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Assignment 2

Building Materials (QSB 1513)

Site Research Report


Bachelor of Quantity Surveying (Hons) - APRIL 2013 Abby Ling Lili 0309127 Chu Kah Yan 0308507 Choo Choy Leng 0310096 Derek Yung Lih Shiuan 0308511 Janice Kong Yin Ying 0308798 Ruth Teo 0307901
Page Assignment 2 Building Material (QSB 1513) BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

Table of Content

Content

Page

Introduction

Appropriate Usage/Application

Physical and Chemical Properties

Advantages and Disadvantages

Suitability/Sustainability

Aesthetical Value

Performance Behaviour

Maintenance

10 - 11

Conclusion

12

Photo Gallery

13

References

14-16

Assignment 2

Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Introduction

On 7th June 2013, Pn. Hasmanira organized a trip for us to Segamat, Johor and also Melaka. This study trip is basically for us to visit to understand and explore more about building materials. On the first day, we went to AJIYA, a company that manufacture high-quality glass products, metal roofing, metal door and window frames, floor decks, metal ceiling and other building materials. The trip was also organized to help on our group assignment which is about the further research of glass and metal. After the trip, the research for us is much easier as we had witnessed the actual process of manufacturing the glass and metal. (AJIYA, 2008). The next day, we went to Melaka to discover more similar materials that has been adapted in various kinds of buildings. For this assignment, we are require to choose two types of metals for further research on their appropriate usage/application, physical and chemical properties, advantages and disadvantages, suitability/sustainability, performance behaviour and maintenance. The 2 types of metals chosen by us are Iron and Aluminium. Iron is a common metal used in construction as the strength is quite high and easy to work with compare to others. For aluminium, it is one of the lightest metals among all the metals and it can be used widely as it is a non-ferrous metal which does not contain any iron and rust easily.

Assignment 2

Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Appropriate Usage/Application

Iron is the most regularly encountered metal in daily life, as it is an important component in every structure, in every type of construction. Buildings, bridges, skyscrapers, and other types of structure would not be finished if it does not consist of iron in its framework. Thats the same thing goes by automobiles, aircrafts, ships, heavy carriers, and heavy machineries. It is a fact that, Iron is also useful at home. For wrought iron, it is used in outdoor things that can decorate the yard and the patio. There are iron fences, trellis, and even the most decorative iron furniture can be made of iron. For cast iron, it is an important form that is used to makes pots, pans, ovens, and trays as cast iron has a heating element. (Uses Of, 2013) For aluminium, it is a popular metal that has many uses and useful properties. It is used at home, in construction, car parts and also in most of the modes of transportation. As in home, it is used for frames of windows, door knobs and to make utensils in the kitchen. For construction, most of the construction material uses aluminium to make it. E.g.: windows, pins, doors and etc. Moreover, aluminium is also famous to make the parts of aircraft carriers as it is a light weight metal. (Shivade, 2013)

Assignment 2

Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Physical & Chemical Properties

Iron is a silvery-white or greyish metal. Iron without carbon, it is softer and more malleable, ductile and magnetic. Malleable is the capability of being shaped, iron can form into thin sheets easily by hammering; while ductile is the capability of forming into a desired shape by using tension, it can form into thin wires. Iron is magnetic in a magnetic field where it will attract magnet or vice versa. Iron dissolves quickly in dilute acids and corrodes faster in a high temperature. Generally, iron has a high tensile strength; it can be stretched without breaking. Iron with carbon, the strength is greater and it will be harder, but the ductility and weld-ability will be reduced. Iron is an active metal and readily combines with oxygen in moist air. The product of the reaction is iron oxide (Fe2O3) which also known as rusting. It will produce hydrogen gas with it react with hot water or steam. Iron is one of the metals in the first transition series. Iron has atomic number 26, atomic weight 55.85 g mol, and stable isotopes 54 (5.9%), 56 (91.6%), 57 (2.2%) and 58 (0.33%). It has 7.86 g/cm3 for the density. The boiling point is around 3000C while the melting point is around 1535C. Aluminium is also a silvery-white metal. Generally the properties are almost same with iron or other metals. It is also soft, malleable and ductile but it is a nonmagnetic metal. It is one of the lightest metals with low density around 2.70 g/cm3. It is easier to be machined, cast, drawn and extruded. Like most of the metal, aluminium is also a good thermal and electrical conductor. Aluminium will not rust easily as when it exposed to air, a thin layer of aluminium oxide is formed and preventing further oxidation; thus, the corrosion resistance is improved. When aluminium is oxidized by water, it will produce hydrogen gas and heat. It is categorized in posttransition metal. Aluminium has an atomic number of 13 and an atomic weight of 26.981539 g mol. Although it has many isotopes but only
26 27

Al (stable isotope) and

Al (radioactive isotope) occur naturally. The boiling point is around 2467C while
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Assignment 2

Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

the melting point is much lower compare to iron which is only 660.37C.

Advantages and Disadvantages

With the used of 25 million metric tons in a year, aluminium become the second most commonly used metal in the industries after steel. If you think of this metal, lightness is the property of aluminium that first comes to our mind. Aluminium is the lightest among all metal, the structure made by aluminium can be 50% lighter than a structure made up by stainless steel. Besides that, it has high thermal conductivity; hence it is a good heat conductor. It is very good resistance to corrosion, hence the appearance of a product made by aluminium can preserved longer and maintain a good surface appearance even though after a period of time. The ease of use because aluminium alloy can be processed without the need of machine tools and ease of recycling causes this metal widely use in the construction industries. Besides the good sides of aluminium, there are also some disadvantages. Aluminium has poor mechanical strength which it can be easily extruding and casting into solid or other shapes. In addition, aluminium has high and fluctuating cost. The iron making process was first discovered in Hittite around 2000 BC. Since then, iron continued to be used in making products for the following 4000 years because of it good performance in formability and usability iron. Besides that, Iron had been widely used in engineering application because of it high strength and low cost to made structural component for building. Despite the advantage, there is an exception; the disadvantage of iron is it will rust easily.

Aluminium VS Iron

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Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Suitability/Sustainability

Sustainability is a simple concept for a business or industry to put its verbal maintain behind. As we know that, steel is one of the most recycled materials on the Earth, more than all other materials combined. It shows that iron has a higher capital cost compared to PVC and aluminium but their whole life costs over a 100 year life cycle are only 35% of that of PVC and aluminium. The materials also have a significantly lower impact in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions than PVC and aluminium. From an environmental aspect, it shows that irons are much greener and sustainable than the modern materials. (admin, 2008) For aluminium, it shows that aluminium has highly successful sustainability initiative by the aluminium industry was its creation of the aluminium can recycling infrastructure. Other than that, much of the aluminium role is to reduce the emissions, fuel use, and energy consumption come, of course, through a products lifespan particularly in automotive and transportation. As a result, it shows that aluminiums light weight and combined with its durability could result in a very dramatic fuel and emissions savings. (Duration, 1985) Besides that, the recycling process of the aluminium also creates high quality of aluminium which loses none of the physical properties of primary aluminium and also uses just 5% of the energy it takes to generate primary aluminium. (Aluminum, 2001)

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Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Aesthetic Value

With the help of modern technology, metals are no longer just a product with optimal functionality. The industries tend to improve the appearance of the metal product to become more aesthetic in value. Aluminium and Iron has become a popular choice on decorative purpose. Both have been commonly used as gate, railing, frame, fencing and others. From the visit to the metal factory, we found that aluminium can be manufacture as a roofing product, strip ceiling, regal tiles ceiling and so forth. The factory had manufactured various types of roofing product, all of them have several colours for selection, and they are all with stylish asymmetrical curve. As for strip ceiling it is manufactured from colour coated aluminium coil. It form a linear appearance with square or round edges design which helps enhance the perspective of building internally as well as externally (Ajiya, 2008). Iron are commonly use in forming gate and railing, the design are vary and depends on the customer desire. The common designs are diamond shape, flower pattern, straight and circle shape etc. The modern type of iron railing and gate, have simpler and straight forward outlook. It enhances the perspective of the building.

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BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Performance/Behaviour

Iron Iron is a good material to be used in construction because it is strong, tough, easily formed and worked, and very importantly, cheap compared to the alternatives (Calvert, 2002). Iron is also used as one of the main component in alloys such as stainless steel which contains 74% iron. The disadvantages of the performance of iron are its weight and being able to rust (Calvert, 2002). When iron is exposed to damp air, a brown surface will form on the surface of the metal. This is when rusting starts to occur. Rusting occurs in the presence of iron, oxygen and water. Therefore, iron is not commonly use in areas that are exposed to air and water. In order to avoid rusting a coat of paint is usually painted on the iron. Therefore, iron is often combined with other metals to form alloys that will make the metal stronger and corrosion-resistant. Aluminium Aluminium is a material that is used widely in the construction industry because it is lightweight, easily shaped and corrosion-resistant. It is corrosion resistant because when the surface of aluminium metal is exposed to air, a protective oxide coating forms almost instantaneously. This oxide layer is corrosion resistant and can be further enhanced with surface treatments such as anodising (Aalco, 2005). The cost of aluminium is rather more expensive compared to iron which is one of the disadvantages. Lastly, window and door frames are made from anodised aluminium and therefore do not require painting because the aluminium oxide layer prevents them from attack by air and water.

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Building Material (QSB 1513)

BQS-April 2013 (Sem1)

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Maintenance

Maintenance of Iron A lot of the architecture used iron decoratively and structurally. The retention of traditional ironwork such as gates and railings can be enormously beneficial to the quality and character of the building. Such period features enhance the appearance and value of traditional buildings, and are costly to replace if they are removed. This is why building owners and occupiers should maintain and repair their existing iron gates and railing. Regular maintenance Regular maintenance is the most effective method of prolonging the life of ironwork. Annual inspections should be conducted to check for: damage to paint coatings signs of corrosion missing sections damage to stone copes

DOs and DONTs DO clean the surface of the existing paint thoroughly using water, taking care to remove any areas of rust, dirt or grease, and then sandpaper the paint to provide a good key for the fresh coats. DONT paint over rust. A clean, well prepared surface is essential before applying paint. This will ensure that the paint adheres properly to the iron and will improve its effectiveness. It will also prolong the life of the paint.

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Maintenance of Aluminium The best way to keep aluminium looking pristine is regular cleaning to remove any buildup of dirt. If left for an extended period of time, grime can cause staining and depending on the extent of staining will require a harsher cleaning system to remove the stain. In cleaning aluminium one should always start with the mildest method possible and only move to successively harsher treatments if absolutely necessary. Cleaning Methods of Aluminium The cleaning methods in ascending order of harshness are: Plain water Mild soap / detergent solvents such as kerosene, turpentine or white spirit Non-etching chemical cleaner Wax-based polish Abrasive wax Abrasive cleaner

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Conclusion

Throughout this assignment, we have improved our understanding towards the building materials that we had discovered during the study trip, especially the types of metals that had been chosen by us for this assignment which is iron and aluminium. We had seen that metal can be manufactured into various kinds of products. Aluminium is one of the most popular metals manufactured in factory as it is more widely used in buildings compared to iron. Although the price of aluminium is slightly higher, consumer still usually choose to use aluminium more than iron is because the maintenance in long run for iron is higher. We also explored a lot of special features and also the process of manufacturing Iron and Aluminium. We must fully understand the pros and cons of the metals in order to help us on deciding suitable material in the construction. Besides that, we had also learned to improve our teamwork among our group members. We learned how to cope in some obstacles that we had faced while doing this group assignment. This is essential as teamwork is needed in our future career in order for us to complete a project successfully.

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Photo Gallery

Aluminium Product (Roofing)

Iron Product (Railing & Gate)

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References
1. Aalco (2005, May 17). Aluminium - An Introduction To Aluminium Properties, Production and Applications, Supplier Data by Aalco. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2861#_Building_and_Architect ure

2. Admin (2008). Iron and copper: "More sustainable than modern materials" Greenbang. Retrieved from: http://www.greenbang.com/iron-and-copper-more-sustainable-than-modernmaterials_3608.html

3. Aluminum (2001). Aluminum | Aluminum and Sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.aluminum.org/Content/NavigationMenu/NewsStatistics/Sustainabi lity/default.htm#Lifecycle%20Considerations

4. Anonymous (n.d). Aluminium: Aluminium,Al Retrieved from:


http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/102aluminum.html

5. Azom.com (2011). Aluminium - Handling, Storage, Maintenance and Cleaning, Supplier Data by Aalco. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2857#_Maintenance [Accessed: 6 July 2013]. 6. Calvert, J. B. (2002, December 13). Iron. Retrieved July 10, 2013, from: http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/iron.htm

7. Charbroil.com (2013). How do I keep my cast iron grates from rusting? [online] Retrieved from:http://www.charbroil.com/maintenance/keep-cast-iron-gratesfrom-rusting.html [Accessed: 5 July 2013]

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8. Davies, G. ( Oct 21, 2003 ). Materials for Automobile Bodies Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=s0i32LSfrJ4C&pg=PA87&dq=advanta ge+%26+disadvantage+of+aluminium&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uUXcUZCkBoWCr gfRr4Eo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=advantage%20&f=false

9. Duration (1985). Aluminium Sustainability - Duration Windows. Retrieved from: http://www.duration.co.uk/AluminiumSustainability.asp

10. J.B. Calvert (2002). Iron: Iron. Retrieved from:


http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/iron.htm

11. J. Weidner, S. Fujimoto, G. S. Frankel, T. Haruna.( Aug 1, 2009). Critical Factors in Localized Corrosion 6, in Honor of Professor Shibata, Issue 52 Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=0o4DnYptWdgC&pg=PA331&dq=disa dvantage+of+iron&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uNjcUZ73EMPyrQfU3oGADg&redir_e sc=y#v=onepage&q=disadvantage%20of%20iron&f=false

12. Muljadi, Paul . Iron Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=fGcX4ZjbsqgC&pg=PA14&dq=disadv antage+of+iron&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uNjcUZ73EMPyrQfU3oGADg&redir_esc =y#v=onepage&q=disadvantage%20of%20iron&f=false 13. Reeves, E. A., Heathcote, M. ( Jun 17, 2013). Newnes Electrical Pocket Book Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=KcI99VbjwPwC&pg=PT40&dq=disad vantage+of+aluminium&hl=en&sa=X&ei=VwHZUZvnB8KFrAfpuoGQAg&

14. Shivade, M. (2013). Aluminium: Uses of Aluminium.


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redir_esc=y

Retrieved from: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/aluminum-uses-of-aluminum.html

15. Uses of (2013). Uses of Iron | Uses Of. Retrieved from: http://www.usesof.net/uses-of-iron.html

16. Vargel, C. (Oct 2, 2004). Corrosion of Aluminium Retrieved from: http://books.google.com.my/books?id=NAABS5KrVDYC&pg=PR9&dq=adv antage+of+aluminium&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wP_YUZ3AG4SBrgeXsIAo&redir_ esc=y#v=onepage&q=advantage%20of%20aluminium&f=false

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