can weld most types of metals, such as non-ferrous and ferrous.

What is spot welding?

Spot welding is a process in which contacting metal surfaces are joined by the heat obtained from resistance to electric current flow. Work pieces are held together under pressure exerted by electrodes. The process uses two shaped copper alloy electrodes to concentrate welding current into a small spot and to simultaneously clamp the sheets together. Forcing a large current through the spot will melt the metal and form the weld. A spot welding machine normally consists of tool

and electrodes, which are mechanisms for making and holding contact at the weld. Tool holders have two functions: to hold the electrode firmly in place and to support water hoses that provide cooling of the electrodes. The attractive feature of spot welding is a lot of energy can be delivered to the spot in very short time. That permits welding to occur without excessive heating to the rest of the sheet. Spot welding is typically used for the welding of thin sheets of metal together, within a range from 0.5 to 3 mm (0.020 to 0.12 inch). The amount of heat (energy) delivered to the spot weld is determined by the resistance between the electrodes and the amplitude and duration of the current. The amount of energy is chosen to match the sheets material properties, its thickness, and type of electrodes. Applying too little energy wont melt the metal or will make a poor weld. Applying too much energy will melt too much metal, eject molten material, and make a hole rather than a weld. Spot welding can be easily identified on many sheet metal goods, such as metal buckets. Aluminium alloys can be spot welded, but their much higher thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity requires higher welding currents. Therefore a larger spot welder is required for the spot welding process of aluminium alloys. Weld times range from 0.01 seconds to 0.63 seconds, depending on the thickness of the metal, the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes themselves.

Now that you have basic understanding of the different types of welding applications available and their differences, let us take a look at the range of welders we retail at Adendorff Machinery Mart, with their technical specifications on each unit.

Arc welders (air cooled) with AC transformer (mma)

EWELAS/180 Description: 180 amp air cooled arc welder. AC transformer (BX6-180).MMA.

Code: EWELAS/180 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 27 amps 43 amps Current output: 70 amps 180 amps Voltage output: 20.8 volt 25.2 volt Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 180 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 365mm x 300mm x 170mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: Looking for a simple to use arc welder for all those jobs around the home and in the garage? Well, here is one which is ideal for the DIY enthusiast. Ideal for most arc welding applications. This welder is exceptionally low priced which makes it invaluable around the house and workshop for general repairs and light fabrication. Simple to operate. The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables)

EWELAS/250 Description: 250 amp air cooled arc welder.AC transformer. MMA.

Code: EWELAS/250 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 30 60 amps Current output: 82 250 amps Voltage output: 21.2 30 volts Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 4 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 250 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 370mm x 310mm x 170mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: A step up from the basic home user model. Mainly used for the more professional and frequent welder at home. Can also be used for light steel fabrication. This unit is ideal for doing those thicker welds on metals, because of its high range of amperage for a single phase welder (250 amps). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables)

Arc welders (oil cooled) with AC transformer (mma)

EWELDO/130 Description: MAC-AFRIC 130 AMP oil bath arc (mma) welder. Code: EWELDO/130 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: 90amps 130amps Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 130 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 260mm x 300mm x 230mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: This small, yet compact and easy to use welder is ideal for the DIY person. Mainly used for light steel fabrication and general repair work around the home and workshop. This welder is equipped with an easy to remove lid, which makes it easy for the refilling of the oil, and any general maintenance needed to be done on the unit. Heavy duty robust design with a genuine copper transformer makes this welder an invaluable welding machine for around the home and workshop. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/160 Description: MAC-AFRIC 160 amp oil cooled (mma) arc welder. Code: EWELDO/160 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 19/20 amps Current output: 90amps -160amps Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 160 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 260mm x 330mm x 230mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: This small, yet compact and easy to use welder is ideal for the DIY person. Mainly used for light steel fabrication and general repair work around the home and workshop. This welder is equipped with an easy to remove lid, which makes it easy for the refilling of the oil, and any general maintenance needed to be done on the unit. Heavy duty robust design with a genuine copper transformer makes this welder an invaluable welding machine for around the home and workshop. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/190 Description: MAC-AFRIC 190 amp oil cooled arc welder. Code: EWELDO/190 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 190 amps Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: This welder is equipped with a robust handle and two wheels for easy manoeuvring of the unit and is an easy to use welder. Ideal for the handyman, home craftsman and automotive enthusiast which makes this welder a great choice for home DIY.Mainly used for light steel fabrication and general repair work around the home and workshop. This welder is equipped with an easy to remove lid, which makes it easy for the refilling of the oil, and any general maintenance needed to be done on the unit. Heavy duty robust design with a genuine copper transformer makes this welder an invaluable welding machine for around the home and workshop. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/253 Description: MAC-AFRIC 250 AMP oil bath arc (mma) welder. Code: EWELDO/253 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 4 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 250 amps Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: This welder is equipped with a robust handle and two wheels for easy manoeuvring of the unit and is an easy to use welder. Ideal for the DIY person and more frequent welder. Mainly used for light steel fabrication and general repair work around the home and workshop. This welder is equipped with an easy to remove lid, which makes it easy for the refilling of the oil, and any general maintenance needed to be done on the unit. Heavy duty robust design with a genuine copper transformer makes this welder an invaluable welding machine for around the home and workshop. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/252 Description: EEZI-STRIKE 220 AMP copper transformer oil bath arc welder Code: EWELDO/252 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 29 AMPS Current output: 50 220 amps Voltage output: 60 volt (max) Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 4 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 150 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 300mm x 340mm x 300mm Weight: 48 (kg)

Typical uses for this welding machine: A general purpose arc welder thats an ideal choice for numerous users. This welder has a heavy duty robust design, which makes it a lifetime investment. Ideal for the more frequent welder. Ideal for doing most general welding applications such as repair work and light steel fabrication. This welder has a genuine cooper transformer, which makes it invaluable around the home and workshop. Easy to use welder, with easy to turn and lock clamps for the welding cable lugs.

EWELDO/141 Description: STRIKE 140 AMP OIL COOLED ARC WELDER (MMA) Code: EWELDO/141 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 15 amps Current output: 40 140 amps Voltage output: 65 volts Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ amps Dimensions (lhw) : 265mm x 240mm x 240mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine: This old fashioned yet reliable welder is ideal for the DIY enthusiast for around the home. This welder is ideal for general welding repair and light steel fabrication work. This welder is low priced which makes it invaluable for around the home, and is an easy to use welder. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. The oil level must be at the level of 170mm. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/221 Description: STRIKE 220 AMP OIL COOLED ARC (MMA) WELDER Code: EWELDO/221 Specifications: 1) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Current input: 28 amps Current output: 50 220 amps Voltage output: 75 volts Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 4 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 110 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 285mm x 360mm x 265mm Weight: 34 kg

Typical uses for this welding machine: This old fashioned yet reliable welder is ideal for the DIY enthusiast for around the home and the workshop. This welder is ideal for general welding repair and light steel fabrication work. This welder is low priced which makes it invaluable for around the home, and is an easy to use welder. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. The level for the oil must be at 190mm. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

EWELDO/251 Description: STRIKE 250 AMP OIL COOLED ARC (MMA) WELDER. Code: EWELDO/251 Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 29 amps Current output: 50 250 amps Voltage output: 75 volts Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 5 mm Duty cycle: 20 % @ 135 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 285mm x 360mm x 265mm Weight: 47 kg

Typical uses for this welding machine: This old fashioned yet reliable welder is ideal for the DIY enthusiast and the more frequent welder for around the home and the workshop. This welder is ideal for general welding repair and light steel fabrication work. This welder is low priced which makes it invaluable for around the home, and is an easy to use welder. Make sure the oil level is always at the correct level. The oil level must be at 190mm. (Use only welding transformer oil). The welder does not come with welding cables, and is recommended to purchase welding cables with a length of 2.5 mt, both electrode holder and earth cable. (Please see Guide for welding cable`, for the correct size of welding cables).

DC (direct current) arc inverter welder (mma)

Introduction:

The MAC-AFRIC D.C. STICK INVERTER range consists of 160 amp, 200amp, output capacity welding machines, all suitable for use on 220 volt input supply and generally used for maintenance applications. For production use we have a 250 amp and a 300 amp suitable for use on 380 volt input supply. All units are rated at 60% duty cycle, are lightweight and have low amperage capabilities (i.e. 20 to 30 amps depending on the unit). INVERTER welding machines are state of the art technology and makes use of solid state switching and rectification and filtration of the input voltage to produce very stable D.C. voltage and current. The input line voltage can either be single phase (220 volt or three phases 380/525 volt). Solid state control circuits are incorporated to provide excellent arc characteristics and line voltage compensation.

IMPORTANT FEATURES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lightweight portability is one of the main features to be considered when purchasing a welding machine for use on a specific range of applications. Input voltage covers all power input supplied in South Africa. The components can absorb up to 15% under or over line voltage variations. Inverters produce a stronger, more concentrated, smooth and state arc with excellent striking and re-striking capabilities. Inverters are ideally suited and versatile for use on all commercially available ferrous and non-ferrous metals. It will weld electrodes of different specifications, including basic (low hydrogen) and cellulosic types. Fine adjustment through the current range allows for precision welding on complex alloys. The stick Inverters (no high frequency facility) can be used for scratch start D.C. T.I.G. welding using straight (Negative -) electrode polarity when T.I.G. welding ferrous (steel) metals. On thin metals using mild steel electrodes, the polarity can be reversed i.e. electrode negative (-) and ground (earth) (+). This allows for less burn through possibilities. The Inverters are fitted with an overload protection switch that is activated once the components reach overheating levels or the duty cycle is exceeded.

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PROVENTATIVE MEASURES AND MAINTENANCE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Inverters should be used in dry environments, with humidity levels of 90% max. The ambient room temperature should be between 10 to 40 C. The Inverter should not be used in rain or drizzle. Do not use the Inverter in corrosive areas. The cooling fan fitted to the Inverter needs to keep the unit cooled to required limits, therefore, the intake air vents must not be obstructed, always clean and not within 0.3 meter to the nearest object. The WARRANTY of the Inverter allows for the operator to

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remove the cover to blow out excessive dust and metal dust particles (using dry compressed air with reasonable pressure level) that may damage the electrical components. However, the WARRANTY will be null and void if any component is changed or altered. Care should be taken that the cover is fitted back correctly as this can influence the correct air flow. The duty cycle of the Inverter should not be exceeded. The input voltage should always be within the + - 15% under of over allowable constant supply. Using input power cable exceeding 15 meters may cause the voltage to drop below this level and may damage the electronic components. When the overload protection device is activated (front indicator light will come on) the Inverter will switch off and the power will only be re-activated (front indicator light off) for further welding once the component temperature reaches safe levels. The cool down time may vary according to the conditions under which the Inverter is used. Prevent water or steam from entering the Inverter. Should this happen, remove the power supply from the mains and dry properly. Inverters should not be used using power generators unless expensive voltage equalizers are fitted. The electronic components fitted to Inverters cannot absorb the excessive voltage variations found with this type of power supply.

EWELDS/160 Description: Mac- Afric 160 amp DC inerter welder (mma) Code: EWELDS/160 Specifications: 1) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 2) Current input: 23 amps 30 amps 3) Current output: 20 160 amps

4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Voltage output: 26.4 volts Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3.2 mm Duty cycle: 60 % @ 160 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 290x132x203 Weight: 8 (kg) Includes: earth clamp and electrode holder

Typical uses for this welding machine: Ideal for the DIY enthusiast around home and the workshop for repair work and light steel fabrication work. Can also use this welder as a DC (scratch) TIG welder, by adapting an external TIG torch and argon gas bottle with flow meter. It will weld stainless steels, alloy steels, carbon steels, copper and other metals. It can weld electrodes of different specifications, including basic and cellulosic as well as aluminium electrodes. Basic helpful hints: When using a long extension cable, in order to prevent voltage from dropping, a larger diameter cable is suggested. If the extension cable is too long, it may affect the performance of the power system, so we suggest you use a configured length, (10 meters, 2.5 mm inner core, 25 amps). Make sure the cooling fan of the machine is not blocked or obstructed, otherwise, the duty cycle will be affected and the performance of the welder. Correctly connect the cables, by putting the earth cable plug into the socket marked -negative polarity and the electrode holder socket into the socket marked + positive polarity, and fasten it clockwise.

EWELDS/200 Description: Mac Afric 200 amp DC inverter welder. Code: EWELDS/200

Specifications: 1) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 2) Current input: 24 amps to 33 amps

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Current output: 20 200 amps Voltage output: 21 volt 28 volt (DC) Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 4 mm Duty cycle: 60 % @ 200 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 290x132x203 Weight: 8 (kg)

Typical uses for this welding machine: Ideal for the DIY enthusiast around home and the workshop for repair work and light steel fabrication work. Can also use this welder as a DC (scratch) TIG welder, by adapting an external TIG torch and argon gas bottle with flow meter. It will weld stainless steels, alloy steels, carbon steels, copper and other metals. It can weld electrodes of different specifications, including basic and cellulosic as well as aluminium electrodes. Basic helpful hints: When using a long extension cable, in order to prevent voltage from dropping, a larger diameter cable is suggested. If the extension cable is too long, it may affect the performance of the power system, so we suggest you use a configured length, (10 meters, 2.5 mm inner core, 25 amps). Make sure the cooling fan of the machine is not blocked or obstructed, otherwise, the duty cycle will be affected and the performance of the welder. Correctly connect the cables, by putting the earth cable plug into the socket marked -negative polarity and the electrode holder socket into the socket marked + positive polarity, and fasten it clockwise.

EWELDS/250 Description: MAC AFRIC 250 amp DC inverter welder. Code: EWELDS/250

Specifications:

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDT/207 Description: Code: EWELDT/207

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : 490mm x 380mm x 200mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDS/300 Description: Code: EWELDS/300

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : 565mm x 525mm x 310mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

Related products for ARC (mma) welders:

EWELDA/205 (2.5 mm PHAMODI STEEL WELDING ELECTRODES) 5 KG. EWELDA/315

DC (direct current) TIG inverter welders


Introduction: GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING (GTAW) TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (T.I.G.) WELDING

E, as shown in figure 1-1 above. For direct current reverse polarity DCRP reverse (+) the connections are the opposite i.e. the electrons flow from the plate to the electrode, as shown in figure 1 2 above.

In negative polarity welding, the electrons exert a considerable heating effect on the plate. In positive polarity welding the electrode acquires this extra heat which then tends to melt off the end of the electrode. In the case of DCSP (-) approximately 70% of the heat is developed at the work piece and 30% at the electrode, so the electrode tip will not melt and will maintain the conical shape when used within the recommended current range. For any given welding current, DCRP (+) requires a larger diameter electrode than DCSP (-). These opposite heating effects of DCRP (+) and DCSP (-) influence not only the welding action but also the shape of the weld obtained (see weld result drawing). One other effect of DCRP (+) welding should be considered namely the so called plate cleaning effect which occurs. The exact reason for this surface cleaning action is not known. The electrons and gas ions tend to remove the surface oxides and scale usually present. When using a DC welder without high frequency facility, the arc can be stuck on the work piece or on a piece of copper or steel (scratch start) and then carried to the weld starting point. Do not use a carbon block for starting the arc as the electrode becomes contaminated causing the arc to wander. The T.I.G. torches used in this case has a mechanical gas valve on the torch that is opened manually by the operator before striking the arc. When using a welder fitted with high frequency facility it eliminates the need for touching the work piece as the high frequency is automatically turned on to assist in establishing the arc and is automatically turned off as soon as the arc is established. The welder also has a solenoid valve that opens to allow gas flow when triggered on the torch and shuts off after the trigger is released. If water cooler is fitted to the system a water cooled torch is required and water flow is continuous while the circulator pump is running.

ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC) WELDING In alternating current (AC) welding, the welding current circuit is hooked up to the straight (-) polarity terminal. The high frequency facility on these AC/DC type welders jumps the gap between electrode and the work piece, burns through the tough oxide skin during the reverse polarity phase - positive (+) of the AC cycle and creates a clean path for the welding current that follows. The depth of penetration results from the heat produced during the electrode negative (-) portion of the AC cycle. Because cleaning action is inherent in electrode positive welding, any oxide film on the work is broken up during the electrode-positive portion of the AC cycle. Zirconiated tungsten electrodes are generally used when welding aluminium due to being able to carry slightly higher currents and have a longer life than pure tungsten electrodes. The AC welders with high frequency facilities are normally fitted with solenoid valves that regulate the gas flow through torch trigger activation. If water cooler is fitted to the system a water cooled torch is required and water flow through the torch is continuous while the circulator pump is running.

APPLICATIONS The main feature of the GTAW (T.I.G.) process is the high quality welds achieved on almost all commercially available metals and alloys. Freedom of contamination from the atmosphere is

achieved especially on critical alloys where small amounts of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon can cause embrittlement and loss of corrosion resistance. The process is ideal for welds on thin material, root passes and small parts where quality and finish is important. The ability of adding filler metal independently of the arc current, that can be operated at very low amperages, with very little spatter loss and with a stable arc, is a strong consideration especially on small thin walled parts. The only disadvantages of the T.I.G. process is the greater skill required by the operator and the low rate of filler metal being applied.

TECHNIQUES The technique of manually feeding the filler wire into the weld puddle is illustrated in the drawing above. The filler rod end should not be moved out of the inert gas shielding area of the torch. This is to prevent the hot end from oxidizing with the resultant contamination in the weld pool, when it is dipped into it. Pre-flow of gas before the arc is established and post-flow after the weld is completed also prevents oxidation and allows the filler alloy to wet and flow properly. At the end of the weld the current should be decreased gradually to avoid a crater forming with the possibility of crater crack developing. Adding a small amount of filler metal at the end of the weld, just before the arc is extinguished, is good practice. Many joints of thin material can be joined without adding filler material by fusing them together such as corner joints, edge joints etc. On establishing the arc, the torch is moved at a constant speed to the end of the weld.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GAS TUNGSTEN ARC (T.I.G.) WELDING PROCESS FOR ALUMINIUM (ALL AT SAME CURRENT)
Process Characteristics AC GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING PROCESS DC ELECT. NEG. (ELECT. -, WORK +)
Current Arc heat concentration Alternating 50% each cycle (balanced power source) Flows electrode to work 70% at work 30% at electrode Effects of heat concentration Electrode current capacity Higher current with

DC ELECT. POS. (ELECT. +, WORK -)


Flows work to electrode 30% at work 70% at electrode Larger electrode required.

slightly less than DCEN (Medium penetration, greater than DCEP (+) and less than DCEN (-) Midrange welding speed (125 mm/pm +) Helium increases penetration and speed. Argon gives best cleaning. Arc Stability Stable (balanced AC or with continuous high frequency) Good with Argon, on positive portion of cycle

smaller electrode. Narrow and deep penetration of arc heat into base metal. Welding speed 125mm p.m. +

Wide and shallow penetration Much lower welding speed than DCEN (-)

Stable

Stable

Cleaning action of arc and / or gas

None. However, DCEN (-) welds can be done with Helium

Continuous excellent with Argon. DCEP (+) has best cleaning action of the three, but penetration is poorest. Large ((4.0mm () at 125 amp))

Size of Tungsten Electrode

Medium ((2.5mm (3/32) at 125 amp))

Small ((1.6mm (1/16) at 125 amp))

Applications

General purpose manual and automatic welding 3,.2mm () full penetration

Automatic

Thin sheet welding and also for root pass on pipe Very thin below 1.5mm

Maximum work thickness

4.0 12.0mm ( to ) (full penetration)

POWER SOURCES

DC Rectifier or Inverter power sources without high frequency facility can be used for scratch start DC welding. The connection is torch power cable to the negative (-) connection of the machine and earth cable to the positive (+) connection. The machine has no solenoid gas valve and gas flow is controlled manually by the operator by turning the knob, mounted on the torch, to the required volume. DC Rectifier or Inverter power sources with high frequency facility are used for automatic arc ignition T.I.G. welding. The connection can be either electrode positive (+) or negative (-) as described below. These machines are fitted with a contactor and a means of controlling arc current as well as a solenoid valve for automatic gas flow control by the welder. The control of arc current can either be pre set at the machine or through current control mounted on the torch or by using a foot control unit. These machines normally also have pre set control of gas flow before starting the arc and gas flow off after completing the weld. An additional feature can be included to pulse the weld which allows root pass welds, welds on thin material and overhead welds to be made with less chance of melt through. AC / DC Rectifiers or Inverter power sources with high frequency facility is the most versatile machine used for T.I.G. welding of all ferrous (steel) based metals including non ferrous metals i.e. Aluminium, Copper, Nickel etc. The DC welding side is as per the above comments. For AC welding the high frequency is on continuously and the power supply can vary the positive and negative half cycles of AC current to favour either cleaning action or penetration. This feature is useful for welding aluminium where adjustments must be made based on the thickness and cleanliness of the joint. Current and gas flow control is as per above. DIRECT CURRENT (D.C.) T.I.G. WELDING In direct current welding (D.C.), the welding current circuit may be hooked up as either straight negative (-) or reverse - positive (+) polarity. The D.C. welder connection for direct current straight polarity DCSP negative (-) welding is electrode negative and work piece positive. In other words, the electrons flow from the electrode to the work piece.

EWELDT/162 Description: Code: EWELDT/162

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : 370mm x 260mm x 160mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDT/204 Description: Code: EWELDT/204

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : 370mm x 260mm x 160mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDT/180 Description: Code: EWELDT/180

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: 20 amps 180 amps Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle Dimensions (lhw) : 410mm x 330mm x 180mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDT/250

Description:

Code: EWELDT/250

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : 490mm x 380mm x 200mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

AC/DC (Alternating/Direct current) TIG inverter welders


Introduction:
AC/DC inverter TIG welders are generally used for various types of metal welding. These units have HFS (High frequency start) which enables it to weld non-ferrous metals, such as aluminium. These units can also weld metals from the group of ferrous types, such as mild steel, stainless steel, ECT. These units also have the capability to do Arc (MMA) welding, DC, as well. Just simple change of the switch, TIG or MMA, will enable the process required. When TIG welding, argon gas must be used, for shielding purposes of the weld. These units have many important features, such as: 1) PREFLOW- gas flow before TIG welding 2) PEAK CURRENT- welding current 3) BASIC CURRENT- penetration

4) SLOPE DOWN- welding current slowly drops off 5) ARC FORCE- high current at start and drops to set current 6) PULSE FREQUENCY- intensity of the pulse 7) PULSE DUTY- speed of the pulsation 8) CLEANING AREA WIDTH- controls width of the arc and penetration. 9) GAS AFTER FLOW- gas flow after TIG welding to cool tungsten rod. These units come standard with the following accessories: 1)TIG torch 2) Earth clamp 3) Argon flow meter 4) Foot pedal.

EWELDT/201 Description: THERMAMAX 200 amp AC/DC TIG inverter welder Code: EWELDT/201

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 14.6 amp 20.7 amp Current output: 10 amp 200 amp Voltage output: 10.4 volts 18 volts TIG rods recommended: ZIRCONIATED Duty cycle: 60 % @ 200 amps / 100 % @ 154 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 493x330x320 Weight: 20 (kg) Power usage: 3.2 KV.A 4.6 KV.A Welding thickness (mm) : 10 Arc leading: HF vibration Input frequency (HZ) : 50/60 Output frequency (HZ) : 60 Arc force: 0 100 amps

Typical uses for this welding machine: This unit is ideal for most types of metal applications, such as non-ferrous and ferrous types of metal. Ideal for thin sheet metal welding for the DIY enthusiast and workshop operator. Used mainly for the repair on alloy metals and aluminium, and mild steels in the automotive industry. Processes for this machine include- aluminium TIG, steel and others, stick (MMA).

EWELDT/205 Description: THERMAMAX 250 amp AC/DC TIG inverter welder Code: EWELDT/205

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: 16 amps Current output:10 amps - 250 amps Voltage output: TIG rods recommended: ZIRCONIATED Duty cycle: 60 % @ 250 amps Dimensions (lhw) : 560x365x355 Weight: 30 (kg) Power usage: 6.3 KV.A Welding thickness (mm) : 12 Arc leading: HF vibration Input frequency (HZ) : 50/60 Output frequency (HZ) : 60 Arc force: 0 100 amps

Typical uses for this welding machine: This unit is ideal for most types of metal applications, such as non-ferrous and ferrous types of metal. Ideal for thin sheet metal welding for the DIY enthusiast and workshop operator. Used mainly for the repair on alloy metals and aluminium, and mild steels in the automotive industry. Processes for this machine include- aluminium TIG, steel and others, stick (MMA).

Related products:

MIG (GMAW) welders


Introduction:

GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) METAL INERT GAS WELDING (M.I.G.)

GAS METAL ARC WELDING (GMAW) (M.I.G) PROCESS Gas metal arc welding, commonly known as M.I.G., welding consists of various components as indicated in the drawing above. The system uses continuous small diameter solid wire and an externally supplied gas or mixtures of gasses. The shielding gas can be Helium, Argon, Carbon dioxide or mixtures thereof. M.I.G. welding is suitable for use on all major commercial metals i.e. Low Carbon, Low and High Alloy Steels, Stainless Steels, High Strength quenched and tempered steels, Aluminium, Magnesium, Copper, Titanium, etc. With these various metals the welding techniques and weld procedures may vary widely. Carbon Dioxide or Argon Oxygen mixtures are suitable as shielding gasses on low carbon and low

alloy steels, whereas pure inert

gas (Argon

Helium) is used when welding high alloyed steels and alloys of Aluminium, Magnesium, Copper, Titanium, Stainless Steel and the Nickel Based alloys. Welding is either semi-automatic, using a hand-held torch (manual) through which the wire is fed automatically, or fully-automatic equipment can be used. Metal transfer achieved using the M.I.G. process is done by one of two methods, namely, spray arc or short circuiting (globular). With spray arc, drops of molten metal detach from the wire and move through the arc column to the work piece. With the short circuiting method, metal is transferred to the work piece when the tip of the wire contacts the molten metal.

In short circuit welding (globular), lower current, low voltages and small diameter wire is used and the metal is transferred with each short circuit rather than across the arc as in spray arc welding. This method results in low heat input with the minimum of distortion and used on thin or poor fitups and bridging wide gap applications. Spray arc M.I.G. welding produces a very hot, high voltage arc and gives a higher deposition rate than short circuit welding. The spray arc method is normally recommended for thicker sections requiring heavy single or multi-pass applications where deposition rate is important. Gas Metal Arc (M.I.G.) welding is done with Direct Current (D.C.) rectifier power sources, using reverse polarity, wire positive (+) and this provides a stable arc, smooth metal transfer, relatively low spatter loss and good weld bead. Some manufacturers also provides Spot Welding features on their equipment which replaces either riveting or where T.I.G. spot welding is not suitable such as in joining Aluminium or on poor fit-ups and where cleanliness requirements are not as important or on thicker materials. As with all welding processes, the correct setup and maintenance of M.I.G. welding equipment is vitally important to ensure continuous automatic feeding and successful weld deposits. This equally applies to the M.I.G. torch and ensuring that the torch system is clean, with no obstructions and current carrying parts, that are relatively inexpensive, are replaced frequently. It is also good practice to have the torch cable as straight as possible to ensure continuous successful wire feeding. When welding non-ferrous metals i.e. Aluminium, Copper or Nickel alloys it is highly recommended to use a separate torch specifically for these alloys, than the one used on steel alloys, and that the torch cable length is as short as possible and kept as straight as possible.

EWELML/105 Description: MAC-AFRIC light duty mig welder Code: EWELML/105

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: 8.2 amps 15 amps Current output: 35 amps 90 amps Voltage output: 15.7 volts 18.5 volts Welding wire size recommended: 0.6mm and 0.8mm Duty cycle: 10 % @ 90 amps. Dimensions (lhw) : 425 mm x 415 mm x 225 mm Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELML/150

Description: Code: EWELML/150

Specifications: 1) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 2) Current input:

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELML/195 Description: Code: EWELML/195

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

Related products:

EWELMH/160 Description: Code: EWELMH/160

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELMH/190 Description:

Code: EWELMH/190

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELMH/250 Description: Code: EWELMH/250

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

EWELDT/202 Description: Code: EWELDT/202

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

Related products:

EWELSP/025 Description: Code: EWELSP/025

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 380 volt / 3 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Welding rods recommended: 1 mm 3 mm Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this welding machine:

PLASMA ARC CUTTING

EWElDP040 Description: MAC-AFRIC CUT 40 PLASMA CUTTER Code: EWELDP/040

Specifications: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Input voltage / phase: 220 volt / 1 Current input: Current output: Voltage output: Thickness of metal capabilities: Duty cycle: Dimensions (lhw) : Weight:

Typical uses for this plasma cutter:

The Plasma Arc Cutting system employs the use of an electric arc and a pressurized volume of ionized air forced through a small orifice (TIP) fitted between the electrode in the plasma torch and the work piece to be cut. This constricted, high speed and high temperature plasma arc stream cuts through metal in a concentrated localized area and the molten metal is blown away by the high velocity arc and air steam. The Plasma Arc Cutting process is capable of cutting and gouging most Ferrous (steel) and NonFerrous (Aluminium, Copper etc) metals producing a clean narrow cut width (determined by the tip orifice size) and smoother surfaces. The process is more portable, cuts faster and cleaner than the gas cutting (oxy/fuel) process, requiring no pre-heat, and with the added advantage of being able to cut Stainless Steel and Non-Ferrous metals (oxy/fuel cannot) cleanly and effectively, using less cumbersome equipment. The process can be used with either a hand held torch or on automated systems.

The Plasma Power source has drooping current characteristics, using higher voltages than standard welding machines and the torches are well insulated to protect the operator against the high voltages present. The majority of Plasma Arc Cutters today have high frequency arc starting features meaning that non base metal contact is used as opposed to machines without high frequency that require scratch start to initiate the arc. Hand cutting torches using stand-off guides (determines tip distance from work piece) enables the operator to rest the torch on the work piece and by using a template or straight edge is able to cut straight or profile edges cleanly and accurately. The torch can also be used for gouging by changing the tip to a gouging tip that enables the operator to angle the torch to + - 30 degrees as opposed to the 90 degree used when cutting.

Long (extended) tips can be fitted for maximum visibility giving a clear view of the cut to be made either in the stand-off or drag position. The tips contain an orifice which constricts the plasma arc. The tips come in various orifice sizes and also gradually wear with use and must be replaced when the arc cut becomes too wide. Due to the alloying denseness and higher electrical resistance of Stainless Steel the thickness of cut achieved per cutting machine capacity is considerably lower than steel. All manufactures of Plasma Arc Cutting equipment indicate the cutting capacity when cutting various metals.

When cutting a circle the cut is started at the plate leading edge towards the circle edge or a hole is pierced in the centre of the circle and cut towards the circle edge. On piecing the hole through the plate the torch is angled at + - 30 and once pieced the torch is raised to a 90 position.

PROBLEM SHOOTING AND MAINTENANCE

1.

The operating voltages for Plasma Arc Cutting can reach 400 volt D.C. and most systems incorporate safety features that prevent the operator from coming into contact with the high voltage. Before using the system the operator must ensure that the torch cable is not damaged or punctured and that the electrode, tip and shield cup is fitted correctly, securely and in good condition. All access panels must be closed at all times when the power is connected.

2.

It is recommended that periodic cleaning using dry compressed air, of the interior of the power source is done to ensure that metal containing dust does not damage the electronic components. When this is done the power to cutter must be disconnected first for you own safety.

3.

Fumes and gases produced by the Plasma Arc Cutting can be hazardous to health and must be avoided. Use the necessary respiratory protection masks or respirators when cutting in unventilated or confined areas.

4.

Sparks from the Plasma Arc Cutting can be a fire hazard and all combustible material and solvents should be kept away from the cutting area.

5.

The Plasma Arc emits intense, visible, infrared and ultraviolet radiation which can be harmful to the eyes and skin. The same eye and skin protection normally used for GTA (T.I.G.) welding at the equivalent current range should be used.

6.

Water vapour and oil introduced into the highly concentrated constricted arc can damaged the electrode, tip and shield cup and depending on the severity of the water or oil explosion within the arc, damage to the entire torch head is possible. It is recommended that the water/oil trap fitted to the air supply system of the cutting machine is cleaned at regular intervals. Should water/oil still persist, it is recommended that a second water/oil trap be installed at the compressor outlet.

TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE ON WELDING EQUIPMENT

PROBLEM
Welder will not start

CAUSE
Power switch not turn on Supply line fuse blown Power circuit dead Overload relay tripped Loose or broken power, electrode or ground lead Wrong voltage Polarity switch not centered (AC - DC) Open circuit to switch

REMEDY
Place power switch to ON position Replace fuse (Check cause first) Check input voltage Cool down unit (remove cause) Replace, tighten or repair Check input voltage per manual Centre switch on +, -, or AC or DC Repair

Welder starts but blows fuse after welding begins

Short circuit in electrical components of welder Fuse to small

Check connections and lead insulation Check manual for correct fuse size

Welder welds but soon stops welding

Proper air ventilation obstructed.

Make sure that all case ventilation openings free and clean Replace or repair leads and connections Operate at rated load & duty cycle

Cooling fan not working Overloading welding in excess of rating

Variable & sluggish arc

Current to low

Check recommended current for electrode type and size

Low line voltage Welding cables to small Poor earth, electrode or control circuit connection

Check input line voltage Check recommended cable sizes Check all connections. Clean or replace

Welding arc is load and spatters excessively

Current setting is to high

Check recommended setting according to electrode type or size Check recommended polarity. Try reversing polarity or change electrode

Polarity setting is wrong

Polarity switch wont work

Contacts worn, rough and pitted from improper switch while welder is under load

Replace switch. Never operate switch while welder is under load.

Welder will not switch off

Line switch has failed mechanically

Replace switch

Arcing at earth clamp

Loose connection or weak clamp spring

Tighten connection or replace earth clamp. Positive and firm earth = good welds

Electrode holder becomes hot

Loose connection, loose jaw, loose electrode clamping, inadequate duty cycle of holder

Tighten cable connection to holder or replace holder with correct duty cycle size

Electrical shock when touching welder

Frame not grounded

See welder instruction manual for proper grounding procedure of welder covers.

Welding cables hot

Incorrect duty cycle of cable

Check recommended cable size according to welders manual.

CONSEQUENCES RESULTING FROM INCORRECT USE OF WELDING ACCESSORIES

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF METALS

Electrical conductivity is the efficiency of a metal in conducting electrical current. The conductivity of electrolytic tough pitch copper (ETP) is 101% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). Other metals compare as follows: ALUMINIUM (99.9%) 65% 35% 15%

ALUMINIUM ALLOYS MILD STEEL

STAINLESS STEEL (300 SERIES) 2.5% WELDING CABLE The first item on both sides of the welding machine (power source) is the cable required for conveying the electrical current. The cable from the welding machine to the electrode holder carries the current to the electrode via the electrode holder to the arc and on to the work piece. The cable from the welding machine to the work piece is the earth cable and completes the circuit from work piece back to the welding machine. The electrical conductors of the cable are fine strands of copper (preferred) or aluminium. The quality, size and length of the conductors are extremely important to ensure the efficiency, success and quality of welding. The insulating material of rubber or synthetic rubber over the copper strands provides adequate insulation and flexibility needed. The size of cable used depends on the current (amperage) to be carried and the total length of the electrical circuit. The longer the circuit, the larger the size of the conductors needed to prevent voltage drop and the dissipation of energy by resistance heating within the conductor. DAMAGED INSULATION, BROKEN CONDUCTORS INSIDE THE INSULATION, TO SMALL CONDUCTORS CARRING THE CURRENT WILL CAUSE HEAT BUILD UP, COPPER SCALING, WITH THE RESULTANT POOR CONDUCTIVITY AND WELDING EFFICIENCY. ELECTRODE HOLDERS The electrode holder is a clamping device that grips the welding electrode between the jaws that conducts the current through the electrode to the work piece. Electrode holders are rated according to their current carrying capacity. By choosing the correct rated size holder and cable, that the cable connection to the holder is sound and the metal used by the manufacturer on the holders body/jaws, carrying the current, has good electrical conveying and gripping properties, will ensure that the electrode holder does not overheat. Quality electrode holders have good handle and jaw insulation and the screws holding these parts are well recessed thereby protecting the welder from electrical shock or accidentally touching the work piece causing a short circuit. THE EFFICIENCY, COMFORT AND WELD QUALITY PRODUCED BY THE WELDER GREATLY DEPENDS ON THE QUALITY OF THE ELECTRODE HOLDER AND SOUND CONNECTING SYSTEM.

EARTH (GROUND) CLAMP


Proper earth (ground) of the system cannot be over emphasized to its importance in achieving quality and efficient welding. The earth completes the electrical circuit back to the welding machine. Any resistance i.e. earth not firm enough or insufficient cross sectional area surface contact in

relation to the cable size will cause electrical resistance, voltage drop will occur with the resultant heat build up in the cable and earth clamp and poor arc characteristics. Since the conductivity of copper is almost 7 times that of mild steel, the cross sectional area of any common steel grounding bar should be at least 7 times the cross section of the welding cable conductor. It is good practice to ensure that the area of earth contact is adequate, free from scale, rust, oil, grease, oxides, or dirt that would act as areas of insulation. PROPER EARTH IN ALL WELDING SYSTEMS IS A PRE-REQUISITE IN OBTAINING GOOD ARC CHARACTERISTICS AND WELD QUALITY. CABLE CONNECTORS Connecting the current conducting welding cable to either the welding machine or extending the length of welding cable is normally done by either using cable lugs or cable connectors. Again the cross sectional area and soundness of the connection of the cable to these connectors is important in assuring good electrical flow and reducing the possibility of resistance, heat build up, voltage drop and poor arc characteristics. ADEQUATE AND UNINTERUPTED ELECTRICAL FLOW ENSURES GOOD ARC CHARACTERISTICS AND WELD QUALITY.

WELDING SAFETY CHECKLIST

HAZARD

SEVERITY FACTORS

PRECAUTION SUMMARY
Insulate welder from work piece and ground using dry insulation. Rubber mat or dry wood. Wear dry, whole free gloves. (Change if damaged)

Electric shock can kill you

Wetness Welder in or on work piece

Do not touch electrically hot parts or electrode with bare skin or wet clothing. Confined space Electrode holder and cable insulation If wet area and welder cannot be insulated from work piece use a stick welder with voltage reducing device.

Fumes & gases can be dangerous

Confined areas Positioning of welders head Lack of general ventilation Electrode types i.e., manganese, chrome, etc Base metal coatings, galvanized, paint, etc

Use ventilation or exhaust or respirators to keep air breathing zone clear, comfortable. Use helmet and positioning of head to minimize fumes in breathing zone. Do not weld unless ventilation is adequate. Provide additional ventilation where special ventilation requirements are called for. Use special care when welding in confined areas. Read warnings on electrode container or material safety data sheets to access level of Air contamination during welding and type of respiratory equipment recommended.

Welding sparks can cause fire or explosion

Containers which have held combustible or flammable materials

Do not weld on containers that have held combustible materials. Check carefully before welding. Remove flammable materials from welding area or shield from sparks - heat. Keep a fire extinguisher in the immediate area. Wear fire retardant clothing and safety cap. Use earplugs for overhead welding.

Arc rays can burn Process: gas shielded eyes and skin
arc is the most severe

Select the correct filter lens suited for the process you are using and that provides you with the best eye comfort and safety. Always use a helmet giving most facial area protection. Provide non-flammable shielding to protect other operators in the vicinity. Wear correct protective clothing that protects your skin while welding.

Confined space

Metal enclosure Wetness Restricted entry Heavier than air gas Welder inside or on work piece

Carefully evaluate adequacy of ventilation especially where electrode requires special ventilation or where gas may displace breathing air. If basic electric shock precautions cannot be followed to insulate welder from work and electrode, use stick welder fitted with voltage reduction device. Provide welder and his helper with easy method of retrieval from outside enclosure in case of emergency.

General work area hazards

Cluttered areas Indirect ground (earth) connections

Keep hoses, cables, materials, and tools, steel sections, organized. Connect earth cable as close as possible to area where welding is being performed. Do not allow alternate circuits through scaffolds, hoist chains, building framework, other ground leads or separate work pieces. Use properly insulated and grounded equipment. Always disconnect power supply to equipment when servicing or repairing.

Electrical Equipment Use in open, well ventilated areas. Refuel with engine switched off. Engine driven equipment Keep all necessary guards/covers on machine. If using as auxiliary power ensure that proper earth/grounding is achieved. Never touch gas cylinders with the electrode. Never lift a machine with the cylinder attached Gas cylinders Keep cylinders in the upright position and chained for support.

GUIDE FOR WELDING CABLE P.V.C. COVERING


COLOR I.D. OF P.V.C. GREEN BLUE GREY RED BROWN YELLOW BLACK CONDUCTOR NOMINAL AREA mm2 16 25 35 50 70 95 120 100% 135 180 225 285 355 430 500 85% 145 195 245 310 385 470 540 60% 175 230 290 370 460 560 650 30% 245 300 410 520 650 700 910 20% 300 400 500 635 795 900 1120 + - CURRENT IN AMPS FOR DUTY CYCLE OF: MAXIMUM OVERALL DIA. mm 11.5 13.0 14.5 16.5 19.0 21.5 25.0 APPROX. MASS KG/100m 216 350 470 639 814 1108 1420