Presented to the

LIBRARY of the
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
from the

ARTHUR PLETTNER
ISA

McILWRAITH

COLLECTION

THE

COMPOSER'S
A
..OF

HANDBOOK

(Curwen's Edition, 5683.)

GUIDE TO THE PRINCIPLES

MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

By RALPH DUN STAN,
Mus. Doc. Cantab,
Professor
of

etc.

Music,

Westminster

and
of

Southlands

Colleges

Author

of

"A

Cyclopaedic

Dictionary

Music,"

etc.

SECOND EDITION

LONDON
J

:

CURWEN & SONS

Ltd.,

24

BERNERS STREET, W.

Price Five Shillings net cash.

DEDICATED,
BY KIND PERMISSION, TO

SIR

CHARLES VILLIERS STANFORD,
ML'S.D.

KNT.

(OXON ET CANTAB)

;

D.C.L.

;

LL.P.

;

PROFESSOR
J

OF MUSIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

PROFESSOR OF COMPOSITION AT THE

ROYAL COLLEGE OF MUSIC
KTC. ETC.

J

(iii)

PREFACE.
T
THE
object of this
1.
:

-r

work is fourfold To provide teachers with a large number of varied and suggestive exercises from which a selection may be made to suit the requirements of classes or individual pupils. 2. To provide students who cannot secure the help of a competent teacher with a
graduated Course of Instruction in Practical Composition. 3. To serve as an introduction to the study of musical form. 4. To serve as a handbook of reference in connection with all the principal features of elementary musical composition. The author's experience as a teacher has convinced him that condensed and didactic " statements of facts and theories are of little use to the elementary student. Line upon " will alone avail to produce an abiding impression. Hence line, and precept upon precept " the general principles of composition what the late Rev. John Curwen called the Common" have been steadily kept in view, enforced by constant reiteration, and places of Music illustrated by numerous examples from the works of past and present composers while, to prevent the student's attention from being diverted to side issues, no attempt has been made to deal with those extraordinary and exceptional developments of music which lie beyond average attainment, nor with the exaggerated and bizarre efforts of those composers who endeavour to take music out of its proper sphere. The Table of Contents indicates the general scope of this work but it may be mentioned that Cadences, which are always particularly difficult for the beginner to manage Several tables have effectively, are treated with special fulness in the first four chapters. been prepared to show exactly what cadences the older composers were in the habit of using,
; ;

and

also the tendencies of

modern

practice

;

and

it is

useful, not only to students,

but to teachers.

Among

hoped that these tables will be found other topics which have received
Accompaniments,

special attention are Songs, Two-part and Three-part Writing, Pianoforte Accompaniments for Strings, and Scoring for Small Orchestras.

Although

this

is

not avowedly a treatise on Musical Form,
;

all

the smaller forms of

while the analyses of the larger forms (Sonata, Symphony, composition are fully discussed out the lines of study necessary for their more complete to are sufficient point etc.),
investigation.

The Author begs to express his warmest thanks to his friend, Dr. Hamilton Robinson, F.R.C.O., A.R.A.M., Professor of Harmony and Composition at the Guildhall School of Music, for kindly reading the whole of the proofs of the following pages, and for suggesting numerous emendations and additions which have greatly enhanced their value. Thanks
are also due to Sir Charles V. Stanford, and to Messrs. Novello and Co., for permission to include in Chapter XII a number of examples of string accompaniment selected from the " full score of The Revenge ; to Sir Frederick Bridge, and to the Proprietors of Hymns Ancient " and Modern," for permission to insert the hymn-tune St. Beatrice," on page 53 and to Messrs. Curwen and Sons for permission to utilise several extracts from the Author's
;

"

Cyclopaedic Dictionary of Music."

RALPH DUNSTAN.

DECEMBER,
5683

1909.

(iv)

CONTENTS.
PAGE

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION ........

On Composition in General ...... Materials of Composition ....... Usual Errors of Beginners .................................

When

Preliminary Study of Melody ............................. to begin Composition ......

How

Composers work
II.

...................
........

CHAPTER

SINGLE AND DOUBLE CHANTS

............................................................ Tonality Chief Rules of Melodic Progression ...................................... Mental Effects ...........

7

Cadences ............................................ 7 ...................... Single Chants in Major Keys ........ 7-1 Usual Cadences ..................................... Modulations possible ............................ Devices of Sequence and Imitation ................... Feminine Cadences .................................. Table of Middle Cadences .......................... ............................... Single Chants in Minor Keys Usual Cadences ...................................... ......... 13-15 15 Table of Middle Cadences ................................ Changeable Chants .................................................... Double Chants in Major Keys .............................. 16 Table of Cadences ....................................... ......... Specimens of Good Cadence Plans ................................ 16-19
Devices of Imitation, etc ........................................... Additional Tabulated Cadence Plans ................................ Double Chants in Minor Keys .......................................... Table of Cadences ................................................
19

20 20 20 Typical Specimens .............................................. 20-22 Model Cadence Plans .............................................. 23 23 Special Notes on the Perfect Cadence ....................................

CHAPTER

III. FOUR-LINED HYMN-TUNES ................................ Measure and Accent .................................................. Metrical Accent Simple Measures ...................................... Compound Measures ..... ............................. Accents of Divided Beats .............................................. Character of the Measures .............................................. Unusual Measures .................................................... Metre in Poetry ..................................................... Verbal and Musical Accents ... ..................................... ............................. Style of Melody advisable in Hymn-Tunes Style of Harmony advisable in Hymn Tunes .............................. Cadences of Four-lined Major Tunes ....................................
:

24 24 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 28 29 30

5683.

CONTENfS.

V

CHAPTER

III

continued.

Iambic Metres Short Metre Common Metre Long Metre
Trochaic Metres
Dactyllic, Amphibrachic, Irregularities of Metre

PAGE 31 31

and Anapaestic Metres
'

Cadences of Four-lined Minor Tunes Specimens of Four-lined Minor Tunes Selected Cadential Chords

32 32 35 36 38 38 39
41

CHAPTER

IV. TUNES TO Five-lined Hymns

HYMNS WITH MORE THAN FOUR LINES

Cadence Plans
Six-lined

Hymns

-.

Three Sets of Two Analysis of Cadence Plans Two Sets of Three Analysis of Cadence Plans Analysis of Cadence Plans, Minor Six-lined Tunes
Seven-lined
Eight-lined

'.

Hymns Hymns Hymns
SONGS

Specimens of Cadence Plans
Typical Tunes
Selected Cadence Plans

Twelve-lined

42 42 42-43 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 49 49 50-52 53
.

CHAPTER

V.

Folk-Songs and Art-Songs
Ballads and Through-composed Songs Structure of Ballads Specimens of Ballad-form Accompaniment suitable to Ballads
Essentials of an Accompaniment Examples of various styles of Accompaniment

Art-Songs in Ballad-form Extension of Ballad-form Analysis of Schubert's Linden Tree
Styles of Pianoforte Accompaniment Through-composed Songs

The Aria The Scena

57 57 57 57 57-59 59 59 60-66 66 68 68-70 71-76 77 78 78 79 79 83 85 87

CHAPTER

VI. DUETS, TRIOS, ETC General Rules of Two-part Writing Three-part Writing Unison Passages and other devices Male-voice Music

CHAPTER

MELODY IN VII. Factors of Melody Melodic Direction

GENERAL

Ascending Passages Descending Passages Repeated Notes Prolonged Single Notes Melodic Range or Extent
5683.

89 89 89 89 89 92 94 96

VI

CONTENTS. VII
continued.

CHAPTER

Melodic Intervals Time, Rhythm, Accent Rhythmical Contents of Measures Melodies based on Arpeggios

97
1

103
107 107
1

CHAPTER

VIII.

ECONOMY OF MELODY

Repetition Imitation and Sequence Ground Basses Variations Metrical Form Regular Four-fold Sentences Extended and Irregular Sentences

]

117 125 125 129

CHAPTER

IX. Two OR MORE SENTENCES IN SUCCESSION Two-sentence Paragraphs

132 132
1

Simple Dance Forms Three-sentence Paragraphs

Song Form Groups of Sentences

in

Song- form

Special Exercises in Song Minuet and Trio Form

Form

Marches Two-sentence March
Three-sentence March Minuet and Trio Form of March " " March Mendelssohnian Various Complete Dance Forms

135 135 137 137 138 140 140
141

141

142 145 148 148 153 156 159 162
164 164 165 165 169 169-171 172 173 174 174
177 177 177 178 178

CHAPTER X
Counterpoint

Canon Fugue
Modulation
Phrasing

CHAPTER XI
Rondo Form
Polyphonic and Homophonic Music
Part-songs, Madrigals, Glees

Choruses

The usual Regular Forms Anthems and Services The Cantata, Oratorio, and Opera The Overture
Recitative

CHAPTER

XII. ACCOMPANIMENTS IN GENERAL Accompaniment for Stringed Orchestra The Strings
the Strings are used General Principles of String Accompaniments to Choral Music Typical Illustrations The Instrumental Bass String Accompaniments of Solos, etc

How

Typical Illustrations

Organ Accompaniment
5683.

179-208 209 210 21 1-214 215

CONTENTS.

Vli

CHAPTER

XIII. SCORING FOR SMALL ORCHESTRAS Wind Instruments How to Write for Transposing Instruments Transposition Table How to use the Wind Instruments in combination with the Strings, or alone, Orchestral Sketches The Piano and the Orchestra

PAGE 217 217

220
221
etc.

Examples of Simple Scoring A Loud Piece

A Quiet A Loud

A A

Piece Piece with alternated Soft Passages Cornet Solo

Simple March

First

Movement

of a Set of Waltzes

222 223 223 224 224 226 230 234 237 246
254 254 255 255 256 256 257 258 259 260
261

CHAPTER XIV
Concluding Remarks on Form in General Sonata Form Romantic Music Program Music Imitative Music
.

Word-painting Leading Themes Thematic Development The Church Modes Harmony of the Church Modes Examples of the Church Modes
Musical Forms not previously discussed Shaping a Melodic Idea

Beauty
5683.

in

Music

261-265 265 268 269

THE COMPOSER'S HANDBOOK.
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION.
"
"
I.

Es

ist

des Lernens hein

Ende
.

"

("There

is

no end of learning.")
melodies, that
is
.
.
.

Schumann.
;

but if they come into If, while at the piano, you attempt to form very well The fingers must do what your mind of themselves, you may be still more pleased. the head desires not the contrary. " If you begin to compose, work it out in your head. Do not try a piece on your instrument, except when you have fully conceived it. " If heaven has bestowed on you a fine imagination, you will often be seated at your piano in solitary hours, as if attached to it you will desire to express the feelings of your heart in harmony, and the more clouded the sphere of harmony may perhaps be to you, the more mysteriously you will feel as if drawn into magic circles. Beware, however, of abandoning yourself too often to the influence of a talent that induces you to lavish powers and time, as it were, upon phantoms. Mastery over the forms of composition and a clear expression of your ideas can only be attained by constant writing. Write, therefore, more than The you improvise. By means of industry and perseverance you will rise higher and higher. Schumann. spirit will not become clear to you until you understand the forms of composition."
little
. .

;

;

.

.

.

.

.

.

Composition in General. 1 Musical composition is, undoubtedly, the highest branch of the Art of Music and the last few years have witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of earnest students of this
;

subject.

2 Composition is, and should be, studied not so much with a view to publication " Providence protect us," says the late Sir G. A. Macfarren, from the reams of rubbish " which would ensue upon such a contingency but mainly with a view to self-culture and increased musical perception. Where it does not engender self-conceit the practice of composition is of the utmost value in enabling the student to understand and appreciate the beauties of form, construction, and style of the works of the Great Masters. 3 It might be supposed, considering the extensive treasures which the composers of the past have left us, and the enormous number of compositions of every kind constantly emanating from the press, that there would remain little for the would-be composer to glean from a field which already appears to be over-worked in every direction. But though it would seem that the resources of simple melody are almost exhausted, there is still room for originality and true creative power. 4 In an article in the Musical Times, Sept., 1894, it was shown that even with such a short musical form as the Anglican Single Chant, which consists in its simplest statement of ten notes, no less than sixty million different melodies are possible, without "regarding the multitudinous differences formed by passing and auxiliary notes, harmonies, and rhythmical accentuation." Supposing only one in a hundred of these tunes to be musically interesting, we have a possible And if this be true of such a simple and restricted form repertory of 600,000 single chants. of melody, with what overwhelming force does it apply to longer and more important
"

compositions. 5 Apart, however, from mathematical calculations, it can be safely said that though the number of creative composers must necessarily be few, the number of imitative composers may be legion. And it must be remembered that even the greatest composers have begun by being " more or less imitative. Not one great composer, not one great sculptor or painter, has ever the world to his feet who has not laid his foundations upon the work already done by brought the best of his predecessors. Composers do not, as a rule, spring ready-made out of the head of Jupiter if they do', it is because they have already absorbed what is best in Jupiter's
. .

;

brains. Bach without Schiitz and Buxtehude, Beethoven without Haydn and Mozart, Wagner without Gluck and Weber the instances are countless and incontrovertible would have been impossibilities" (Sir C. V. Stanford}. " Their work was only made possible by the work " of those who went before them Their individuality and genius developed (Sir Hubert Parry). with advancing knowledge and the technical skill acquired by means of study and practice.

2

The Composer's Handbook.

We

believe that most musically endowed persons can learn to compose music, with correctness and some amount of success, up to a certain fair standard, if they will take the same pains to construction as would be indispensable ascertain the rules and principles underlying musical in the study of English grammar and syntax for purposes of literary composition.

Materials of Composition. " to make bricks without straw," so 6 Just as the ancient Israelites found it impossible the would-be composer of the present generation will find it impossible to make any progress The in musical composition without some adequate knowledge of the materials for his work. in the musical field have been accumulating these materials from the earliest toilers of list long and they now lie ready to the student's hand if he will only exercise the periods of history, and industry necessary to collect them. patience 7 The two great essentials of composition are TUNE (or Melody) and TIME including
:

and Rhythm. knowledge 8 Accessory, but important, features are (a) Harmony, Cadence, Modulation (b) Counter(d) Thematic Development (c) Design or Form (e) Dynamics point, Imitation, Canon, Fugue and Expression (/) Compass and Capabilities of Voices and Instruments (g) Accompaniment and Orchestration (h) Style. 9 In its broadest sense, any successive musical sounds may be said to constitute melody " " " notes in succession notes in combination." For Harmony, thus, Macfarren Melody, the purposes of musical effect, however, other conditions have to be fulfilled besides mere sucArtistic melody implies order and design, based in the first instance on well-defined cession. Tonality, Scale-structure, and Key-relationship. and prior to the year 1600 A.D., melodies were 10 During the early ages of Christianity, " " Old Church Modes," or The Gregorian Tones." mostly founded on what we now call the and chords about intervals a central of and governing tonic, or key-note, poising grouping The experiments made in was either entirely unknown, or at best, but vaguely ]>erceived. harmony and composition during the I7th century gradually led to the establishment of the scales but even now the old modes are frequently used in church present major and minor music, and they are occasionally employed in secular music. The essential and natural relationships of the various major and minor scales are now 11 so well understood that advanced modern composers Wagner, Strauss, and Debussy, for obscure their tonalities often them purposely vague in order intentionally making example to obtain special effects, which, to audiences of a hundred years ago, would have been perfectly
of Scales, Keys, Accent, Metre,
;
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

unintelligible.

Usual Errors of Beginners. 12 Vagueness and incoherence of a quite different and non-artistic character may frequently This is generally the result of ignorance, or be found in the music of the young composer. imperfect realization, of the mental effects of notes, chords, and keys. 13 Among the usual errors of beginners may be mentioned (a) The confusion of major and minor modes (b) The introduction, without motive or consistency, of notes foreign to the prevailing scale (c) Un-melodious and difficult leaps in the melody (d) Constant repetition of the same worn-out formulas (e) Notes too high or too low for the voice or instrument to which they are assigned (/) Absence of plan or design in the melody, harmony, arrangement of keys, and general structure of the composition.
:

;

;

;

;

;

The Melodic Faculty and How to Cultivate it. 14 Though we can lay claim to melodists like Sterndale Bennett, Henry Smart, Arthur Sullivan, and others, the gift of spontaneous and sparkling melody of a high order is not one
of the striking characteristics of English composers. Notwithstanding this, the number of persons gifted with melodic instinct and able to conceive and construct tunes quite pleasing and natural, is far greater than would be imagined. Unfortunately this gift is, in the majority

of cases, allowed to remain undeveloped, most young composers being content with a very low standard of attainment, preferring to get something " in print " of " their own composing," however trivial and incorrect, to the laborious and self-criticising study necessary for really

good work.
15 Musicians who are able to conceive such little tunes as we have spoken of possess within themselves the most essential qualification for composition, and those who are destitute of this

Composition in General.

3

faculty will never succeed as composers, except in the most mechanical and mathematical The true composer has always melody surging up, as it were, from the depths of his way. nature. Happy he who is able to catch the fleeting outline, and to give it form and

substance, life and soul. 16 Premising, then, that the melodic faculty is a necessary preliminary to composition, and that the untaught musician will, as a rule, only evolve commonplace and trivial tunes, what can be done to improve and beautify these rudimentary instincts ? The young composer, unless he has a good voice and can sing readily and accurately at sight, should learn He should then play through as some solo instrument such as the violin, flute, or clarinet. of the melodies of etc. of the classical masters as he airs, solos, particularly songs, many can get hold of and especially the melodies of Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert,
;

Schumann, and Mendelssohn.
criticism.

National airs, too, will offer excellent opportunities of observing the construction of simple and natural melodies which have stood the test of time and
In this delightful study he should notice how the flowing outline is constructed not merely 17 as a succession of notes and intervals, but as a series of phrases, sections, and sentences, marked out by cadences more or less pronounced, and made expressive by means of rhythmic variety, In proceeding from Handel contrast, imitation, sequence, points of climax and of repose, etc.
to later composers the student will also notice with interest the tendency more and more to He should further notice how develop extended melodies from little germs, figures, or motives. music and words are fitted to each other in regard to accent. It will be clearly seen that good melodies are not often the result of chance, but of more or less careful design. 18 By such a course of excellent practice the musician of perception and sensibility will he will become saturated with melody of quicken his critical and discriminating faculties the highest kind and he will gain a most valuable knowledge of melodic construction. 19 Thus, while the faculty of melody-making is inborn, it can be immensely improved and " the invention of Pauer (" Musical Forms ") says that developed by study and practice. a beautiful, singing, and expressive melody is one of the surest signs of genius but even the greatest genius will be anxious to purify, strengthen, and vary the melody by means of art
; ;

;

and science."
Other Preparatory Studies.

How much ought one to know before attempting the composition of simple pieces? Composition need not be deferred until all the materials of composition are completely mastered (see Pars. 7 and 8) nor should it be begun without some preliminary knowledge.
20
;

NECESSARY PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS (a) MUSICAL RUDIMENTS* Thorough knowledge of all the Major and Minor
:
:

Scales.

Intervals, Keys,

and Key-relationship.

Transposition, Time-transcription, etc.
(b)

HARMONYf

:

Triads and their Inversions.

The Dominant 7th and its Inversions. Simple Suspensions. The Harmonization of Simple Melodies.
Cadences.

Modulation to nearly-related Keys.
course, gradually add to his stock of chords (from some standard text or inexperienced knowledge of a large number of chords and discords often adds to the beginner's difficulties and as much very fine music has been written with no other harmonies than those enumerated above, the beginner will do well to start modestly. Counterpoint, too, though net at first essential, is a very desirable study. It enlarges the composer's conception of musical composition and adds very considerably to his resources. J

book

of

The earnest student will, of but inaccurate harmony)
;

;

Composers Work. How do composers work? Should I begin with treble or with bass? an instrument, or compose on paper, or mentally?
21
* See the Author's
.4

How

Ought

I

to use

BC

of

Musical Theory

(

Curwen,

2s.).

| See the Author's first Steps in

i Oakey's Counterpoint (Curwen, as od.),

Harmony (Curwen, as.). and Pearce's Student's

Counterpoint (Vincent,

zs.)

are

recommended.

The Composer's Handbook.
These questions are often asked a matter of individual temperament."
;

and the only answer that can be given

is

that

"
it

is

" varied Schumann's views are given at the head of this chapter. Handel long periods of cessation He may be said to have improvised from composition with the most wonderful rapidity of production. many of his works on paper. Rinaldo was written in fourteen days the Messiah in twenty-four enabled He was always teeming with ideas, to which his perfect command of all the resources of counterpoint " When ever-readiness of him to give instantaneous and fluent expression." engaged in composition the " " wonderful power of concentration." was seconded by great industry and his inspiration Haydn, " " notwithstanding the immense number of his compositions," says that he " never was a quick writer." He and the sketched all his compositions at the piano usually during enlarging mornings elaborating them
;

!

.

.

according to rule during the afternoon." Mozart was always thinking-out melodies and storing his memory with them, so that in the years of his manhood he was able to produce the most beautiful and perfect music with a readiness of resource quite " in his It is said that he composed the overture to Don Giovanni entirely and completely unprecedented. " " " the before the first a score head and wrote out the parts without making during night performance. He wrote all his compoSchubert had more musical ideas than he could afford music paper for He often sketched first the melody sitions with the utmost rapidity, and often without premeditation. " " until satisfied with the whole. touched up then added and and bass He kept sketch books in which " every Beethoven, brilliant at improvisation, was slow in writing. he even kept one at his bedside for use in thought that occurred to him was written down at the moment " These sketches were revised again and again before they took final shape. The more they were the night." " " and there is hardly a bar in his music of elaborated the more fresh and spontaneous did they become ; which it may not be said with confidence that it has been re-written a dozen times." Many composers make preliminary sketches of their compositions on two staves, with just the melody and a suggestion of the accompaniment (or perhaps a bass with or without figures). " them." Some composers set aside regular times for composition others work as the fit takes " How do I work? Concerning the composition of his latest opera, Mascagni is reported to have said is all That the work I do. I read the libretto repeatedly through, study it, and learn it almost by heart. When out walking, in my room, while I am travelling, The melodies gradually come to me of themselves. I seize it, and afterwards at the piano play it through, and then the music suddenly a melody comes to me. But work at it I cannot. I always wait Thus bit by bit the opera is completed. fully. shapes itself more " for the mood (1908).
! ; ; ;

:

As far, therefore, as advice can be given, it would be well for the beginner to jot down If a suitable bass any idea that occurs to him (either while at the piano or mentally). suggests itself (and to the real composer some sort of bass nearly always comes with the melody), this bass should also be noted. The preliminary idea should then be revised (mentally, or on " worked paper, or in both ways), until it appears to be suitable for its purpose, and afterwards " into a up composition.
22
at once

Let us suppose, for example, that the following melody and bass suggested themselves for a Double

Chant

:

tt=-i "
>

;

^3

-C?_^>

=
;

P

EEE

This is at once seen to be a weak production, the melody being very monotonous, and the bass even more so but two or three alterations in the melody and a more varied bass (with suitable alto and tenor) would transform it into a passable composition
:

CHAPTER

II.

SINGLE AND DOUBLE CHANTS.
23 The average young composer seems to think and anthem, a church service, a song, or an overture
;

it
is

annoyed
;

writing chants and hymntheir forms are simple and well-defined, and the experience gained in composing them tunes can be readily turned to account in attempting more elaborate works. 24 The Single Chant is the shortest regular musical form. It consists of two phrases of melody in 2-2 time three bars followed by four bars
:

when told by competent critics that his work Much knowledge of musical construction can be gained by

necessary to begin by writing an generally much chagrined or even is comparatively worthless.

examples

In the strict form of the Chant, only semibreves and minims are used, as in (a) ; in less strict florid (slurred) passages are occasionally written, as in (b) and (c). The first note of each phrase is called the Reciting Note, which is continued ad lib. to suit the words, and followed by the rest of the phrase in strict time. Each phrase ends with some sort of Cadence. (See
par. 30.)

25

The most indispensable requisite of musical design is Tonality (or Key-ship). Play the following two or three times on the piano or harmonium
:

(a)

The Composer's Handbook.
The harmony
to the musical ear.

of each of these illustrations is quite correct ; but only (d) sounds entirely satisfactory Each of the others ends in a different key from that in which it begins.

Hence the general
If

G

the piece begins in a minor key, minor and end in G major.

rule that a piece of music should begin and end in the for example, it it may end in the tonic major
;

same key. may begin

in

26 This rule holds for all short pieces of music, and is generally observed in such comas sonatas and symphonies. paratively long compositions but It was formerly thought to be essential in extended works like masses, operas, and oratorios " " in concluding a work of two or three hours' duration in a different key shock to the ear as there is no (See Chap. XI.) from that of the opening movement, the rule is no longer binding for such works.
;

27 It is not often good to begin a (short) piece in a minor key and end in the relative It is even Examples may be found, but the beginner is advised not to imitate them. major. less desirable to begin a (short) piece in a major key and end in the relative minor. In all early exercises, therefore, the student is advised, (a) if he begins in a major key, to end in the same major key ; and (b) if he begins in a minor key, to end in the same minor key. Modulations which may occur during the course of the piece are discussed later.
is supposed to know the usual rules of melodic progression should specially be noted in writing chants and hymn-tunes points Melody is conjunct in character when it proceeds by steps (of a second)

28

The student

;

the following
disjunct,

:

;

when

it

proceeds by
(a)

leaps, or skips

:

Conjunct.

(&)

Disjunct.

As a

rule, steps in

melody are more pleasant than wide skips

:

Better than

v.
however, the notes belong (unless very wide skips are used)
If,

^m
chord, disjunct progressions are usually pleasing

to the
:

same

l
Tonic chord.

Dominant chord.
;

In vocal melody, the major yth is generally difficult and unpleasant in effect the octave is, however, quite easy and good wider intervals than the octave are rarely required in vocal music, though they may be employed consonant intervals being better than dissonant. In instrumental music much greater freedom of progression is allowable. The interval of the minor 7th is generally good in effect. Good. Bad. Good. Bad. Good.
;

Diminished intervals may be used, provided, generally, that the next note after the diminished interval be some note within the interval, thus Dim. 5th. Dim. 4th.
:

The

following progressions are bad Dim. 5th.

:

Dim.

4th.

Single Chants in

Major Keys.

" The congenial tones of a melody give it "its character and general spirit." Curwen. Thus a melody " one which is tones of the scale is generally bold and energetic which is based largely upon the strong " " one in which the is less vigorous, but more flowing and expressive tones based largely on the leaning third of the scale (m) is much dwelt upon is sweet and calm, etc. " " Mr. Curwen gives the following proximate mental effects
;

augmented intervals should at present be avoided. The above rules hold for each of the four parts soprano, alto, tenor, and bass. " " mental effects 29 The character of a melody depends to a considerable extent upon the or in other made the most of notes way any strongly emphasized "specially prominent (as by " Mr. Curwen calls these the congenial tones of the melody. frequent occurrence).
All

N.B.

;

:

STRONG TONES
Dominant, or
Mediant, or Tonic, or

LEANING TONES

ME DOH

SOH

Grand,

bright.

Steady, calm. Strong, firm.

Leading-note, or Submediant, or Subdominant, or Supertonic, or

TE

LAH Sad, weeping. FAH Desolate, awe-inspiring. RAY Rousing, hopeful.

Piercing, sensitive.

These
bar mony.

effects

are

modified by pitch, duration, loudness, accent, repetition, and the accompanying

30
the

In every kind of composition, the skill of the composer is very largely estimated by way in which he manages his cadences. In general, a cadence answers to a punctuation mark, and indicates a point of repose,

either

momentary or complete. The effect of a cadence depends mainly upon cadential chord i.e., whether chord (1) The
:

(2)

(3)

of the Tonic, Dominant, Subdominant, &c. Its approach i.e., the chord or chords preceding it. Its position in the composition i.e., near the beginning, at the middle, or near
:

:

(4)

(5)

the end, etc. Its crowning note i.e., whether root, third, fifth (or even seventh) appears in the treble. " of the cadential chord The " position i.e., root position, first inversion
:

:

(a position, b position), etc.

full close In a single chant the final cadence should be a or, (" perfect cadence ") " The middle cadence, however, admits of considerable plagal cadence." occasionally, a freedom of choice both as to the cadential chord and its approach. " " The most usual middle cadence is a half close or Dominant cadence (S) Grand Chant HUMPHREYS.

31

SINGLE CHANTS IN MAJOR KEYS. " "

;

:

all

chants are in

o

time, the Time-signature

is

generally omitted.

8

The Composer's Handbook.

EXERCISES Compose single chants in the major keys of C, F, G, D, Bb, A, Eb, E, and the middle cadence of each. Vary the "approach" and Ab, using the "half close" for " end with a Plagal cadence (as in No. 3, above). chants the of Some may crowning."
:

not necessary to try to write extremely original melodies ; but each part should be ma \c The " commonplaces of music," as Mr. Curwen calls them, should first be mastered If the composer is endowed with genius or marked originality without far-fetched attempts at originality. control over the recognized musical forms. it will soon manifest itself as he gradually acquires and in these, and all subsequent exercises, The harmonies should be simple, and diatonic in style aimed at by judicious employment of congenial tones. (See Par. 29.) The variety of character should be choice of suitable reciting notes greatly influences the character of a chant.

N.B.

It is

interesting,

if

possible.

;

32

Next

in favour for the

middle cadence

is

the Subdominant chord (F)

:

L
EXERCISES
middle cadence.
:

F

Compose
"

single chants, in various major keys, with a

Subdominant

(F)

33

Two

"

Tonic

yet they are often used.

cadences in a single chant would seem to be objectionably monotonous " " Occasionally they occur with the same crowning note
:

;

TALLIS.

r
-5>-

-GIJ.

-e>-

-5>-

5

=
!

-

In general, however, a different crowning

is

preferable

:

Gregorian/

34

Another favourite cadential chord

is

that of the Submediant (L)

:-

WOODWARD.

.a.
-JOT

3

r

Middle Cadences.
Gregorian.

EXERCISES Compose single chants in various major keys with a Submediant (L) middle also write a few examples with a Tonic (D) middle cadence. cadence 35 The following are illustrations of cadences occasionally used (a) Inverted Tonic cadence (Db)
:

;

:

:

1-

(i)

Inverted Subdominant cadence (Fb)

:

(c)

Super tonic cadence (R)

:

=g :
-J.

^:
R

Ezra:

|CL

:^:

(d)

Inverted Dominant cadence

(Sb)

:

(<?)

Inverted Dominant 71 li cadence

7
(

S6,

7

Srf)

:

.

ya T

g am :tg

r

I |

|~.>J

arz r: ^

"

7

Sd

10

The Composer's Handbook.
Cadence on a second inversion (very rare)
:

(/)

BARNBY.

ra
1

IP1

f

EXERCISES Compose single chants middle cadences on the models given above.
:

in various

major keys with inverted

(or other)

36 A single chant does not admit of many modulations ;* and even if it did, they would be out of place. Transitory modulations to the Dominant key, the Subdominant key, the other closely-related keys are, however, possible and Relative Minor,
:

(a)

Modulation to the Dominant key

:

TRAVERS.

r

(b)

Modulation to the Subdominant key

:

FELTON.

E

Modulation to the Relative Minor

:

Modulation to the Relative Minor of the Subdominant

:

ALDRICH, OR TURNER.

**

rr
:G>_

:

f,

&=t
on the models shown above,
(a],
(b),
(c),

EXERCISES

:

Compose various
is

single chants

and

(d}.

The word "modulation"

used in this work with

its

general meaning of

"any change

of

Key

or Mode."

Devices for Securing Variety.

11

37

Among
(a)

Sequential Melody.

other devices for securing variety, the following may be enumerated (See Sequences, Chap. VIII.) Descending Sequence (falling by a 3rd and rising by a 2nd).

s

:

_
Ascending Sequence
(rising

by a 3rd and

falling

by a 2nd).

IA_I

\CJ

S.

t

Scale passages in treble, bass, or tenor
In Treble.

:

ri

TO-O-

r

In Bass.

F

=r*

-&-

e
In Tenor.
*<ra O'Q**
I

^ ^

^r
f^t
-<ra

t^ga

^
In Bass.

j. ftfd:

J=i

P^f
K-

These forms of cadence are permissible
(c)

in

such cases

;

i.e.,

whenever the bass

is

a

fixed melody.

" Crotch," Par 48.) (See also

The second phrase imitating the

first
!

phrase.

(See Imitation, Chap. VIII).
j

1st

phrase a 2nd lower,

:^zz?2:
-<s>-

L -s>-

-^>

rip=

,

Q

r-

rri

"

n

12

The Composer's Handbook.
1st

l

I

phrase a 3rd lower.

|

Zll
Note the 1st phrase of Alto and Tenor in 6ths.
1st

phrase of Treble.

Db
1st

P=F
phrase a 4th lower.

1^

=
]

Jggt>

.

(d)

etc.

(See also the second

Beginning on an inversion of the Tonic or Dominant chord, on the Subdominant, and third chants above).

f
j.
S6
-0-rfr

^

f=F

Single Chants in

Minor Keys.

13

# Chromatic

cadential chords.

38 Of 100 representative single chants, in major keys, which tabulated, the middle cadences work out as follows
:

we have analysed and
25 23 18 16
5

Dominant, with or without modulation Tonic, or Inverted Tonic (D or Db) Subdominant (F) Submediant (L) Inverted Subdominant (Fb)
.
.

(S)

Supertonic (R) Various other cadences

4
9

TOO

The student should now compose several major chants on the models EXERCISES and should also invent middle cadences, imitations, sequences, exemplified in paragraph 37
:

;

etc., of his

own.

SINGLE CHANTS IN MINOR KEYS.
Single chants in minor keys are constructed on the same general lines but they have a greater tendency etc. have major chants to modulate to the

39

;

as to

Minor chants are not so numerous as major ones. with occasional imitation, chants, sequence, major modulate (transiently) to the Relative Major, than Relative Minor.
:

The ordinary middle cadences 8e (a) Dominant cadence M)
(
:

are as follows

PURCELL.
fcfr

14

The Composer's Handbook,
Relative Major

(b)

Tonic (D) cadence

:

BLOW.

F^=
Jd.

I

I

cWjigjb
41
{

I

e3

J

-n

r

r
CROFT.

r

3^
r

r r
i

^
(c)

Relative Major

Dominant

(S)

cadence

:

TALLIS.

F=ii=3*==i3=B:
"77JY'
.

OS

1

'J

r r J J
.1

(d)

Relative Major

Subdominant

(F)

cadence

:

COOI'ER.

B^l P

r~r 1
TURTON.

(e)

Tonic (L) cadence (minor)

:

r^
:

3
II
I

r

IT
J--

J.
:8-

^

Subdominant

(R) cadence (minor)

:

5 r-r^r

LANGDON.

The

3rd

was

often omitted from the last chord of old compositions in minor keys

Double Chants.

15

40

Other cadences are rare

:

Inversion of the

Dominant 7th

of the Relative Major.

Of 30 representative
follows
:

single chants, in

minor keys, the middle cadences work out as
8

Dominant

8e
(

M)
Tonic (D)

Relative Major Relative Major Relative Major

Dominant (S) Subdominant
(R)

7 6
'

(F)

Tonic

Minor (L) Subdominant Minor Other cadences

3 2
I

3

30

EXERCISES The student should now compose several models given and also plan out new varieties of his own.
:

single chants in minor keys on the

;

41 A Changeable Chant is one in which by an interchange of key-signatures notes are made to serve either as a minor or major melody
:

the same

G minor.

In some changeable chants, only the treble

is

exactly imitated in the Tonic major;

in

others, all the parts are constructed to be imitated (as in the illustration given).

EXERCISES

:

The student may now

exercise his ingenuity in composing changeable

chants in various keys.

DOUBLE CHANTS.
42
off

double chant by double bars.

A

is

twice the length of a single chant, consisting of four phrases

marked

As regards cadences, imitations, and other devices, there is vastly more scope in the conand the student who has carefully followed the struction of a double than of a single chant instructions already given will have little difficulty in composing really good examples of this musical form. 43 It is hardly necessary to observe that the double chant should begin and end in the
;

same key. More extensive modulations are possible than before but character (i.e., to the same keys) as those used in single chants.
;

as a rule they are of the

same

16

The Composer's Handbook.
last
is

Of the four cadences of a major double chant the " tonic crowning." (occasionally Plagal), and generally with a
44
Tonic cadence (with various
"

The

first

always a Tonic cadence cadence is often a
"
;

crownings

").
it

cadence so near the beginning In a four-cadenced melody there is no objection to a Tonic " A perfect cadence " with tonic crowning is, perhaps, the least desirable form. establishes the key."

The second, or middle cadence is usually on the dominant chord (often with a complete modulation to the dominant key). It should not be exactly the same as The third cadence may be varied at discretion.
the final cadence.

The third and fourth cadences may both be tonic cadences but they should be varied in crowning, " " of the tonic chords. position approach, or It is indeed possible to have four tonic cadences. This, however, requires great skill in constructing " to cover the cadential monotony," and it is by no means advised the melody and harmony so as
;

:

'

r -^ ^ g -fin=--r_^zi r^i
i

^^
i
i

r r
"**-

9-~f9rjr

^

=^r

c?_

^-P^^ff^T

^

:

irr

P-^I

r~~T]

^L-~L~T^

<3
I

&
~"fl

^Tr^-^

45

Of 70 representative double chants
(a)

in

major keys the cadences work out as follows
(b)

:

FIRST CADENCE Tonic (D, Db, or DC)
:

29
13

SECOND CADENCE Dominant (S) often with modulation
:

Submediant (L) Subdominant (F) Dominant (S) Supertonic (R or Rb)
Other cadences
.

to the

Dominant key
Rcl.

.

.

.

.

63
3 2 2

Tonic (D)

Minor (**M).. Other cadences
of

Dom.

..

70 70
(r)

THIRD CADENCE

:

Tonic (D), 9; inverted (Db). 9 Supertonic, or inversion (R or R/
.

.

.

.

.

.

18 16
13

Subdominant (F) Submediant (L) Dominant (S)
Other cadences

n
6 6

70 46

The following
(a)
:

are specimens of

good construction
;

:

First cadence,

Tonic (plagal)

second,

Dominant (with modulation)

;

third.

Sub-

dom'nant

ROBINSON.

a well-cadenced chant, the Subdominant chord at the end of the third phrase giving special The admirable balance of cadences also quite covers the want of imitative devices and the seeming monotony of having three reciting notes on C. Many excellent chants are cadenced on this model and the student is advised to write several exercises based on it.
"

This "

is

point

to the concluding perfect cadence.

;

Cadences in Double Chants.
First cadence,

17

(b)

Subdominant

;

second,

Dominant

;

third,

Relative Minor of SubDUPUIS.

dominant, or Supertonic Chord without modulation.

^=r=
_
EXERCISES Write major chants in various keys on these models, (a) and (b). Note the effective melodic imitation in Wesley's Chant, and the inverse imitation in the bass of Dupuis and third phrases). Note also the four different reciting notes (by descending steps) in Wesley.
:

(first

(c)

First cadence, Tonic

;

second,

Dominant

;

third,

Submediant.
BOYCE.

(d)

First cadence,

Submediant

;

second,

Dominant

;

third,

Submediant.

*^

r^*

T-f
EXERCISES
(e)
:

Write chants on models
;

(c)

and

(d).

First
;

cadence)

cadence, Submediant third, Dominant.

second,

Tonic

"
(different

"

crowning

from Final

LA WES

(/)

First cadence,

Subdominant

;

second,

Dominant

;

third,

Tonic (inverted).
COOKE.
]

#*=
!

r=g=h3
i~c?m

^&$gi3 ZEZCCC:
f^-^-gy
i i

*E -G>I
-e>

TO rr
:c

T~r

^J
:

=3 Een

!

pcfc;

j 73-fS
i

-B-

5=!

G
l

-*i- J e ^2Gtr
i

1

--&=?i

L

tfe

EXERCISES

Write chants on models

(e)

and

(/).

18

The Composer's Handbook.
First cadence,

Submediant

;

second,

Dominant

;

third,

Subdominant

(inverted). RUSSEI.L.

cUL^_^a ,-^-J ja=h":its= -p

n

PI
Minor
;

8~*-

Ld.

nr flio

J ^U ff^fg-l-^P^ Lg_^_^:E^-pTJ-J-J
;

(A)

First cadence,

Dominant

of Relative

second,

Dominant

third,

Subdominant.
JONES.
ill

J

J a ,f
,

^

-^ ,A

A

EXERCISES

:

Write chants on models
in

(g)

and
:

(A).

treatment are the following 47 First second, Dominant cadence, Tonic (plagal) (a) phrase on Dominant of Relative Minor.
;

More modern

;

third phrase, imitation of -first

ELVEY.
.C4
11

o P fy~~o o

T

W&mrr
r^zionpc?:
-&-&-

U_

*-*

f->

'

r^

r r

nr

^gjjfrTHK^T^tfM
;

(fc)

First cadence,

Tonic (inverted)

;

second, Relative Minor

third, Relative

Minor of

Subdominant.

(c)

First cadence,

Dominant

(inverted)

;

second,

Dominant 7th

of

Relative Minor
F.

;

third,

Dominant.

^ aa

JAMES.

PP

" Q

S^*

y j.
(d)

i
feminine
"
cadences, etc.

rr

i

:S_
s>
!

-fS-Q-

m

Various

"

,

BLOUNT

Imitative Devices in Double Chants.

19
J.

THOMSON.

EXERCISES Compose chants in various major keys on the models given above and construct other cadence plans of your own. 48 It has already been remarked that " devices " of imitation, etc., are common in double chants.
:

;

id^3^==F

|

|_.

c===tn=n=cr
/
,
|

__,

i

CROTCH.

In this chant, each " part " of the third phrase is the same as in the first phrase, but the notes are and, similarly, the fourth phrase consists of the notes of the second phrase in reverse order The imitations are said to be per recte et retro, or " retrograde.''
,

m reverse order

;

In this example the whole of the bass of the first two phrases is repeated a fifth lower in the third and fourth phrases. The other parts are constructed to " fit in " with this bass as melodiously as circumstances permit.

49 very

effective.
(a)

Occasional unison passages (with or without chordal accompaniment for the organ) are

For mixed

choir.
|

N.B.

EXERCISES

The organ part may be varied at the player's discretion. The student should now compose chants on these models (48 and 49).
:

20

The Composer's Handbook.

50 Without modulating into remote keys or using "extreme" modern discords, over 10,000 Double Chants could be constructed in major keys (without reckoning differently-cadenced "
differences of crownings "). It is therefore obviously impossible to do more in a work of this kind than point out some of the best (as above). The following Cadence-plans of a number of fine modern chants may also be suggestive; the student should construct chants on them, and invent other plans of his own
:

FIRST CADENCE.
(1) (2)
(3)

SECOND CADENCE.
Tonic (D) Tonic, with 3rd crowning (D)

THIRD CADENCE.
Supertonic (R)

Dominant

(S)

Subdommant
Submediant

(F)

Dominant

(S) (S)
(S)

(4)
(5)

Tonic, 5th crowning (D) Subdominant, inverted (Ft)
(L)

Dominant
Dominant

(S)

Dominant, root crowning (S) Dominant, 5th crowning (S)
(S)

Supertonic (R) Dominant, 3rd crowning Dominant, 3rd crowning

(6) (7) (8)
(9)

Supertonic (R) Tonic, 3rd crowning (D) Dom. yth, 3rd inversion

Mediant (M)* "Feminine" Dominant (Dc

Subdominant (F) Submediant (L)
S)

Dom

(10) (12) (14)

Submediant (L) Relative Minor

(L)

(n) Tonic, inverted (Db)

Dom.

7th, ist inversion
ist inversion (R/>)
(S)

(13) Supertonic, (15)
(16) (17)

Dominant, jth crowning Relative Minor (L) Subdominant (F)

(18) (19)

Tonic (D) 7 Rfc) Supertonic 7th, ist inv. Subdom., 5th crowning (F)
(

Dominant (S) Dominant (S) Dom. of Relative Minor (" e Af) Dominant (S) Dominant (S) Dom., with modulation (S) Dom. of Relative Minor 8 Af) Dominant, root crowning (S) Dominant (S) Dominant, 5th crowning (S)
(

Subdominant

7th, 3rd inverison (F)

7
(

S<f)

Supertonic (R) Supertonic (R) Dom. 7th of Rel. Minor

7
(

Submediant

"M)

Supertonic, Supertonic (R) Dom., 3rd or 5th crowning

(L) ist inversion (Rb)
(S)

Dominant, 5th crowning

(S)

(20) Tonic, ist inversion (Db)

Dominant (suspended
by
italic capitals

4-3) (*S S)
is

Mediant, with modulation (M) Subdom., with modulation (F) Submediant, 5th crowining (L) Tonic, ist inversion (D6)

The chords

are indicated

when

there

a Modulation to the Minor.

DOUBLE CHANTS
51

IN

MINOR KEYS.
in

The cadences
(a)

of 30 representative

Double Chants

minor keys work out as follows
(b)

:

FIRST CADENCE
12

SECOND CADENCE
17 7 2

Tonic, root ]>osition or inverted, (L, Lb) ................ ~ Dom., or Dom. 7th ( Be M, Be iM) Tonic of Relative Major .(D)
.
.

o
i

............ Submediant (F) .... Subdominant, Minor (R)

4
i

Dominant ( 8e A/) ............ Tonic of Rel. Major (Dj ...... Dominant of Relative Major (S) Tonic (L} ................. Other .......................

3
r

Other Cadences

............

3

30

(c)

THIRD CADENCE
7 6 6
4 4
2
I

Tonic of Relative Major (D) .............. Subdominant (R or Rb) .................. Tonic (L or Lb) .................... Dominant of Relative Major (S) .......... Dominant ( Be ) ........................ .... .................. Submediant (F) Other ..................................
'

.

.

M

30
52
Typical specimens (a) ist Cadence, Tonic of Relative Major
: ;

2nd, Dominant

;

3rd,

Modulation to SubBATTISHILL.

dominant (Minor).

Double Chants in Minor Keys.
ist

21

Cadence, Tonic

;

2nd,

Dominant

;

3rd,

Dominant
,

of Relative Major.

COOKE.

:c2z

B-

xd-^-L^_

=:

I
MORLEY.

(c)

ist

Cadence, Tonic

;

2nd,

Dominant Minor

;

3rd,

Tonic of Relative Major.

3EEEfeEEg S^^lg^g=fl=0 o Q J-J

3.
1-

f"3

I*--)

fT

^M

fEXERCISES
:

S
I

~? I.I s Gt L^^
-i

ca

^x_inzii

-&e,

J-si--sL

-e-

Q
r<3

Q O
i

G>

-*i-

Compose Double Chants in Minor Keys on the cadence-plans
Dominant
2nd, Dominant of
Relative Major

of

(a), (fy,

and

(c).

(d) ist Cadence, of Relative Major.

;

;

3rd,

Submediant
F.

i

,

JAMES.

fT*

r:.

L .^,

I

g-^g

I

r?-H-

f

j-^-.^J>J

iJ

(e)

ist Cadence,

Tonic

;

2nd, Tonic of Relative Major

;

3rd, Tonic.

CAMinGE.

8-IH?

^L_^

(/)

ist Cadence,

Tonic

;

2nd,

Dominant

of

Relative Major

;

3rd, Tonic of Relative

Major.

COOKE.

EXHRCISHS

:

Compose Chants on the models

(d), (e),

and

(/).

22

The Composer's Handbook.
ist Cadence, last inversion of

(g)

Dominant 7th

;

2nd,

Dominant

;

3rd, Tonic of Relative

Major.

CROTCH.

\

I

-go- -8^

-

J-

J &

..

J

I

(h) ist

Cadence, Submediant

;

2nd, Tonic of Relative Major

;

3rd,

Dominant

of Relative

Major.

a _
i

COOKE.
|

r

r

r

"
i

g=^-f vr

H-

fa*

r>

o

r

() ist Cadence, first
first

inversion of Tonic

;

2nd,

Dominant with Suspended 4th

;

3rd,

inversion of Tonic.

ATTWOOD.

r

EXERCISES

:

Compose Chants

in the style of

(g),

(A),

and

(t).

53

The

following

is

an unusual example

;

it

begins and ends with a Major Tonic chord :-

PURCELL.

r

Ij
!

8

T&>I
I

ggqo

-s-

- -G-r^-^J^TI

T1

-r

r

'

rr

Cadence Plans.

23
the best modern Minor

54

The

following model cadence-plans are selected Irom

among

Double Chants.
FIRST CADENCE.
Tonic, ist inversion (Lb)

SECOND CADENCE.
Dominant
7se
(

THIRD CADEMCE.
Tonic, ist inversion (Lb)

8e
(

M)

Dominant Dominant
Tonic
(L)

se
(

M)
(R)

yth, ist inversion

M6)

Subdominant

Tonic, ist inversion (Lb)

Tonic of Relative Major (D) Tonic of Relative Major (D) Feminine Dominant (Lc se M) Dominant 7th ( 7se M) Tonic of Relative Major (D)

Dominant se M) Subdominant (R)
(

Tonic of Relative Major (D) Dominant of Relative Major

(S)

Dominant
Tonic (L)

8e
(

M)
(S)

Dominant Dominant
Tonic
(L)

8e
(

M)
Af)
(Sfc)

se
(

Dominant Dominant Dominant
Tonic (L)

se
( (
(

M) se M) 8e M)
8e

of Relative Major, ist inv. Tonic, ist inversion (Lb)

Dom.

Dominant Dominant

(

M)
M)
se

Dominant of Relative Major Subdominant (R) Dominant se M) Submediant (F)
(

Supertonic yth, 3rd inversion

7
(

Td)

Tonic of Relative Major (D)
se
(

Dominant 8e Af) Submediant (F)
(

Subdominant, ist inversion (Rb) Subdominant (R)

Feminine Dominant (Lc

M)

Subdominant
Tonic
(L)

(R)

Supertonic, ist inversion (Tb)

Dominant
Tonic (L)

se
(

M) M) M)

Dominant 8e M) Submediant (F)
(

Dominant Dominant
Tonic
successive cadences

e
(

Tonic (L) Tonic (L)

Tonic of Relative Major (D)
Be
(

Dominant
N.B.
crowning.

(M)
When two
:

(L)

Submediant (F) Subdominant, ist inversion (Rb) Dominant se M) Tonic of Relative Major (D) Tonic of Relative Major (D)
(

fall

on the same chord, there
(or all) of the

is

nearly

always a different

EXERCISES

Compose Chants on any

above plans.

The Perfect Cadence. It has been said that many modern composers are afraid to write a perfect cadence It to while at the end of be mention here that a number of cadences well, therefore, may perfect successive phrases should be avoided as weak and monotonous, it must not be supposed that the "perfect cadence formula" Dominant (or Dominant yth] chord followed by Tonic chord always implies a full stop or a sense of finality. Passages like the following abound in the best music
!
:

6

L

r~J

!

,.

fr1f~&T"^l

=

:

.

^"J

l-*

S

.

i

r~J
l-a

,.

i

*J?

It should also be noted that when the Dominant (or of finality disappears, except at the end of a phrase

Dominant
:

7th) chord

is

inverted the sense

24

CHAPTER
55

III.

FOUR-LINED HYMN TUNES.
Double Chants
principles underlying the construction of applying them to hymn-tunes. An analysis of several hundreds of hymn tunes shows that they are, on the whole, much less varied chants are more often composed by educated musicians cadence than chants probably for two reasons
will

The student who has grasped the general
have
little difficulty in

in for the use of skilled choirs hymn-tunes are largely the composition of less learned musicians, and are Modern tunes are, however, much more varied in cadence than primarily intended for congregational use.
: ;

older ones.

It is presumed that the student has been pursuing his harmony studies, and has now a larger stock of chords at his disposal than when he started composing Single Chants. It is further necessary, before starting with hymn-tunes, to consider the subjects of

MEASURE, ACCENT, and METRE.

The division of melody into bars or measures is not merely " its principal function cutting up the music into portions of equal length " Accent is the stress is to indicate the periodic succession of regular groups of accents." often implied or understood, rather than forcibly expressed by laid on particular notes joudness to distinguish them from other notes.
56
for the

MEASURE AND ACCENT.
purpose of
"

;

There are two kinds of accent which should particularly engage the attention of the composer (i) the accent given to a note by its position in the bar (or measure), e.g., the first note in every bar takes the strong this is called Metrical Accent. (2) The accent given to a note from its position in connection accent, etc. this is called Rhythmical Accent. with other notes (e.g., the first note of a group, figure, phrase, etc.) The Metrical and Rhythmical accents in a melody may coincide in most simple pieces, hymn-tunes, anthems, part-songs, etc., they do so but in elaborate compositions they often fall at different points, giving Metrical accent, with rare exceptions, is regular and unvarying, rise to most beautiful and unexpected effects. and subject to simple mathematical and mechanical laws. Rhythmical accent, on the contrary, is capable of infinite variation, and is subject only to the fancy and intelligence of the composer and performer.
:

of accent

We can easily distinguish three degrees (i) SIMPLE MEASURES. the strong accent, given to the first beat of every bar (or measure) (2) the weak accent, falling on the last beat of every measure (and on other beats of long bars) (3) a medium accent, falling on the third beat of quadruple (or four-pulse) measures, etc.
57

METRICAL ACCENT,
;

(i)

;

;

DUPLE, OR TWO-PULSE, MEASURES
Order of Accents

or

jjj,

4,

,

etc.

STRONG, weak.

STRONG

:

weak

TRIPLE, OR THREE-PULSE, MEASURES g, %, |, Order of Accents STRONG, weak* weak.

etc.

STRONG

:

weak

:

weak

-t
g,

I

E
etc.

QUADRUPLE, OR FOUR-PULSE, MEASURES \ or $, \ or Order of Accents STRONG, weak, medium, weak.

|,

M
w
(2)

M w

S

w M w

COMPOUND MEASURES.
Order of Accents

SIX-PULSE, MEASURES |, f, &, etc. STRONG, weak; or STRONG, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak.

COMPOUND DUPLE, OR

I

S ;w 5w |M ;w ;w S

w

SwwMww
is

S

w

SwwMww
tl.e

In slow music, the sicond accent of Triple measures

generally

made

either stronger or

weater than

third.

Accent.

25

COMPOUND TRIPLE, OR NINE-PULSE, MEASURES

|, |, &, etc. Order of Accents STRONG, medium, weak; or STRONG, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak.

I

S :w jw |M ;w ;w |M :w :w

M

SwwMww Mww
J

COMPOUND QUADRUPLE, OR TWELVE-PULSE, MEASURES

^, |, etc. Order of Accents STRONG, weak, medium, weak; or STRONG, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak, medium, weak, weak.

IM

:

IM

:

IM

:

SwwMwwM

wwMww
"

time taken quickly, the compound measures are practically simple measures with each when taken slowly, the accents would be slightly varied divided into three parts instead of the usual two hence, we have given two arrangements for each of these measures.
;

When

"
;

58

THE ACCENTS OF DIVIDED BEATS.
Any
of these parts

A

beat, like a measure, naturally divides into two

or three equal parts.

may

be again sub-divided into two or three equal parts
is

In all Simple times the beat divide into two equal parts. In all Compound times the beat to divide into three equal parts.

a simple note
is

(&

or

or

^,

and so on, at pleasure. etc.), with a tendency to
;

a dotted note

(^

or J> or J*, etc.), with a tendency

A

simple note

may

be divided into three equal parts
3
3

or a Triplet.

Thus

:

_
^
with identical wit
or a Duplet.

[JM^J-SS^ T
A

compound beat may be divided into two equal
is

222

parts

Thus

:

identical with

as

By the laws of metrical accent, a divided beat (or pulse) is accented in the same way a whole measure similarly divided. " A pulse may be so accented as to become a miniature two-pulse measure, As Mr. Curwen puts it,
The same
it is

a miniature four-pulse measure, a miniature three-pulse measure, or even a miniature six-pulse measure."

divided

obvious that

But when a weak beat principle applies to all subsequent subdivisions. its accents are of less value than those of a divided STRONG beat.
Binary and Ternary Divisions.
3-4 time.

is

Binary Divisions.
2-4 time.

S

wmwSwmwSwmwSwmw

SwmwwSwmwmw Swwmwwmww 99 999 99 99 9W 999 999 999 M H HH{ w

==
S

'

i-!

W W M
9

W

W
9

r

999999 !-

wm

w

mwSwwmwwmww 999999999 ~

26

The Composer's Handbook.

In slow triple measures notes have the same metrical accent- values. Theoretically, no two successive the first, may be regarded as a little stronger than divisions, therefore, one of the weak accents, generally But in quick music this distinction is practically impossible. the other.

and

59 It will be seen, therefore, that all divisions and subdivisions of measures are regulated Of course, it would be quite impossible even if it were by a law of force (or dynamics). shades of difference in the performance of music. minute these all out to desirable They bring and it is of the utmost importance that the composer should understand nevertheless exist All metrical accents are what physicists call them, especially in setting words to music.
;

"

potential."
of speed, or rate of move60 CHARACTER OF THE MEASURES. Subject to the modifications " " than the more elegant and prosaic ment, measures with even divisions are more solid and " the greater the The student will hardly need to be told that diversified triple varieties. be the of melodic and he will make the effect," variety greater may variety of metrical accent " " As a rule, the simple measures are more appropriate his choice of measure accordingly. for sacred music than the compound measures, but there are many exceptions to this rule. The effect of measure even on such a simple melody as that of the major scale may be

seen in the following (a) With equal notes.

:

i

Unusual Measures.

27

61 OTHER MEASURES. In addition to the kinds of measure already enumerated, the only other measure in common use is an Octuple, or Eight-pulse, Measure ; i.e., with eight beats in each bar. It is, practically, a variety of Quadruple measure obtained by dividing each beat into two. It was frequently used by Handel, and it has also been employed by later writers
:

Andante

larglietto.

Judas Maccabceus, No.
tr

53.

~
&c.

A

beat to each quaver.

CHORUS
Andante
sostenuto.

SEE
f

WHAT
m
zzit:
1

LOVE.
MENDELSSOHN.
.

Paul, No. 43.
L

TENOR

1=

-*

-/
VL
-

&C.

See what love hath the Fa

ther bestow'd on us.

Accpt.

JS

=

112

|, etc., and with Septuple Experiments have been made with Quintuple measures, but not often with much success. The only generally satisfactory measures, 1, |, etc. metrical arrangements are by 2 and 3, and their multiples. " Gypsies' Glee." W. REEVE.
,
;

Allegro.

,

jx
-I

v

|X

Come,

stain

your cheeks with nut and ber

-

ry,

Come,

stain

your cheeks with nut and ber

-

ry.

The slow movement
of Quintuple time. So also the following

Such example

of Tschaikowsky's Pathetic Symphony is also a notable example measures really consist of alternate bars of duple and triple time.
of Septuple

measure consists

of,

and

is

written with, alternate

bars of 3-4 and 4-4
Allegretto.

:

J

=

INCANTATION MUSIC.
152.

BERLIOZ.

Childhood of Christ.

:/>
62

-==./>

/></>

-=:*/> <s/:

IN POETRY. The syllables of poetry are arranged in successive groups called " Each " foot " comprises a definite arrangement of long and short syllables, answering feet." broadly to a measure of music with its STRONG and weak accents.
of poetry are " lam'bic; short, long; or weak, strong (u Awake, my soul, and sing." (b) Trocha'ic; e.g., ) " The Tro'chee is the converse of the lam'bus. Come, my soul, thy suit prepare." strong, weak ( u) e.g., " u u) Over the mountains and over the waves." (2) (a) Dactyl' lie ; strong, weak, weak ( " We sing of the realms of the blest." (c) Anapee'stic; (b) Amphibrach'ic ; weak, strong, weak (u u) " He is gone o'er the mountain." The Am'phibrach and An'apaest may be weak, weak, strong (u u ) regarded as varieties of the Dac'tyl.
(1) (a)
; ;
; ;

METRE

THE CHIEF METRES

;

63

AGREEMENT OF VERBAL AND MUSICAL ACCENTS.

Many would-be composers

find

it

difficult to

adjust the accents of the music to those of the words.

28

The Composer's Handbook.
In general, strongly accented syllables should Medium 'accents count for this purpose as
fall
if

versa.

strong,

on strongly accented notes, and vice and divided beats have their
:

shown in par. 58). relatively strong and weak parts (as Let us suppose that the composer is about to set the following lines to music Light of those whose dreary dwelling Borders on the shades of death, etc.
:

Let us also suppose that he decides to set the syllables to notes of equal length that the following melody occurs to him as suitable

say, crotchets

and

Light of

-

g.

*

JL

dZZj=
d well-ing

=P

r

-*-

'==ibEE^g^B _ ^^* H
'

those whose drear-y

Bor-ders on

the

shades of

death, &c.

Strange as

it

may

seem,

many

persons with innate feeling for melody could not appropriately add

bars to this fragment. It is obvious that each of the following metrical accents of the music
:

would be bad, as the verbal accents do not agree with the

m
Light of
those whose drear- y

dwell-ing

Bor

-

ders on

the

shades of

death.

Light of

those whose drear-y

dwell-ing

Bor-ders on

the shades of

death.

Light of

those whose drear-y

dwell-ing Bor

-

ders on

the

shadesof

death.

^
death.
death.
the
blest.

But

either of the following

would be quite correct

t=*
Light of
those whose drear-y

^

:

dwell-ing

Bor-ders

on

the

shadesof

Light of

those whose drear-y

dwell-ing

Bor-ders

on

the

shadesof

death.

Light of

those whose drear-y
:

dwell-ing

Bor-ders

on

the

shadesof

Note also the following Bad.

Bad.

We
Good.

sing of

the

realms of

the

blest.

We

sipgof

the realms of

GooJ.

We
64
of the

sing of

the realmsof the

blest.

We

sing of the realms of the

blest.

IN HYMN-TUNES. Breadth and simplicity are two " most essential requisites of a hymn-tune. The composer should avoid mere tuney music on the one side and a too severe and learned style on the other. He should constantly study the best available models in this (and in all his subsequent) "

THE STYLE OF MELODY ADVISABLE

work.
beginners write in the style prevalent, perhaps, in the country village where they reside, and from old MS. collections of tunes and anthems which have been accumulating from These collections, though of great interest to the musical antiquarian who has generation to generation. sufficient knowledge to discriminate between the " wheat and the chaff," are often worse than useless to
select their patterns

Many

The Harmony

of

Hymn

Tunes.

29

the young composer. They are generally marred by errors of harmony and mistakes of the copyist to imitate these comand they nearly always represent a phase of musical art antiquated and worn-out In music as in most other things customs and modes of expression positions is futile in the extreme. and though the genuine work of art may be imperishable, the great mass of are constantly changing contemporary music at any period must of necessity die a natural death.
; ; ;

The finest type of hymn-tune is undoubtedly that of the Lutheran Chorals (of Germany) next to these rank the tunes of the early English Psalters. " " be mainly Hymn-tunes should " syllabic (that is, with one note of the music to each syllable of "
;

the words), but occasional
(a)

florid

passages are quite permissible.

SYLLABIC TUNE

:

Old 100th Psalm Tune.

Praise God, from

whom

all

bless-ings

flow,

Praise

Him

all

crea- tures here be

-

low.

(b)

MAINLY SYLLABIC, BUT OCCASIONALLY FLORID

:

"

m
the
>

Rockingham."
=\-

E.

MILLER.

'OIL won- drous cross
^.
i-

On

which the Prince of

Glo

-

ry

died,

CQ:

My
in

rich- est

gain

I

count

but

loss,

And pour
style,

con- tempt on

my
is

pride.

Both these examples are excellent bad taste "
:

;

but the following

popular 70 years ago,

now reckoned
6-8's.

"Daniel

Street."

ker while I've breath

;

And when

death

Praise shall

em

-

ploy

my

no- bier powers

;

My

days

be

past

While

life,

and

thonght,

and be- ing

last,

Or

im

mor

-

ta

ty

en

-

dures.

65 THE STYLE OF HARMONY ADVISABLE IN HYMN-TUNES. The first condition of true Art APPROPRIATENESS. The harmonies and progressions employed in hymn-tunes should " " should t>e avoided. therefore be solid and dignified, and over chromaticism
is

" " harmonized to death It is the fault of too many modern hymn-tunes that they are they are more " cleverness than pieces of music intended for religious harmony exercises to show off the composers' " To paraphrase the words of an old writer, They seem to have come down hot from the organ worship.
;

like

"

loft,

and can be neither profitable to man nor pleasing to

his

Maker."

modern harmony naturally predispose the young composer to overload his melodies with pungent and striking chords and as the number of concords is limited and the number of But this is a fatal error. discords unlimited, it is often thought that discords are superior to concords.
infinite resources of
;

The

"

discords set off Concords are the foundation of harmony, the substantial food of music, so to speak the concords Further, discords vary considerably in their dissonant effect some they are the seasoning.' A sucare noble and sonorous (as Dominant yths) others harsh, and essentially displeasing to the ear. the cession of concords becomes monotonous a succession of discords soon tends to disagreeable unrest best effects of harmony are produced by a due admixture of both." (From the Author's Cyclopedic
; ' ; ;

'

'

;

;

;

Dictionary of Music.)

To know just when to introduce a strong discord, or an effeminate waving chromatic, requires a good deal of experience and judgment. As a rule, however, the great bulk of all music of a quiet nature should be based upon smooth diatonic harmonies. Strong discords, rugged harmonies, broken melodies, disjointed are very appropiite in setting such works, say, as the rhythms, abrupt changes of key, uneasiness of tonality, " whose characters appear bathed in tears, with murderous tragedies of ^Eschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles, " but they are weapon in hand, terror and pity on either side, preceded by despair and followed by woe decidedly out of place in the chant, hymn-tune, anthem, or church service
;

30
The
"

The Composer's Handbook.
Old Hundredth,"
for

example, might be harmonized as follows

:

plNQo
I

but harmonies almost It is to be hoped that no sane musician would arrange it thus for church use as inappropriate may be found in many modern tune books. " In a tune book now before the writer, in which the Old Hundredth" is quite properly harmonized with only one discord (and that a passing Dominant 7th in the last chord but one), there is a modern tune of 48 of them of the most harsh and far-fetched character. And this chords, 28 of which are discords many " " " " tune is set to a hymn dealing with sweetness," mildness," and love," peace." Another danger arising from the excessive use of chromatic chords lies in the fact that, though effects are cheaply obtained, the actual progressions of the harmonies are, especially in the hands of inexperienced " While, at first sight, the harmonies composers, exceedingly limited they therefore tend to run in a groove." appear rich and varied, they are in reality often trite and commonplace, being mere repetitions of worn-out formulas.
;
;

66

CADENCES

IN

FOUR-LINED

HYMN

TUNES.
(b)

An

analysis of the Cadences of 200 Major four-lined tunes gives the following results

(a) FIRST CADENCE Tonic (D) Tonic inverted (D/>)

SECOND CADENCE
142 23
17

123
5

Dominant (S) Dominant inverted (S6) Submediant (L) Subdominant (F) Dom. yth, in various
7
(

29
2
15
4

with or without Dominant, change of key (S) Tonic (D) Feminine Cadence Tonic, Dominant (Dc S) Dominant of Relative Minor

positions

("M
8
5

)

6
(L)

S,

7

S6, etc.)

Various

"

feminine

"

Submediant

2

Cadences
Various other cadences
10

(Dc S

;

Fc D)
of

Dominant
8e
(

Relative

Minor
3

M)

Other Cadences

6

200

200
(c) THIRD CADENCE Dominant (S) Inverted Dominant (S/>) Dominant 7th in various

positions

7
(

S,

7

Sb, etc.)

Tonic (D) Inverted Tonic (Db, Dc)

65 4 13 28

n
24

Submediant (L) Subdominant (F) Feminine Tonic, Dominant (Dc S) Dominant of Relative Minor 8eAf) Supertonic (R and Rb)
(

n

14

12
13 5

Other Cadences

200

Iambic Metres.

31

be seen that the favourite cadence at the end of the first line is a Tonic Cadence the key), and that at the end of the second line a Dominant Cadence (very frequently The Third cadence is much more varied, especially a perfect cadence in the key of the Dominant] in modern tunes. " when two The student must carefully remember what has before been stated that or three cadences of the same kind are used in succession, contrast is usually secured by different crownings of the cadential chords and varied approaches in the bass."
It will
(to establish
.

67

FOUR-LINED IAMBIC METRE. The usual four-lined Iambic metres
(8.6.8.6.),

(see par. 62) are called Short

Metre

(6.6.8.6),

Common

Metre
(2)

and Long Metre
it is

(8.8.8.8).
(i.e.,

N.B.
In
all

(i)

Iambics start with a short
usual to
:

hymn-tunes

mark the end

unaccented] syllable followed by a long (i.e., accented) syllable. of each line of the words by a double bar.

(A)

SHORT METRE

6.6.8.6.

happy, happy place, Where saints and angels meet There we shall see each other's face,
;

O

The

"

And all our brethren greet. are now generally written in simple times quadruple and triple being the most Hymn-tunes " beat note may be either a minim (which many theorists prefer) or a crotchet.
The following are specimens (a) With equal notes
:

usual.

of typical Short Metre tunes

:

"St. Augustine."

S.M.

From

a Lutheran Choral.

N.B.

May

also be written

:

(b)

With occasional dotted

or slurred notes

:

St.

George."

S.M.

Dr.

GAUNTLETT.

i33
Or

P

HI

32

The Composer's Handbook.
(B)

COMMON METRE

:

8.6.8.6.

my soul, some heavenly theme Awake, my voice, and sing The mighty works, or mightier name, Of our eternal King.
Begin,

;

Specimens of typical
(a)

Common

"French."

Metre tunes C.M.

(in

the

same order

as above)

J
Or
ftc.

(6)

"Winchester Old."

C.M.

G. KlRBYE.

nod
(c)

"Martyrdom."

C.M.

H. WILSON.

-

r-

&

T g3

f^>

"
(d)

Ilfracombe."

C.M.

l^ri*!
(C)

r

^-H5Ml

LONG METRE

:

8.8.8.8.

Eternal are Thy mercies, Lord Eternal truths attend Thy word Thy praise shall sound from shore to shore, Till suns shall rise and set no more.
; ;

Specimens of typical Long Metre tunes
(a) Tallis'

(in

the

same order

as above)

:

Canon.

L.M.

T. TALLIS.

^=^-^1

Tunes
Luther's Chant.

to

Iambic Metres.
L.M.
C.

33
ZEUNER.

(d)

z{z:

-o

EXERCISES Complete the following melodies in the metres harmonizing them in four parts. SHORT METRE.
:

indicated,

afterwards

1

2

COMMON METRE.
2

R=t
f

gj

I

f3Z,/-

1

^^

H

4

?&=3^^=

fc

IQ:

S=^=i-ifon r
-i

~

^ni-^ t* 3
C^

10

d?:

LONG METRE.
2

34

The Composer's Handbook.
4

ztrcdtcC.

IS
rj 0=
I

3= HP

1=0:

lia^z^rg^pg:
I
1

-

o>

i^i

IQI

^rr^ ^
f

^^^

'

'

""

_~

r

"

11

a

^-

Q ion
J =iU ^E
i

=a:
~

s g^-j-jj-iz^-^Mi *
3 n>zj
.

J rJ_U

68 Points of Imitation, Sequence, etc., are not so common in hymn-tunes as in chants but occasional correspondence or repetition of melodic outline particularly between the to add to the first and third, and the second and fourth lines of the tune may "be employed " " " breadth of the and interest of the composition, provided always that the simplicity Occasional unison passages are also effective. tune be not sacrificed.
;

EXAMPLES OF IMITATIONS,
"
Tallis'

ETC.

Ordinal."

C.M.

The
"Kent."

third line

is

a repetition of the

first

;

the fourth

is

a repetition of the second a

fifth lower.

C.M.

S STANLEV.

The
"Tallis'

third line

is

an

effective ascending sequence of

two

notes.

Canon."

L.M.

=

Y
8
<9

r
r?

r

S-

r
r
1

e
r

j.

J

-

fl
treble

^3
f
i

r r
i

^

and tenor, which have exactly the same notes (the tenor following the treble four beats later (see the *). The other parts (alto and bass) arc said to be " free"; they merely " " fill up the harmony. Note, however, that they are in similar style to the canonic treble and tenor, and include occasional passages taken from them. Further examples of these and similar devices may be found in any collection of hymn-tunes.

The

"

canon" occurs between

Trochaic Metres.

35
tunes on the models

EXERCISES
shown.

:

Compose examples

of Short,

Common, and Long Metre

It is generally advisable to have some special words in view, as the prevailing sentiment of the words " A The words, too, will often suggest melodies of appropriate style. should be reflected in the music. A solemn bold and spirited tune set to a hymn of penitence and submission jars upon the feelings. neutral tune adapted to a hymn of praise destroys joyfulness and injures worship." (Curwcn, or " merely
.

.

Musical Theory.")

69

and

"

FOUR-LINED TROCHAIC METRE. The chief four-lined Trochaic Metres
eights N.B.

and sevens

"

(see par.

62) are

"

four lines sevens

"
(7.7.7.7),

(8.7.8.7).
(i.e.,

The Trochee
(i.e.,

by a short
(A)

is the reverse of the Iambus, starting with a long unaccented) syllable.

accented) syllable followed

FOUR LINES SEVENS.

:

7.7.7.7.

Christ, of all

my

hopes the ground,

Christ, the spring of all joy, Still in Thee may I be found,
Still

my

for

Thee

my

powers employ.

Specimens of typical tunes
"
(a)

:

Lubeck."

7.7.7.7.

German Choral.

"
(6)

Innocents."

7.7.7.7.

(c)

"Judah."
H V
f-j t>

7.7.7.7.

J.

V.

WATTS.

/[
TfTj

36
"Sicilian Mariners."
-

The Composer's Handbook,
(b)

8.7.8.7.

^^rf=L^

Tens and Elevens.
Specimens of suitable tunes
(a)

37

:

"David."

From HANDEL.

^=

(2)

TENS AND ELEVENS.

O O

worship the King, all glorious above gratefully sing His power and His love Our Shield and Defender, the Ancient of Days, Pavilioned in splendour, and girded with praise.
;
;

Specimens of typical tunes

:

10.10.11.11.

Dr. CROFT.

S

^e
Montgomery."
10.10.11.11.

3
S. JARVIS.

&-

I~Q~

S

(C)

DACTYLLIC AND AMPHIBRACHIC.
Jesus,

Down in green pastures He makes me to lie He leads me beside the still waters of rest My soul He restores to the fold of the blest.
;

my

Shepherd,

my

want

shall

supply

;

;

N.B.

The

third

and fourth

lines of this

hymn

are Amphibrachic.

Specimens of suitable tunes

:

TRIPLE TIME.

a;
-CZ^LS,

Dctz^:

z^EB

38

The Composer

s

Handbook.

QUADRUPLE TIME.

N.B. Dactyllic, Amphibrachic, and Anapaestic hymns are but the true Anapaest (short, short, long) is rare in hymns.

all

often

loosely called

"

'*

Anapaestic

;

EXERCISES paragraphs 69 and
if

:

The student should now compose hymn-tunes on the models given

in

js

70. A few four-line metres are in use in addition to those given above, but they will cause no difficulty the general principles of accentuation are observed. the most frequent irregularity In all kinds of hymns irregularities of metre are of frequent occurrence the employment of Dactyls in Iambic lines, and this is particularly common at the beginning of the line ; e.g.
;

Sun

of

my

Soul,

Thou Saviour

dear.

'""Sactyl.

tunes to Iambic metres commence, therefore, with a strong accent. (Examples may be found Composers, as a rule, pay most attention to the first verse of a hymn ; it would, however, be better to ascertain the regular average metre of the hymn, as a whole, so as not to upset the proper accentuation more than is absolutely necessary.

Many

in

any tune book.)

71

FOUR-LINED MINOR TUNES.
Of the older hymn-tunes, a large proportion were
;

in minor keys thus in Este's Psalter minor. The earlier tune are Methodist books the tunes also one contained a large half ^1592) number of minor tunes but latterly the proportion has considerably decreased. In several parts in modern English collections, however, minor of Wales the love for minor tunes still lingers the present proportion in standard collections is tunes are becoming more and more rare about one minor tune to fifteen or twenty major tunes.
; ; ;

72
follows

The Cadences
:

in

30 representative four-lined hymn-tunes in minor keys work out as

(a)

FIRST CADENCE
15
I.c)

(b)

SECOND CADENCE
Be
(

Tonic (L) Inverted Tonic (Lb,

Tonic of Relative Major (D) ....

2 7

Dominant

8C
(

M)
....
. .

Dominant Dominant
Tonic (L)

M)
Major
(S).
.

17 IT
i i

of Relative

Tonic of Relative Major (D)

Dominant of Relative Major (S) Tonic of Dominant Minor (M)

3 2
I

30

30
(c)

THIRD CADENCE
Be
(

Dominant

M)
(S)

Tonic of Relative Major (D) Dominant of Relative Major

13 4

4
3 2 2

Subdominant
Tonic
(L)

(R)
7se
(

Dominant yth

A/)

Other Cadences

73 It is not necessary to go as fully into the construction of minor hymn-tunes as we have done with regard to major ones the following typical specimens of the chief metres are given for study and imitation
; :

Specimen Minor Tunes.

39

at. ijrmes.

40

The Co-mposcr's Handbook.
Norwich.
7. 7. 7. 7.

L.

MASON.

=i

a

i

rr
A_A
A
Nuneaton.
.. a "
i

R

r

*

rr

f-

j

>U
r

u
3t

^U ^ ^ rr
8.7.8.7.

B.

MILGROVE.

*=

r

r

f

*

Old 104th Psalm tune.

10.10.11.11.

P

R JJ
rr;

H
J
<.>

00
*

^P
r^ ^!

oo

4

Jj

id

PTr

Exercises.

41

The student will note that whereas tour-lined major tunes generally remain major throughout (often without any change of key), minor tunes rarely remain minor throughout. There is nearly always a modulation to the relative major, especially in the second line. Note also that the second line is often " " " " " the first line St. Bride's and Norwich "). repeated in the relative major (see N.B. Although minor keys are complete in themselves and quite independent of major keys (i.e., not be regarded as mere modal varieties of the latter), the fact cannot be ignored that there is they must " As Mr. Curwen points always a strong tendency for a minor tune to modulate into the relative major." out in his Musical Theory, a modulation from minor to relative major brightens up a minor tune much in the same way as a modulation to the Dominant (" transition of one sharp remove ") brightens up a major
tune.

One
frequently,

producing rather

of the chief faults of beginners in writing minor pieces is to modulate to the relative major too " a mixture or medley of the two keys " than a well-considered modulation.

To conclude this chapter we append the cadential chords exactly as they stand from a number of quite recent hymn-tunes. The student may exercise his ingenuity by composing original tunes embodying them. N.B. The lengths of the notes must be arranged to suit the requirements of the rhythm and metre. Otherwise, no change should be made in the chords.

=:gz=o~n

H

itisrti

KEY

G minor.

42

CHAPTER
74

IV.

TUNES TO HYMNS WITH MORE THAN FOUR LINES.
of Cadences,

with more than four lines provide increased facilities for well-planned schemes also for more extensive changes of key. " Five attendant keys." Major hymn-tunes rarely modulate beyond the

Hymns

and

the

"

fully discussed in Chap. X. Key-relationship is " Five attendant keys will, perhaps, suffice
:

For the present the following

brief definitions of

The major keys with Tonic a perfect 5th higher and a ATTENDANT KEYS. (i) OF A MAJOR KEY. and the three relative minors (including that of the principal key). Thus the attendant perfect 5th lower minor. keys of C major are (i) G major, (2) F major, (3) A minor, (4) E minor, and (5)
;

D

(2)

OF

A

MINOR KEY.

the three relative majors. (4) Bb major, and (5) Ab major.

The minor keys with Tonic a perfect 5th higher and a perfect 5th lower and Thus the five attendant keys of C minor are (i) G minor, (2) F minor, (3) Eb major,
;

75

FIVE-LINED HYMNS.
(a)

These are rather rare
:

in

English

hymn books
Dom. key
Tonic
(D)
;

;

the following

cadence-plans are from modern tunes

MAJOR.
(1)

Tonic
(D)

;

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Dominant yth
;

of

;

Tonic.
(D)

(R)
Tonic
(D)
of
;

(2)

Tonic
(D)

;

Feminine
Tonic
(D)
;

Tonic Dominant
(Dc S)

Tonic.
(D)

(3)

Tonic
(D)

;

;

Dominant
Tonic
(D)

Dominant
Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Tonic.
(D)

(feR)
;

(4)

Dominant
(S)

Tonic
(D)

;

;

Tonic (Plagal).
(D)

(b)

MINOR.

Dominant
8e
(

;

Relative Major Tonic
(D)
of the

;

Tonic
(L)

;

Dominant
8e
(

;

Tonic.
(L)

M)
skill.

Af)

Of these plans, while that

minor tune

is

good, the others

except, perhaps, the ist and 3rd

cannot be said to exhibit either variety or

Five-cadenced Lutheran Chorals are, however, quite common.
varied cadence-plans are from Bach's Choralgestinge.*
(a)

The

following finely-

MAJOR.
(1)

Tonic
(D)

'

f

Tonic
(D)

;

Supertonic
(R)
;

;

Submediant
(L)

;

Tonic.
(D)
;

(2)

Tonic
(D)

;

Submediant
(L)
;

Supertonic
(R)

;

Dominant
(S)
;

Tonic.
(D)
;

(3)

Subdominant
(F)

Dominant
(S)

;

Dominant
(S)

Submediant (Major)
(ae

Tonic.
(D)

L

)

(4)

Subdominant
(F)

;

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Dominant
.

;

Tonic.
(D)
;

(S)

(5)

Subdominant
(F)

;

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)
;

;

Submediant
(L)

Tonic.
(D)

(6)

Tonic
(D)

;

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)
;

Dominant
Supertonic
(R)
;

of Relative

Minor

;

Tonic.
(D)

(8M)
; ;

(7)

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

Tonic
(D)
;

Tonic.
(D)
;

(8)

Dom.

of Rel.
8e
(

Minor

Tonic
(D)

Supertonic
(R)

Dom.

of Rel.
fle
(

Minor

;

Tonic.
(D)

M)
Two

M)

vols., Peters'

Edition, No*. 21

and

22.

Five-lined and Six-lined

Hymns.

43

(b)

MINOR.
;

(9)

Tonic of Rel. Major
(D)

Tonic
(L)

;

Dominant
8e
(

;

Dom.

of Rel.
(S)
;

Major

;

Tierce de Picardie.
(dejr,)

M)
(D)

(10)

Tonic
(L)
.

;

(n) Tonic
(L)
(12)

;

Dominant ("M) Dominant
(-6M)
;

;

Tonic
(L)

;

Tonic of Rel. Major

Tonic.
(L)

;

Tonic
(L}
;

;

Dom.

of Rel.
(S)

Major

;

Tierce de Picardie.
(iejL)

(13)

Dominant ("M) Dominant
8e
(

Dominant
8e
(

Tonic of Rel. Major
(D)
;

;

Tonic of Rel. Major
(D)

;

Tierce de Picardie.
(deJL)

M)
(R)
(

;

Subdominant

Dominant
8e

;

Submediant
(F)

;

Tierce de Picardie.
de
(

M)
:

M)

L)

EXERCISES (i) Write major tunes to the following words on any of the cadence-plans i to 8 from Bach (above)

Dear Lord and Father of mankind, Forgive our foolish ways
;

Reclothe us in our rightful mind In purer lives Thy service find, In deeper reverence, praise. Whittier.
;

(2)

Write minor tunes to the following words on any of the cadence-plans 9 to 13 from
:

Bach (above)

Oh

the bitter shame and sorrow, That a time could ever be
I let

When

the Saviour's pity
!

Plead in vain, and proudly answered, Monod. All of self, and none of Thee

76
(i)

SIX-LINED HYMNS.
arranged in
"

The

versification

of six-lined

lines

three sets of two

"
;

hymns

falls

and

(2)

lines

arranged in

"

under two headings

;

two

sets of three."

(A)
(i)

THREE SETS OF Two.
Four-lines-sixes

j (

and two eights; 6.6.6.6; 8.8. ("Trumpet" Blow ye the trumpet, blow The gladly solemn sound Let all the nations know To earth's remotest bound The year of jubilee is come
! ;
!

metre).

Return, ye ransomed sinners, home.

(2)

Six-lines-sevens.

Rock

of Ages, cleft for me, Let me hide myself in Thee Let the water and the blood, From Thy riven side which flowed, Be of sin the double cure, Cleanse me from its guilt and power.
;

(3)

Six-lines-eights

(first

metre).

Thou hidden love of God, whose height, Whose depth unfathomed, no man knows, I see from far Thy beauteous light, Inly I sigh for Thy repose
;

My
At

heart

is

pained, nor can

it

be

rest, till it finds rest in

Thee.
"

in stanzas arranged as above should points of repose be at the ends of the second, fourth, and sixth lines. Assuming that the final cadence will " always be a Tonic cadence (and generally perfect "), the other most restful cadences will be the second and fourth. In major tunes a modulation to the key of the Dominant (" transition of one sharp remove ") frequently occurs in the fourth line (and sometimes in the second).
It is obvious that the chief

"

44

The Composer's Handbook.

The

tunes to these (and similar) metres analysis of the cadences of 70 representative
:

works out as follows
(a)

FIRST CADENCE.
34 14 6
5 3

(b)

SECOND CADENCE.
(S)

Tonic (D)

Dominant

Dominant

(S)

Tonic, inverted (Db, DC)

Tonic (D) Other Cadences

39 27 4

Subdominant (F) Subdominant, inverted (b, Fc). Submediant (L) Dom. of Relative Minor 8e M)
(

70

4
2

.

Other Cadences

2

70
v i;)

THIRD CADENCE.
14
13

(J]

FOURTH CADENCE.
46
7 5 4 3 3

Tonic (D)

Submediant (L) Dominant (S) Dominant of Dom. key fe R) Dom. of Rel. Minor 8e M) Modulation to key of Mediant (M) Subdominant (F)
( (

n

8 7 5 3

Various other cadences

9

Dominant, frequently with modulation to Dom. key (S) Tonic (D) Modulation to key of Mediant (M) Submediant (L) Subdominant (F) Dom. of Rel. Minor 8e M) Other cadences
:
(

70
(e)

70

FIFTH CADENCE.
21 12 10 8 6
5

Dominant (S) Subdominant
Tonic (D)

(F)

Submediant (L) Dominant 7th

7

(

S)

Inverted Tonic (Db) Supertonic (R) Dominant of Relative Minor

4
8C
(

A/)

3
i

First inversion of Leading-note Triad (Tfc)

70

SPECIMEN TUNES.
"Southampton."
6.6.6.6; 8.8.

W. HAYES.

n"

'

r

Six-lined

Hymns and
7.7.7.7.7.7.

Tunes.

45
German.

'Dix.'

T

r

r

rrrr

r

r

r

T

r

^^
-

^pa:

U

ff? irTTp
"
St. Matthias.
~
*

^^

P

5 ^B Tr^T rr

3
Dr.

P

W. H. MONK.

t

f^

I

^-J

h

^ ^o

EXERCISES
metres.
(B)
(1)

:

Compose tunes

(on the lines indicated) to six-lined

hymns

of the

above

Two

SETS OF THREE.
;

Eights and Sixes

8.8.6
it

;

8.8.6.

Be To

my only wisdom here serve the Lord with filial fear,
;

With loving gratitude Superior sense may I display By shunning every evil way, And walking in the good.
(2)

Six-lines-eights (second metre). I'll praise Maker while I've breath ; And when voice is lost in death, Praise shall employ nobler powers.

my my

my

days of praise shall ne'er be past, While life, and thought, and being last,

My

Or immortality endures.

The Composer's Handbook.

Next

(often, as before,

to the final cadence the principal point of rest will with a change of key).
of 20 tunes to these (and similar) metres
(6)

fall

at the end of the third line

The cadences

work out

as follows

:

(a) FIRST CADENCE. Tonic (D) Inverted Tonic (Db, DC)

SECOND CADENCE.
(S)

13
2

Dominant

10

Dominant (S) Subdominant

4
i

Tonic (D) Modulation to key of Mediant (M) Dom. of Dom. key ( fe R, 7fe R) Other cadences
.

4
2

.

2 2

20 20

THIRD CADENCE. Dominant (S) Dominant of Rel. Minor SC A/)
(c)
(

(d)

FOURTH CADENCE.
6
5 3 2 2 2

18
. .

I
i

Supertonic (R) Tonic (D)

Modulation to key of Mediant (M)

20

Subdominant (F) Submediant (L) Dominant (S)
Other cadences

(e)

FIFTH CADENCE.
(S)

20

Dominant
Tonic (D)

7
4 3
2 2

Inverted Tonic (Db)

Subdominant (F) Submediant (L) Dominant ;th ( 7 S)

2
20

SPECIMEN TUNES.
'Traveller."
4
I

8.8.6; 8.8.6.

H.

HOLCOMBE
"
I

(18th Century).
,

J ,1 Z^E&i

i

-izr

M
S
J.

f
-JMF
G>

:

G

Six- lined Tunes.
"

Innsbruck."

8.8.6; 8.8.8.

H. ISAAC, 1490 (Harm, by

J. S.

BACH).

i=

Fr pr-r
:

l

r

rrrt^^r^Wyi

FT' J^Q
-*

EXERCISES

:

Compose

six-lined tunes

on the above models. hymns
;

Various other six-lined metres are employed in either under (A) or (B).

but

for cadential construction they all fall

77

It is

The following cadence analyses The hymns are all of class reference.
N.B.
(a]

hardly necessary to give specimens of six-lined minor hymn-tunes. of twelve typical tunes will, however, be useful for
(^4).

Many
8e
(

six-lined

minor tunes have the

last

two
(b)

lines in the

Tonic Major Key.
5

FIRST CADENCE.

SECOND CADENCE.
(L)
se
(

Dominant

M)

5

Tonic

Tonic (L) Tonic of Relative Major (D) ....

4
3

Dominant

M)

4
2
i

Tonic of Relative Major (D) .... Dominant of Relative Major (S)

12
12
(c)

THIRD CADENCE.
se
(

(d)

FOURTH CADENCE.
4 4
2
. .

Dominant

M)
Major
(S)

Tonic of Relative Major (D) .... Tonic (L)

4 4
2
i

Tonic of Relative Major (D) .... Tonic (L)

Dominant

se
(

M)

Dominant

of Relative

Tonic Major

i

Modulation to Dom. key (M) Tonic Major

i
i

12

12

4g

The Composer's Handbook.
(e)

FIFTH CADENCE.
4
3 2
I

Tonic of Relative Major (D) Tonic Major

Dominant se M) Subdominant (R)
(

Tonic

(L)

i

Dominant

of Relative

Major

(S)

I

12

D

EXERCISES Compose six-lined tunes in the keys of minor, with cadences arranged at discretion.
:

A

minor,

G

minor,

F

minor, and

in

78 SEVEN-LINED HYMNS are not very Lutheran Chorals).

common

in

English poetry (although fairly frequent

The

chief metres are as follows
(i)

:

6.6.4

;

6.6.8.4.

Thou whose almighty word
Chaos and darkness heard.

And
Hear
us,

took their

flight,

pray. the gospel day Sheds not its glorious ray, Let there be light.

we humbly

And where

(2)

8.7

;

8.7

;

8.8.7.
!

Great

God

The end The Judge

what do I see and hear? of things created of mankind doth appear,
; ! !

On

clouds of glory seated

The trumpet sounds the graves restore The dead which they contained before Prepare, my soul, to meet Him.
!

of these kinds

exhaustive analyses of the cadences employed in setting hymns the following are specimens of cadence-plans (and the student will find several other suggestive arrangements in Bach's Choralgesange, already referred to).
It is not necessary to give
;

(a)

Three

lines followed

by

four.

(i,)

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Dominant
(S)

||

ist inv.

Dom. 7th

;

1st inv.

Tonic 7th

;

Submediant
(L)

;

CSb)

(tD6)

Tonic
(D)

||

(2)

Tonic
(D)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Dominant
(S)

||

Tonic
(D)

;

Submediant
(L)

;

Tonic
(D)

;

Tonic
(D)

||

(3)

Supertonic
(R)

;

Dom.
(

of
fe

Dom.

;

Dominant
(S)

||

Submediant
(L)

;

ist inv.

Dom. 7th
CSb)

;

Dominant
(S)

'

R)

Tonic

||

Eight-lined

Hymns.

49

(b)

Four
;

lines followed
||

(1)

Tonic
(D)

Dominant
(S)

by three. Submediant
(L)

;

Dominant
(S)

||

Subdominant
(F)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Tonic
(D)

||

(2)

Tonic
(D)

;

Tonic
(D)
;

||

Dom.

of Rel.

Minor

;

Tonic
(D)
;

||

Supertonic
(R)
||

;

Dom.

of Rel.

Minor

;

Tonic
(D)

||

(seM)

(scM)

(3)

Submediant
(L)

Dominant
(S)
||

||

Submediant
(L)

Dominant
(S)

ist inv. of

Submediant
(L6)

;

Dominant
(S)

;

Tonic
(D)
(4)

Dominant 7th
7
(

;

Dominant
(S)

||

Submediant
(L)

;

Dominant
(S)

||

Tonic
(D)

;

Dom.

of Rel.

Minor

;

S)

("Af)

Tonic
(D)

||

EXERCISES
above.

:

Compose various seven-lined hymn-tunes on the cadence-plans given

79

EIGHT-LINED HYMNS.
Iambic, Trochaic, Dactyllic,
etc.

These are very numerous in all sorts of metres and are nearly all arranged in " four sets of two lines."

80 Eight successive cadences allow of infinite variety, the chief cadences being at the end of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth lines. Next to the final cadence that at the end of the fourth line (coming at the middle of the tune) is perhaps the most important.
In all the old English Psalters and in all Lutheran Chorals the cadence at the end of each line of any tune was very definite nearly always on a major chord and the final note of each cadence was marked with a pause, /r>. In modern English hymn-tunes the pauses are discarded, and the cadences especially at the ends of the first and third (and fifth and seventh) lines made " less reposeful " in character. Our hymn-singing has thereby gained in rhythmical swing and proportion, but it has lost considerably in dignity

and impressiveness. It has also become more and more customary to avoid set cadences at the ends of lines, and to use " " " at those points chords of motion rather than chords of rest." Thus all discords imply progression, " and Discords going on," any discord used at a cadential point prevents the feeling of a full stop. at the ends of lines are, however, somewhat opposed to the spirit of classical psalmody, and they should be used sparingly and with judgment. There is some danger of the modern hymn-tune becoming what has "
been called
ear- tickling sensationalism."

There is much scope for symmetry of rhythm and outline, imitation, sequence, and 81 other artistic devices in an eight-lined tune. Many fine old tunes have the first half complete in itself this being succeeded by two lines in some contrasted key (or keys), with a return to the original key in the seventh and eighth lines a well-defined and effective form
;
:

"

St. Matt!

/K

t

50

The Composer's Handbook.

first

are identical, and are the same as the Note that the fourth and eighth phrases " " Note also the two notes omitted. throughout the whole tune. unity of style

first

phrase with the

Sometimes the third and fourth and second
:

lines are

a repetition

(or

varied repetition) of the

first

'Austria."

8.7.8.7.8.7.8.7.

HAYDN.

82 It is not necessary to tabulate the favourite cadences of eight-lined tunes cadence-plans are selected from standard settings
:

;

the following

(a)

EIGHT-LINED MAJOR TUNES.
(I)

Cadential Chords.

51

(9)

D*

52

The Composer's Handbook.
(14) (15) (16) (17)

(18)

(19)
(20) (21) (22) (23) (24)

F6, Fc = ist and 2nd Inversion of Subdominant Chord. S = Dominant Chord. 7 S = Dominant yth. Sfr = ist Inversion of Dominant Chord. 7 7 7 Sfc, Sc, Sd = ist, 2nd, and 3rd Inversions of Dominant 7th. L = Submediant Chord L = Tonic Chord of Relative Minor. U> = ist Inversion of Submediant Chord. de L === Submediant Chord (major 3rd). 7de L = Submediant Chord (with major 3rd and minor 7th).
;

T6 = m D6

(25) *S

=

Leading-note Triad. Tonic Chord with minor 3rd ist inversion. Prepared 4th on the Dominant.

ist Inversion of

=

;

Feminine Cadences are marked DC S

;

Fc

D

;

etc.

EXERCISES
based on any or
(b)

:

The student may now compose major tunes
of the

to various eight-lined

hymns

all

above cadence-plans.

EIGHT-LINED MINOR TLTNES.
(1)

L
8e

:

"M
L

:

L
8e

:

(2) (3)

M

:

:

M
Db

:

L L

\\

||

D D
Rb

:

M
B

:

:

'M
7

M
SEc

:

**M

:

D
=

:

:

D
of

||

:

**M

:

L L L

2nd inversion

Leading-note Seventh.

Most eight-lined minor tunes modulate to the tonic major either
four lines
:

for the last

two or

last

(a)

TONIC MAJOR, SEVENTH AND EIGHTH LINES.

Key F
(4)

minor.

L

:

L

:

S

:

D

||

D

(b)

TONIC MAJOR, FIFTH TO EIGHTH LINES.

Key E
(5)

minor.

Twelve-lined

Hymns and

Tunes.

53

Sullivan's well-known tune to 83 Hymns of more than eight lines are not numerous. Onward, Christian soldiers," and the following fine tune by Sir Frederick Bridge (inserted by permission of the Proprietors of Hymns Ancient and Modern) are excellent examples of the

"

treatment of hymns with twelve lines

:

'

St. Beatrice."

7.6. (12 lines.)

SIR F. BRIDGE.

=ff tr^-pte=&=fc> p-H P^dE^ =FP4r=14i

-&- -&- -m-fZ-r*,^ . *

-e>-

&n

-&i

-&Jt^ .-

The student who has carefully followed the construction of chants and hymn-tunes The examples given, and the hardly need more instruction on the subject of cadences. After a time he will analysed tables, will suffice to guide "him in all his subsequent work. He will then no longer be bound by regulate the succession of cadences instinctively." " but his freedom will be the freedom of knowledge and not the licence of ignorance precedent
84
will
;

setting itself

up against authority and experience."
of
("

"
of

85

Our consideration
danket Alle Gott

Nun

"

North Germany.

hymn-tunes may fitly conclude with one of Bach's settings of Now thank we all our God "), the national hymn of thanksgiving

54

The Composer's Handbook

NUN DANKET ALLE GOTT.
8
VOICES.

m
'

J

ft
Accompt.
for

" r

Horns &Bass^&

'
i

i

t>

'

-3fZ

r

rr
r

i.

1(2.
-j-

Nun

Danket Alle

Gott.

55

J

r

i

.5.

=

y

nrHr

^fUSg

56

The Composer's Handbook.

A
o

B

/r\

:

*>

J

57

CHAPTER
SONGS.
86
a
lay, a

V.

anything which may be sung, or uttered with musical modulations of the voice poem poetry in general. Specially a song is a musical composition for a solo voice, either with or without

Song

is

;

;

accompaniment

.

87 Songs represent the most ancient and universal form of music, ranging from the simple unaccompanied ballad to the highly developed works of a Schubert or a Schumann. They are broadly divided into Folk-songs and Art-songs.
"

unknown or obscure." Art songs are the works of skilled musicians, able " to supplement natural musical Some art-songs are manifestly overdone on the feeling by the resources of musical art and science."
scientific side but others, as for example Schubert's, the whole the artistic knowledge of the musician
;
;

Folk-songs

songs of the people

"

may

be denned as

"

traditional

songs of which the origin

is

all the spontaneity of the folk-song together with " suffused with the highest genius." Hence being Schubert's best songs represent the highest achievements yet attained in this branch of music.

have

With special reference to their structure, songs may be arranged in three classes Ballads, (2) "Through-composed songs," (3) Songs intermediate in character between ballads and through-composed songs. (N.B. "Through-composed" is the German Durchcomponi(e)rt.) A ballad has the same music for each stanza (commonly called verse) of the words it may also (A) " " " have a chorus or refrain." Practically all folk-songs and national songs are of this character. (B) A through-composed song has different music for each stanza, the style of " the music varying with " Erl King the varying sentiment of the words. and " The Typical songs of this class are Schubert's " " " are also Nun most songs through-composed. Young descriptive character have some of their stanzas set to the same music, while others (C) Songs of intermediate " " are contrasted. Most modern drawing-room" and concert songs (as Cowen's Children's Home," Sullivan's " " Lost Chord," etc.), and many German Lieder," are of this type.
88
:

(i)

;

;

ment

Metrical form is the arrange" " sections."* measures (or bars) in regular groups," which we will call to arrange itself in successive portions each four measures tendency Melody has a strong The " four-bar section " may therefore be called the " typical factor of (or bars) in length. metrical form." The section may begin at any part of a bar, and the end of it is generally

89

THE METRICAL AND MELODIC STRUCTURE OF BALLADS.

of

marked by some
"

sort of cadence.

N.B.

four-bar section
(1) (2) (3)

and occasionally a measure of, say, 12-8 time forms a complete section A Section may be divided into Sub-sections. A Sub-section may consist of " Germs," " Motives," or " Figures." Two or more (generally four) Sections form a Sentence.
;

Tn slow music (or in "

Compound Times) a

"

two-bar section

"

may

take the place of the ordinary
of
itself.

(folk-songs, national songs, etc.) consist of One Sentence of Four Sections. section is often a repetition (or varied repetition) of the first the third section while the fourth may be a repetition of the first (or is generally contrasted in melodic outline second), or it may be of the nature of a Refrain.

Most ballads

The second

;

;

YOU GENTLEMEN OF ENGLAND.
1st Section.

Old English Song.

2nd Section.

Sub-section.

Sub-section.

3rd Section.

Figure.

Figure.

Figure.

4th Section.

The terms used
application.

in describing

This difference does not simple scheme adopted in this work.

mus'cal form are, unfortunately, unsettled, as authorities dp not always agree as to their meaning and affect the facts, but only the terminology the student will not have any difficulty in following the
;

58

The Composer's Handbook.

Note
.(a)

also the following typical songs
(1)

:

BEGONE. DULL CARE.
...^...
(b)

Old English,

1st

Section

^

2nd Section^_yaried ending

4 v

(c)

3rd Section; contrasted
,

(d)

4tb Section ^repetition of 2nd section
;

_

-=
(2)

** i
16th Century.
;

THE BRITISH GRENADIERS.
(b)

(a) 1st

Section

2nd Section

repetition of (a).

4th Section

;

repetition of (a)

(3)

THE MINSTREL

BOY.

1st Section.

(6)

2nd Section
1

;

repetition of (a)
K

1^^

(c)

3rd Section

;

contrasted.

^fe
(d)

4th Section

:

repet^on of

(a)

fe
Sometimes the second section repeats the the third with varied ending
:

first

with varied ending, and the fourth repeats
English Song.
;

HOME. SWEET HOME.
(b)

(a) 1st

Section..^

ivw

MJ.

2nd Section

repetition of (a) with different ending.

(c)

3rd Section...

.

...^...

(d)

4th Section

;

repetition of

(c)

with different ending.

Hi
Ballads of more than four sections are constructed on similar broad and simple lines
:

THE "GOLDEN
(a)

VANITY."
in

1st

Section

(6)

2nd Section (contrasted) ending

key

G

fc*
There was
(c)

a
;

ship

came from

the north country.

And

the

name

of the ship

was the

"

Golden Vani-ty,"
'.

3rd Section

repetition of (a)

*
And
(d)

they

feared

she
(b),

might be

tak

-

en

by

the

Turk

-

ish

en

-

e

my

4th Section, based on

and extended by repeating words and adding a new phrase

That

sails

up -on

the

Low

-

land,

Low-

land.

That

sails

up- on

the

Low

-

land

sea.

This may be called a sentence of four 2-bar sections with the last section extended to four bars, or a sentence of five 2-bar sections. The nomenclature matters little if the construction is intelligently understood.

Accompaniment

of Ballads.

59

THE MERMAID.

One
(c).

Fri

-

day morn,

when we

set
(d)

sail,
..

And our

ship

not

far

from

land,

We
(e)

there did e

-

spy

a

fair

pretty maid, With a

comb and a REFRAIN.

glass in her hand, her hand, her hand,

variation of (d)

:g-^4J=^g^r-p y 5idig =*=?z:Ejz=*=
With a
(g)

comb and

a

glass

in

her hand.

While the rag

-

ing

seas

^
did
roar,

repetition of (6)

(h) repetition of (c)

And
(i)

the storm- y

winds did

blow

And

we,

jol- ly sailor

boys, were up,

up

a

-

loft,

repetition of (d)

(j) repetition of (e)

I

V

r-fc-s
down
be-low, be-low, be-low,

And

the land

lubbers lying

And

the landsmen were

all

down be

-

low.

This melody consists of two successive sentences (each of five sections), the second being merely a varied repetition of the first. TRELAWNY. Old Cornish Ballad, (a) Complete sentence of four 2-bar sections in key C.

(b)

Complete (contrasted) sentence of four 2-bar sections

in

key G.

(c)

Repetition of

(a).

that

"

The

Ternary Form

three-fold (or "

"

is

Ternary ") construction of this melody is of special interest. very common especially in instrumental music.

It will

be seen later

90 ACCOMPANIMENT SUITABLE TO BALLADS. A beautiful melody is beautiful without any But an appropriate accompaniment like the setting of a jewel may " set accompaniment. " off and enhance the beauty of the melody. " " If the is overdone, or in bad taste, the effect instead of being improved is impaired. setting

As the pianoforte is the instrument most frequently employed in accompanying songs, the following remarks apply specially to that instrument.* ESSENTIALS OF AN ACCOMPANIMENT. (i) It should be in a style adapted to the general character of the melody and words. Thus a bold, vigorous song calls for a robust style of " " but a sad plaintive song requires accompaniment full bright chords with plenty of go a softer and more delicate treatment. " (2) It should support and sustain the voice, without drowning or fidgetting" it. (3) It may heighten the effect of the melody and bring out its hidden beauties by the " " use of little of accompaniment suggested by fragments of the melody or its general figures
;

style of

rhythm.
It

breaks in the melody and cadences with little connective passages, so as to secure continuity. " tone colour." (5) It should add appropriate
(4)

may

with good

effect "fill

up

"

"

bridge over

"

its

Considerable knowledge of the piano is necessary to secure anything like tone-colour given below indicate something of what can be done.
Accompaniments
for other instruments are dealt

;

but the hints

with

in

Chapter XII.

60

The Composer's Handbook. The following examples of settings by various composers illustrate these principles.

IT

WAS A LOVER AND HIS
F c
.
i

LASS.
THOS. MORLEY.
(abt.

F
and
his
lass,

^
hey,

16001

It

was

a

lov

er

With a

with a

ho,

with a
altered)

Morley's

Harmony (slightly

1.

2.

J.

L.

HATTON.

I
3.

^^
Sir C.V.

STANFORD.

4.

hey

.

.

non.ny

no,

And a

p
hey

non. ny no

ni

no>

That

etc.

etc.
fj

A HUNTING WE WILL
a)
(SF

Specimens

of

Accompaniment.

61

GO.
DR. ARNE,17iO-78.

Rather

fast.

The dusk

.

y night

rides

down

the sky

And ush

.

ers in

the

morn,
Dr. F.
T.

SAWYER

Sir C. V.

STANFORD.

6.

7.

m
?EE

^m

J.

L.

HATTON.

ln^i

8.

ffl

^
.

^
will

Sir G. A.

MACFARREN.

etc.

Then a hunt

ing

we

a

hunt

.

ing

we

will

go!.

etc.

W
^=^

m

^
i

etc'

The Composer's Handbook.

ANNIE LAURIE.
Slow.

OLD SCOTCH MELODY.

J
Max.well.ton braes are bon.nie,

Where ear

-

ly

fa's

the

dew,
.

And it's
Dr.

SAWYER.

9.

Sir C.v.

STANFORD.

10.

i
BOOSEY'S SONGS OF SCOTLAND.

11.

12.

g
there
that

\t
Lau
.

j ;
rie

An

.

nie

Gie'd

me

her pro

.

raise true

etc.

Essentials of Accompaniment.

63
:

Careful study and comparison of the above brings out the following points diatonic chords are used there are no far-fetched harmonies. (1) As a rule, only simple used in a bar sometimes only one, and rarely more than three. are chords Not many (2) " " and there is no attempt to provide Many notes of the melody are utilized as passing-notes a separate chord for each note of the melody a fault very common with beginners. riot necessary to write continuously in four-part harmony, or to have two parts (3) It is
;

;

each hand. Unison passages, two-part or three-part harmony, full chords, octaves in the left hand, detached chords, arpeggios, etc., may be used (and alternated) at discretion. The two hands may run together in octaves (as in No. 8), but consecutive fifths are as
in

objectionable as in ordinary four-part harmony. The right hand may play the melody note for note (as in the first few bars of No. 2), (4) or it may follow the chief notes of the melody (as in No. 3), or it may have quite an independent or it may have a combination of these three methods, sometimes following the voice part
;

and sometimes
"
(5)
i,

not.

"

Figures
3.

suggested by fragments of the melody are utilized

;

especially in Nos.

" " the cadences and providing bridging over Passages of accompaniment are used for and 12. especially in 2, 3, 10, n, continuity " " the accompaniment is kept steady active the melody is but where (7) Wherever notes or repeated notes occur in the melody, the accompaniment provides the necessary long " it is a recognised This is noticeable in practically all the extracts principle activity." of nearly all kinds of accompaniment. of accompaniment adopted at the beginning is generally kept up until (8) The style there is some marked change in the style of the melody. (Note particularly Nos. 9, 10, n,
(6)
;
;

2,

and

;

and

12.)
(9)

"

Colour

"
is

hunting horns,

etc., in

specially indicated in No. 7 (bars 4 and the refrain of 5, 6, 7, and 8.
" "

5)

and

in the passages suggesting

in

(see Chap. X) in most of the illustrations. whether duplicating the voice part or not, and whether should be complete in itself, unison, or in two-part harmony, or in three-part harmony, etc. Thus the following is bad, as the bare fourths of the pianoforte are not covered by the

Note
N.B.

also the careful

phrasing

The accompaniment

voice part (which

is

of dissimilar tone-colour)

:

VOICE.

But

either of the following arrangements

is

VOICE.

permissible VOICE.
:

Z^p-Q
In
the pianoforte part is complete, and the tone-colour homogeneous. in 6ths with the melody.

(a)

In

(b)

the accompaniment

moves agreeably

It need only be said in addition that a short prelude (generally based on some striking It is most frequently section of the melody) is sometimes added by way of introduction. 4 bars in length.

64

The Composer's Handbook.

FAREWELL TO LOCHABER.
OLD MELODY.
words by

ALLAN RAMSEY

Arranged by R. DUNSTAN.

VOICE.

PIANO.

well

to

Loch

.

a

.

ber,

fare

.

well

to

my

Jean,

Where

heart

.

some

wi'

J
thee
I

J
.

j
no

ha'e

mon

.

y

days

been;

For Loch

.

a

ber

r
more,

T
L**>
J j ^-^
re
.
i

V
I

r_*^
to

Loch

.

a

.

ber

no

more,

We'll

may .be

turn

Loch.

Farewell to LocJwber.

65

s
a
.

^^
no

^EEi
tears that
I

ber

more.

These

shed

they

are

l=g

m
r
tend

s^
r
a'

for

my

dear,

And

no'

for

the

dan

.

gers

at

.

_

ing

on

^^f
weir,
Tho'

borne

on rough

seas

to

a

"

far

dis

.

tant

a
;.

a

f

A
r
r

?^E^

shore,

May

.

be

to

re

.

turn

to

Loch

.

a

.

ber

no

more.

JT

fir-

^= r^

-p-f-tf ^
i

J

rr

66

The Composer's Handbook.

Begone, appropriate original pianoforte accompaniments to Home," "The Boy," "Home, sweet dull Care," "The British Grenadiers," "The Minstrel " " " " " introductions The Mermaid," and (see Par. 89), with Golden Vanity," Trelawny

EXERCISES

:

(i)

Add

"

ad

lib.

(2)

Complete each of the following as a
(a)

"

sentence

"

in ballad

form

:

Moderate.

(b)

Andante.

^EEg
(c)

Allegro.

(d)

Maestoso.

i^

(e)

Andante.

5PF2

Art Songs in Ballad

Style.

67

re

-

pose

and

sooth

ing plea

-

sure

Lull

thee

with

the

m
bfe:^:i=:*=zi:p
.ft.
,
i

*
--i

t

1

d K

rj
(^H~)vk
|

I

-

*

I

t

I

Note the ballad-like structure of the melody a sentence of four two-bar sections, each divided into sub-sections and the extreme simplicity of the accompaniment. Practically, only two chords are used, The whole song is an example of the " simplicity viz., those of the Tonic and Dominant (or Dominant yth). of genius," combined with the highest type of melodic beauty.

The melody may be said to be a sentence almost equally simple. The fourth section ends with a " surprise " cadence in the key but the same accompanying chords as a fifth of B, and is repeated with a varied melody Note also that a section section (ending this time on the Tonic chord with a pause /-r-.) a repeat of the last two bars of the melody is added at the end for the pianoforte. The next example
is

of seven two-bar sections.

(3)

HAIDEN-ROSLEIN (LITTLE HEDGE-ROSE).
SCHUBERT.

Con

tenerezza.
(a)

Saw

a

boy

a

Ros-lein

fair,

Ros-lein of

the

hedge

-

row,

Fresh in

all

its

morning

pride

So

he

quick

-

ly

turn'd a

-

side

F$

^
1=51
I

=2 feg^ij *F=*= =g^z3 =z*.-=JEnl5==
.

-fc= m #

*ff ,_Jz^=3:

cj-

The Composer's Handbook,
(f)

ritard.

And

with ar

-

dour

seized

it.

Ros

-

lein,

Ros

-

lein,

Ros

-

lein

red,

Ros

-

lein

of

the

hedge

-

row

A
(rt)

very

common
(or

Two

extension of ballad form is the following more) stanzas set to the same melody, either as an exact repeat or with slight
:

modifications.

the whole forming in a different key (b) One stanza (or perhaps two) set to a fresh melody a complete contrast to (a). to the melody of (a). often with a new or modified accompaniment (c) A return at discretion. with a Coda The whole wind (d) up may " " is a noteworthy illustration of this form Linden Tree Schubert's
:

DER LINDENBAUM (THE LINDEN

TREE).

(Words translated from the German by PAUL ENGLAND.) Eight bars of Introduction, suggestive of the wind sighing through the branches, and the tender reminiscences of the poet, precede the ist verse
:

1st Verse.

Moderate.

SCHUBERT.

A
S

lime

tree

by the

gate

-

way

Leans o'er

a

ti

-

ny

stream,

4

I

I

rj

neath

its

pleasant sha

-

dow

I

dreamt

my

sweetest

dream.
(b)

For

r

m

Schubert's Linden-tree.

there

in love's first

rap

-

ture,

I

carv'd

my

dar-ling's

name,

And

'

"f

W

fe*:

there,

in

joy or

sor

-

row

For

help

or

counsel

came.

~~
3

3

F

gEE
"

n u

f

ft?-

'

>

^J^-TP

^-5

!

H

Hgi-fcg

L^

F-

Four bars

(Key

E

of instrumental interlude, based on the Introduction, but in the Tonic Minor minor), lead to the 2nd verse
:

2nd Verse

(E

minor)

.

To

-

day

once more

I

passed

it

When

night

had

veiled the skies,

m?
ven
in

the

dark

-

ness

I

dared

not

raise

my

eyes.

And
f

r^

Trihl*i

70
(Resumption
of

The Composer's Handbook.

E

major.)

yet

the lime tree

whis

-

pered

So

sweet

-

ly

in

my

ear

Come,

Then follows the third verse in contrasted style, in E minor and C major, with a stormy accompaniment based on the introduction, gradually leading to the fourth verse in E major,
Pt>

^

W^i
3-

r^a- >

i

m

r*^s

>

T^

-f^^fr

r~

the last section being extended by a couple of bars, and the whole ending with six bars for the pianoforte taken from the Introduction.
There are
(a)

many

The ballad-like and regular metrical structure. (b) The general simplicity of the harmonic structure yet with occasional more abstruse chords. and the characteristic little (c) The clever use of the passage connecting the sections at (a), (b), etc. used for the same purpose at (c), (d), (e), (/). figure The effective contrast obtained by employing the Tonic Minor for the first half of the second stanza. (d) (e) The increasing richness and interest of the accompaniment at each repetition of the chief melody. " " The secured (i) by utilizing the introductory material for each of the interludes and for (/) unity the concluding instrumental passage and (2) by keeping to the same form of accompaniment throughout
;
;

points for the observant student to note in the construction of this fine song.

each complete stanza. "
(g)

The

"

variety

of detail

investing the song with

"

ever-increasing interest

"

from_start to

finish.

A

large

number

type of construction. Barnby, and other composers.
It

modern concert room and drawing-room songs are of this The student may find plenty of examples in songs by Sullivan, Cowen,
of

"

"

"

"

92 The essentials and general principles of accompaniment have been discussed in Par. 90. remains to consider the various STYLES OF ACCOMPANIMENT. Although no exclusive rules can be laid down for accompaniments the following general classification will be of assistance to the student
:

Styles of

Song Accompaniment.
:

71

(i)

A

simple harmonized setting of the melody

THE SOLDIER'S BRIDE.
SCHUMANN.
&c.

If

on

-

ly

the

Em

-

per

-

or

knew

*
This

8^=
:

may
p-

include occasional unison passages
mott.
1

THE REAPER.
Andante con
1
'

^
whom Death we
call,

MENDELSSOHN.
&c.

There

is

a

Reap-er

He

is

Lord and the King o'er

all.

mo/to legato.

^
to the left
:

&c.

(or reiterated notes, etc.) for the right

Or the melody may occasionally be given hand

hand with accompanying chords

THE BETTER LAND.
COWEN.

cr

FTT*
:

&c.

(2)

Detached Chords.

These

may

closely follow the melodic outline

WHERE THE BEE
|M^__

SUCKS.

(**

On
r

a

bat's back

do

I

fly,

do

I

fly,

^^ated^pj^gse^-igfrtosz^^ji f- ^ ^~[^
.g.

-HI

1

1

-

J~~

&c.

^

fc

72

The Composer's Handbook.

Or they may merely provide a

"

harmonic substratum

"

to support the

melody

:

COME, JOIN IN SONG.
-Jtur.
i

^
merry, merry rounde
-

&c.

Come,

join

in

song

and a

lay,

i
(3)

&c.

A

"
light

"

embroidery

of the

melody

:

MAY DEW.

STERNDALE BENNETT.

H
O'er
the

m
wood
-

lands,

o'er

the

mea

-

dows.

&c.

&c.
'
-

1
(4)

Chords

in re-iterated notes, or in various

forms of arpeggio, generally with a steady

bass

:

BEETHOVEN.
f*

To

Him

the stars their

homage

ren-der,

&c.

$^=
&c.

\\t*
TO MUSIC.
-Gf

*^
SCHUBERT.
--j

Thou ho

-

ly

art,

how

oft

in

hours of

sad

-

ness,

m
t

=

r^-*r

Styles of

Song Accompaniment.

73

THE ANGEL.
Moderate.

=lE
An
an
-

RUBINSTEIN.

gel

m

5=T he

float

-

eth

the

hea

vens a

-

long,

And

JSL

Ii
-fflf
4r

zz|zr

&c.
iP^i

*

I

I

I

\-9r-9

9r-9,

J J

I

S^j^Sj* ^^^F^t^Tfw-w
This,

^

i

1

I

^

1

W W
!

I

'

I 1

f

i I

I 1

J

J

I

though a duet,

is

included

among

these examples, as the

same

style

is

equally suitable for a solo.

ON WINGS OF SONG.
Andante
tranquillo.

MENDELSSOHN.

fc

On

wings

of

song

I'll

bear

thee

To

^

-

-r

-r

those

fair

A

74

The Composer's Handbook.

(5)

A

(a)

For melodic

characteristic melodic or rhythmical figure repeated through several bars, " Linden Tree" (pp. 68-70). (b) Rhythmical figure figures, see Schubert's
:

THE IMPRISONED HUNTSMAN.

SCHUBERT.

My

hawk
'

is

tir'd

of

perch and hood.

My
&c.

F~
55
^
^-

-^-=p: -1 !
5t
P

J-1 m-m-

^3^

j

T

I

E

I *

^
*-d-

F

=3?
:

Sometimes two

distinct figures of

accompaniment are maintained
IS

one in each hand
SCHUBERT.

WHO

SYLVIA?

m

&c

Who

'

is

Syl

-

via

what

is

she.

That

-.
(6)

A

"

"

counter-melody
:

forming a kind of duet with the solo part, or even becoming

itself

the chief melody

REDEMPTION.

GOUNOD.

THE LOST CHORD.
SULLIVAN.

It

flood-ed thecrim-son

twi
-*-

-

light,

Like the close of an an

P

.

s

J.

J-

^

* J-

J ^.

i^
--

-

gel's psalm,

J-i^:

&c.

'.

.1:8

o

^f^

'

<Q

r

-L*~

Styles of

Song Accompaniment.
is

75

" The First Violet," the introductory instrumental theme In Mendelssohn's a duet with the voice form to stanza in the last
:

employed

INTRODUCTION.

Andante con moto.

__ __.&c.

I

^=F

S

:zz=zzz=z

Last stanza.

in importance to the solo part (7) A descriptive or dramatic accompaniment equal sometimes even more important is often employed in Through-composed songs (see page 77).

Additional Remarks.

Sometimes a melody is repeated in ballad style at each repetition, as in the following, from Beethoven
:

with a more highly-elaborated

accompaniment

(1)

s

-1
&c.

&c.

76

The Composer's Handbook.

Ac.

&c.

^i^-^s^, pfB-5r J

jjTii

j^l

^i
Linden

This style

is

particularly useful in

accompanying an instrumental

solo.

(See also Schubert's

"

Tree," pp. 68-70.)
of an

" " " active Essentials Most composers are careful not to overload the voice when it has an part (see Accompaniment," p. 63, No. 7). In many cases the voice and accompaniment carry on the musical
in alternation."

idea"

THE TALISMAN.
Grave, non troppo lento.

SCHUMANN.

S
God doth
rule the glowing

M

.

,.

&c.

East,

God doth

rule the glorious West.

Sometimes a

"
figure

"
is

maintained without variation throughout, as

" in Schubert's Ave Maria." " Serenade in F." of his

Similarly

Brahms

uses the rhythmic figure
of the

FS

S

Jj

J

J

in every

bar

as to

songs specially striking phrase become a " leading theme " (see Chap. XIV). commences

In other

a

the accompaniment so often melody is woven into Thus Schumann, in " The Two Comrades," which

song
of

&c.

two

trust-y

com

-

rades

introduces this opening phrase (with variations of pitch and key) into the accompaniment over twenty times during the course of the song. In an extended song several styles of accompaniment may be used in turn, but it is not good to be " The more beautiful the constantly changing the form of accompaniment without definite purpose. melody, the less it needs in the way of embellishment."

Through-Composed Songs.

77

93 It might, perhaps, be supposed that a through-composed song, to justify its name/ should be entirely free from formal restraint that it should merely follow the caprice of the composer. " Such a song is, however, rarely written it would be a kind of musical chaos, without " of the finest In most there is and void." some form, through-composed songs persistent " " " which characterises the whole work and gives " unity " to what melodic phrase or figure There is also a general adherence to regular, metrical might otherwise lack coherence. arrangement, and there is often some recurrence of the chief themes.
;

Schumann's

"

The Two Grenadiers

"

starts with the following instrumental passage

:

Fed.

which

is

based on the opening bars of the vocal melody

:-

3

\J

9 To

=r= ~ &
France there journey 'd two gren-a
-

c

.

diers.

The same instrumental passage (though sometimes varied five times in the accompaniment while the little figure
;

so as to be scarcely recognizable) occurs four or

is

used seven times.

chords and ever-increasing interest, until it culThe song proceeds, with its inimitably expressive " The Marseillaise." The whole form is markedly " free," minates in a setting of the French patriotic hymn, " " is never lost. but the sense of clear design
Similarly the key to Schubert's indicated in the first three bars
:

"

Erl King

"

its

"

atmosphere," as

it

is

now

called

is

clearly

while his

"

" Young Nun

is

largely developed

from the following phrase

These three songs should be carefully studied they are perhaps the finest of all through-composed " Among other songs of this class worthy of attention may be mentioned Clay's Sands of Dee," songs. and several of Liszt's songs, in addition to the great masterpieces of Schubert, Schumann, and Brahms.
;

N.B.

It

should be said that in advanced songs of this nature

all sorts of

chords, discords,

and modu-

lations find fitting place.

Volumes might be written on the fascinating subject of It is hoped that songs." to carry on his study of them with intelligence, and enough has been said to "enable the student " " " essentials and accidental details of structure and treatment. to distinguish between
94

"

78

The Composer's Handbook.

For the musician of limited means, the following works (from which aie selected) are recommended
:

many

of the

above

illustrations

" A Golden Treasury of Song (Vols. I and II), Boosey and Co., 2/6 each Schubert's Twenty-four Favourite Songs," Augener and Co., 2/-. Students who wish to pursue the subject further should also study all the songs they can get hold of by Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Brahms, Franz, Grieg, Jensen, Hugo Wolf, and other noted song composers.
;

"

"

is necessary to refer to two special forms of song used the Aria and the Scena. (The student may, however, defer consideration of these forms until Chap. IX has been studied.)

95

To complete

this chapter

it

in oratorio

and grand opera,

viz.,

a vocal solo with instrumental accompaniment, generally three-fold in The first part of the Aria is most frequently of two sentences. the second part is in mainly in the principal key, and set to the first sentence of the words some contrasted key (or keys), and is set to the second sentence the third part is a repetition In modern Arias a coda is frequently added. or modified repetition, of the first part.

An

Aria

is

form.

The words

consist

;

;

"

O

rest in the

Lord

"
(Elijah)

is

a typical example of a concise Aria in this form.

The ARIA DA CAPO,

or

GRAND

ARIA, introduced by Cavalli and A. Scarlatti, was one

of the chief forms of Aria used

by Bach and Handel.
:

GENERAL PLAN. (A) First part (i) Instrumental prelude (or ritornello) announcing the principal melody (3) short modulations into closely related (2) principal melody (vocal) (5) instrumental postlude. (4) return to principal key keys
;

;

;

;

(B).

Second part
:

:

shorter than the
repetition

first

part,

and contrasted

in

key and

style.

Third part (C). mental prelude).

da capo

of the first part (generally omitting the instru-

" He was despised " (Messiah) is a fine example of the Aria da Capo ; though, on account of its length, the second part and the repetition of the first part are generally omitted. Practically all Handel's opera solos are examples.

An ARIA DI BRAVURA is an aria abounding in difficult passages, runs, etc., to exhibit " " the singer's skill and the compass and flexibility of the voice as Why do the nations? " " and It is the favourite form of aria in Italian Rejoice greatly (Messiah). opera.
;

An ARIA PARLANTE,
a kind of spoken melody, as

or ARIOSO, "
in

is an aria lying midway between recitative and song " Comfort ye (Messiah}.

For other forms of Aria, see the Author's " Cyclopaedic Dictionary of Music."

A

SCENA

is

the

"
largest

solo comprising recitative

and
in

arioso,

and most brilliant of vocal solo forms." It and generally ending with a regular aria.
" "

is

a dramatic

ye, Israel

Examples may be found "

(Mendelssohn's Elijah), and Beethoven's

any Grand Opera; "

in Gounod's Faust. e.g., the " Jewel Song Adelaide are also of the nature of Scenas.

"

Hear

EXERCISES. The student may now compose songs in various forms of accompaniment, to words selected by himself.

styles,

and with suitable

Short lyric or dramatic poems of about three stanzas in length are advised at this stage.

The words should have a good rhythmic swing and " character or diction.

lilt,"

and should not be too severely
"

classical in

" Suitable pieces may be found in Beeton's " Book of Poetry English (2 vols., Ward, Lock & Co.), " Songs and Ballads (The World's Classics), Palgrave's " Golden Treasury" (Macmillan), and other collections, and in the poems of Longfellow, Tennyson, Shelley, Walt Whitman, Heine, Schiller, &c.

79

CHAPTER
DUETS, TRIOS,
96
;

VI.
&c.

DUETS AND TWO-PART CHORUSES. These are practically identical they may consist of two-part work throughout, or the two-part wo:k may be interspersed with solos (for either part). A two-part chorus may well have a more full and heavy accompaniment than a duet for two solo voices otherwise
;

the styles of accompaniment are the same as those already given for vocal solos (Chap. V.)
" " 97 a good opportunity offers to point out to composers that, Here," to quote Berlioz, in vocal pieces accompanied by instruments, the harmony of the voices should be correct, and treated as though they were alone."
is an admirable rule, and the student should do his best to observe it. Berlioz gives the following example of bare fourths in the voices covered only by the " " basses of the orchestra, and he does not hesitate to call the passage an error of Gluck's

This

:

IPHIGENIA IN TAURIDE.
VOICES.

* *

GLUCK.

_L

Daughter

chaste of

dread

La

-

to

-

na,

Lend gracious ear

to our

song.
ii

ORCHESTRAL BASS.

98

GENERAL RULES OF TWO-PART WRITING.
In writing for voices unaccompanied, or with an ad
lib.

accompaniment, the following

rules should be observed.
(1)

Any
The
(a)

progressions of thirds or sixths

may

be used

;

but they should not be continued

so long as to
(2)

become monotonous.
interval of a second
is

When
|

the lower note

is

good. prepared (either tied or re-struck] and resolved downwards
\

*

JE^EEJE ^ A

^^ ^H
:

:=

=^=
^
^

*

JB

*|*,*-^*-* =*=F
^
**=
I

:

&c.

r
(b)

As a passing-note, when the lower note proceeds by step downwards from the unison

:

._L_*_J.

*

(c)

As a passing-note when the higher part proceeds by step upwards from the unison
*

:

(d)

When

it is

a diatonic or chromatic waving note*

:

(e)

When

the lower note

is

the fourth of the scale (giving an implied domt. yth chord).

is

A waving note (in French a broderie), included by Macfarren among pass ng notes, and called by some theorists an auxiliary note, used by a step higher or lower between any two notes of the same pitch as shown in the examples.
;

80

The Composers Handbook.

The

following examples are not to be

commended

:

&c.

(3)

The

interval of a seventh

is

good
(tied

(a)

When

the higher note

is

prepared

or re-struck)

and resolved downwards

r -p
(6)

=

&C.

r
(in either part)
:

When

it is

a passing or waving note

&C.

i(c)

I

&c.

When

it

is

a dominant 7th.

Two-part Writing.

81

(6)

The diminished 5th may be used
dominant 7th chord *
in

as representing the

as a passing or waving note and such passages as the following *
;
:

it is

also allowed

i

j

1:

*f
Two
fifths of

i

r
J

1
&c.

&c.

in two-part writing

any kind in succession (when each part rises or falls) are decidedly bad though they can be sometimes tolerated in accompanied music

(7)

The augmented 4th may be used when the parts move from

it

in contrary

motion

:

THE MAY-BELLS AND THE FLOWERS.
MENDELSSOHN.

x v
See
!

is

I

d

&c.

>
is

"

flow'rs of

v y

rich

and

rar

-

est

hue,

But the

perfect 4th

hardly ever good except as a passing or waving note.
&c.

It
(a)

may also be used When the lower part
is

fifth of

the chord

or broken chord arpeggio not the highest note of the passage
is

an

"

"

and the objectionable

:

N.B.
(b)

The augmented fourth may be used
is

in the

same way.

When it

prepared in the lower part (as

an understood 7th) and properly resolved

:

^9
When

j

-rj
is

J&c.

(c)

the fourth

*

prepared and resolved in the upper part * *

:

r~~
nor (c) can, however, be recommended as in each case there are better ways of arranging the parts.

N.B.

Neither

(b)

many

Except as shown in the fourth bar of (c) above (which is decidedly bare), two fourths should never be used in succession and a two-part piece should never begin or end with the bare fourth. The following method of writing a second part to a melody unfortunately rather common in schools is particularly bad although with other parts added below it would make a good alto
;

;

:

*

*

*

,

*

* *

*

FT^fr^WTrrrf

82

The Composer's Handbook.

Occasional unisons or octaves or octaves are often of good effect.
(8)

may
:>

be employed

;

and whole "passages"

in unison

THE MAY-BELLS AND THE FLOWERS.
N
-I

MENDELSSOHN.

But wrath-ful

at

their harm-less

mirth,

Old

rost.

N .B.
(9)

an occasional passage

In setting a low-pitched melody for two voices it is often better for them to take in unison than to write a very low, growling, and ineffective second part.

Other effective progressions

may
(if
>

be produced by the two parts moving in contrary

motion, or by contrapuntal treatment
IQI

the composer can
l-^J-^

manage
1
1

it).

l-i

I

IT

J m *-\-~

c

99 All the rules and suggestions given above may be summed up in the following comprehensive rule bare fourths are particularly The two parts should always suggest complete chords be avoided. to therefore and specially objectionable,
:

;

To

be studied.

gain an adequate idea of the resources of two-part writing, Bach's Two-part Inventions should They may be obtained through any bookseller for about is. 6d.

100 When there is a pianoforte (or other) accompaniment, composers do not stringently adhere to the above rules, as the following examples show
:

THE ANGEL.
RUBINSTEIN.

=3--

r
They
3
list

_G*

:&c.

r
to

T
the

r
g-re

f
ho
-

sweet

ly

tones.

-

C=

'g"g'

'fg

g rS gzz=r:g_S
l

_D_ *
&c.

r
i~r
i

i

',""i
i i i i ,

I

J 1J J
-j-

i^j:J J Jli-3BB&^j^ --w-5-^i-1

t'Lj
-

^^

&
&C.

Note the 4th at

-^--u-3---*-*-^* * *

THE MAY-BELLS AND THE FLOWERS.
(a) f>
,.

(6)

MENDELSSOHN.

For

-

get

-

me

-

not

and

vio

-

lets

blue, Join

The passage from
passable.

(a)

to

(6)

requires the addition of the instrumental bass to

make

it

Three-part Writing.
101

83

TRIOS AND THREE-PART CHORUSES. These may consist of three-part work throughout, or

may

be interspersed with

solos,

as in the case of duets
discussed.

and two-part choruses. Nothing need be said of the style of accompaniments beyond what has already been

102

UNACCOMPANIED THREE-PART WRITING.

This will give no trouble if two-part writing is well understood. The addition of the third part allows of much fuller harmony, and there will be little danger of writing bare fourths. Great care must, however, be exercised in the use of | chords (second inversions). SUGGESTIONS (i) Do not begin or end with a | chord.
:

Weak

beginning, t

&&-*
rr

-"'

3z

Weak

ending. pCKlZir

ryrr'
6

4

(2)

The lowest part should not skip

to a second inversion, except from a note of the same
Good.

chord.

Good.

*
(3)

43
6

5

*

43
6

#
inversion.

The lowest part should not skip from a second
Bad.

[i

N.B.

The few exceptions

to this rule are given in

any good text book

of

Harmony.
step wise, as

The lowest part may be repeated
the following
:

(with a different chord), or

move

shown

in

Efrpp^m
f,
f.

4

(4)

Two

second inversions in succession are bad when the lowest part moves stepwise
Bad.

664
4

zr &c.

4

:

Bad.
I

*

-Gk-~-

I.

f
" Lift thine eyes (Mendelssohn's Elijah), The student should analyse the three-part writing. out the features worthy of special attention
:

"

is

whole of
(d)

a fine example of pure unaccompanied We give the last part, pointing it.
(e)
(/)

1st

&

2nd SOPRANOS.

(a\

(b)

(c)

(g)

V

^

CONTRALTO.

84

The Composer's Handbook.

r^
(a)
(b)
(c)
;
; ;

^r=^

lowest note approached by skip from F$, 3rd of same chord. | chord the 3rd is omitted to give a better second soprano part. Incomplete dominant 7th (last inversion) or first inversion of 7th on the supertonic ( 7 Rfe) with the 5th (Blj) Tonic pedal in second soprano lowest 'note approached and quitted by step. Or last inversion of 7th on supertonic (E understood). approached and quitted by step. completed at Incomplete dominant 7th (first inversion)
^

omitted.
(d)
(e)
(/)

chord chord

;

;

;

(g)

by the A
;

in first soprano.

The E in second soprano changes the chord to approached by skip from root (D). (K) | chord a prepared 4th on the dominant (resolved on next quaver in first soprano). first inversion of dominant 9th on Fj (leading to B minor). Diminished 7th on A* (/) the following D. (k) Anticipation of
;

(I)

to (m) Sequence of 6ths

and

3rds.
;

(n)
(o)
(q)

first inversion of dominant major gth. 7th added on approached by step, and resolved on same note at (/>) Substitute low A for the D in alto and note the unfinished effect.

7th and 5th on leading-note

j

;

last

quaver

of bar.

103

In accompanied three-part music, composers and editors are not so strict in the treatment

of 2 chords in the vocal parts.

WHEN

EVENING'S TWILIGHT.
Arranged from HATTON.

When

eve

-

ning's twi- light

gath

~~
-

ers

round

NIGHT SINKS ON THE WAVE.
H. SMART.

Night

sinks

on

the

wave,

Three-part Writing.

85

FLY, SINGING BIRD.
ELGAR.

b^=pr-d=^b
=S==pi=gii=:

^FlT

-?Sec.

Fly,

sing- ing

bird,

fly,

PILGRIMAGE OF THE ROSE.
SCHUMANN.
J

J
Spring!

-fs

J.

P> --

rd- v

Oh,

we

hold

thee

blest!

&c.

^

Lg^i

^

^.

,

1^0--^

104

Unison passages are frequent

in three-part choruses for equal voices

:-

SONG OF THE NORNS.
A
VOICES IN UNISON.
-p.
Allegro.
1

-~=EE==fe=EEE^

:=

HOFMANN.
-G>-

-&

Soprano and

alto in octaves is also

a favourite device with composers

:

86

The Composer's Handbook.

LITTLE SNOWDROP.
cres

REINECKE.
do.

ist

&

2nd SOPRANOS.

J=t
gloom-y
L

with-in Not CONTRALTO.

a

grave;

Here,
cres

up -on

this

light-

some

hill,

&c.

cen

do.

A

"N^ ^ ^jrf^^FW ^^~

P.

'.

q=: N

i

p=

4*3-

p

cres

cen

-

do.

&c.

Male -voice Music.
JOS

87

MALE-VOICF Music. The arrangement of male-voice music is on similar lines. As, however, bass voices is student advised to consul* different the. somewhat treatment from contraltos, require especially the following works, which perfectly i'h'Strate the best methods of writing for <nen'
voices (in frorn one to eight parts). " " for male voices, and Mendelssohn's cantata To Hie Sons ;>/ Art, his Fesigi^ange EdenhaU." also Luck and Schumann's of Antigonf (All published by NovrHo.) QLdiput ;
h'3 3citi;igs

of

Drink to tiie on Or leave a kiss

.

ly

with thine eyes, Ard
.

I
I'll

with

in

the

cup,

And

will pledge with not ah> for

^ _ mine,

wine;

The

thirst that

from

the

soul

doth rise

Doth

ask

a

drink

di

_

J' J" J"
vine;

But might

I

of loves

nee

_

tar sip,

I

would not change for

thine.

The harp that once

thro' Ta.ra's halls,

The

soul of mu.sic

shed,

Now hangs

as mute on

Ta.ra's walls as

if

that soul

were dead.

So

sleeps the pride of

form.er days,

St

glo.ry's thrill is

m

J
o'er

And

hearts, that once beat high for praise, Now feel

that pulse

no more.

-i^^J
Gold
.

en slum.ters kiss

your

eyes,

Smiles

a

.wake you when you

rise;

Sleep pret.ty

maid

.

en,

do

not

cry,

And

I

will

sing

a

lul

.la

.

by.

The

(

omoser's ffnndbnok

J

r
to

J
me?
Rn
.

J
I

What's this dull town

bin's

not

near.

What

was't

wished

to see,

What

wish'd to

hear?

Where

all

the

joy

and mirth Made

this

town

heav'n

on earth? Oh,

they're all

fled

with thee,

Ro

.

bin

A

.

dair.

To

o

.

ther

shores a

.

cross the sea

We

speed with swell

1

.

ing

sail.

Yet

EJ^^ltfjfTirct
till

there lin

.

gens on our lee

A phantom In.

nis

.

fail.

Oh. fear not.fear not, gen_tleghost your

sons shall turn un. true! Tho' fain to

fly

your love,

ly coast,

They leave

their hearts with you.

In

the sky

the

moon

is

beam, ing

All

through the night,

While

be. low

the

r-r-r-rtt^F^
earth
is

dream -ing

All

through the night.

In

our

mor

.

tal

days

de.clin

.

ing,

^^^r=t
May our
souls, as

5
and
re. pin .ing,
Till

calm

.

ly shin-ing, Cheer the restless

lost

in

89

CHAPTER
MELODY

VII.
"

IN GENERAL.
factors

106 The student may well pause here to consider more fully the We shall discuss the methods of their artistic employment.
(4)
(B)
(C)

"

of

melody and

Melodic Direction

;

Melodic Range or Extent Melodic Intervals
;

;

(D)
(E)

The

Influence of Time,

(F)

Rhythmical Contents of Measures Melody Based on Arpeggios.

Rhythm, and Accent and
;

;

Melody comprises (a) Ascending Passages, (b) Descending (A) MELODIC DIRECTION. Passages, (c) Repeated Notes, (d) Prolonged Single Notes. either proceed scale-wise, or by skips or, as it were, by (a) Ascending passages may " " with a general ascending tendency a series of flights
;
:

HANDEL

(Samson).

&c
Though
I

could end thee at a blow ,tho'

I

could

endtheeat

a

blow,

&c.

(b)

Descending passages
:

may

also proceed either

by the

scale, or

by

skips, or

by a

series

of melodic figures

BEETHOVEN.

Op. 28.

90

The Composer's Handbook.

Many
irjcgninni

melodies consist largely of ascending and descending passages in alternation

:

~
fc

MOZART
-^-

(Sonata in Bb).

\W^3E

ES5EE^5 rf-f

im^EJtea
6

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

31,

No.

1.

or or subsides

"

" " aim In most passages of this nature there is some high note which seems to be the " either the breaks off into music another kind of figure, and when this is reached climax
;

by descending

:

HANDEL.

6F
r

TJy jvjC ^^.' 9 Q
-1
i

'

s|| il

* m

STERNDALE BENNETT. _P VT~;
:

r

S:

M

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

2.

13
CORELLI. Violin Sonata.

BEETHOVEN.
f*

Op. 27.

.

m

-

.

^Fff.^Fr^tffe^^f
Sometimes the ascending or descending passage is given to the bass, or a middle part, " " the highest melody being an accompaniment, or added counterpoint
:

f*Ez

-

--

--

.

f

Melodic Direction.

91

BEETHOVEN.

Op-

79.

1
BEETHOVEN.
Op. 81a.

The following
in contrary

motion

are examples of chromatic ascending "
:

and descending passages proceeding

GOUNOD
;

(Redemption).

m * P m m

SB:

&c.

BEETHOVEN.
g-

Op. 90.

ores

-

-

cen

-

do.

dim.
,

&c.

^

rtz

*
As the emotional idea underlying an ascending passage is increasing intensity of expression generally accompanied by an increase of force and speed and that of a descending passage decreasing intensity of expression generally with a decrease of force and speed the composer must be guided in the choice and development of such passages by the character of the effect he wishes to produce.

92

The Composer's Handbook.
"

the repetition of a note is not Macfarren's statement that understood. too be not must literally melody but monotone The slow music the repetition of a note is dignified, solemn, and expressive. (i) In " such Hence of accumulation is passages frequently imply a intensity." underlying idea
(c)

REPEATED NOTES.
"

crescendo.

HANDEL.

"

Dead March."

pp

Andante.

^
Adagio.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

27.

iNlJ
BEETHOVEN.

J

J-

"

"

Moonlight

Sonata.

SIR

J.

Goss (Subject

of a Fugue).

^;

A o
As

o
the

I

<

'
round a
-

moun-tains are

bout Je

-

ru

-

sa-lem.
" Lost Chord.

SULLIVAN.

Seat

-

ed

one day

at

the

or

gan

I

was wea

-

ry

and

ill

at

ease,

Andante.

GOUNOD.

Redemption.

*r-=p?=F >
i

i

J-

J\J

J-

J-a
GOUNOD.
Redemption.

i

k-

&
g

-fa
^1

* g-i p ta-hrH
Li

jBT-g

f-C4J

fefe

(2) 7w music of a lighter kind, repeated notes give life and animation to the melody " " without adding to the difficulty of performance. The so-called patter-songs consist, largely,

of rapidly iterated notes.

BEETHOVEN.
Allegro.
eves.

Op.

14.

f
fl

PP

Allegretto.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

r=&c.

Repeated Notes.
Allegro Vivace.

93
AUBER.
Mansaniello.

ip=:p=z:p:
If

:*!=:
thought your heart sur
-

a

gloom-y thought, a

gloom-y

pris

-

es,

Sing your songs, there's

....song naught
like

=P=P-

.

to

ban

-

ish

care to

sleep;

If

a

gloom-y

thought, a

gloom-y

thought your heart sur -pri

-

ses,

Sing your

songs.there'g naught like

song to

ban

-ish

care to

sleep.

(3) In instruments of little sustaining power, as the mandoline and the street piano, rapidly repeated notes are used instead of longer single notes. Thus

&c
Instead of

-

&c.

Repetition

is

also

Melody from HAYDN.

one of the methods used in varying and developing a simple melody. in G. Symphony

94

The Composer's Handbook,

SINGLE NOTES. (i) Without regarding the ordinary succession of (d) PROLONGED which notes and short may be found in almost all pieces of music, there are often notes long sustained to an unusual length, and generally placed in some specially effective position of the These sustained notes generally denote a climax, and are usually voice (or instrument).
delivered in the form of a
Andante.

"

swell," ~=Z^Z

H^*"

:

MENDELSSOHN (Duet No.
cres.

2.).

f

MENDELSSOHN.

Duet, No.

4.

"

(2)
:

A

long sustained no+e at a
3

medium

or low pitch
dim.

is

often employed as a

"

point of
s;^

repose

P

.

__ 3

pp

An - gels guard

thy slum

-

bers

sweet,

Good

night

!

Andante

tranquillo.

SULLIVAN.

Peace
"
(3)

to

the

m

qui

el

It was long customary in operatic solos for the singer to introduce an elaborate " before the final cadence. The note preceding the cadenza was marked with " " just " " a hold pause (fermata), or

cadenza

:

Passage as
written

As

it

might be performed

Two

cadenzas sung by Jenny Lind

:

ME

Prolonged Notes.

95

(4) Embellished cadences are also used in instrumental solos and in violin concertos, Formerly they were always left to the skill and discretion of the pianoforte concertos, etc. performer, who either improvised the cadenzas on the spur of the moment or prepared them Modern composers, who are sparing in their use of these ornaments, almost beforehand. Passages invariably write their cadenzas in full, exactly as they wish them to be performed. like the following (from Beethoven, Op. no) are evidently of the nature of cadenzas, though not so called Andante. Piu adagio. Adagio. Adagio.
:

RECIT.
I I
! I

\.

5-t-

1

1

1

1 (

F

!

I

JL

--T-ritard.

c cantabile.

^8

dim

"

The cadenza may be said to take the place of the long sustained note which so frequently forms the " climax of intensity in a composition. (See p, 94.)
(5)

A

or an organ solo.

prolonged note is very common at the close of a vocal composition, a violin solo, In this position great effect is given to the sustained note by variety of
:

harmonic accompaniment
Moderate.

#

j

*

v__

_

dim. _js*__

dim.
'P

PP

^
I

^
Larghetto.

i

IT

r

~r

^

_J

JJa

7^

i

v

n

|_J--

-*~J^__+__+__4

\~'~\^^~^^^^~' x
I

x-

f-

^

2lfc

BARNEY.

"

Sweet and low."

p

*

* ~v

.-^
1

~g ^^_ jp.
,\

r--

-IT*

c

~
^:

iv

~T~^ld^H^
Ir

'P"

L'
|S

ttf

* P

u ir
,\

?

-*^

--'
|>

W

|r

[

!;

j_
t--

_^>

fs

1S=

^=ff
ist

?E^

:or:
"-(-

Note that the

and 2nd bars
N
r

of the

melody
Js
I

are practically a repetition of the note G.
.

Sustained note in Tenor.
I

(s

h

I

.

is

'>

F

96
N.B.
(6)

The Composer's Handbook.
Similar effects
fine effect is

may be introduced at any point during the progress of
"
first

a composition.
:

A

sometimes obtained by sustaining the

note

"

of

a melody

A ndante.

f

r=-

See also Sullivan's song
is

"

Orpheus with

his lute."

The

first

note of

"

Angels ever bright and

fair

"

generally sustained in the same manner.

in the lower parts (alto, tenor, (7) Repeated and prolonged notes are very common where they are introduced without any special melodic purpose. They have often great value, however, in binding the harmony together, and adding breadth to the general
bass),

composition. be seen, therefore, that though repeated and sustained notes have little place " in counterpoint, and are, strictly speaking, not melodic progressions," they form a most factor in of and actual composition (both melody harmony). important The character of a melody is greatly influenced (B) MELODIC RANGE OR EXTENT. Melodies confined to a small part of the scale are usually quiet by the extent of its compass. and soothing. Many of Beethoven's finest melodies are remarkable for their limited range
It will

effect of the

and conjunct movement

:

Negro melody, confined to the

first

three notes of the scale.

-^-ftr^s:

(6)

Extent of a 4th.

P Andante con

tnoto.

BEETHOVEN.

Quartet. Op. 18.

BEETHOVEN.

Sonata, Op. 57

(c)

Extent of a 5th.

Old Latin

Hymn

Tune.

Now known

as "St. Luke's"

L.M.

3^

t=
MOZART.

I

j
Sonata

G>

i

in A.

Melodic Intervals.

97

(d)

Extent of a 6th.

BEETHOVEN.

Sonata, Op. 106.

(e)

Extent of a 7th.

BEETHOVEN.

Sonata, Op.

2,

No.

2.

*?
of more disjunct movement, and of more vigorous treatment. In vocal music, the range of most of the finest melodies rarely exceeds an octave ; a range of a loth or nth should not in general be exceeded, except in "bravura" or "show" songs written for the special purpose of exhibiting the flexibility, compass, and other characteristic

Wider range allows

features of exceptional voices.

" " effective In instrumental music, the composer must be guided by the compass of the instrument, and the general style of his music. In solos for wind instruments, it is wise to avoid both extremes of high and low notes but no one can write really well for instruments of any kind who does not thoroughly understand their mechanism and capabilities.
;

Example of wide range P Adagio.

in

melody.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

31,

No.

2.

The ordinary intervals available in simple melody have (C) MELODIC INTERVALS. already been given (par. 28, Chap. II). Exceptional intervals are used as follows
:

(i) Diminished intervals of all kinds may be used, provided, generally, that the next note after the diminished interval be some note within the interval, thus
:

Dim.

3rd.

Dim.

3rd.

Dim.

4th.

Dim.

4th.

ifeqfeU

-

&c.

The
Dim.

following progressions are not good
5th.

:

Dim.

4th.

Dim.

3rd.

IH*-

The Composer's Handbook.
intervals are in their nature unmelodious. They are generally (3) Augmented avoided in pure vocal writing, partly because of their difficulty in performance, but more effect. especially on account of their harsh, disjunct

Exceptions.

Augmented

intervals (and other harsh progressions of melody)
:

may

be

used in the following, and similar, cases (a) In a Sequence (See Chap. VIII).
Aug.
i
1

3=H
(b)

&c.

In

Recitative.

Recitative is intermediate between speech and true melody. Therefore, augmented and diminished intervals, want of regular rhythm, and abrupt changes of harmony, are all appropriate to this particular form of musical composition
:

Aug. 2nd.

Aug. 4th. 4
til

JI

i

What have

I

to

do

with thee,
4th. Aug. ug. 4t
~i

thou son

of

Be

-

li -

al

?

MENDELSSOHN.

Hymn
'

of Praise.

:p=g=p=:H :2
5
1?~
'Watchman,
(c)

g_jrgg=
*
is

*

*
far

II

the night

spent?"
scale.

In

the

melody

of the

minor
'

2nd. Aug. ug. and

^

Aug. 2nd.
-'

^

&c.

(d)

When

the two notes

forming

the interval are both in the

same chord

:

SIR

J.

F. BRIDGE.

Repentance of Nineveh.
1

VOICE.
^

Aug.4ths,
^
,

ACCOMPANYING CHORDS.
rJ

==t

Aug.
^
<

4ths.

=

'_'?

S*

a

Melodic Intervals.
Aug. 5ths.

99

(e)

When

melody (on which

the second note of the interval is it resolves either directly, or by

a semitone below some principal note of the

some ornamental

Aug. 2nd.

Aug.

5th-.

variation) Aug. 2nd. Aug. 4th.
:
i

i-^i

A-

Maj. 7th.

Maj. 7th.

Aug.

4th.

Aug. 5th.

This style

is

very

common

in instrumental music.

The augmented

interval gives

piquancy and great prominence to the following note. (/) To produce some special or striking effect, or

to illustrate the verbal text
St.

MENDELSSOHN.
Aug. 4th.

Paul.

fe
His

P
-

m
ing.
ish.

ways

are

past

our

un
4th.

-

der

-

stand

Aug.

From

the same.

And who

does

so

shall sure

per

-

HANDEL.

Samson. Maj. 7th.

a

tri

umph

dis

-

dain.

The student should remember that all these exceptional progressions are effective in proportion to the moderation with which they are employed. When constantly introduced they cease either to astonish or to charm, and music becomes ugly and disagreeable instead of beautiful and pleasing.
(D) TIME, RHYTHM, ACCENT. Rhythm, in modern music, is the framework upon which melody is constructed. In all the larger forms of musical composition it is of paramount importance, as it not only suggests melodic outline, but shapes, moulds, transforms, and intensifies it to a remarkable degree.

and Principles "

of great learning and sagacity," who wrote a Treatise of the Natural Grounds in 1731, gives the following curious paragraph concerning rhythm. I did not intend to meddle with the Artificial Part of Musick The Art of Composing, and the Metric and Rhythmical Parts, which give the infinite variety of Air and Humour, and indeed the very Life to Harmony ; and which can make Musick, without Intervals of acuteness and Gravity, even upon a Drum and by which

Dr. Holder,
of

"

a

man

"

Harmony," published

:

;

10)

The Composer's Handbook.

the Sharp, which take the Greater Intervals within Diapason,^ as Thirds, Sixths, and Sevenths Major, are more brisk and airy and being assisted with Choice of Measures last spoken of, do dilate the Spirits, and The Flat, consisting of all the less Intervals, contract and rouze 'em up to Gallantry and Magnanimity. damp the Spirits, and produce Sadness and Melancholy. Lastly, a mixture of these, with a suitable Rhythmus them in a Middle Way." gently fix the Spirits, and compose
;

of Musick are perform'd, and the Kinds of Air distinguish'd ; as, Almond, Corant, chiefly the wonderful Effects some with Sprightliness, Some with Sadness, attack the Fancy of the Hearers Jigg, &c., which variously which is also improv'd by the Differences of those we call Flat* or Sharp, f Keys and some' a middle way
;
: ;

Time in music covers the following points or duration, of notes (relative and absolute) and rests. (a) The length, rate of movement, at which the music is performed. or The speed, (6) kind The of measure, or metre, including the regular or periodic recurrence (c)
:

of metrical

accents.
(d)

The

contents of measures, or bars, including Syncopation,

Emphasis (Dynamics), and
Musical Punctuation.
it

Rhythmical Accent generally.
(e)

The -arrangement
of these has

of Phrases, Sections, Sentences, Periods, etc.
in

Each
significance.

an important influence

shaping the melodic outline and giving

as measured by a clock or other mechanical contrivance, has little (7) Absolute time, " " of notes and rests is based upon comparative, or time-table the musical place in music From the dignified, but monotonous, effect of a succession of relative, periods of duration. notes of equal length we can obtain infinite variety by mere arrangement of long and short
;

notes.

A

few arrangements of a major

scale.

(See also par. 60, page 26.)

And
(//)
e.g.,

so on ad

lib.

The student should

exercise his ingenuity

by extending the

series.
;

Speed, or Rate of Movement, of a piece of music greatly influences Lento, Largo, Adagio, Andante, Moderato, Allegro, Vivace, Presto, etc.
it.,

The

its effect

Minor,

f Major.

{

The

octave.

Rhythmical Contents of Measures.

101

M.

J=

M. J = 100, Approximation to absolute time is indicated by the metronome, thus be observed time should in actual it that exact metronomic but is etc. impossible 72,
: ;

The composer's directions for accelerando, rallentando, piu mosso, meno mosso, performance. etc., the musical feeling of the conductor or performer, with the natural tendency to accelerate ascending passages and to retard descending ones, and to dwell upon certain important and the varying moods excited by the character of the music all help to give effective notes an artistic interpretation to the composition, and all prevent that strict adherence to the But care must be metronome which a mere musical mechanic considers to be essential. " Thus Schumann says, Play strictly taken not to go too far in deviating from strict time. Do The playing of many a virtuoso resembles the walk of an intoxicated person. in time. not take such as your model."
the the rate of movement influences the character of music by modifying Speaking generally " while in addition to this, slow music of notes (see par. 29, p. 7) mental effects naturally suggests quiet, grave, solemn, dignified emotions, and quicker music suggests more animated, cheerful, joyous, or even restless ones.

"

;

While the composer's choice of measures or ten varieties, the resources of rhythmical arrangement of the contents quiet and placid composition requires less rhythmic of these measures are inexhaustible. " " " " or The rhythmic of each successive form plan variety than one more energetic. measure may, indeed, be without variation or all sorts of devices may be employed to secure See the following examples variety until each measure has a different rhythm.
(E)
is

RHYTHMICAL CONTENTS OF MEASURES.
some eight

limited to

A

;

:

BEETHOVEN.

Sonata, No.

3.

^
r>

^**

^

102

The Composer's Handbook
BEETHOVEN.

The

of great variety following are examples
espressivo.

am

Andante

'

'~

^

- ^"

^^l

h^BB^"

WAGNER.

Symphony

in C.

MOZART.

II

Flauto Magico.

Melodies based on Arpeggios.

103

Rests are of great importance in obtaining rhythmic variety. " silences in the following
:

Note the

"

eloquent
Op.

Largo.

BEETHOVEN.

7.

(F) MELODIES BASED ON ARPEGGIOS OF CHORDS. successively, instead of simultaneously, they form what

When
is

the notes of a chord are struck

called

an

"

"

arpeggio

(from Arpa,

the harp).
Chord.
Arpeggios.

'

&c.

There is such a close and intimate connection between harmony and melody that one i.e., if the composer conceives a melody, its natural and approgenerally suggests the other and if Jie devises a progression priate harmony seems to spring into existence at the same time " " melodies immediately, or after some consideration, suggest of chords, various crowning themselves as graceful outlines to his mental picture.
; ;

"

The

broken chords

following are examples of melody constructed almost entirely of arpeggios or " as they are also called From a " School Song." 7 Tonic (D). Tonic (D) chord. pominantj7thJ S)^
:

SE
Dominant yth
7 (

S).

Tonic (D).
D.C.

Swiss Melody.

KUHN.

The whole

of this

melody

is

founded on chords of the Tonic and Dom. 7th (D and
SCHUMANN,
"

7

S).

The Merry Peasant."

~~=z
Tonic (D).

&c.

Subdom.
(F).

Tonic
(D).

_

Dom.
('S)

L_
yth
(D).

_J
BEETHOVEN, Op.
22.

Tonic

Tonic

(D).

104

The Composer's Handbook.
BEETHOVEN, Op.
31,

No.

3.

Tome

(D).

Dominant yth

7 (

S)

B E ETH OVEN,

Sonata, Op. 5 7.
'

&c.

Fonic

Chord

(L).
7

Tonic and Dominant 7th Chords (D and S)

WAGNER, Symphony

in C.

=^M
More abstruse chords.

^tfiTilr^^^^^^^
4^-Hi^P
~

Tl

I

|

:

IH

BEETHOVEN, Op.

m

53.

&c.

and

"

" " appoggiaturas,' the notes of a chord are interspersed with passing-notes," acciaccaturas," endless variety of melody may be obtained

When
3

:

Tonic Chord.
",T
,

I,

f"

5^

^.Lp.^^t^

m
9
I

J<L

N.B.

Instrumental accompaniments to vocal music are frequently constructed in this manner.

Melodies based on Chords.

105

BEETHOVEN.

Sonata.

Op.
3

2,
"

No.

i.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

10.

&c.

MOZART.

Sonata in F.
&c.

Acciaccaturas on a Dominant Chord.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

78.

-_^S&=3=

-=
Essential notes in the above extract.

-

-

^
&c.

fp~T

g
-I
'

&C.

Passage founded on the Dominant Minor gth

97se
(

M)

.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

57.

-*-^r-*--

--

*---

y-^-*--^-

*^-

106

The Composer's Handbook.

" Mixture of Diatonic and Chromatic passing notes, changing-notes," &c.

'

1
:

Note the connection between the following plaintive melody and the harmonic substratum which seems to have in great part suggested it

J=66.

SCHUMANN.

Paradise and the Peri.

J
Just then

-j

be- neat h

some o

-

range

trees,

Close by

the lake. she

now heard

a

moan;

>

>

1

j*
si
-

m

f^i

I

i ,

_

I

^m
-

A

youth

in despair, at this

lent hour.

Had

sto-len to

die here, 'die a

lone.

&c.

ia=fg^^^=gi=:;
&c.

itei

1

Similar examples abound in the works of all the great composers. Indeed, it would be hardly too much to say that nearly all the best modern melody is founded almost directly on chord progressions. As Sir Hubert Parry observes, " Commonplace progressions will lead to commonplace melodies."

107

CHAPTER

VIII.

ECONOMY OF MELODY; GROUND BASS; VARIATIONS; METRICAL FORM;
MUSICAL SENTENCES.
107

ECONOMY OF MELODY.
artistic
;

made
108

Chap. II

interesting Par. 68, Chap. Ill

and

;

The student has already seen that a long melody is generally (See Pars. 37 and 48, by devices of repetition, imitation, etc. Par. 81, Chap. IV Pars. 89-91, Chap. V.)
;

The
(N.B.

following are

among

the most usual of these devices.

ment

Counterpoint, Invertible Counterpoint, Canon, Fugue, and Thematic Developwill be discussed in subsequent chapters.)
I.

REPETITION. (i) In (a) Exact
ist Section.

the

same key and Mode.
Blue Bells of Scotland."
Repetition.

3rd Section

Contrast.

Repetition of ist Section.

For other vocal examples, see Par.
Instrumental Examples
:

89,

Chap. V.
MOZART.
Sonata in F.

Manfred.

SCHUMANN.

&c.

In instrumental music, the repetition

is

often in a different octave

:

_______________

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

13.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

27.

(2)

In

the Relative

Major

or

Minor.

A

minor.
22.2::

C

major (Relative.)

Tune" St.

Bride's."

^=^^^^^~^^===^^^ &

c

-

108

The Composer's Handbook.
CORF.LLI.

Violin Sonata.

Largo.

[J
A
minor.
minor.

C

major.

GOUNOD.

There

is

a

green

hill

far

a

-

way.
_

With-out

a

ci

-

ty

wall

G

major.

Where

the dear

Lord was

cru-ci-fied,

Who

i
died
to

save

us

all.

Ah

major.

F

minor.

F
i \

major.
"

D
T

minor.

^^

T"

(3)

/

/^ Tom'c Major
A
minor.

or

Minor.

Rather

rare, except for the final

movement, or

last verse, of

a minor

m
G
minor.

A
I

mode composition.

major.

I

F

major.

F

minor.

BEETHOVEN.

"

Waldstein Sonata."

G

major.

G

major.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

31,

No.

i.

H

B

major.

BEETHOVEN.

Op. 31, No.

i.

B

minor (two octaves lower).

Repetition of Melody.

109

(4)

In another

voice, or part, of the

harmony^
&c.

J-JL

CHORUS.

TREBLE.

MENDELSSOHN.

Elijah.

sBlessed are the

men who

fear

Him, they

ever

walk

in the

ways

of peace.

Bless

ed, &c.

TENOR.

Blessed are the

men who

fear

Him,

This kind of repetition
completeness.
($)

is

of the nature of

Canon or Fugue

;

but

it

is

mentioned here for the sake of

In another
:

key.

SCHUMANN.

"

Theme

KEY C.

KEY

O (with added part above).
i

Reaper's Song."
1-~

Return to Key C-

_

^B^
^^

I

/

T TI&c. Eight

^
bars of different

'

~^-

Tt"'

Ti

"? n^

T~f^
'
'

/ Lgl^'^'r^FT^f*

H f^ ZZSZ

&c.

-r-wi-PB---^^

(6)

In another Metre,

or

Rhythm.

:|

will

(6) VARIED. Repetition may be varied in an infinite number of ways, some of which be subsequently discussed. In the present connection it is only necessary to mention

Repetition with altered ending or continuation.

SCHUMANN.

"

Pilgrimage of the Rose."

^^^^:p=^q=:n U

-==^^^4*
"

Home, Sweet Home."

ist Section.

Repetition.

3rd Section.

Repetition.

^
This kind of repetition
is

even more frequent than "exact

"
repetition.

110

The Composers Handbook.

The
measures
:

following extended

melody

consists almost entirely of repetitions of the

first

four

(a) ist

Section,

G

("Dal Tuo
minor.

Stellate.")

ROSSINI.

ist time,

Bass Solo

;

2nd time, Tenor Solo

;

3rd time, Soprano Solo.

(b)

Repetition, with varied ending in

Bb major.

to*

^

~^CHORUS.
(c)

^

-.-

m

#*

:

Repetition in Bb major.

ist

& 2nd times.
I

^^^*

fa/Ion/*** "Ru "Rorw^f if inn in Cadence, Bb. Repetition in

G

Cl.

min*-i minor.

CHORUS.
3rd time.
(d)

Repetition of

(a) in

G

major.

(e)

Repetition of

(c)

in

G

major.

RP-*

a

.r- ZZ^-T:

ffl^-q=y=fe=^^
(/)

"?">

*

Added

passage.

Repetition of

(/),

varied ending.

Repetitions of long (or short) portions of melody, with variation of rhythm, and other modifications, come under the general head of Imitation, A sequence is the repetition, at a higher or lower pitch, of some fragment (a) SEQUENCE. of melody or harmony. The "pattern" set for repetition is also called the "germ" or "motive" of the sequence, and may consist of two or more notes and the repetitions generally proceed this is in regular order, up or down. There is no rule as to the number of such repetitions discretion but a sequence carried to great length is so entirely mechanical entirely a matter of " that it resembles measuring out music by the yard."
II.

IMITATION.

pitch, accent, or

;

;

;

Ascending Sequences.
Motive.

Motive.
*"-

Motive.

Motive.

^=K=f:

Sequence.
Motive.

Ill

BEETHOVEN.
st,

Op. 22.
x

&c.

Motive.

BEETHOVEN, Op.

28.

22Z32ZZtQ:

&c

-

Descending Sequences.
Motive. Motive.

iMotive.

From a song by

PINSUTI.

3E3=

i=j:

A Sequence may be confined to the melody alone (Melodic Sequence) imitated in every part of the harmony (Harmonic Sequence)
:

;

or

it

may

be

Harmonic Sequences.
lr

MOZART.

"

Sonata

in

A

minor."

TONAL AND REAL SEQUENCES. Many sequences are confined to the notes of the scale or key in which they begin, the imitations not being necessarily quite strict as to interval Real Sequences are those in which every interval and chord these are called Tonal Sequences. " " " " of the Thus most Real Sequences lead to constant germ or motive is exactly imitated.
;

change of key.
Real Sequences.

rfcz

r

I I

J- J- J-

jJ'

m

112
Chordal Sequence.
l~~

The Composer's Handbook.
BEETHOVEN.
" Mass in C.'

Ti

==.$$=&

1:
&c.

Mixed Sequence.
I

BEETHOVEN.

"

Sonata," Op. 106.

f-fff

f.

t=

As

in this instance, som* sequences are partly Real

and partly Tonal,

to

avoid wandering

too far into extraneous keys.

Sequential Imitations
-

may
i

be alternated with non-sequential phrases

:

p

17

i

Hj
Allegro.

J

IJ

j

g

STERNDALE BENNETT, May Queen.

Duple motives

Beautiful sequential and other imitative effects are often produced by employing in Triple Time, Triple motives in Duple Time, etc. See the following
:

Ac.

3E2
[

&c.

* 9
&c.

-

b=
for the piano.

For numerous examples, see Chopin's works

Sometimes these passages are "phrased"
construction
;

(see Chap. .X) according to their sequential at other times the regular metrical accents only are intended.

Schumann and other modern composers
interesting sequences by imitating passages of length. striking feature in Beethoven, and

A

have constructed from twenty to fifty

elaborate,
(or
is

varied,

and
in

more) measures

some other composers,

sequential imitation

by

steps of a semitone

Imitation.

113

I

r
&c.

S=ipz:

(6)

OTHER KINDS OF DIRECT

part, or in another part, at strict) as to interval, or free

IMITATION. A melody may be imitated either in the same The imitation may be exact (or any interval higher or lower. i.e., major intervals may reply to minor intervals, etc.
:

Examples

of free imitation

^^rrtnifea^mrcfFf
\

&c.

r

-*

irinizz &c.

Almost a

strict sequence.

SCHUMANN.

Manfred.

j

Strict imitation in another part (or parts)

produces what

is

called a

"

Canon

"

or

"

Round."
the Peri.

SCHUMANN, Paradise and

gf=TJ^
fe

3=3=t3
The
nature
:

&c.

following are specimens of Canonic Imitation

not

strict

Canons

but of the same

BEETHOVEN, Op.
:B:

2.

ffi^

:*=C*

^a

CT-^r-rr

^

^

^^
4

-^=^LL^~
&c.

114

The Composer's Handbook.

(c)

INVERSE IMITATION.

A
by

melody may be imitated
similar descending intervals,
J

in the

same

or another part

by

replying to ascending intervals

and
J

vice versa.

_a
V
\

!

J
-&I

J
-0I I

1

4I

J

1

h-

-&-

Inverse imitatio

i

of

upper part.

Motive.

Inverse imitations.

&c.

Motive.

Inverse imitations.

WAGNER, Symphony

in C.

i

&c.

Free Inverse imitation.

&c.

BEETHOVEN, Op.
Inverse Imitation of ist bar.

53.

CLEMENTI.

The lower part

is

an Inverse imitation of the upper.

Imitation.

115

it is

This kind of imitation is of no great artistic value, though (d) RETROGRADE IMITATION. The order of notes in a melody is reversed, and a sometimes employed in classical music. new melody thereby produced.

Retrograde imitation.

It will

be seen that the whole melody reads the same backwards or forwards.

(e)

IMITATION BY AUGMENTATION OR DIMINUTION.
:

A

melody may be repeated or

imitated in longer or shorter notes
Motive.

&c.

Motive.

MOZART.

Op.

11.

rt:

BEETHOVEN.

"

Leonora Overture," No.

3.

t
I &C.

A GROUND BASS. A Ground, Bass, or Basso Ostinato, is a portion of melody con(/) One of the finest examples is Bach's stantly repeated in the Bass, with varied upper parts. The harmonization Passacaglia in C minor for the organ. Choruses, 9). (See also Chap. XI of a Ground Bass in several different ways is a valuable exercise for the student.
;

The following
purposes.

is

a simple and effective scheme of treatment, suitable for practice or for examination

116

The Composer's Handbook.
Moderate

Variations.

117

SCHEME OF CONSTRUCTION OF THE ABOVE EXAMPLE.
(a)
(b)

to to

(b).
(c).

A A

simple melody, with accompanying parts in slightly varied rhythm. distinctly different melody, with rather more elaborate harmony, passing-

notes, suspensions, etc. free counterpoint in Tenor, with accompanying imitative passages, etc. (c) to (d). fresh rhythm, with fuller and more abstruse chords. (d) to (e).

short Coda, in full harmony, // (reduced to six bars as a contrast to the " of the preceding portions). EXERCISES Harmonize each of the following Ground Basses on the lines suggested above, with such varieties of treatment as may appear suitable. Add a short Coda to each.

"

(e)

to end.

A A A
:

eight-bar squareness

(I)

-

__...

.._

(g)

VARIATIONS.

A

variation, or

"

double,"

is

the presentation of a simple theme in

varied form.

Most of the original Doubles were merely variations of the melodic outline by means of as, for example, Handel's Chaconne increasingly elaborate figuration and embellishments in G (of his harpsichord works) which has 62 variations. " " The more modern Theme (or Air) with Variations of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and there is no limit to the devices which harmonic and also includes rhythmic transformations, " " text as it is felt that the original theme is in some way the of each be as long may employed and Beethoven's Pianoforte and Variations Bach's Theme variation. 30 Variations, (complete, Breitkopf and Hartel, 2/6) are specially worthy of attention. Very fine Variations have also been written by Brahms, Elgar, Parry, etc. Variations afford scope for the development of the composer's ingenuity, and the following is an example of fairly simple work which the student may imitate at his discretion.
;

N.B. The piece was arranged to be played on a large modern organ, and with indications of the stops used.

is

here given in short score,

118

The Composer's Handbook.

VARIATIONS
INTRODUCTION.

on

"ROUSSEAU'S DREAM."
R.DUNSTAX.

MM

Rousseau's Dream,
Ch. Cl. and 4ft Fl.

119

soft Fed.

senza Fed.

120
Andante.

The Composer's Handbook.
Solo: Orch.Oboe.

Orchl. Oboe and Tremulant.

senza Fed.
Fed.

Allegro.

3
Sw.
2ft.

3'
and Stopp'd D lap!
16ft.

jjanf

t i Do/I o/l i;i. soft Fed. ad lib.

r
I*

I

F

f

r

Rousseau's If ream.

Jr^n^rjr-r

r

WF-I

m-r-r

i

m-r-

f

j_j^4

j.

JETWVMBW

i22

The Composer's Handbook.

Cl ICtt.Diap. and small 8ft

Coupled to Sw. senza Fed

Orchl. Fl. 8ft. with Tremulant.
t

Rousseau's

Dream

Allegro molto.
Solo (or
Ch.), Ob., Clar., Fl. 8ft., PI. 2ft.

Sw. Full to Reeds.

IT

Soft Fed. to Sw.

M

f

I

M
'

I.

add Tuba

.

Moderate.

Full Fed. without

Reeds (coupled)

add Fed. Reeds.

124

The Composer's Handbook.
(radually reduce Organ.

i

I
r

rr'r
-

rr

reduce

.

r

m

PPP

soft Fed.

Metrical Form.

125

" Pars. 89-91, Chap. V) that melody has a strong tendency to arrange itself in groups of " four bars which we have called Sections and further that the most usual Complete Musical Sentence consists of four of these sections.

109

METRICAL FORM

:

REGULAR FOUR-FOLD SENTENCES.

We

have already seen (Chap.

Ill,

and

The following is the 110 The rhythmic varieties of Sections and Sentences are infinite. rhythmical basis of a classic melody, on which we have constructed three different melodies
:

1st Section.

2nd Section.

J
;

3rd Section.

4th Section.

-0

Jir=?i'jJI!jl75 0' 9 }-0 9
1

-0

V-0^--0-

'-r
rhythm

LJ J

i

i

J

J

LJ

i

in

-^-j-J-

L-}

Three melodies based on
(a)

this

C

major.

(ft)

C

minor.

(c)

major.

-=g-

It will

"

variety

be noticed that the rhythmic construction an important feature of musical design.
:

of the various sections

shows

"

uniformity with

EXERCISES The student should now exercise his ingenuity in constructing two or three Sentences in various keys on each of the following rhythms, all selected from classical composers. They need not be harmonized but harmonic substructure should, in general, be kept in view.
;

Endeavour neither to think of words nor of any particular instrument, but to write what is called pure (or absolute) music. " " All sorts of devices may be used and examples of ascending and descending passages, repeated The cadences should be carefully planned out, and as much variety of notes, etc., should be introduced. melodic outline obtained as possible. Slurs, etc., should be added at discretion.
;

facility for

Afterwards, the student should construct several sentences of his own, and thus gain the necessary composing anthems, choruses, part-songs, and instrumental pieces.

126

The Composer's Handbook.
Rather quick time.

(a)

/
\

\

S_
^
i

J

J-

J-|J
>j *~I

j

J

j

j"J

s
i

[.N_Jl.k
s
i

>i
~"1~*

\

*

*

*

*^

*

> *
i

*~
i

*

ii

I

n

s

M

0-

J

J

J
j

J

J
j

Exercises in Metrical Form.

127

i-J-1-

-H-

J

J--fJ-

JU

]0*

00-

JLJ.
J'
8

~5

J-

J~J^- _S_AJ^3
J

J--J-

1

-U

-N

J30U
A
I

^ CS

Q-

-

3
[

* -3-J-

J,

j:

128
10

The Composer's Handbook.

-J- -J

^-J.

S

3

3

Slower time.

Sentences of four two-bar sections

:

L2

-^

J

K-^-

N
J

.N

j

[j.-

.N--

.>[j

^

_.^J.__J_j,_ _Ju"^5..J
13

J'.N

i
I

J-

J ^ J.

X

J

J

^J /J. J5

J

JJ JM

14
'

|S

f

JTT3 \-0*0-*-0

i

J 0*-

S

I

J

/

-J

Extended and Irregular Sentences.
110

129

A five-section sentence is often made by end of the fourth the at cadence a section, repeating that section (with or perfect avoiding without variation), and then closing with the perfect cadence
EXTENDED AND IRREGULAR SENTENCES.
:

"O
ist Section.

rest in the

Lord"

(Elijah).

MENDELSSOHN.

2nd Section.

pT

-3rd Section.

9

.0-

.0.

4th Section.

5th Section.

m
j
i

&c.

Another method of Observe that the fifth section is a varied repeat of the fourth. " " " " Coda or Codetta at the end of a constructing five-section sentences is to add a little
four-section sentence.

EXERCISES Compose various original five-section sentences, or extend four-section sentences already written.
:

some

of the

Sentences of six, seven, eight, or even more sections are sometimes written. student will be able to find examples in any classical works.)

(The

Variety is also secured in long works by making sections and sentences overlap, by We give a few rhythmical extending an occasional section, by contrapuntal imitations, etc. plans of irregular sentences all from classical sources on which melodies should now be
constructed.

J-

J

H- J
N

E3-J

>H J ** 0*00~*
'.

'.

i

]

M -00
i

iJ \-0

i

i. *-

n i"^"T^ 0-0-0-0-0
'A

i \

i

-\-0 ^

0-0-0-0-0-0-0-\-0 ^
3

I"TJ

n"T^i

i

i

i

j

1

130

The Composers Handbook.

5

r;

J-H

-^^
i
i

J
[

J

J3-J-J3j-

Jj

S , J

J
[

J

J
[

J

J3J-

J. J
j

j_j^J._J>J-}-J333J

I

^J_ U
<

J
j

,gj^

40

\-*~

J-'JT3

J

j j

Exercises.

131

10
1
I

^u

.N jg j

JJ

J-

J-

JM
uncommon
"
tr
:

,

111

Sentences consisting of two sections are not

Wedding March."

MENDELSSOHN.

Sonata, No. 15, Op. 28.

BEETHOVEN.

N.B. When a number of sentences follow one another sentence should end in the key in which it begins. (See the above also Par. 115, page 133.)

it is

not necessary that the first

example from Beethoven.
will

See

The construction
Chapter.

of pieces of

more than one sentence

be discussed in the

next

132

CHAPTER
TWO OR MORE SENTENCES
IN SUCCESSION.

IX.

SIMPLE INSTRUMENTAL FORMS.

112 We have seen that sentences vary in length, but that the most usual consist of 8 or In dance music of all kinds, in marches, and in much other instrumental music hardly 16 bars. for some special effect (or, in long instrumental other length of sentence is employed, except any works, to vary what would otherwise become monotonous).* For the sake of 113 Many pieces of music are made up of two sentences in" succession. two-sentence paragraph." reference we will call a complete musical idea of two sentences a 114 In a
(i)

"

two-sentence paragraph" the second sentence may be An additional sentence in the same key, without any special thematic reference to the first sentence
:
:

THE CARMAN'S WHISTLE.
1st

Arr.

BYRD

(1546-1623).

Sentence.

^5

m
2nd Sentence.

s
TST
This kind oicontinuation was
(2)

i
common
in old

^
&'
now
rarely employed.

music, but

is

A

sentence partly contrasted and partly imitative the imitation (or repetition) of part of the first sentence coming usually towards the end of the second
:

BONNIE DUNDEE.
1st

Sentence.

55
*'

This kind of paragraph

is felt

to be
is

"

in

good form."

Sec also "St. Matthew," Par. 81, Ch. IV.
of the

Sometimes a short coda

added as an extension

second sentence

:

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

14.

*

In quick waltzes, scherzos,

etc.,

with only one beat in each bar, the regular sentence

is

32 bars

ui length.

Two-sentence Paragraphs.

133

(a)

(a)
(b)
(c)

End End

of first sentence. of second sentence.
first

(d)

Repetition (an octave higher) of part of to (e) Coda.

sentence.

115 In a two-sentence paragraph the first sentence may end with a perfect cadence in the original (principal) key, or it may modulate to a closely related key. In vocal music in instrumental pieces the second (ballads, etc.), the first method is rather more common
;

"

"

method
lined

is

much more

frequent.
eight-

The keys to which modulation may be made are tabulated in connection with The following are the most usual hymn-tunes (Chap. IV). (a) MAJOR PIECES (1) To the key of the Dominant (major). (2) To the key of the Mediant (minor). (3) To the key of the Relative Minor. (b) MINOR PIECES (1) To the key of the Relative Major. (2) To the key of the Dominant (Minor). N.B. If a piece commencss in a minor key, the second sentence sometimes ends
:

in the

Tonic Major.
116 Almost all old dance-forms before Bach (1685-1750), and many later dances, are " two" sentence paragraphs each part being repeated, probably " to make the tune longer "
:

Old Air

"Suitable for dancing

to."

17th Century.

SARABANDE

IN C MINOR.

C.

NlCHELMANN

(1717-61).

tr.

IP

134

The Composer's Handbook.

117

Bach kept

his Suites, etc.),

but he generally doubled

sentence for the first part of his dance forms (in largely to the eight-bar the length of the second part (to 16 bars).

both parts.) (Later composers gradually lengthened " " in various major two-sentence paragraphs a number of EXERCISES (a) Compose at or not, pleasure. and minor keys. They may be harmonized each of the following as a short pianoforte piece, repeating each sentence
:

(b)

Complete
:

as in Par. 116
(1)

COURANTE.
*
In three-part harmony.
,s

.^

8 bars, ist sentence, o bars,
i

-J-^J-d

-J-

2nd sentence, 8

bars, ending in

modulating to key ke; G. key C.

(2)

PRESTO.
tr

In

two-part
chords.

harmony,

with

occasional

full

ist sentence, 16 bars,

modulating to Key

C.

2nd sentence, 16

bars, ending in

Key

F.

I*

'*"
-

*

*I

In three-part harmony. ist sentence, 8 bars, modulating to B minor and ending with a Tierce de Picardie. 2nd sentence, 8 bars, closing in E minor.

(4)

GIGUE.
In two-part
chords.
ist sentence, 16 bars,

harmony,

with

occasional

full

modulating to Bb major.

2nd sentence, 16

bars, ending in

G

minor.

(5)

MENUETTO

(Minuet).

In three-part harmony, with occasional fuller chords at discretion, ist sentence, 8 bars, ending in D minor. 2nd sentence, 8 bars, modulating to F major, and returning to D minor.

The student will have noticed that when a sentence starts with an incomplete bar the incomplete bars being equal in value to one whole bar.

last

bar

is

also incomplete

the

two

Three-sentence Paragraphs.

135

(6)

GAVOTTE.

m

In two-part
ist

harmony throughout,
8
or
bars,

sentence,

16

D

bars,
in

modulating to

major.

2nd sentence, 16

ending

G

major.

N.B.

A

Gavotte always commences with the third crotchet of the bar.

(7)

GAVOTTE.

In three-part harmony throughout. ist sentence, 8 bars, modulating to B major. 2nd sentence, 16 bars, ending in E major.

(8)

BOURREE.

1

m

1

^

In two-part
ist

harmony throughout.

PT

16 bars, modulating to major, or F# minor. 2nd sentence, 16 bars, ending in D major.
sentence,

A

Key

N.B.

A

Bourree commences with the

last crotchet (or

quaver) of the bar.

118 PARAGRAPHS OF THREE SENTENCES. The "three-sentence paragraph" is one of the " commonest of simple musical forms. It is used for voluntaries, Songs without words," organ " " short violin solos, and incidental pieces of all kinds. It is usually referred to as Song Form " is third a Lied-Form The sentence or modified (German, "). generally repetition, repetition,
of the first sentence.

119

SONG FORM.
A. B.
C.

sentence of eight or sixteen bars. sentence of eight or sixteen bars in another key. Repetition (with or without modification) of A.

A A

D.

Short Coda ad

lib.

This form exhibits three of the most important features of a good musical design " t{ liminary statement," (2) repetition." digression," (3)
(A) The principal sentence or from sixteen to twenty bars.

"
:

(i)

pre-

may

be extended to

five (or

more) sections

;

say,

from eight to ten bars,

has afterwards to be repeated as C it generally ends in the principal key. If, however, it must be so modified in C as to end in the principal key in that sentence. (B) This sentence may also be extended, or it may be curtailed. It may be entirely contrasted in style, or it may be responsive (i.e., of similar rhythmical and melodic nature, but without expct repetitions of portions of A). It should always be in a different key from the first sentence and if it further modulates during its course, the principal key of the first sentence should be avoided. (C) If the original key is minor, its repetition here may be in the Tonic Major key. or it may be a reminiscence of any portions of A or B (or D) The Coda may be an extension of C

As

it

modulates,

it

;

(

;

both).

136

The Composer's Handbook.

as a

rest in the Lord have already referred (Par. 95, Chap. V) to Mendelssohn's " " as just described. We give It is a good illustration of Song-form another illustration even more regular

120

"

We

"

"

concise aria."

:

SONG WITHOUT WORDS
"

(No. 22).

MENDELSSOHN.

mg*u
1
1

-fr

I

^--

i

r

^g^
Ht-P
(a)
(c)

-bsH
;

-s

S3

(e)

(g)

phrase

is

First sentence, key F eight bars. Second sentence, keys minor and minor eight bars. Exact repetition of first sentence (/) eight bars. Coda five bars. The first phrase is reminiscent of the second (h) a repetition of the last two bars of the first sentence.

to to to to

(6)

(d)

D

A

;

;

;

sentence

;

the second

The symmetrical and regular construction
121

of this

melody

is

"

clear as daylight."
:

The next

illustration

shows some

slight modifications
(No.

SONG WITHOUT WORDS

9).

MENDELSSOHN.
(b)

~~r~

\
V^

t~^~\

I

~~N

*

^*"^~i

I

- r*a-

"

S

^~

Exercises in Song-form.

137

(*)

(0

(a)
(c)

to (6) Prelude.

to (d) First sentence, key of the second.
(e)

E

;

eight bars.
;

Note that the

last section of this sentence is

a repetition

to
to

(/)

(A)
(i)

Short
(k)

"

Second sentence, key B four bars. " link leading back to key E.

Extended to

six bars

(/)

to

(g).

(k)

to end.

Repetition of first sentence (the third section being different). Repetition of Prelude.

122
or
"

They exhibit all sorts of devices for securing variety and continuity, and the student may analyse them with advantage at this stage. " " 123 If groups of sentences paragraphs be substituted for simple sentences in the three main divisions of "song-form," and introductory and other instrumental passages added, we get the " Grand Aria " (or Aria da Capo) described in Chap. V, Par. 95.
124 EXERCISES IN SIMPLE SONG-FORM. Continue each of the following as suggested, adding phrasing and expression marks at pleasure.
N.B. In writing pianoforte music it is not necessary to keep rigidly to the rules of four-part vocal " Notes of chords harmony, although, as Weber remarks, they should be the foundation of all music." may be freely doubled in either hand, and many other freedoms are allowed. It is, however, not desirable to let the bass move in octaves with any upper part (except of course in unison passages), though it may be " " in the left hand at pleasure doubled
:

episodical passages between " the sentences. song-form." (Lieder ohne Worte) are nearly all in

This form "

may

be extended by adding

(a)

An

Mendelssohn's

introduction (as above) "

(b) Connecting " Songs without Words
;

Not

desirable.

Good.

(i)

Song without Words

for Pianoforte. ist sentence, 8 bars, ending in

Key
in

A.
bars,
chiefly

2nd sentence, 8

Key

E.

Repeat

ist sentence, with or without modification. Short Coda, 4 bars.

138
Violin Solo.

The Composer's Handbook.
"

(2)

Meditation."

mp

j^
'

ist sentence, 16 bars (or extend to 20), chiefly in minor.

G

Andante.

2nd sentence, 16

D
I

bars, chiefly

S3
zC
'p'
I,

Repeat
or in

major. ist sentence in

G minor,

major. Short Coda.

G

^u
>

N.B.
1--;

Keep

to the
[

EX1
I

compass of the violin from
"

gb
tor=g|

(3)

Flute Solo.

Romanza."
.^

^

ist sentence, 16 bars,

Key D.

3E3!:

:JHi

3i^

~_

rL~*~*
'

^<-

2nd sentence, 16 to 20 bars, Keys B[y, D minor, and A
major. Short link.
Repetition, sentence.
varied,

of

ist

&C.

Short Coda.

N.B.
cr.

The

effective
is

most com-

pass of the flute

from

(4)

Introductory Voluntary for Organ or Harmonium.
Moderate.

ist

sentence,

16 to 20 bars,

m
;

mainly in F major. 2nd sentence, 16 to 20 bars, mainly in C major.
Repetition
of
ist

sentence,

differently melody, harmonized. Coda on a tonic pedal.

same

on his own The student should now compose a number of pieces in song-form or he may imitate any of the numerous models to be found in the works of good initiative
composers.
125 MINUET AND TRIO FORM. The Minuet (German, Menuett ; French, Menuet ; Italian, Minuetto, or Menuetto), was a graceful, rather slow dance in triple (generally 3-4) time, invented about the middle of the I7th century.

"

"

Like

many

(sentences) of eight bars, each repeated. following (from No. 4 of the French Suites)

other old dances (see Par. 116) the original Minuet consisted of two portions Bach sometimes used this original form, as in the
:

Tranquillo (J

=

108).

tr

m

Minuet and Trio Form,
tr tr

139

N.B.
part.

In his later Minuets Bach generally extended the second part to double the length of the

first

As instrumental music became developed, a second Minuet in some related key and marked of a quieter character was alternated with the first. They were generally " " " " " " " Menuetto 2." Afterwards Menuetto 2 and was called the Trio Menuetto i possibly because it was originally written in three-part harmony.
N.B.
of a piece.

The term "

trio

"

is

now

applied to

many

other middle portions contrasting with other portions

The Minuet and Trio formed a part of many of the old Suites, and became with Haydn Beethoven developed the Minuet into a regular movement in the Sonata, Symphony, etc.
the Scherzo.

The MINUET AND TRIO FORM, as exemplified I. MINUET (a) First portion, 8 to 24 bars
:

in
;

Haydn and
;

Mozart,

is

as follows

:

repeated

(6)

Second portion, generally

longer than the
II.

first
:

;

repeated.

key

;

TRIO Sometimes in the same Exactly similar in construction to the Minuet. sometimes in a nearly-related key. DA CAPO of the Minuet generally without repeating the two separate portions. III.
;

A CODA

is

sometimes added, to be played after

III.

MENUETTO.
Symphony
in

G minor,

MOZART.

TRIO.

140

The Composer's Handbook.

:

^*-F

Q

March Forms.

141

3:

g_f

m
on these models
good
full

of A, G, D,

EXERCISES Write marches (slow or quick at and F major, and B, E, A, and C minor.
:

discretion)

in the keys

They may be written
of expression
(b)

for pianoforte, organ, or

harmonium
or
"

at pleasure, in

chords, with

marks

and phrasing added.
"

The

three-sentence paragraph

"

song-form."

SEE THE CONQUERING HERO.

3

^

HANDEL. Judas Maccabceus.

Repetition of 1st part. " 7

EXERCISES

:

Write marches

as

above

on

this model, in the

keys of

Ej?,

Ab, C, and

in the same key but in modern pieces in this form the Trio is nearly always in a different key. Major pieces generally have their Trio in the key of the subdominant. Minor pieces are not so regular.
;

Bb major, and D, F, G, and F# minor. " Form. (c) The "Minuet and Trio N.B. The old alternative Minuets might be both

Allegro moderate.

MARCHE HEROIQUE.
i

-

SCHUBERT.

r#

u

:5=zz

142

The Composer's Handbook.

FINE.

3BS
-fe

^

Military marches are generally

m

the form of this

ofan
N0
-

by

and Trio lorm, in the keys EXERCISES Write marches-as above-in Minuet E minor. G, and E major, and C, F, G, and " of Minuet and Trio form. " The Mendelssohnian March is an extension
:

of C, F,

(rf)

The following to any marches guide

analysis of the favourite
in this

form the student
a bar here.

War March of may be movec
i.

"

the Priests

-

may

serve as

Note the

elision of

The

last

note of one phrase

made

the

first

note of the next.

143

War March from

Athalie.

WAR MARCH FROM

ATHALIE.

144

The Composer's Handbook.

ft)

r

-&ftr

,.

Dance Forms.
(a)

145

to

(h)

(k)

to (p)

First paragraph threefold. ist part (a) to (c) 2nd part (d) to (/) an abbreviated repetition of 3rd part (g) to (h) Trio of three sentences (in the subdominant key).
;
;

(a)

to

(c).

ist sentence

(k)

to

(I)

2nd sentence
(q)
(s)

to

(u)

a repetition of first sentence (K) to (/). 3rd sentence Connective passage. to (t) Third paragraph repetition of (a) to (c) to end. Coda. () to (v) First sentence of Trio (given twice) in the principal key of First four bars of (a) (x) to (y) The same, an octave higher (z) to (i) Peroration based on fifth and sixth bars of (a). (2) to end.
;

(m) to (n) (o) to (p)

(r)

;

F

major.

128 VARIOUS DANCE FORMS. Like the Minuet, " addition of an alternating Trio."
:

many

other dances are extended by the

out

;

all of

EXERCISES Complete each of the following for the pianoforte on the them have been taken from good popular specimens.
(a)

lines

sketched

BARCAROLE.

An

imitation of the Venetian Gondoliers' songs, in 6-8 time, and rather

slow.

Grazioso.

&c

ist part, 8 or 16 bars, ending in Key F.

p

2nd

part, responsive, in related keys, ist part, Da Capo.

See also Mendelssohn's

"

Songs without Words," Nos.

6, 12,

and

29.

(b)

BOLERO, or CACHUCA.

A
:

following rhythms are characteristic

The Spanish dance, in 3-4 time, and not very quick. f C r r and r r r |
(A) ist part, 8 or 16 in bars, ending

wr
2nd

BOLERO.

Key D.
part, responsive,
&c<

_=
(C)

ending in Key G. (B) Write a Trio of
similar construction
in

Da Capo
(c)

of

A ; and

Key

C.

short

Coda
8,

at pleasure.

BOURREE.
"

See No.
"

Par. 117, page 135.
in

the

Add a Trio to the Bounce already composed, key of G, commencing thus
:

three-part harmony,

and

in

146

The Composer's Handbook.
GALOP.

(d)

A

very lively dance in 2-4 time, supposed to be of

German

origin.

(4) (i) 16 bars, modumajor. lating to

A

Repeat, ending in D major. (B) (i) 16 bars, G
(2)

major
(2)

;

Repeat.

8 bars,

8 bars,
repeat.
(C)

E G

minor major

;

;

Da Capo
(e)

of the

whole of A.
See No.
"
in
7,

GAVOTTE.
"

Par. 117, page 135.
to the

Add a
The

Trio

C major and A minor

Gavotte already composed.
" "

following

also in
-

E major shows

a more varied

key-plan
(A) (i) 8 bars, E major, pp, ending in Tonic
(2) (3)

GAVOTTE

Key. Repeat
8 bars,

//.

E

minor
of

;

1

repeat ad
(4)

lib.

Da Capo
(2).

(i)

and
(B) TRIO.
(2)
(3) (4) (i)

8 bars,

A
;

major, pp (ending in
repeat ad
lib.

A

majo-).

Repeat
8 bars,

in 8ves.

A

minor
of
(i).

Da Capo

(C)

Da Capo

of the

whole of A.

Coda

at pleasure.

MAZURKA. A lively Polish national dance in triple time, quicker than the Polonaise (/) or Polacca, but considerably slower than the Waltz.
Characteristic

rhythms

:

| I*'-* f

f

||

f-* 3
j

||

f
16

f
bars,
;

||

(A)
(2) (3)

(i)

Key

Bjj,

ending in

Tonic key
8 bars,

not repeated.
;

Key G minor
of
(i).

repeat.

Da Capo

(i) 16 bars, KeyE^, ending (B) TRIO. not repeated. in Tonic key
;

Dance Forms.

147

(h)

POLONAISE or POLACCA.

A

Polish dance in 3-4 time

and moderate tempo.

Chopin's Polonaises are the best classical examples of this form, and they should be carefully studied. Schubert's Polonaises are also however, intended for the concert room, and not for dancing. noteworthy.

They

are,

(^4) (i)

8 bars, A minor, ending in Tonic key

;

repeat. (2) 8 bars,

E
(i)

major,
;

followed bars of

by the 8
all

repeated. 12 bars, (B)
Fed.
(C)

keys

*
of the

Fed.

C, G,

C

;

repeated.

Da Capo
(i)

whole of A.

REDOWA.

A

lively

Bohemian dance now

in 3-4 time

;

originally in alternating 2-4

and 3-4 time.
(A) (i) 8 bars, KeyC; repeat. (2) 8 bars, Key G;

repeat.
(3)

Da Capo

of

(i).

(B)

Trio of similar construction in F

D
(C)

Da Capo

minor, and F. of A.

129 Other dance forms, as the Cracoviak, Pavan, Quadrille, Rigadoon, Saltarelle, Schottische, Strathspey, Tarantella, Varsoviana, and the various kinds of Waltz, are constructed on similar lines, and the student will have no difficulty in finding models if he desires to compose any
of them.

It should be mentioned here that many marches, dances, and similar compositions are extended by " having two Trios. The whole form then becomes 5-fold," and is of the nature of a Rondo. (See Chap. XI.)

A. B.
C.

Principal paragraph (or group of sentences).
First Trio.

Repetition of A.

D.
E. F.

Second Trio.
Repetition of A. Coda, ad lib.
is

Mendelssohn's Cornelius March

a good example of this form.

148

CHAPTER
COUNTERPOINT.
CANON.

X.
MODULATION.
PHRASING.
is

FUGUE.

130 It is assumed that the student has been pursuing his harmony studies, and time able to handle effectively all the more usual chords and progressions. He may
his attention to the subjects discussed below.

by this now turn

the art of combining melodies." Counterpoint may be defined as of is an artificial Strict counterpoint composition supposed to be based on the system works of the composers of the i6th century. Counterpoint had its origin in attempts to add accompanying parts to the Plain-song The word is derived from the Latin punctus contra punctum (point of the early Church. " " those in another. (i.e., notes) in one part against points point), the setting of
131

COUNTERPOINT.

"

against

The
It includes in

essence of counterpoint

is

the writing of beautiful
in

or, at

any

rate, singable melodies.
;

Canon and Fugue, and may be written
eight distinct parts
sufficient
is

any number

more than
132

generally useless and

of parts ineffective.

but part-writing

The student

space to discuss the rules of Strict Counterpoint in this work. and Pearce's Student's Counterpoint Although no great composer ever rigidly adhered to the rules of strict scholastic (see p. 3). counterpoint as laid down in text-books, it must not be supposed that counterpoint has little value in practical composition. The ingenious devices and spirit of counterpoint are found " and most of the greatest composers have been in nearly all good music profound

We

cannot allow
is,

therefore, referred to Oakey's Counterpoint

;

contrapuntists."

The following

are examples of

what

is

called

"

Free

"

Counterpoint

:

(a) First Species :*

note against note.

HANDEL.

N

c

~
.

.

Wor
I

-

thy
I

is
!

the
X.

Lamb
:

that
I

"FT
was

slain.

-JN.B.
(6)

Hundreds

of other
:

examples

may

easily be found.

Second Species

two

(or three) notes against one.

HUMMING SONG.
(~t

SCHUMANN.

Counterpoint.

149

SS
S
MAY, DEAREST MAY.

&c.

SCHUMANN.

HARMONIOUS BLACKSMITH.
3 against 1.

HANDEL.

(_*

^A ^^ ^^ R^~^P\ eatfl ^<"a"f ^^^~ ^pi~f*tf ^~* ^T^ _^tfn 3 =3*_ r-*^r- -J-^iLJ-J-^
iji-^-

h

J

,

X

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

7.

(c)

Third Species

:

four (or more) notes against one.

AIR VARIED.
4 against
1.

HANDEL.
_B
.

_^

r

150

The Composer's Handbook.

SCHEHERAZADE.
SCHUMANN.
-Q
_
)-m
a

rr
P ^

Tr
&c.

5 (and 3) against

1.

CHOPIN.

Op.

32.

No.

2.

Fed.

* Fed.

*

Fed.

*

Fed.

*

Fed.

*

Fed.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

2,

No.

3.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

2,

No.

3.

N.B.

The demisemiquaver
1.

rest counts as

one of the

"

8."

16 against

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

7.

Counterpoint.

(d)

Fourth Species

:

Syncopation.
BEETHOVEN.
Op.
10.

No.

2.

FAST ZU ERNST.

SCHUMANN.

Fed.
(e) Fifth Species AND 2ND TREBLES.
:

^s^=Msss=fc^stetfc=
Florid Counterpoint.
BACH.

1ST

"Mass

in

B

minor.'

ALTO.

f&
TENOR

5

j

j j^*nr

^ ^

.j

j.

^

I

i x.^

=*=g==^p=

!EgS^E*jgE^= ESS

TREBLE AND ALTO.
=*

BEETHOVEN.
__,

"

Mass

in D.

J. ^1
!

i-*-ti^^^

g/->J^
1 I

*I

f-\

:^i^:(

V

//

152

The Composer's Handbook.

*

r

jl=gE
!

I

I

rf*=
r
&c.

r-

--

133 DOUBLE COUNTERPOINT.* composed simultaneously so that

A

either

counterpoint added to a given theme or two melodies may serve as a higher or lower part to the other. BACH. Prelude in C minor.

bar,

The 2nd bar and vice versa.
etc.

is

the

"

inversion

"

of the 1st bar

;

i.e.,

the treble of the 1st bar becomes the bass of the 2nd

Double counterpoint nth, I2th,
It is

be constructed to Counterpoint invertible at the 8ve

may

"

invert

"

at
is

(or

I5th)

any interval, as 8th, loth, the most usual and useful.
from MOZART'S
"

constantly employed in fugal writing. Example of Double Counterpoint in the

8ve.

and also

in the 12th.

Requiem."

mm
jn:j^
Inversion in the 12th (Relative Major). Inversion in the 8ve.

134

TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT.
It

upper part.

Three melodies, either of which admits of six different arrangements
:

may

be bass, middle part or

Overture, Messiah.

HANDEL.

J
4=
See Sir F. Bridge's
"

&c.

-1
Double Counterpoint and Canon," Novello

&

Co., M.

153

BACH.

Fugue

in

c

minor.

interchangeable, admitting
Adapted from ZIMMERMANN.

of

&
136

"lliJrkzinzzzinn

!

li-m

BACH.
1 i

Fugue

in

Bb minor.

&c.

QU.NTUPLE COUNTERPOINT.
IST VIOLIN.

Five interchangeable melodies-iao possible arrangements.
Finale, "Jupiter

Symphony," MOZART
tr

_
j

.

.

BASSO.

s
A
P,r r T Perpetual Canon or Infinite Canon is one which " ids are a special kind of Infinite Canon at
^^^

n
,

etc.

be repeated ad the unison

may

lib

es

and methods of construct,

" see Sir F. Bridge's

Doub,e Counterpoint and Canon," NoveUo

&

Co., , S

154
are quite completed the second

The Composer's Handbook.
theme
starts in the bass

" and is imitated at the 4th, 8ve, and nth above." the and I2th. At at the isth bar, both themes treated The first theme, extended, is then sth, 8th, " again The whole movement is a masterpiece of ingenuity. canon 4 in 2." enter together, and it becomes a

DONA

NOBIS.
BACH.
Mass
in

B

minor.

=t
)

1st

Theme.

*.

3E

2nd Theme.

2nd Theme
Strict Infinite

(varied)

.

Canons are not now much used, but
"

"

free

canonic imitations

"

are of

frequent occurrence.

An

"

accompanied
ad,

canon has

free parts for various

instruments.

The

free parts

are said to be

placitum.

Canon.

155

2 in

i

is a fine example of an accompanied canon The first part of the Credo in Haydn's Imperial Mass in at the under 5th (the treble in octaves with tenor and the alto in octaves with bass)
:

D

VO.CES.
.

=F

I
Jz=J=

i ACCOMPT.

^g|"

:
;

=3=

i

J

j

d=^

j

4-^=^=4=^^=4=+=! It j J_ ^=3 T^j-J
J r r

^^-J-44d^=J^=bU=^i ^=J r? r~NP*r^ ~T~^
'

&c.

A
(or triple,

Canon Canon

"

"

by augmentation
"
etc.)

is

one in which the notes of the consequent are double

quadruple,

A

by diminution

half, one-third, etc.)

is one in which the notes of the consequent are shorter (onethan those of the antecedent.
is

those of the antecedent. "

at the

same time,

In the following, by Cooke, the antecedent in the bass in the treble by Diminution

given in the tenor by Augmentation, and

r7jj-J jjrj=3
&c.

=^
" per Recte et Retro same time, producing two parts in one.

e
"
is

g

A

Canon

one that

may

be sung forwards and backwards at the

Example from SIMPSON.

i
little

5
Canon were invented by the old contrapuntists, but they have

Many other varieties of practical value.

(For Canonic Imitations, see Chapter VIII.)

156

The Composer's Handbook.

138

FUGUE.*

A

Fugue

is

a composition developed from one or more short themes
:

in

accordance with the following principles

The
(i)

essential features of a fugue are

The SUBJECT
Subject
is

(or

THEME),

(2)

the

ANSWER,

(3)

the COUNTERSUBJECT.

The

usually a short, definite theme of from two to eight bars in length.
the transposition of the Subject into the

The Answer

is

Key

of the

Dominant.

is the part which accompanies the Answer at its first It is entry. of the subject, and is usually written in Double Counterpoint, so that continuation a generally Some it may be used regularly above or below the Subject and Answer at each successive entry.

The Countersubject

fugues, however, have no regular countersubject.

Other prominent
(1)

but not absolutely necessary

features of fugue are

EPISODES

;

connective passages, generally based on some fragment of the subject or

countersubject.
(2)

STRETTO.

The bringing closer together of the entries of the subject and answer in canonic imitation.
Dominant or Tonic PEDAL
(or

(3)

A

ORGAN-POINT).
artifices

Cherubini enumerates the following
(1)

"

"

which

may

be used

in

fugue

:

Imitations of every kind.

(2)

Double

Triple, or

Quadruple Counterpoint.

(3) Inversion of the subject in contrary motion. (4)

Introduction of a
countersubject.

new

subject,

which

may

be combined with the

first

subject and

(5)

Various forms of stretto.

(6)
(7)
(8)

Using subject and

its

inversion together in contrary motion.
stretto

Combining subject, countersubject, and

on a pedal.

Augmentation or Diminution of the subject.
fugue ever contains
all

the same mould.

in exactly following short fugue from a chorus in Haydn's Creation exemplifies the general principles of fugal construction. The chorus as a whole will be referred to later

No

these "artifices,"

and hardly any two fugues are cast

The

(see

Chap. XI).
It

" " see page 159 is the may, perhaps, be said that the Exposition only part of a is which constructed In the all later each fugue regularly composers. by portions, composer develops the themes according to his own discretion and ability.

See

"

Fugu." Higgs: Novello

&

Co.,

is.

Awake

the harp.

157

AWAKE THE

HARP.

HAYDN.

Creation.

10 BARS CHORAL INTRODUCTION.

h

+1&f-=^

,J

J

f^

1

ff^ETT
i-^-Ltt

P
J

aLJ7ij-//j

gc

r^-g

r

s^^
-r/^T

J_l
.&

J^^ JJ^J-J-^ ^ TT^
A
.
1

B

^g^f

158

The Composer's Handbook.

14 concluding bars based partly on the Introduction and partly on the Fugue.

Modulation.

159

SKETCH ANALYSIS OF THE ABOVE.
(I)

The EXPOSITION,
(b)
(c)

or

first

(a) Subject in Bass,

enunciation of the theme by Key D.

all

the parts in turn

;

(a)

to

(/).

(d)
(e)

Answer in Tenor, Key A. Subject in Alto, Key D. Answer in Treble, Key A.
Subject in Bass,
bars,
(e)

Key
to
(/),

D, imitated a bar later in Alto.
give a

N.B.

These two

"Redundant Entry"
to

in the Bass,

and

also

serve as a connecting link.
(II)

The MIDDLE GROUP OF ENTRIES
Most of the
(/)

;

(/)

(/).

N.B.

entries in this part are in related keys,

and the whole

is

freer in style.

(g)

(h)
(/)

Subject in Treble, B minor. " ist three notes Subject in Bass, E minor Augmented." ist note prolonged. Subject in Tenor, G major ist note prolonged to three beats. Subject in Bass, F# minor
; ; ;

(k)
(I)

Subject in Treble, A major. Short episode. The accompaniment

"fills

in" here, and leads to thestretto.

(III)

FINAL GROUP.
(m) Regular stretto in
all

the parts, in reverse order to the entries in the

Exposition. Note the ingenious canonic imitations between Bass, Treble, and Alto. Dominant Pedal in the Bass. (n) Final entry of the subject in the Treble, Key A
;

N.B. A fugue complete in itself would, of course, end in the principal key. Here, however, Haydn makes a pause on the dominant chord in order to bring in the concluding part of the chorus in the principal key with more freshness.

key or mode. " a change of Mode, from Major to Minor, N.B. Mr. Curwen defines Modulation as " he calls a change of key (from Major to Major, or from Minor to or from Minor to Major " " " while a change of both key and mode is a Transition Transitional Modulation." Minor) " " modulation covers all these various meanings. In common usage the term
139

MODULATION.

Any change
;

of

;

but to abandon a key modulation is one of the most striking effects in music to skip to and fro, merely to leave a place in which you which has scarcely been propounded in short, to modulate for the sake of modulation, are incapable of maintaining a footing betrays an ignorance of the art and a poverty of invention." Moore, The older composers (including Bach and Handel) rarely modulated beyond the five *' attendant keys." Modern composers modulate much more freely and extensively. The affinity relationship of keys may be seen in the following " Chart of Keys " (relative minors being given below their relative majors in italic capitals)
fine
;
;

A

"

;

:

Number
7~

of flats in signature.
5

Number
i

of sharps in signature.

6

"7

1
Eb

2

i~

2

Cb
A\>

Gb
E\>

Db
B\>

Ab

Bb

F

F

C

G

D

C A

G

D
B

A

34" E
C

B

5^

6

7

F#

C|

E

F|

G$

DJ

A*

(a) (i)

ATTENDANT KEYS.
Of a major key
;

the key on the right and that on the two, and also that of the principal key.
five

left,

the relative minors of these

Thus the five attendant keys of C major are G major, F major, A minor, attendant keys of Eb major are Bb major, Ab major, C minor, G minor, and

E
F

minor, and minor.

D

minor.

The

160

The Composer's Handbook.
;

the key on the right and that on the left, the relative majors of (2) Of a minor key these two, and also that of the principal key. Thus the five attendant keys of C minor are G minor, F minor, Eb major, Bb major, and Ab major. E major, and D" major. By glancing at The five attendant keys of F$ minor are C* minor, B minor, A major, " five attendants of any major or minor the above chart, the student will have no difficulty in finding the
key.

OF KEY. The number of removes of any one key from any other may be (b) REMOVES found by counting along the right of the Chart for sharp removes, and along the left for flat removes. B we count D, A,"E, B, i.e., " four sharp removes." Similarly from key Bb Thus from key G to " key from A to Bb we count (along the left) D, G, C, F, Bb two sharp removes to key C we count F, C
"
five flat
etc. removes From key C to key E minor
;

"

;

is

"

one sharp remove to the minor,"
(i)

etc.

The
(I)

three

methods

of

modulation are

Diatonic,

(2)

Chromatic,
"
(or
:

(3)

Enharmonic.
chord

DIATONIC MODULATION.

By

using a modulating

transmutation ")

common

to the key

are leaving and that which Example C major to E minor.
:

we

we wish

to enter

Here the chord marked * is approached as the chord of the Submediant in C major and quitted " " The modulation is said to be established as the chord of the Subdominant in E minor. by the Perfect Cadence in the new key.
N.B. In a diatonic modulation to a minor key the minor 6th of the new key should be introduced as soon as possible.
(II)

ways.

CHROMATIC MODULATION. This may be accomplished The following are among the most usual (a) By the dominant 7th of the new key
:

in

an

infinite

number

of

:

Transient modulation to Bb.

<",

D

minor, and

A noteworthy
new leading-note
:

modulation of

this

kind

is

that of " five

flat

removes," by retaining the old tonic as the

C

to Db.

G

to Ab.

(b)

By

regarding a chromatic concord of one key as a diatonic concord of another C major to Ab major.

:

Subdominant
of

minor
triad
of

triad

Key C
(L)

quitted

as

submediant
major.

Ab

Modulation.

161

C

minor

to

Afc>

major.

*
Neapolitan

6th

(TA&)

of

C minor quitted
of
?

as ist inversion Subdominant (Fb) of Ab

o

r-^

1

n

major.

EEEE^EEEE=E=H
(c)

By
(b)
:

regarding a diatonic concord of one key as a chromatic concord of another
-

the

reverse of

C

major

to

E

major.

i=il

Tonic Triad (D) of Key C quitted as chromatic concord on the minor 6th ( ma LA) of

KeyE.

major to

C

minor.

w
-fc-^
:

First inversion of Tonic Triad (D6) of Key Dfr quitted as Neapolitan 6th (TA6) of C minor.

-H

^==^=N
i

b

(III)

ENHARMONIC MODULATION.
:

This also admits of infinite variety.

The

following

methods are usual
(a)

By enharmonic

treatment of the diminished seventh
to

:

F minor

D

minor.

.

__!_

The Db

at

#

is

repeated as Cj.

By means of the diminished 7th, modulation can be effected from any key (major or minor), some of the modulations being chromatic and minor) into any other key (major or " Lectures on Harmony," or any standard treatise on Macfarren's others enharmonic. (See
harmony.)
(b)

By
B

quitting the

Dominant 7th

as

if it

were an augmented 6th

:

C

to

minor.

C

to

B

major.

j

=t
The
Ffl at

I
#
is

quitted as

if it

were

162

The Composer's Handbook.
F major
to

E

major.

*

II

The Bb

at

*

is

quitted as

if it

were

AJ!.

N.B.
17 other keys.
(C)

An augmented
quitting an

6th can be so manipulated as to effect modulation into at least
if it

By

augmented 6th as
major to Gb major.

were a Dominant 7th

the reverse of

(b)

:

F

m
The
BJJ at

&&==
"*rs
if it

#

is

quitted as

were Cb-

(d) By a progression of semitones in contrary motion until the required key is reached partly chromatic and partly enharmonic in character From Lavignac. J v From Lavignac. s J LJ.X
:
'

|

^^^^^=^=K=

4.
&c.

of a

into

SUDDEN MODULATION. In modern music especially at a pause, or at the beginning new sentence, paragraph, or movement composers do not hesitate to plunge at once a new key however remote without any intervening "common" or "modulating"
:

chords

C.

I

Fine examples of every kind of Modulation may be found in Beethoven's pianoforte sonatas. Spohr's Last Judgment may also be studied for striking illustrations of chromatic and enharmonic treatment.
140

PHRASING.

Some

theorists use the

The term " Phrase " is used with different meanings by word to mean what we have preferred in this work to
"

different writers.
call

a

"

Others more logically define a phrase as a definite musical thought or idea," or as a passage of melody complete in itself and unbroken in continuity." In this sense a phrase may be a Motive, a Figure, a Sub-section, or a whole Section, and it may vary in length from two or three notes to quite a long passage of melody. Thus, in the following, each of the portions (a), (b), (c), (d) is complete in itself, and hardly
susceptible of further subdivision.

section." "

The

passage, therefore, consists of four phrases.

Phrasing.

163

A

MO'TIVE
is

(also

pronounced Mo-teev'}

is

a short figure, passage, or theme, from which
is

a longer theme

developed.

(either

FIGURE, as used in the above sense, melodic or rhythmic)
:

A

any

distinct

and

significant

group of notes
No,
2.

Melodic Figures.

BEETHOVEN.

Op.

14,

I

I

I

V

'
I
I
I

' ! I

I

I

I

I

MOZART,

Symphony

in

G

minor.

-

P-+-0

W 9

[-0

I

=

B^
BEETHOVEN,

Rhythmic

Figures.

We have already

seen that any rhythmic figure

may be

the basis of an unlimited

number

of melodic figures.

The term PHRASING covers
This includes (a) the more or less emphatic delivery of phrases (1) Musical punctuation. sub-sections, figures, subjects, or sections) with regard to their relative impor(whether motives, " " " " release attack of each phrase, and its tance (by slightly cutting short the final (b) the
;

note).

This includes the proper delivery of the individual notes and marks indicating "musical articulation" are generally added modern composers, as for example, in the following carefully by BEETHOVEN.
(2)

Musical articulation.

(especially in instrumental music)

;

:

Staccato sempre.

Op.

2,

No.

2.

legato.

ff.
&c.

MENDELSSOHN.

Violin Concerto.

the student must be guided largely by perception. An examination of Beethoven's pianoforte sonatas and any of Schumann's pianoforte works (which are models of ingenious and delicate phrasing) will, however, be of great assistance. " " The style of phrasing will also be largely determined by the general character of the music and the nature of the instrument for which a composer is writing. Thus a broad and vigorous passage requires broad treatment probably no articulation marks at all while a dainty violin or pianoforte solo may have almost every note marked.
fast

No hard and

"

rules

"

can be laid down for

"

articulation

"

;

his

own

We have already said that composers generally add marks for articulation " they add those for "punctuation." rarely Occasionally, however, a tick (/) shows the beginning of a phrase. or a curved line (like a slur or legato-mark) is drawn above the whole phrase, and articulation marks also given
; ;
:

"

*~

~"

^=

'

164

CHAPTER
ORATORIOS.
141

XI.

RONDO FORM. PART-SONGS. CHORUSES. ANTHEMS. CANTATAS.
OPERAS.

OVERTURES.

RECITATIVE.

three times in the

or RONDEAU, is a composition in which a principal theme occurs at least same key, with contrasting portions called Episodes between the repetitions. The following early example shows the construction in its simplest outlines
:

A RONDO,

RONDEAU.
(a)

LES TENDRES PLAINTES.
-&

J.

P.

RAHEAU
s
i

(1683-1764).
tr

Andantino.

mf

V

Polyphony and Homophony.

165

142 Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven considerably extended the resources of the early Rondo, and frequently employed it as the last movement of a Sonata (see Chap. XIV). Instrumental Rondos are now rarely written but the compact form of the original Rondo as exemplified above is often used in choral music.
;

143
(as in

POLYPHONIC AND HOMOPHONIC Music.
It refers to

music in which
etc.).
is,

all

Polyphonic means many-sounding." the vocal or instrumental parts are of equal importance

"

Fugues, Canons,

Polyphony

indeed, only another

name

for

"

florid

counterpoint," in which the parts

are regarded horizontally. Chords are, of course, produced is melodic rather than harmonic.

by the combined melodies, but the general conception

The "Golden Age" of pure polyphony was the i6th century. Homophonic means It refers to music in which the treble (or highest part) is of paramount like-sounding." importance, the other parts being of the nature of chordal accompaniment and generally of the The music is regarded vertically rather than horizontally, same rhythm as the chief melody. the general conception being harmonic. " " " " N.B. and would almost be better terms. Poly-rhythmic Homo-rhythmic
"

In the best classical choral Modern music is more often homophonic than polyphonic. and instrumental music the best features of polyphony and homophony are combined. EXAMPLES (i) Polyphonic, Contrapuntal, Horizontal parts independent and equally
: :

interesting

:

Opening Chorus of BACH'S Passion

(St.

Matthew).

(2)

Homophonic,

Harmonic,

Vertical

Treble

the

chief

melody

(all

parts

same

rhythm)

:

1st

Chorus of GOUNOD'S Redemption.

Homophonic music is more easily appreciated by the ear, and more direct and emotional objective in its effect. Polyphonic music is more subtle and involved, less emotional, but more intellectual subjective It should not, however, be said that either is better than the other. in character. Each style has its own excellences, nearly all great composers being masters of both.
144
of a song.

PART-SONGS, MADRIGALS, GLEES, etc. A Part-song, as its name implies, is of the nature " It may indeed be called a song harmonized in three or more parts for choral

singing."
It is essentially homophonic in style (although occasional imitative passages may be included), and consists practically of one principal melodic part with chordal accompaniment for the other voices.

N.B.

The
"

principal

melody

is

generally in the treble, but
is

it

may

occasionally be in another part.

The

form

"

of a part-song
is set,

form of the poetry to which it " " through-composed song

largely determined by the varies from that of a simple ballad to that of an elaborate (See Chap. V.)
like all other vocal

music

and

163

The Composer's Handbook.
. i ar *, the popular

Thus

wiU Oh >h, who wiu
re,

materially differ from " " sacred part-songs in truth,

o^

o'er the

^

^^
Downs

so free

"

is

a harmonized ballad (with

many modern
Downs?"

:

Treble part of

"Oh, who

will o'er the

m

:

*_9_ = -

i=<^

=3=

E3^=EE^3=:

The Madrigal.

167

The student
lines, its

will

have no

difficulty in analysing this .piece.

Though constructed on such simple

form

is

perfect.

It is not necessary to give illustrations of all the various types of part-song the student to the following examples of different forms, which he should analyse and, imitate " Sweet and low (Barnby), Curwen & Sons, id. Curwen & Sons, 2d. O hush thee, my babie " (Sullivan), " in dew (Cowen), Boosey & Co., id. Fancy dipped her pen " (Sullivan), Novello & Co., 3d. Joy to the victors " Novello & Co., 3d. (A. Fairy Song " Zimmermann) (Leslie), Novello & Co., 4d. Lullaby of Life " March of the Regiment (De Rille), Curwen & Sons, 6d. " March of the Patriots (A. Adam), Curwen & Sons, 3d.
:

;

we

refer

if

possible,

,

The accompaniment

to all the

above

is

simply a duplication of the voice parts, and

may be omitted. "Free," obbl'gato accompaniments are, however, sometimes added; as in "The Song of the Vikings," Eaton Faning (Novello & Co., 6d.), Elgar's "Swallows" and "The Snow" (Novello), etc.
The MADRIGAL is a vocal composition, generally in imitative counterpoint three to eight parts, especially characteristic of the iyth and i8th centuries.
in

from

In style it is essentially polyphonic in having each part independently interesting and melodious, but the music is not usually very florid, and involved intricacies of rhythm (as in Bach's choruses, for example) are rare. It is best without any kind of accompaniment ; and " busy." long rests should be avoided, the voice parts being generally kept

COME
S.A.T.B.

AGAIN,

SWEET LOVE.
'

(MADRIGAL.)

JOHN DOWLAND,
i i

1597.

i !

i

gpEBEpp

j?=fc3=

-pz f

.--5-

1

g-

168
ores.
I

The Composer's Handbook.

sigh

I

weep

Glees

and Choruses.

169

sung by

a piece for three or more solo voices. an English form of composition, its best period being from 1760 to 1830. It has now been practically superseded by the part-song. but whereas the Madrigal is best In many respects the Glee is allied to the Madrigal a chorus, the Glee is intended for a solo voice to each part.

The GLEE

is

It is peculiarly

;

Any

of the following typical glees

N.B.

(Cooke). " (Danby). Awake, ^Eolian lyre " towers The cloud-cap't (Stevens). " " From Oberon (Stevens). " " morn (Spofforth). Hail, smiling " " The bells of St. Michael's tower (Knyvett). " " Ossian's Hymn (Goss). " " Winds gently whisper (Whittaker). All obtainable from Messrs. Curwen, Novello, or Boosey, from id. each.
" "

" " " " " " " " " " " "

may be consulted " merrily we live " (Este). Where the bee sucks (W. Jackson). " Glorious Apollo (Webbe). " When winds breathe soft (Webbe). "

:

How

Thy

voice,

O happy
Ye

Here

Breathe

soft, ye winds " (Paxton). (Mazzinghi). shepherds, tell me " the times Five (Storace). taper's by " light

(Shield). " in cool grot (Lord " Mornington).

fair

O" Harmony

(Webbe).

The Red-Cross Knight "
Hark, the lark

(Callcott).

The Glee should properly be unaccompanied.
Glees have, however, been written. (Curwen, 2d.), and Attwood's "Hark! the curfew's solemn

Many accompanied

" " Bishop's Chough and Crow sound" (Boosey, id.) are good

examples.
of singers,"

" The word Chorus has a variety of meanings it may mean a company " a refrain of a song the choir as distinct from the soloists and instrumentalists," " in composition it means or ballad," etc. something to be sung by a choir or choirs." A chorus represents the combined feeling of a number of persons, and may correspond Its form depends on the nature of the words which may be to any mood or emotion. and on the sentiment to be expressed. It varies, therefore, from the either poetry or prose ejaculations of the crowd (as in Bach's St. Matthew Passion, Mendelssohn's Elijah, Nos. 10, 23, etc.), to long-sustained reflective movements or highly- developed songs of praise and Hence a chorus may be in any one of the regular forms, or it may be entirely adoration. " When set to poetical words it can hardly help "descriptive" and " through -composed." sense in some formal," as long as the accents of the music conform to those of the words. being in musical composition. When, however, (See Par. 63, Chap. Ill), and this holds universally " balance of phrase and metre," or the result it is set to prose words, care must be taken to have will be musical chaos. Speaking broadly, the more irregular the construction of the words There are, of course, the more regular ought the construction of the musical sentences to be. numerous exceptions to this rule, which can only be determined by long experience the beginner is advised to follow the rule carefully.

145

CHORUSES.
"
;

;

;

146

The
(i)

as distinguished from

most of what may be called the "regular following include " ejaculatory phrases."
harmonized Choral or Hymn-tune.
I

forms"

of choruses

A

^
i

BACH'S
i-*l
I
!

St.

Matthew Passion, No.
I

16.

.

/T\

-F
am
the
trai

:=f

&T- if ^* *J WJi*"T~
I

r ^J3 ft
I

tor,

No

sin

than

mine

is

great

-

er

;

Would 'st

W

170

The Composer's Handbook,
TN

3E5*E
?

r-*r
cast

r
in
-

r
fet
-

r
ters

me

to

hell,

With

hea_- vy

* j

j *

i

rr^'i

-J c

*):

>

FT"

^
The
worst

bind

me,

Of

all

my

griefs re

mind

me,

my

soul

would me

-

rit

well.

s
See also Mendelssohn's
St.

i

jjaj.

=SS
I

I

Paul, Nos. 3 and

9.

Hymns
Legend
is

are used in a similar
of

way

in Stainer's Crucifixion ;

"

O

gladsome Light

"

in Sullivan's Golden

an example
(2)

extended hymn-form.

A

accompaniment throughout).
Choral.

Choral with instrumental prelude, interludes, etc. (sometimes with an elaborate Frequently the interludes are developed from phrases of the

One

of the finest

examples

is

the concluding chorus of Bach's Christmas Oratorio
2nd phrase. pnrase.
<r1

1st

phrase of Choral.
-j=

ff-i:

Instrumental
prelude,
12 bars.

2 bars Interlude.

.;

1

12

(ffife
3rd phrase.
1I

fcss ^ppts^r^
4th phrase.

Ji -J

m
-

j J

1

r^rj-

.
2\ bars
Interlude.

41 bars
Interlude.

r^FpP^P
^

^sss^sfe^
5th phrase.

6th phrase.

3 bars Inter lude.

<

5 bars Inter lude.

11 bars

Post-

^M^^
in

lude.

All the vocal phrases

have orchestral accompaniment

the style of the Prelude.

For other examples see Mendelssohn's St. Paul, Nos. 16 and 29 (second part), and Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise, No. 8 (first the simple choral, unaccompanied, and then the choral in unison with figured orchestral additions).

Choruses.

171

(3) A Fugue, Double Fugue (two subjects), or Triple Fugue (three subjects). " And He shall purify," " And with His stripes," " He trusted in God," Handel's Messiah. Examples Double Fugue, " We worship God," Handel's Judas Triple, " Quam olim," Cherubini's Requiem in C minor.
:

chorus

Canon, or series of Canonic Imitations. Mass. (See p. 155, Chap. Examples The first part of the Credo, Haydn's Imperial " of Bach's Mass in B minor. See what love," Mendelssohn's (See p. 154, Chap. X..)
(4)
:

A

X.)
St.

The
Paul.

last

(5)

A
A

stately Introduction
"
:

Examples
Messiah.

O

in homophonic style followed by a Fugue. " Father, whose almighty power," Handel's Judas ; Worthy is the Lamb," Handel's

three-fold form consisting of (i) an introduction homophonic (6) (2) a fugue or homofugal exposition, or some other form of imitative treatment polyphonic (3) a Coda phonic generally a modified repetition of the Introduction.
;
;

This

is

a favourite and effective form of chorus
"
:

much used

in

modern music.

" Creation (see p. 157, Chap. X.) Be not afraid," harp," Haydn's Examples " " Mendelssohn's Elijah. Rise up, arise," and O great is the depth," Mendelssohn's St. Paul. The night " is departing," Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise. A modification of this form is the fine Choral Epilogue " which closes Sullivan's Golden Legend.

Awake, "

the

Another three -fold form, so frequent in Mendelssohn as to be named after him, developed imitatively; (b) 2nd Theme, developed imitatively (c] combination of (a) and " " Blessed are the men," and "He watching over Israel (Elijah).
;

is

(a)

ist

(b).

Theme, Examples:

(7)

A

the chief key

is

Rondo-like Form, in which a principal paragraph (or series of paragraphs) in alternated with other paragraphs (in the nature of Episodes) in other keys.
"
:

Awake, thou that sleepest," Stainer's Daughter of Jairus. Example of the nature of part-songs, madrigals, etc., are often employed in cantatas Choruses (8)

and operas, and occasionally
The
part-song.
(9)

in oratorio.
is

beautiful

pure in heart," Sullivan's Golden Legend, Other examples may easily be found.

"

O

essentially a short

unaccompanied

The

theme upper

(or passage)

older composers sometimes constructed choruses on a Ground Bass, a short repeated over and over again in the bass (or instrumental bass) with varied
:

(See Chap. VIII.) Notable examples are The " Crucifixus," Bach's Mass in B minor ; " Envy, eldest born," Handel's " Saul ; The many rend the skies," Handel's Alexander's Feast ; " Ah, wretched Israel " (from the nth bar) Handel's Judas.
parts.
(10) The Gavotte, Waltz, and other dance-forms, the March-form, and the Minuet and Trio form, are also used for choruses. A DOUBLE CHORUS is a chorus for eight parts singing together, or for two separate fourpart choirs singing sometimes together and sometimes in alternation. " See Baal, we cry to thee," Mendelssohn's Elijah, and the fine double choruses in Handel's Israel

in Egypt and Solomon.

In addition to the choruses mentioned above, the following

may

be consulted for general

study

:

Thanks be to God," Mendelssohn's Elijah ; a chorus mainly descriptive, with a picturesque accompaniment, and some very fine modulations. " How lovely are the messengers," Mendelssohn's St. Paul ; fugal and imitative, but not a strict
fugue.

"

to ii

Hallelujah Chorus," Handel's Messiah ; instrumental and homophonic vocal introduction, bars i homophonic episode, bars 33 to 41 exposition of second exposition of first fugal theme, bars 12 to 33 with fugal theme, bars 41 to 51 sequential episode, bars 51 to 69 counter-exposition of second fugal " theme, stretto-like imitations, bars 69 to 88 Observe the coda-like termination, bars 69 to end. economy of material," and the very few discords that are used in this sublime chorus. " Note the gradual development of the fugue, Fixed in His everlasting seat," Handel's Samson. interrupted by choral interjections, and finally carried on by the accompaniment. " The heavens are telling," Haydn's Creation ; the " Hallelujah Chorus," Beethoven's Mount of " " Praise His awful Name," Spohr's Last Judgment ; and Olives ; Happy and blest," Mendelssohn's StPaul, are also magnificent examples of construction.
; ; ; ; ; ;

"

147

ANTHEMS AND SERVICES.

An anthem may
sung as

anthems

or

it

be merely a chorus: most of the choruses named above are occasionally may consist of chorus with solo portions, duets, etc.

172

The Composer's Handbook.

148 The church anthem is a peculiarly English form, developed by the requirements of the It is analogous to the German church-cantata and the English Protestant church service. The words are generally from the Bible but of recent years Hymn- Anthems Italian motet. have been largely used, especially in Nonconformist churches. A " Full Anthem " "consists entirely of chorus. A " Verse Anthem" begins with a portion to be sung by a single voice to each part. of solo. A " Solo Anthem contains one or more portions " " " Many anthems are a combination of Solo," Verse," and Full."
;

149

The

following

is

a

list

of

what may be

called

"

typical classical

anthems

"
:

" I will exalt Thee," Tye. " I will call and cry," Tallis. " Bow Thine ear," Byrd. " Lord, for Thy tender mercies' sake," Farrant. " Hosanna," Gibbons. " Hear, O heavens," Humphreys. " Praise the Lord, O my soul,' Creyghton.

Awake up my
I

glory," Wise.

was

O O

in the spirit,"

Blow.

give thanks," Purcell. praise the Lord," Aldrich.
is

gone up," Croft. crying," Weldon. praise God in His holiness," Weldon. 1 will love Thee," Clarke. O clap your hands," Greene. O give thanks," Boyce. Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem," Hayes. The Lord descended from above," Hayes. Call to remembrance," Battishill. Grant, we beseech Thee," Attwood. In exitu Israel," Wesley. Methinks I hear the full celestial choir," Crotch.

God

Hear

my

The Wilderness," Goss.
150

The following
"
"

also represent different types of
is

anthem which may be

of interest

:

"
" "

" "
"

"
"

Fear not, O Land," Goss (Curwen). Saviour of the world," Goss (Novello). taste and see," Goss (Curwen). I was glad," G. J. Elvey (Curwen). Judge me, O God," Mendelssohn (Curwen). O give thanks," G. J. Elvey (Curwen). Send out thy light," Gounod (Metzler & Co.). The Lord is my Shepherd," Macfarren (Novello).

come," G. J. Elvey (Curwen). thy Light Be glad, O ye righteous," H. Smart (Novello). Blessed be the God and Father," S. S. Wesley (Curwen).
Arise, shine, for

O O

Ye shall dwell in the land," Stainer (Novello). " O heavens," Sullivan (Boosey). " Sing, Like as a father," Hatton (Curwen). " Ponder words," Sawyer (Novello).

" "

What

O

are these ?" Stainer (Novello).

Lord,

how manifold," Barnby

(Curwen).

my
:

HYMN ANTHEMS
A

" Hymn of the Homeland," Sullivan (Curwen). " Sullivan (Boosey). " Lead, kindly Light," The radiant morn," Woodward (Novello). " Sun of my soul," Dunstan (Novello). " Abide with me," Dunstan (Novello). " Nearer, my God, to Thee," Dunstan (Vincent).

151 SERVICES consist of settings and Nunc Dimittis, in anthem form.

of the Venite,

Te Deum,

Jubilate, Benedictus, Magnificat,

As the words are not arranged in poetical feet and stanzas, special care must be taken to preserve a good key-plan, a symmetrical balance of melodic phrases, and a clear metrical form in regular sections and sentences. But the attempt to secure this regularity must not " lead to cramming too many words into a bar, which gabbling." produces the effect known as

Oratorios
"

and Operas.

173

" make their first essay in composition by setting Sir John Stainer, Not music. the words of the Magnificat to having gone through a gradually expanding course of study of odds and ends/ form,' the result is that they produce always a remarkable conglomeration of musical sections and sentences of all sorts of length, awkwardly stitched together without any bond of union, a mere

How many

young men," says

'

'

piece of patchwork."

CANTATA, ORATORIO, or OPERA consists of a number of choruses, solos, duets, etc. It often commences with a Prelude or Overture, and generally contains Recitative. The rule requiring a composition to commence and end in the same key or if commencing in a minor key to end with the Tonic Major is sometimes observed in a long It is remarkable that nearly all work of this kind, but it is not by any means obligatory. Handel's great oratorios end in the key of D major, and that Mendelssohn's Elijah and St. Paul also both end in D major.
152
in succession.

A

(A)

Beginning and ending in the same key.

WORK.
to St. Cecilia's Day," Handel Acis and Galatea," Handel

COMMENCES.

ENDS.

Ode

D

Israel in Egypt," Handel Christmas Oratorio," Bach The Magic Flute," Mozart

Requiem," Mozart Fidelio," Beethoven Elijah," Mendelssohn Hymn of Praise," Mendelssohn Der Freischutz," Weber

,

.

.

Stabat Mater," Rossini Lohengrin," Wagner Joseph," Macfarren King David," Macfarren The Revenge," Stanford Voyage of Maeldune," Stanford Repentance of Nineveh," Bridge Callirhoe," Bridge The Dream of Gerontius," Elgar
* After

.

.

major Bb major C minor* D major Eb major D minor C major f D minor Bb major C major G minor A major E major Bb major G minor F minor A minor C major D minor
this

major Bb major C major D major Eb major D minor C major D major Bb major C major G minor A major E major Bb major G major F major A major C major D major
fourth
is

D

a short

recitative,

"f

Beethoven wrote four overtures to

work.

The

in

E

major.

(B)

Ending

in a different key.

WORK.
St.

COMMENCES.

ENDS.

Matthew Passion," Bach Joshua," Handel Joseph," Handel Hercules," Handel Susanna," Handel Jephtha," Handel Esther," Handel Athaliah," Handel Semele," Handel
Samson," Handel Messiah," Handel Judas Maccabaeus," Handel Solomon," Handel
Creation," Haydn Athalie," Mendelssohn

Walpurgis Night," Mendelssohn St. Paul," Mendelssohn Last Judgment," Spohr Mount of Olives," Beethoven
Paradise and the Peri,"

Schumann

La Sonnambula,"
II

Bellini

May

Barbiere," Rossini Queen," Sterndale Bennett

Redemption," Gounod
Faust," Gounod

Golden Legend," Sullivan Eden," Stanford

E minor Bb major E minor Bb major A minor G minor Bb major G major C minor G major E minor G minor Bb major C minor F major A minor A major D minor Eb minor E major G major E major E major C major F minor Gb major D major

C minor

D D
F

majoi majoi major Bb major C major C major D major C major C major G major Bb major G major C major D major C major E major G major

D D D D D D D D D

major major major major major major major major major

174

The Composer's Handbook.
N.B.

Mass

in

f,

Bach's Mass

A SERVICE, MASS, or other similar work usually begins and ends in the same key e.g., Schubert's But there are some notable exceptions as Spohr's Mass in C, Beethoven's Mass in D, etc. in B minor ending in key D, and Mozart's (?) i2th Mass (in G) ending in key C.
;
; :

The Instrumental Prelude may be a short Introduction, or an Overture in formal style The following are the chief forms of Overture " ist movement, Grave ; 2nd movement, a LULLY," or FRENCH OVERTURE, (1) Handel's Minuet. a and Samson. followed sometimes Messiah, ; Examples Judas, by Fugue " ist movement, Allegro ; 2nd movement, SCARLATTI," or ITALIAN OVERTURE, (2) Slow ; 3rd movement, Allegro or Presto. Example Handel's Athaliah. OVERTURE. In the form of the ist movement of a SYMPHONIC or CLASSICAL, (3) sonata (see Chap. XIV) or symphony, but without repetition of the ist part, and generally less Beethoven's Examples Mozart's Don Giovanni, Figaro, etc. developed in the Free Fantasia. The overture to Mozart's Zauberflote is a fine example of a classical four overtures to Fidelio.
153
:

:

:

;

overture combined with a Fugue.

A loosely connected string of melodies from the work; (4) POTPOURRI OVERTURE. most overtures to light and comic operas. " " A symphonic poem treating and blending themes PRELUDE. WAGNERIAN (5) " to prepare the hearers for the coming action." Examples occurring in the musical drama, All Wagner's later operas.
as
:

154

RECITATIVE

;

or

MUSICAL DECLAMATION.
"

Recitative is the name commonly given to the Musica Parlante (i.e., spoken music ") The earliest kind of recitative invented by Peri, Caccini, Cavaliere, etc., about the year 1600. (Recitati'vo sec'co) consisted of a voice part with a very simple accompaniment, indicated by a figured bass From PERI'S Euridice (the first opera).
:

3rr~

=?.

Recitniive.

175

(l)

As

usually printed.

And

cry

un

.

to

her

/

ffp

r'

r

r

i

176

"he Composer's

Handbook.

(l)

As

printed.

fL

tiff

*~i

f'F

177

CHAPTER

XII.

ACCOMPANIMENTS IN GENERAL.
(SEE ALSO CHAPTER V.)
156

ACCOMPANIMENT FOR STRINGED ORCHESTRA. The stringed orchestra consists of ist violins, 2nd
and double-basses.
(A)

tenors), violoncellos,

violins, violas (also called altos or " The Strings." Collectively they are called

157

THE

VIOLIN.
violins playing

N.B. The ist and 2nd violins play on the same kind of instrument, the and the second line of the music.

from

The

violin has four strings

tuned thus

The highest
ist

string

is

called the ist (or E) string, the next the

2nd

(or

A) string,

etc.

Violin

The student may

write any note for the ist violin

from

but

^

*s

not advisable in early exercises to go above

E
2nd Violin

F

Any

note from low

G

to about

is

the best range for early work.

is

It Double-stopping is the sounding of two or more notes together on the same violin. of the notes is an open string and the other note is on the next string above But it is not wise for and in addition all 5ths, 6ths, yths, and 8ves are playable. or below the beginner to write much double-stopping unless he has a practical knowledge of the instrument.

easy

when one
;

In scores, the ist violin

and the 2nd
(B)

violin

may

may be also marked Violino Primo, Violino l mo Vno be marked Violino Secondo, Violino 2 do Vno 2 do or Vn 2, etc.
,

l

mo
,

or

Vn

im,

etc.,

,

,

THE

VIOLA.
xl

The

four strings are tuned thus

gj_
.j

DA
~

But

as the alto clef

is

used, these notes appear thus

^
G

[]^~

C The easy range
range appears thus
is

D

A
clef this

from the

low

C-

up

to

about

In the alto

to

It is

not often necessary to go above

F

D
Double-stopping is often used on the viola especially in slow passages, and when the 1st and 2nd violins play together in unison or octaves. " " In English scores the viola is sometimes called ttie in French scores it is generally called Tenor "
;

the

Alto."

178

The Composer's Handbook.
(C)

THE VIOLONCELLO.
four
strings
of

The
viola

the

violoncello

are

an

octave

lower

than those

of

the

:

E|=j
J:
C The tenor

Q
\

Eas Y range up to

^(jgj;

=^i=
~F
G~~
clef occasionally for

G

D

A
for

clef is

sometimes used
is

high notes (and the treble
in simple music, but

very

high notes).

Double-stopping

not

much wanted

an octave
.0.

is

always good
er
effect.

when

the lowest note Fifths are also easy.

is

one of the three lower strings
"
'cello

:

|^@=^ =|^~p

The
(D)

violoncello

is

generally called the

"

^

[|

I

(plural 'Celli

;

or, Anglicised,

" 'Cellos

").

THE DOUBLE

BASS.
:

Double-basses are of two kinds
(i)

The The

three-stringed bass, tuned

fJjp=
I

r--^

i"

(2)

four-stringed bass, tuned
all

F(^j

Q "

On
"

both,

The double-bass
N.B.
Bassi
"

notes sound an octave lower than written. " " " " or Contrabasso is generally marked Basso in scores.

The

'cellos

and basses may play from the same

line

which

is

then marked

"

'Cello e Basso,"

or

or a separate line

may

be allotted to each.

158

How

THE STRINGS ARE USED.

viola, and the 'cello correspond to the Roughly speaking, the ist and 2nd violins, the " " an octave lower. Like double the bass four voices of a mixed choir, while the double-basses thus they may be in the voices of a choir the various strings may be combined in many ways
;

unison (and octaves)

;

harmony

;

some may

in two-part harmony in three-, four-, five-, six-, seven-, or eight-part be silent while others are playing, etc. They also play successions
;

may

of full chords,

without special referenoe to strict part-writing. " " " In addition to being This is bowed," the strings may be plucked by the finger. When bowing has to be resumed after a pizzicato passage, called pizzicato, and is marked pizz.

it is

marked Col
;

arco, or Arco.

Sometimes the 'Celli and Bassi are marked pizz. while the other strings are using the bow and frequently the double-basses are marked pizz. while the 'celli are playing Col arco, as the pizzicato on the double-bass is specially useful in light accompaniments where a deep
but not heavy tone
159
is

needed.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF STRING ACCOMPANIMENTS TO CHORAL Music.
;

These are essentially the same as for pianoforte accompaniment (see Par. go, Chap. V) but they require certain modifications to suit the special characteristics of the instruments. (1) The style of accompaniment should suit the general character of the vocal music.
(2)

The accompaniment should

in general

support and sustain the voices without over-

powering them.
(3) The harmony of the strings should be complete in itself, whether the strings are in unison, in two-part harmony, or in many parts. Two or more of the parts may have (4) Many liberties of part-writing are allowed. occasional unisons or octaves.

allowed

account of the differences of tone colour, many liberties of part-writing are also between a string-part and a voice-part, which would be harsh between two voices (or even between two string- parts). N.B. The voices may occasionally be used alone and the strings may occasionally be used alone. The two masses of tone in alternation are often very effective.
(5)

On

and

effective

EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL METHODS OF STRING ACCOMPANIMENT.
(160)

String Accompaniment,

179

N.B. Most of the following examples are from Scores in which other instruments are also used in the accompaniment; but the addition of these instruments does not materially affect the method of using the strings.
(l)

Simply doubling the voice parts:-

HANDEL.
Violin
I.

fjEM

i

i

Violin II

Viola.

Voices.

Bassi.

180

The Composer's Handbook.

BEETHOVEN. Mann
Violin

in

C.

^
I.
\

r
I

j

* fj i===F

-

Violin

II.

F.

J
?

Viola.

f
Voices.

-

F

m
Tel!.

/"l

Mass.,.

(SSS

^

^

^
^
fj'

^

^
/C'.

^
r

*

/

^^

^
I-

etc.

y^-

Siring Accompaniment.

181

WEBER. Der Fnischuts.
Violin
I.

Violin

II.

wa cher
.

dem

stern.lein

den

Rest

hat

ge

.

geb

.

en,

le,

ben,

der

wa cher
.

dem

stern. Jein

den

Rest

hat

ge

.

geb

.

en,

=

t
le
.

:

t

.

i
den

z
Rest
hat

=
z
ge
.

ben,

der

wa.cher

dem sternJein

geb

.

en,

182

Cwvpostr

s

Handbook.

MOZART, ftequiem Mass.

Violins

1&2

Viola.

S.

String Accompaniment.

SPOHR. Last Judgment.
Violin
I

Violin

I

praise to

Him who giv

.

eth

araise to

Him who giv

.

eth

The Composer's Handbook.

MENDELSSOHN. Elijah.
ere.to.

Violins

i&

2.

Viola.

^
Lord
i>

3*

Voices

r,,d,thp

Lord

is

God O

Is

.

.

ra.el

hear!

Our

God

is

one

.

Organ.<

d

ff
Bassi.
A' >? Doubling the voices at the unison are complex, or highly contrapuntal.

^
/"

3

is

generally the best method whenever the voice-parts

For though the following might he accompanied as

shown :-

j*

,

Allegro.

Voices.

Violin

I.

Violin II

Viola.

Bassi.

Stri ng

A ccomp anim en

t

.

185

It confuses the is difficult to compose and of little real value. listeners. on the An confers little and pleasure accompaniment simply doubling the voices, singers or even detached chords, as in the following, would be much more effective.

Yet such an accompaniment

.

2)

Doubling the voice part's

at the octave

(excepting the basses) :-

BEETHOVEN. Mass
m.
r
j

in c.

^

V1U1JU1S

1&2.

Viola.

186

The Composer's Handbook.

MENDELSSOHN. Hymn of

Praise.

Violin

I.

^ffM ru=&

Violin

II.

Viola.

S.

Al.les.was O.demhat

lo.be den

Hernn

Halle .lu

-

jah lo.be den Hernrt

-v
A.
Al.les.was O.demhat lo.be den Hernn.Hal
le

lu

.

jah.Halle .In

.

jah lo.be den Hernn!

T.

e
was
O.dem hat
lo.be den Hernn,Hal-le lu.jah,

f;
Halle .lu.jah
lo.be den Hernn!

B.

r
was
O.demhat, lo.be den Hernn.HaUe

ff
Organ/

^

lu

.

jah,Halle .lu .jah lo.be den Hernn!

S
i

^f
J

<*^

o

Bassi.

^

^

^

String Accompaniment.
(B.)

Doubling the voice parts with modifications of rhythm, syncopation, repeated notes, etc

BEETHOVEN. Mass
Violins
1

in c.

&2.

R

Viola.

Voices.

Bassi.

188

The Composer's Handbook.

HANDET, Joshua.
Violin.

Soprano
voices.

ts

I

Glo

.

ry

to

God,

the

strong

cem.ent.ed

walls,

the tott'ring

tow'rs,

the

pond'rous

ru

.

in,

the

pon

.

d'rous ru

.

in

falls.

Andante.
Violin
I.

MOZART. Requiem Mass.

Violin

H

Viola.

^
rVoices.

Do

.

min.e

ti

.

.

bi,

Do

.

min.e,

E
Bassi.

gr

e^EF

m
lau.dis
I

of

.

fe

.

ri.mus

F=?

String Accompaniment.

189

Prestissimo. J 132.
Violin
I

BEETHOVEN. Choral Symphony.

Violin II

Viola.

Voices.

Bassi.

r

190

The Composer's Handbook.

SPOHR. last Judgment.
pizz.

Violins

1A2.

J.
g

^J
1 1

t
Jz

Viola.

^m
pp
All

pizz.

;

,

: :

^L
g-T
the

f
Chorus
glo

-

g
.

r
10

S FT
ex
.

ry

Lamb

that died,

alt

.

ed now

at

i
Bassi.
pizz.

J

c

..

t

c., e

_

7t~^

String Accompaniment.

101

SPOHR. Last Judgment.
Violin I

Violin

E

Viola

S.

T.

B.

Bassi.
pizz.

"Jr

~~~~

1^

-.

h^

(9

E

*

192

The Composer
but line the voice* generally,

s

Handbook.

ted notes against in the vocal parts. notes repeated

connective with occasional arpeggios, passing notes, and sustained notes agamsl sustained notes in the vocal parts,

MOZART. Ave Verum.

Violin

I.

Soprano.

Bassi.
lotto voce N. B.

Only the Soprano part

is

given here.

BEETHOVEN. Kyrie,from Mas*

in C.

Violin

I.

Violin

IT.

Viola.

S.

A.

T.

B
e
.

lei

son,

e

.

lei

-

Bassi

cresc.

Siring Accompaniment.
(5)

193

Doubling the voices in unison (or 8ves), but selecting passages sometimes from one part and sometimes from another to make the 1st Violin part more interesting.

HANDEL. Messiah
(a)

Violin

I.

Violin

R
-B-r

Viola.

"7

^r k

s.

^
I

r

-i^=

f

all

the

an

.

gels

of

God

wor

ship

Him

pr^r-^f
all

t
the

an .gels

of

God

ship

Him

>
to
(6)

^&
Let
(b)

*
all

the

an .gels
(d) to
(e)

of

God

wor

3$
ship

Him

from Treble;

to (O

from Alto;

from Tenor.

HAYDN. Creation.
Violin

I.

Violin

II.

Viola.

Jehovah'spraiseforev.er

shall

en .dure,

A

A.
ev
.

er

shall

en_ dure

men, Jehova's praise

for

praise for ever shall
fr

endure

Jehovah'spraise,

Je.ho

.

van's

* Note

the unisons here.
.

N. B. The bass, being merely doubled by the orchestral basses, is omitted from the above extracts This kind of accompaniment was much favoured by Handel. Provided the string parts make a good complete harmony of their own they need not slavishly follow any particular voice parts. (As shown later, the strings need nd, follow any voice part at all, but be quite independent.)

The Composer's Handbook.
(6)

Voice parts ornamented "figured','
is

etc.
all
.

This

a favourite form of accompaniment with nearly

paniment animated and telling,

composers It makes the accomwith the voices. without clashing materially

FOR HE THE HEAVENS.
HAYDN.
Violin I

Creation.

Violin II

Viola.

Voices.

Bassi.

String Accompaniment.

195

THANKS BE TO GOD.
MENDELSSOHN. Elijah.
Violins

1&2.

Viola.

r
Voices.

g
I

frv-a-^-

I

Bassi.

The Violin part is mostly an arpeggiated arrangement of the three upper voice parts, specially emphasizing the notes of the Soprano voice.

Tfo Composer's Handbook.
(7)

but "filling up" the harmony when that of the voices Generally doubling the voices,
A

is "thin'.'

Pr~

MENDELSSOHN. Elijah

Violin I

Violin II

Viola.

S.

A

bar

.

vest

now

is

o

.

ver

The

And yet

jEJE=LJ=Lyi cometh no
pow.er
to

r
summer days
are gone,
a^id yet

no pow.er cometh to

help

ua,

String Accompaniment.

197

J

*

*

help

us!

harvest now

is

o

.

ver, the

summer days are

gone,

and yet no pow.er cometh to

and yet no pow

.

er

com

.

eth,

com

.

eth

to

help

us,

no pow.er

(8)

An arpeggio

or figurated accompaniment supporting the voices, but not doubling

thern:-

MENDELSSOHN.
Vi.olins

Elijah.

1&2.

Viola.

Voices.

He watching o

.

ver

Is

.

ra.el

slumbers not nor sleeps;

Bassi.

198

The Composer's Handbook.

STANFORD. The Revenge.
Violins

And we roar'd
cresc.

a

hur

Basso

String Accompaniment.

199

J .112.
Violin
I.

STERNDALE BENNETT. May Queen

f
Violin n.

S3! ^m Ft 3*1
hath pass'd
a
.

5?
Viola.

P
way

^
Voices.

And

the cloud

hath pass'd a

.

5
Cello.

6

A

Basso.

^

i

i

i

pizz.

Fl

f
3
I

W
That was

=F=Fi

F^
J
May

J

J "3
And
the

hea

vy

on

the

r
way
That was
hea
.

vy,

hea

.

vy

on

the

May:

And

the

^=f

5

^

^

Note that the 2nd Violin, Viola and 'Cello are in unison for the firsi five bars.

200

The Cotnposer's Handbook.

STERNDALE BENNETT. May
Violins

Queen.

Viola.

Chorus.

Law

doth

claim

for

pun

ish

.

J.

Cello.

I

Basso.

SB

i
. J

r
ment,

The

Law

doth

claim

for

pun

ish

.

ment,

^

(9)

String Accompaniment. Detached chords, either following the voices or quite independent.

201

MENDELSSOHN.
Violin
I.

Elijah.

Violin

rent

the

moun

.

tains

a

And

a

might

.

y

wind

pizz

Violin

I.

b
pizz.

^
=

STANFORD. The Revenge

Violin

II.

i^
^^
And half

Viola.

*

t

^

s

I
3 HE
can
.

Bass Voices
of the rest of usmaim'd for life
in the crash of the

non.ades

r
l/P pizz.

fh^

**
I

^ r r

=

20k
(l6)

The

Cotrrf>ost'r's

h Mid >ook.

An

Independent accompaniment, either in imitative figures or descriptive in character.

STANFORD The Revenge.

203
String

CONFUTATIS.
Andante.
Violins.

MOZART: Requiem Mass.

Viola.

Voices.

Bassi.

Note the fine effect of the unisons. The other accompanying instruments simply double the voices.

204
The Composer's Handbook.

STANFORD. The Revenge
Violins
1

&2

Viola.

Soprano.

Tenor.

Bassi.

mp

m
a:
*=
And
iqf
I*

FT

m

*

iqf

P3
P
the state
.

ly

Span

.

ish

I*

^

^m

s

s

String Accompaniment.

205

MENDELSSOHN.

Elijah.

ff

Violin I. Violin II.
Viola.

Note the vigour given

to this

passage by the unisons and uctaves.

Tkt Composers Han-ibook.

OTHER NOTEWORTHY EXAMPLES OF STRING ACCOMPANIMENTS.
(a)

Scale passages for 1st and 2nd Violins in unison.

MENDELSSOHN.

Elijah.

Violins
1

&2.

Viola.

-f

The*

rush

a

.

they

rush

a -long!

Chorus.

Bassi.

Thanks

^^^

6)

String Accompaniment. Strings in unison (and Sves), voices in harmony.

207

DISDAINFUL OF DANGER.

HANDEL.

Judas.

Voices.

Strings.

c) Alternating imitative passages between 1st and 2nd Violins. N. B. The short rests give much vigour and point to the separate

passages.

THANKS BE TO
Violin
I.

GOD.

MENDELSSOHN.

Elijah.

Violin II

Viola.

208
161

Ttie Composer's

Handbook.

EXAMPLES OF THE FREE TREATMENT OF THE PARTS
In addition to mere

IN DOUBLING VOICES. "embroideries" of the vocal parts, the following freedoms of

progression are

common.
Ascending Scale. VOICE.

==*==
(1).

INSTRUMENTAL BASS

Or

(2).

Or

(3).

=5t
"

The Heavens
IST
.
?

are telling."

VOCAL BASS.

,

^

HANDEL. m -p--P-

&
i

HAYDN'S Creation. 2ND VIOLINS. / (c) ' () (*)
^

..

iaSS^te
of

INSTRUMENTAL BASS.

TREBLES. The won-der

pfpB=t^^^
His
work,
-is--

The notation
(1798).

of this passage

from

Haydn
(c),

is

"
particularly

"
daring

for the

date

when

it

was written

Note the consecutive 2nds at
Descending Scale. VOICE.

(a), (6),

(d), (e).

VOCAL BASS. V

BACH.

INSTRUMENTAL BASS.

For unto us." HANDEL'S Messiah. 2ND VIOLIN.

"

"And He

shall purify."

HANDEL'S Messiah.

*fe

VOICES.

The

ev-er-last-ing Father,

The Instrumental Bass.

209

must contain
imply

independent, on the lines indicated above (pp. 192-207).
163

be mentioned here that the University "Exercises" for Mus.B. Degree five-part choral work with independent string accompaniment. This does not in nine distinct but that the accompaniment should be "free," i.e., writing parts,
It

may

THE INSTRUMENTAL
This, as

BASS.

often doubles the bass voice. It may, however, be an independent part (either occasionally, or throughout a whole movement).
rule for the treatment of an instrumental bass is that " it may double the the lowest part of the vocal harmony whether bass, tenor, or alto), or it may be quite independent (providing a real bass to the whole of the parts) ; but it should never double any part above the actual bass (except in unison passages

we have seen,

The general
(i.e.,

bass voice

").

Thus the following
VOICES.

is

good

:

~

==
HARMONIUM, ORGAN, or STRINGS.
(d)
(e)
;

INSTRUMENTAL BASS suitable
(a)

for PIANO,
(6) (b

.p.

_

f

.

.(c)

l^H^^^-^-F-r-L^
(a)

to

(b)

doubles Alto

;

(c)

to

(d)

doubles Tenor

last 3

semiquavers independent.

such cases to use only the 'cello bringing in the double-basses with the bass voice as at (e).
It is usual in
(d)

N.B.

(or 'cello

and

viola) to

double the alto or tenor,
as

with octaves ad

Similarly, for piano or organ, single notes are mostly used in doubling alto or tenor lib. at the bass entry (e).

from

(a)

to

But the following doublings

are reckoned

bad

:

(a)
(c)

doubles Alto which doubles Tenor. (d) to (e) doubles Treble. doubles Tenor. (/) to (g) (h) to (i) doubles Alto. (K) to (I) doubles Tenor. (m) to (n) doubles Treble, (o) to (p) doubles Alto.
to
(b)

is

not

now

the lowest part

to

(d}

210

The Composer's Handbook.

EXAMPLES OF INSTRUMENTAL BASSES.
VOCAL BASS.
HANDEL.

INSTRUMENTAL BASS.

This looks like an independent part

;

but

it is

really

a variation of the vocal bass.
BACH.

VOCAL BASS.

This

is

partially independent.

VOCAL

BASS.

BACH.

INSTRUMENTAL BASS.

-P
j

Siring Accompaniments o/ Solos.

211

TYPICAL STRING ACCOMPANIMENTS OF SOLOS.
O REST IN THE LORD.
MENDELSSOHN.
Flute
solo.

Elijah.

BTflr

Violin

I.

Violin

II.

Viola.

Voice.

^
rest
in
the

^
Lord, wait

pa

-

tient

-

ly

for

Bassi.

Him,

and
iii-1

He

shall

give thee

thy hearts de

.

sires;

rest

in

the

Lord,

Bassi

The addition of

the Flute-part gives colour;

it

does not otherwise affect the string parts.

The Composer's Handbook.

Violin

I.

eg^

^

HAYDN.
1
*i

Creation.

P g-V 3 ?

Violin

II.

S
ilr

EB

Viola.

Soprano
voice.

L;
And
coo

^
the

coo

.

ingi

calls

ten

.

der

Bassi.

m

String Accompaniments of Solos.

213

HAYDN.
Violin
I.

Creation.

Violin

II.

Viola.

Soprano
voice.

; ;
Most
beau
pizz.
.

;
a

ti .

ful

ap

.

pear

With

ver

.

dure young

Bassi.

Note the pizzicato bass against the flowing violin parts.

ly

slop

.

inghills,the

gent

.

ly slop .ing

hills,-

21A
The Composer's Handbook.

SPOHR. Last Judgment.

Violin

I.

Violin

II.

m

Viola.

m
For
.

Solo.

sake

not

in

this

dread

P

EXERCISES. The student should now arrange for strings some of the accompaniments of the anthems mentioned in Chapter XI, and of the He songs, etc., mentioned in Chapter V. afterwards write vocal pieces of his own and add string accompaniments to them.

my

N.B. Full ucores are rather expensive. wo should advise Mendelssohn's Elijah.

For the student w'lo

?n

only afford, say, one good work,

Organ Accompaniment.

215

ORGAN ACCOMPANIMENT.
Except that Arpeggio passages are in general ineffective on the Organ -especially accompaniments- it is not necessary to add anything to the principles already laid down.
for

Specimens of all sorts of accompaniments available for the Organ will be found in the Anthems tabulated in Chapter XL, and in good Church Services. Smart's Te Deutn in F
is noteworthy for its independent Organ accompaniment to the voices in unison. Stanford's Morning, Communion, and Evening Service in Bt> (Novello) may also be studied with

advantage.

Extracts from S.S.Wesley's Nicene Creed. Organ part edited by Dr. Garrett.

P
Solo.

Chorus.

Organ.

2U*

The Composer's Handbook.

Jf

it

217

CHAPTER

XIII.

SCORING FOR SMALL ORCHESTRAS.
166 It is beyond the scope of this work to treat of the full orchestra used for a symphony The student who has occasion to write for one is therefore referred to Prout's or oratorio. Instrumentation (Novello), Clarke's Manual of Orchestration (Curwen), Corder's The Orchestra (Curwen), and other standard works.*
167 It may, however, be helpful to show how to write for, say, a school band or a small amateur orchestra, in which there are generally plenty of violins, one or two violoncellos, and

perhaps a double-bass.
N.B. Viola players are not often available we have therefore in all the following This will be examples written a 3rd violin part which may be used when violas are wanting. seen to be practically the same as the viola part (also given), with slight modifications when the " latter goes below fiddle G."
;

P
r

Jf
i

Q

M
\\

vJJ

3:

cornet,

Some of the following wind instruments are euphonium, and perhaps tenor horn.

also generally available

:

flute, clarinet,

168

THE FLUTE.
8va.
-<^>-

The eight-keyed
Except

flute

has

a

compass

from

5
'^/

:

to

F>z:

I

or

even

higher with exceptional players.
in solo passages the lower notes

-^~

tr~

can hardly be heard, and the very high ones

are difficult for amateur players.

For ordinary work the student

is

advised to keep within the range from about

169
in

THE CLARINET (or CLARIONET). Clarinets are made at different
"

C

(producing the notes

pitches. exactly as written ")

On

account of
used.

its

piercing tone, the clarinet

is little

The clarinet in Bp, producing all its sounds a major 2nd lower than the written notes, the clarinet in A (producing all its the favourite clarinet in orchestral and military bands sounds a minor yd lower than the written notes) is (or should be) used in the orchestra for those keys which have many sharps in the signature (see below, Par. 174).
is
;

The compass

of the clarinet

is

(as written)

from

^
E

-

to about

N.B.

These notes sound a major and lower on Bb instruments, and a minor 3rd lower on
-Q-

A instruments.

b&
or

We should advise the beginner not to use any notes higher than r^""^ re ver the as very shrill. upper notes are
* For a
list

R^E

=F1

of

more advanced

treatises, see the

Appendix

of the author's Cyclopedic Dictionarv of

Music (Curwen).
15

218

The Composer's Handbook.

The tones from
and
"

fly

called the

"

chalumeau

register,"

are rich

and

full,

slightly nasal in character.

In combination with other instruments, they form good

holding notes

"

for nourishing the

harmony.

The

"

medium

register,"

not so good.
is

It is

the least effective part of the clarinet range.

From
effective.

the

"

clarinetto register," the tones bright

and

clear,

and very

The

"

super-acute

"
register

(from

:)

requires to be used with

much

caution.

The

clarinet,

which

in military

thing "

;

clarinetto

bands takes the place of the ist violin in the orchestra, can play practically any" medium " and but passages like the following, rapidly changing to and from the "
registers are difficult to finger
:

170

THE CORNET.
The cornet properly Cornet a The most usual size is pitched
pistons
in
is the treble instrument of an ordinary brass '' Bb, with additional tubes (or crooks") for setting

band. it in A, Ab, or even G.

The Bb
written notes
;

cornet, like the

Bb

clarinet,

the

A

cornet, a

minor

yd lower
is

produces all its sounds a major 2nd lower than the than the written notes.
written)

The range

of

the

cornet

(as

from

.

upwards.

The lower

notes are rather poor in quality and should only be used for
it is

some

special effect

;

for

amateur

players

not advisable to write above

or

171

THE EUPHONIUM.
is
is
;

This instrument is made in various sizes. For brass bands the euphonium in Bb for orchestral purposes the euphonium in C is better, as no transposition generally used necessary, and sharp keys are easier to finger.

The euphonium

with three valves

has a compass

from

h>

~~F~ |d
*F*

upwards.

The

euphonium

with four valves easily extends

downwards

to

E or even a few notes

lower.

The upward compass
or

is

very extensive.

An

ordinary player can easily reach

^^_
F
172

G

THE TENOR HORN.
;

This is a very easy instrument to play it is inexpensive and it forms a good middle In brass bands the tenor horn stands generally in Eb but part to the cornet and euphonium.
; ;

Compass
for use

of Instruments.

219
in

with strings a tenor horn in
thus

F is

best.

The tenor horn

F

produces

all

sounds a perfect

th lower than the written notes,

_Written.

Sounds produced.

173
etc.

We

have already discussed the

"
strings,"

their compass, capabilities, combination,

For convenient reference we now give a table showing the easy compass of all the instru" ments hitherto mentioned, naming them in the order in which they should appear in a full " the of the score page downwards). (from top
N.B.

Only the compass advised

for orchestral use is given.

FLUTE.

CLARINET.

E)

-F1
7~to

or-

I

^

_n

E
CORNET.

TENOR HORN.
:to

EUPHONIUM,

3 VALVES.

EUPHONIUM, 4 VALVES.

FIRST VIOLIN.

220

The Composer's Handbook.

SECOND (OR THIRD) VIOLIN.
Ito

7

-I e* G

C

D
-Oor

VIOLA.

-:to

C

D

E

VIOLONCELLO.

CFG
DOUBLE BASS (CONTRABASSO).
174

TRANSPOSING INSTRUMENTS.
"

in C." Non-transposing instruments are said to be Instruments which produce sounds higher or lower than the written notes are called " In writing or arranging a score it is customary to save the players transposing instruments." of such instruments the difficulty of transposing their own notes by writing out their parts in another key. Thus, for the clarinet and cornet in B[? all the notes are written a tone higher ; for the clarinet and cornet in A, a minor yd higher ; and for the tenor horn in F, a perfect $th In general, also, the proper key-signature is added to save the use of unnecessary higher.

accidentals.

Thus,
.

if

the following passage were allotted to the clarinet (or cornet) in B[>
__

Q

^=

^?:-

it

would be written

in the

Key

of

D

(which

is

a tone higher than the key of

C), as follows

:

Clarinet (or Cornet) in Bb-

Similarly,

if

the following passage were given to the tenor horn in

F

it

would be written thus

:

Transposition Table.

22i

TRANSPOSITION TABLE.

keys

The following table shows the necessary transpositions and alterations of key-signature trans P sme ^truments mentioned in this chapter in connection with all the usual
ifficult y in

here shown.

dealing with other keys

when he has grasped the

principles

Clarinet and Cornet in Bb.

Write
-

all

notes

One degree
r^-A
W
1

higher.

Signature 2

3

Q

flats less (or

2 sharps more) than for the Strings

^

_

Jt

Clarinet and Cornet in A.

Write

all

notes

Two

degrees higher.

Signature 3

flats

more

(or 3

sharps^ess^tha^for

the Strings.

A
Tenor Horn
Write
all

instruments not used

;

Bb much

better (as above).

in F.

notes Five degrees higher.

Signature

1 flat less (or

1

sharp more) than for the Strings.

All the Strings.

_^_U33Z

"

Clarinet and Cornet in

"'
j j

Bb instruments

rarely used better (as below).
;

A

instruments

Clarinet

and Cornet

in A.
->r
TI
H
1

i

Tenor Horn

in F.

but

A

N.B. Where there is a choice between using a Bb or an A instrument the Bb is generally preferred; not wise to use keys with more than about four sharps for a clarinet or cornet, owing to the difficulties When the strings are in the key of D, A, or E (or more sharps) it is uswvlly better to use the of fingering.
it is

clarinet

and the

A

cornet.

The concert flute, being a non-transposing instrument, has the as the strings.

same key signature

222
175

The Composers Handbook.

HOW

TO USE THE

WjND INSTRUMENTS.
strings (as sho\

in

Assuming that the student is able to compose and arrange pieces for rules for the addition of wind parts. Chap. XII), we now give a few simple
If the five

fairly

wind instruments we have discussed are all available, they provide (i) as a whole, and (2) two separate groups (a) wood-wind, and (b) bn wind-band complete
N.B.
If only two or three instruments are available, the composer as far as possible on the principles enumerated below.

must use

his ingenuity to writ

for

them

It is
is

rather a

list

of ten instruments. impossible to give all the effective combinations of usual arrangements.

The

followii

(1) It is

not necessary to have ten separate

and independent parts

(five for

wind and

five for strings).

(2)

Either of the wind instruments
(a)
(b)
(c)

may

play a

solo.

This

may

be accompanied

by

all

the strings

;

by a selection of the strings by
strings

;

and some

(or all) of the

other wind instruments

;

(d)

by some

(or all)

of the other

wind instruments without

strings.

The solo instrument may also practically as if it were a 50/0 voice.

have occasional passages without accompaniment, and should bs regarded

(3) Two or more of the wind instruments may play the same part and may be accompanied in any of the ways suggested above. (4)

(in

unison or octaves),

A

selection of

or else accompanied in
(5)

wind instruments may play a duet, any of the ways already suggested.

trio, etc., either

unaccompanied,

The whole wind band may The
(or

alternate with the whole string

band

(after the

manner

of a double-chorus).
(6)

strings

may have

all

the essential parts,
(in

by any one
(7)

more) of the wind instruments
or

and the leading melody unison or octaves).

may

be doubled

Two

more

string parts

may

be doubled by wind instruments.

"

(8)

holding notes

All (or any) of the wind instruments " " or reiterated notes."

may

"

nourish

"

the

harmony by means

ot

(9) Some wind instruments holding or repeated notes.

may

play

(or double)

melodic passages while others have

(10)

A

solo, duet, etc.,
(or

may
of

be given to strings and the accompaniment furnished by
strings).

wind instruments
N.B.

by wind instruments and the other

Whatever number

give as far as possible a complete reference to the strings.

wind instruments may be employed they should in themselves harmony (either in one, two, three, or more parts) without

Thus, if only flute and clarinet are used, they should not have progressions of 4ths, Similarly, if the three brass instruments be employed, second inversions of chords should be used with discretion. When (See rules for two- and three-part harmony, Chap. VI). " all the five instruments are used distributed," and together, the parts should be carefully allowance should be made for comparative loudness of tone. Thus, a note // on the cornet would " " have more weight than the same note // on a ute or clarinet.
etc.

Orchestral Sketches.

223

176

ORCHESTRAL SKETCHES.
full

Before writing out the parts in on four staves as below
:

score the beginner

may

very properly

make a sketch

Fl.j^5--J7l

I

CL-^-j^l,

WIND.

STRINGS.-,

He should then write out the parts on the score, each in its proper clef, etc., without He will then have the whole musical picture under his eye," and should in the rests. filling see if any instruments have been unduly neglected or overused, filling-in or crossing-out at
'

discretion.

He should also see if the parts are interesting to the players. Every part cannot be at all but the addition of a few notes or rhythmic phrases, or a slight times specially interesting will often rearrangement, considerably improve a part from the player's point of view without interfering with the general design.
;

If at this stage the composer copies the parts and can have them tried over by his band, he will probably find that many points come short of his expectations, and, on the other hand, that some features which do not seem to be of much account "on paper" sound really well. The careful worker will alter and amend, and this is the kind of experience that produces good writers for the orchestra many of the very greatest composers trained themselves in this way.
;

177

THE

PIANO.
perfectly with the orchestra, but
it
is

The piano does not blend quite

practically

It keeps the players indispensable in the early stages of forming and training an amateur band. the middle parts. together in tune and time, helps them to acquire confidence, and nourishes It also helps to supply the place of missing instruments.

As the band improves

in intonation the piano

may

be gradually dispensed with.

now give a number of illustrative examples of simple scoring in various styles. 178 Intricacies of orchestration are purposely avoided, and only such passages and combinations suggested as may fairly be within the reach of a beginner.

We

Composer's Handbook.
(1)

A LOUD PIECE. The

instruments forming one mass of tone.

at

which may be also used as a pianoforte accompaniment (orpartMs given A pianoforte sketch the top of each score, and there is an alternative part for 3rd Violin if there is no Viola available. A few explanatory notes are added to the earlier examples to illustrate some of the principlesalready
N.B.

laid down.

^
Ordinary Piano
arrangement.

i

m
m
i

m
f^F

Flute.

The 5 wind instruments give complete 4-part harmony, the Cornet doubling the melody of the 1st violin, and the flute doubling it an 8ve higher.
i*v4^ Clarinet
in

B

'

?
J*

Cornet
in

Bk

The brass instruments give a fairly-complete 3-part
effectively doubling the bass part.
tAVJOo

!

lenor Horn
in
F.

Euphonium.
AC^. If the only available Euphonium degree higher in key A.
1st Violin.
is in B', its

notes must be written one

to

The strings are essentially in 4-part har increase the fulness of the chords.

ony, with occasional ''double stoppings"

2nd

Violin.

.'>ni

Violin.

Bassi.

Or plain notes,at pleasure.

A Loud

Piece.

225

Cs
Cort.

Horn.

g
pi

^s s
rail.
rall.

A)

Euph.

Ist.V.

3rdV.
rail.

Viola.

Bassi
ra//.'

226
(2)

The Composer' a Handbook.

HARMONIZED MELODY OF QUIET CHARACTER.

JENNY JONES.
WELSH MELODY.

5
Ordinary Piano
arrangement.
>nf

J

M

Flute.

Clarinet
in

Bk

Cornet
in

Bk
The brass fills up in 3-part harmony of sustained notes.

Tenor Horn
in
F.

Euphonium.

1st Violin.

i

^
m

2nd Violin

3rd Violin.

m
^
Cello arco

Viola.

kJ
Cello e Basso.

'
Basso

.

71
r r
pizz.

>

*-

r

^T

^T

Note the good effect of the pizz notes here.

^

Jenny Jones.

227

r-4

4
-p.

Pf.

The Composer's Handbook.
228

Easy and effective "shake

violin doubled

wind instruments

for "colour"

Jenny Jones.

229

Unison passage for full band

Cort.

I

Variation of the melody.

230
(3)

The Composer's Handbook.

HARMONIZED MELODY OF ROBUST CHARACTER.

HEARTS OF OAK.
Maestoso.

Song
arrangement.

Flute.

Clarinet
in

A.

Cornet
in A.

Brass in 3-part harmony (making 4 with Fl andCl.)

Horn

in

F.

Euphonium.

1st Violin.

2nd Violin.

3rd Violin.

Viola.

Cello e Basso.

Hearts of Oak.

231

Pf.

fz
Note detached chords except
for Pi.and Cl.

232

The Composer's Handbook.
CHORUS.

ad lib

/^\

a tempo

Pf

.

Fl.
Fl. C!.

and Cornet

play melody. Cl.

glower

Cort.

Hearts of Oak.

233

ad lib.

f^a tempo

16.

234
(4)

The Composer's Handbook.

CORNET SOLO

ANNIE LAURIE.
Slow and expressive

Ordinary

Song
arrangement

Flute.

Not* that ifl the wind instru ments generally, everything with that would interfere
t

iakrpt oilcnt

Clarinet

Cornet

Horn

in F.

Euphonium.
ff{f

Slow and expressive.
1st Violin.

2nd Violin.

3rd Violin,

i

Viola.

Cello e Basso,

Annie Laurie.

235

Pf.

<

Cello
e

Basso.

236

The Composer's Handbook

lute doubles Cornet(8ve higher) for tone colour.

A March.
(5)

237

A SIMPLE MARCH.

S maestoso

Condensed
arrangement.

^fff

r

Flute.

Clarinet

/.. 8
Cornet
in

Bk

m f

3
maestoso

3

3

3

^

Horn

in F.

f
Euphonium.

f
1st Violin.

2nd Violin.

3rd Violin.

Viola.

Bassi.

238

The Composer's Handbook.

Pf.'

f

I
Fl.

Cl.

Cort.

Horn.
>ys

Euph

lst\

2ndV

3rd

V,

Viola

Bassi

A
1.

March.

239

S
Pf.

Mi;
I
IT

Fl.

Cl.

^

^

^
i

^^

Cort.

Horn.

^
^ ^
S
i

Euph.

IstV.

2ndV.

^
S

3rdV.

JT3.JJ J

Viola

ffl^F^ n T
I

Sg

^

^

Bassi

^^

240

The Composer's Handbook.

fo5r.^.nfl &

k

Pf.

Fl.

Cl

Cort

Horn

Euph

p
istV

m
:r

F
f^f
i

2nd

V.

r

3rdV.
Dtp

Viola

^^

Has si
tup

^ p s
Cello arco

i

Basso

A

March.

241

Repeat from A

to

B

Pf

<

Viola.

Bassi

242

The Composer's Handbook.

TRIO.

Pf.

Fl.

tt

Cl.

Cort

Horn
SOLO.

Euph

P^i

IstV.

3rdV

f
Viola

Bassi

A

March.

243

poco

rit.

J.
Pf.

J'j

j

IJ

f
Fl.

f
Cl.

f
Cort.

Horn.

f
Euph.

^

^=tf=E

IstV.

2ndV.

3rdV.

*

Viola.

Bassi

>
rit.

244

The Composer's Handbook.

Pf

Bassi

fa tempo

A

March.

245

Repeat 1st part (from

%

to (A)

F*
Pf.

=

am
Fl.

i

^
s

Cl.

=
Cort.

Horn,

Euph.
Repeat 1st part (from

%

or(R)

IstV.

2ndV.

3rdV.

^^

.

J

Viola

^^

J

.

J

J

S

Bassi

r-*nriJ3

^

^

246
(a)

The Composer's Handbook.

FIRST MOVEMENT OF A SET OF WALTZES

r-t"
Sketch.

m
J4
J.J*

ig

p

Flute.

H
**
^

Clarinet
in

Bk

^
>j-r

Cornet
in
Bl>.

^fca

Horn

in F.

3

Euphonium.

P

Violin

I.

g?

A
Violin
II.

/*

Violin IH.

m
|
I

Viola.

'Cello.

Basso.
* In a waltz it is usual to give the 2nd Violin and Viola this form of accompaniment, inmteurs find it very uninteresting. We have therefore suggested a different rhythm.

r r

"l*

I

;

but

A

Waltz Movement.

247

^
Sk.<

Si
If-

^ f
Fl.

r

Cl.

Cort.

^*
i

Horn.

Euph

IstV.

@^ S 3 W^ P m

3

3rdV

Viola

^^ ^ ^^ ^

^

fS

Cell<

Bass(

248

The Composer's Handbook.

ato
frg
"

Sk

cresc.

Fl.
cresc.

f

5
cresc..

Cort.
cresc.

Horn.
cresc.

Euph.

^ ^
^
i
^-r-

E

IstV.
cresc.

cresc.

8rdV.
cresc.

^
/

Viola

ii

^

Bassi,

S

Basso

A

Waltz Movement.

249

Fine.

pp
din

250

Fl.

Cl.

Cort.

f
Horn.

m

Euph

Ist

3rd\

Viola

Bass

A

Waltz Movement.

251

&
r^
m
Fl.

fz

g
r

m

Cl.

Cort.

r

r
Jz

^

m
=

Horn.

Euph.

IstV

E
7"

2ndV

IT
3rdV.

S
i
1

Viola

*-*

^
fz

m

y
-

Bassi

>

^

252

The Composer's Handbook.

Fl.

Cl.

Cort.

a
&

P

cresc,

Horn

P
Euph

y

cresc.

m f
*
P
._

cresc.

17
3rdV

i

^

m

P p

m
^
[

Vicla

^ ^s^
cr<?.?e.

y

cresc.

Bassi.

Basso pizz.

crett

A

Waltz Movement.

253

D.C.

Sk.<

Fl.

Cl.

D.C.
Cort.

=

Horn.

2
ff

Euph.

IstV.

Hi
3rdV
Viola.

i
ff

ff

^

fff
?

^

W
^S

Bassi

254

CHAPTER
FORM
IN
; ;

XIV.

GENERAL SONATA FORM ROMANTIC Music PROGRAM Music IMITATIVE Music WORD PAINTING THE LEITMOTIV THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT MODES VARIOUS MUSICAL FORMS SHAPING A MELODIC IDEA BEAUTY IN Music.
; ,

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

in the preceding chapters will 179 The student who has grasped the principles enunciated " " Balance of Phrase (produced either have noted that musical design is largely based upon " of or outline similarity rhythm), Symmetrical arrangement of by similarity of melodic " Well-devised Key-Plan." Musical Sentences," and

180
to the

Each

of various

of these features has been gradually modified and developed by the introduction " which one composer after another has added artifices" modes of expression

common

stock.

work of this nature to enumerate and classify all these developments, " but the following topics, selected (and occasionally amplified) from the Author's Cyclopaedic " are worthy of attention, and are here given by way of recapitulation, Dictionary of Music
It is impossible in a

of suggestion,

and

of reference

FORM IN GENERAL. Form is the design, plan, or structure of a musical composition, 181 " Stainer and Barrett. the shape and order in which musical ideas are presented."
The
I.

chief factors of musical

form are

the orderly setting out of melody in portions of definite lengths, with a proper balance of keys and cadences, and with appropriate harmonies and accompaniments.

EXPOSITION

:

II.

III.

DEVELOPMENT. (See Thematic Development below.) RECAPITULATION the repetition of the Exposition, either exactly
:

as before, or with

some variation

mode, tempo, or development. includes Unity of design (i) Mechanical Symmetry, and (2) Msthetic Symmetry. The principal musical forms are (i) Aria, (2) Canon, (3) Fugue, (4) Minuet, (5) Overture.
of key,
(7)
(8)

(6)

Rondo,

Sonata

(including
(9)

Concerto,

Symphony, Quartet, Quintet,

Sextet,

Septet,

Octet, etc.),

Song, and

Suite.

The higher forms have reached such a point of elaboration that much study is necessary For the simpler forms of comto analyse and appreciate their structure and development. position, however, the only indispensable requisite is a proper balance of keys, together with some amount of metrical proportion.
Musical form, as we now understand it, is of quite recent date. The old Latin melodies except that they were written to hymns of formal construction and based on definite church modes had very little of what can be called "form." Most of them appear to modern ears " aimless wanderings among sounds." as With the growth of counterpoint, the motet and madrigal assumed symmetry and proportion, and were at their best towards the end of the i6th century. In the meantime the secular music of the people began to foreshadow certain essentials of form, especially in regard to definite tonality, balance of melodic outline, and metrical
uniformity.

The growth of modern forms dates from the invention of the New Style of composition, about the year 1600. The Aria da Capo, invented by B. Ferrari (1597-1681), and used by Cavalli, was perfected by A. Scarlatti (1650-1725). The Fugue gradually developed reached its highest point with J. S. Bach. Bach (and Handel) also brought the Suite to its full developThe Sonata the " classical form " par excellence was moulded by Haydn upon ment. S. C. E. Bach, and others, and Bach, J. perfected by Mozart and Beethoven. The beauty and symmetry of this form were at once universally recognised, and its effect has ever since been felt in the shaping of all kinds of compositions, both instrumental and vocal. Since the time of Beethoven the chief addition to musical forms has been the application of the Leit-motiv to dramatic composition. (See page 258.) especially by Wagner

Sonata Form.

255

SONATA FORM. as a whole (1) The general plan of a sonata The smaller sonata comprises three movements (i) The Allegro (with or without an " The larger or " Grand Sonata (3) The Finale. introduction) (2) The Slow Movement ; comprises also a Minuet and Trio (or, in more modern works, a Scherzo}. The plan of the ist movement is sketched below. The Slow Movement may be in any Beethoven's Slow Movements the Song-form (see page 135) is sometimes employed. form " are often great Romances with many varied strophes, each repetition of the theme being more and more richly ornamented." Lavignac. The Finale may be a Rondo (see Chap. XI), a Theme with Variations, or an Allegro like the ist movement (but more animated and less formal). The Minuet or Scherzo (when added) generally comes as the 3rd movement. but the ist and last should be the The keys of the different movements are varied same the last may be the Tonic Major if the first is Minor.
182
:

;

;

;

:

;

Andante, G minor Presto, G major Beethoven, Pianoforte Sonata, Op. 79 G major. Mozart, Symphony in G minor Allegro, G minor Andante, Eb major Beethoven, Symphony No. 5 Finale, G minor. Minuet, G minor, G major, and G minor

Examples

:

;

;

Vivace,

:

;

;
:

;

Allegro,

C minor Andante, Ab major Scherzo, C minor, C major, C minor Finale, C major. N.B. The Sonata Form is also generally used for classic instrumental duets, trios,
; ; ;

octets, nonets, etc., quartets, quintets, sextets, septets, "
(2)

and

for the classic orchestral

symphony.

The plan

of the

First-movement."

It was foreshadowed by This is the essential and distinctive feature of a sonata. D. Scarlatti, Corelli, and others, and especially by C. P. E. Bach. Haydn was, however, the first "great" composer to see its vast capabilities and to mould it into clearly-defined and " Mozart and Beethovei hence it is often called Haydn-form." well-proportioned shape
;

brought the form to perfection. (N.B. The Symphonic Overture
it

does not repeat the

first

part,

" " a rather long Introduction is a First-movement prefaced by " " or Development portion.) Free Fantasia and usually has little of the
I,

;

GENERAL CONSTRUCTION.
I.

EXPOSITION

;

II,

DEVELOPMENT

;

III,

RECAPITULATION.

(with or without principal (b) (a) (optional). or (c) Bridge, auxiliary or subsidiary themes), in the principal key of the movement. Transition, leading to (d) The second principal subject (with or without subsidiary themes), or in Minor movements, that of the in some related key (usually that of the Dominant

Introduction

The

first

subject

;

The end of this part is marked by a double bar with Relative Major). (e) Short codetta. " repeats," but performers do not always play it a second time. Themes or parts of themes occurring II. Free Fantasia or Development portion. in I are developed (see Thematic Development p. 259), repeated, interwoven, etc., at the This part or (occasionally) entirely new themes are introduced. composer's discretion is generally a little shorter than I, and the principal key of the piece should be avoided
;

;

it

leads directly into
III.
(a]

the first principal subject, either exactly as in modified so as to lead to (c) The second or Transition, Bridge, principal subject, this time in the principal key of the movement (or often in the Tonic Major if the principal key is minor), (d) Coda.
(or Reprise) of
I,

The Repetition
(b)

or with modifications,

183

legendary, mythical, supernatural, fanciful, imaginative, mystic, novel, strange, weird, extravagant, fantastic, free from rule, opposed to classical. " In general, it means the striving after individuality, novelty, and personality of musical expression as opposed to the repetition of classic forms." Hughes. " The Romanticists of to-day are the Classicists of to-morrow." Baker. Thus the early Romantic composers, Weber, Chopin, and Schumann, are now regarded
as Classics

ROMANTIC Music Romantic means

;

PROGRAM Music

;

IMITATIVE Music

;

WORD-PAINTING.

the Neo-romanticists (new-romanticists) being Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner. ; " " Idealism may be realism." Romantic music may comprise both " idealism and " " defined as absolute music," i.e., music which depends solely on itself for its effects and is

Realism is the attempt independent of words, scenery, acting, or other extraneous conditions." to represent or imitate natural sounds, and even suggest movement, light, darkness, etc., and is not at all a modern invention.

256

The Composer's Handbook.
"

" The passion for realism in art, and especially in the art of music, seems universal pure we prefer that which humbly waits upon legend or poem, the character music the mass of us cannot grasp Between music pure of a crazy knight-errant, or the proceedings of a day in a composer's household. and free (as the C minor symphony of Beethoven, for example), and that which is the slave of a programme, Abstract music, the fine flower of the art, we now seem to be in danger of there is no comparison. a sign of non-attainment certain to be removed as culture progresses." Daily Telegraph, losing,
;

" of events, program Programme) music endeavours to illustrate some an ideal basis and it rests on is free from bald, best the In examples scenes, or emotions. realism and sensational word-painting, but in other instances it is often "imitative music run mad." Till Eulenspiegel (Richard Strauss) is a notable example of successful program music.

Program

(or

.

.

.

;

.

.

.

.

...

Dec., 1906.

IMITATIVE Music.
Imitative music is the imitation of natural sounds, as thunder, the singing of birds, the rushing of the wind, etc. Elaborate treatises have been written attempting to prove that all music is derived by imitation As nearly all these sounds may, however, be classed either as noises or from various natural sounds. and, further, as these definite inflections ; as music is based on scales of definite tonality and relative pitch musical scales are nowhere found in nature, it is evident that the art of music is only remotely connected It is true, that by judicious selection, the notes of the major and minor scales can be picked with such sounds. " out of the Chord of Nature," but this discovery (?) was not made until the scales had been in use for
;

generations.

in music has long been a matter of How far realistic imitations are allowable " " " on the violin, The Battle of Prague " on The Imitation of a Farmyard controversy. the piano thought by many uneducated lovers of music to be wonders of art and skill are " Pastoral Symphony," which mere vulgar clap-trap. Yet Beethoven's regarded by critics as " " " " or music is essentially the same in principle, under the name of Descriptive Program attracts large audiences of educated musicians. The undoubted popularity of descriptive music may perhaps be accounted for by (i) the comparatively small number of listeners with sufficient musical education and taste to enable them to thoroughly appreciate and enjoy the beauties of " " and (2) the natural law of association which delights in connecting pure absolute music " "the sounds heard with some special object, place, event, action, idea, feeling, or program as a much many people judge painting by whether they recognize the place or person depicted. The following are celebrated examples of realistic imitation " La Bataille a Quatre " Jannequin, 1545. The cackling of a hen part-song by A. Scandelli, 1570.
;
:

;

;

"Cat's Fugue."

A. KRIEGER, 1667.
&c.

Mi

au,
flies, etc.

mi
;

au!

The leaping
Voices.

of frogs, the buzzing of
of Cerberus.

Handel's Israel in Egypt.

The howling

GLUCK'S

Orfeo.

Strings.

The crowing

of the cock.

HAYDN'S Seasons.
6

The

roaring of the lion.
tr

HAYDN'S Creation,

The sinuous worm.

HAYDN'S

Creatioti

Word-painting.

257

The cuckoo,

nightingale,

and quail

;

Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony.
tr.

Nightingale.

PQ

Kotzwara. The Battle of Prague The braying of the ass Mendelssohn's Overture Midsummer Sullivan's Golden Legend. The Bells of Strasburg Cathedral
;

"

"

;

Night's Dream.

;

WORD-PAINTING.
Word-painting is the attempt to describe individual words in sounds. " In setting words to music it is a recognized principle that the general verbal " " " ment should be depicted by the general musical style and expression. The following would evidently be absurd
:

senti-

PP

dim.

-^Gi
Whisper thy love
to

* - 9 Ly A T -*---*1

:=SE |zrq
L
r-t f-3

PPP

itzpzi L -J

E^ ~-

&c.

me

!

Praise ye the Lord with a

loud

(as in

It is equally ridiculous, in general, to try to paint" the following arrangement of the last part of the tune

"

"

each separate word or phrase
")
:

Melcombe

P Lanqui shingly,

when

will

all

our

wan

d'rings cease,

Where all

is

love,

and

joy,

and peace.

The painting of separate words, is, however, often inevitable in descriptive or dramatic " " whenever it suited their music, and the greatest composers have freely used word-painting it is perhaps occasionally and while is full of word-painting Creation Haydn's purpose. " a little grotesque (as for example when at the words By heavy beasts the ground is trod," " the bassoons and double bassoon enter // on the word trod," as if the heavy feet would go through the earth's crust), yet on the whole it is charming and effective. Purcell has introduced a quaint example of word-painting in King Arthur, where the " " as follows whole chorus have to depict their quivering with cold
;
:

Handel's works abound in fine examples of legitimate word-painting, as at
in the following
:

"

disdain

"

Samson.

So

mean

tri

-

umph

dis -dain.

258

The Composer's Handbook.

When
184

not carried to vulgar excess, word-painting
or Leit-motiv

is

a valuable means of expression.

figure,

(pronounced Light' -moteef'} is a typical theme, of some person, or motive, recurring repeatedly throughout a work, and representative

A

LEADING THEMES. " Leading Theme,"

action,

mood, or sentiment.
;

A Leitmotiv may consist of two or three notes, or it may be an extended theme. It or it may be developed, transformed metamorphosed be may repeated without variation (See Thematic Development, p. 259.) in every possible way that ingenuity can devise. " " before the time of Wagner (as in Weber's used were themes Leading Although Der Freischutz, or the Idee fixe of Berlioz's Symphonic Fantastique), he used them so that it is with his name they are chiefly associated. characteristicaliy and consistently " In fact, any suggestions Wagner may have received from other composers were so slight that the leading-motive in the modern sense may unhesitatingly be said to be his invention." A Leitmotiv must not be regarded either as a mere label to be crudely displayed whenever the person, action, etc., which it typifies is referred to nor as a piece of vulgar word-painting. imitators of Wagner.) (Hence the failure of so "many would-be " of quality, character, mood, etc., and rarely a realistic It should be a suggestion
;

imitation.

a leading-motive is a musical searchlight or X-ray which illuminates and enables us to look deep into every character, thought, mood, purpose, idea, and impulse in G. Kobbe. the drama." " " theme with which Tristan und Love-potion Compare the yearning, fascinating whole of the the forms which Isolde opens (and work) key

With Wagner

(See Imitative Music, p. 256.) "

Lento.

Ob.

PP
with the
"

'Cello.

Death motive,"
Moderate,

f

ssi
\

Thematic Development.

259

It is beyond the scope of this work to attempt rules or suggestions for the treatment The student is, therefore, referred to the music-dramas of Wagner Leading themes." Tristan and Isolde, The Meister singer, The Nibelungen Ring, especially Lohengrin, Tannhauser, " " to these works are published by Messrs. Breitkopf & Guides and Parsifal. (Analytical

of

"

Hartel, Schott

185
or

& Co., Novello & Co., and other publishers.) THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT. " " By Thematic Development is understood the varied figure, to bring out some of its infinite resources.

repetition of a theme, motive,

Thematic transformations roughly fall into three classes Melodic, Rhythmic, and Harmonic and these may be combined in countless ways. " The following, taking the first phrase of God save the King " as a motive, are among the most usual methods
:

*
I.
(1)

Motive.

m=j:
to
:

SIMPLE MELODIC CHANGES
another part of the scale,

Melody removed

or to another key

(2)

Intervals contracted

:

(3)

Intervals expanded

:

(4)

Melody inverted

:

3
(5)

^ ^M
:-

Melody inverted and expanded

(6)

Inverted and contracted

:

(7)

II. SIMPLE RHYTHMIC CHANGES Theme augmented
:

(8)

Augmented and varied

:

(9)

Notes diminished

:

(10)

Time

signature changed

:

(11)

Lengthened by repeating a bar

(or bars).

(12)

Notes divided into shorter ones.
3
3

(13)

Varied by arpeggios, addition of passing-notes, &c.

:

"T
(14)

Varied by

rests,

syncopations, &c.

:

(15)

Embellished by grace-notes
I

:

te^-H^

^=^-{\ sr=S

fr-j-i

Any

of the

above

resulting themes

may

(7 to 16) may also be contracted or extended in interval and the be transposed, inverted, or transformed.

260
III.

The Composer's Handbook.

be (i) Changed to the relative major Treated contrapuntally (in any of the five (2) or in free Canonic Imitation. (5) Treated fugally species) or freely (4) Treated canonically, (7) Supported other themes (in double, triple, or quadruple counterpoint) with Combined (6) by various forms of accompaniment. be found in the instrumental Examples of every kind of Thematic Development may Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Wagner, and Brahms. Mozart, Beethoven, works of
of its modifications,

HARMONIC CHANGES. The Theme or any
Harmonized
;

may

or minor

in different

ways

;

(3)

;

;

but, specially, the order and arrangement Mode means a key or scale An Authentic Modes are of two kinds Authentic and Plagal. of the steps forming a scale. lie wholly (or principally) between the Tonic (or Final] notes whose is one Mode, or melody,

186

Haydn, MODES.

A

;

:

and

its

higher octave.

AUTHENTIC MELODY.

A Plagal Mode, or melody, is one whose notes lower Dominant and its higher octave.
PLAGAL MELODY.

lie

wholly

(or principally)

between the

From the Tonic to the Fifth above. Authentic Part of the Scale. From the Tonic to the Fourth below. Plagal Part of the Scale. A final cadence, consisting of the Tonic chord preceded Authentic Cadence.
(A)

by the Dominant
(2)

chord.

MODERN MODES

:

(i)

Major Mode

the ordinary Major Scale.

Minor Mode

the ordinary Minor Scale.

These have already been fully discussed.

GREGORIAN TONES or ECCLESIASTICAL MODES). Eight (B) CHURCH MODES (also called four Authentic, said to have been introduced different scales were in use in early church music and four Plagal, said to have been added by Gregory the Great. St. Ambrose
;

by

;

used in what

These eight modes (with a few others added subsequently) are the Modes or "
is

"

Tones "

called

Plain-song."

TABLE OF THE CHURCH MODES.
AUTHENTIC MODES.
I.

PLAGAL MODES.
II.

Dorian

:

Final,

D

;

Dominant. A.

Hypodorian

:

Final,

D

;

Dominant, F.

* r

n

f

s

1

t

d

1

III.

Phrygian

:

Final,

E

;

Dominant, C.

EffiEEEEEi

The Church Modes.

261

The Final, answering to our Tonic (or key-note), was the same for any Plagal mode The Dominant (or Reciting Note) was a 5th above the as for its relative Authentic mode. the Dominant on B, and then C was taken instead it fell unless Final in Authentic modes, of a Plagal mode was a 3rd lower than the Dominant of the Relative Authentic mode (unless In Mediaeval music, B[? was occasionally allowed in the fell on B, when C was taken). this
;

3rd Dorian and Hypodorian modes (and later in the Lydian and Mixo-Lydian), showing an approach From about the i6th cent, other modes were added ^olian (Final, A), to modern tonality. Locrian (Final, B), Ionian (Final, C), also Hypoaeolian, Hypolocrian, and Hypoionian; but
these
is

recognised status in Gregorian music. Any ot the modes may be transposed higher or lower as long as the order of intervals maintained.

had

little

N.B.

i.e.,

a

HARMONISING THE CHURCH MODES. In the early days of harmony only plain triads and first inversions of triads were used Second inversions (c positions) were occasionally used as early as the and b positions.
;

i6th century. discords were gradually introduced, Passing-notes, suspensions, and prepared essential " " but unprepared essential discords were regarded as long after they had been profane music. in instrumental used freely The final chord of any mode was either a major triad, or the third of the chord was omitted and in hymn-tunes a major triad was also used at the end of each phrase (or line
;

of words). N.B. include every

Many of Bach's chorals are old modal (Latin) melodies. His harmonies are very free, and known artifice, but his cadences (in accordance with ancient custom) are almost exclusively
(See his Choralgesdnge, already referred to, page 42.)

major

triads.

In strict plain-song the old rules as to chords and cadences are still regarded as binding, although many composers do not adhere to them in arranging and harmonizing the ancient
melodies.

The
I.

following examples are worthy of the student's attention
1

:

of this

DORIAN (or RAY) MODE r to r Final, Ray; Domin^ut, Lah. mode may be found in old national and folk-songs.
; ;

Many examples
(Scottish Tune).

(Transposed.)
:

"Martyrs"

+G>^ff-\

1

:

_

;s

n

;_

:

f
|

n

._

:r

:

d
||

1

|i

|t

:-

:s

:1

|t

:-

:

: ||

|r

The same, harmonized by Simon Stubbs, Melody
(1621).
(Transposed a tone lower than in Ravenscroft).

in the Tenor.

Ravenscroft's Psalter

I

J--

__a

i

JE^i

i

IT

UZE?.

pj

t_Q_Q

262

The Composer's Handbook.
"
of Handel's fugal chorus,

The subject the Dorian mode
:

And

I will

exalt

Him

"

(Israel in Egypt]

is in

Bb

(ta)

The :-

fine

Latin tune

"

Vexilla Regis," in the Dorian mode, includes the permissible

Gregorian Notation.

From

the

"

Vesperale

Romanum

"
(1702).

Palestrina has left a famous setting, This melody has often been utilized by composers " Forth the royal banners go." and Gounod makes prominent use of it in his Redemption to
;

II.

THE HYPODORIAN MODE

:

1,

to
"

1

;

Final,

Ray

;

Dominant, Fah.

(Transposed a 4th higher).

" Urbs Jerusalem Beata," from the Salisbury Hymnal."

:a:

1

1

Is
cj
f2

f

s

1

Ir
x->

||

f

s

n

f

rd

r

||frnfslsfn

r

r_g"

ry"Q
n
f

J

Q

CJ

Q-/

n

r

n

r

d||l|drrrdfs8f||lsfnfsfnrd
(or

r||

III.

THE PHRYGIAN

ME) MODE

;

m

to

m

1

;

Final,
is

was glad when they departed," Handel's Israel in Egypt, plagal Hypo-Phrygian).

me ; Dominant, Doh. Egypt constructed on this mode (and its

"

/Li*

The Church Modes.
IV.
to t THE HYPO-PHRYGIAN MODE Final, me; Dominant, TE LUCIS ANTE TERMINUM.
:

263
Lah.

t,

;

Words from

"St. Gregory," by

COPELAND.

From

the Vesperale

Romanum

(1702).

Arranged by R. DUNSTAN.

EfeEErz3=E

&
The
ve

zjz=
15:

hgj

^

:z>

^~

Jj

~^
;r

9

I

Q~
'P'art,

:g:
of
;
1

-f
Thou

i^

Light
-gj
f~2
:

Light
r-

I

r

^

=

I

|

'fe

Q~

v

-

::=:

N.B.

characteristic of

The se what

M
is

called the

chord which always concludes a Phrygian or Hypo-Phrygian composition " " in ordinary text books. of harmony. Phrygian Cadence
(or

is

V.

THE LYDIAN

FAH)

MODE

:

f

to f

;

Final,

Fah

;

Dominant, Doh

1

.

One

most notable instances
"

of the use of this

mode

occurs in Beethoven's String Quartet in

A

of the minor.

A

Song

of gratitude, in the

Lydian mode, offered to the Divinity by a convalescent."
hrj
Gt

b^

mm
^-^r &

264

The Composer's Handbook.

==
o
his

*=e=

e

^

<s___

c

Note the peculiar effect of Blq melody downwards into the Plagal

as the 4th of the scale ; also that Beethoven extends It is, indeed, as much Hypo-Lydian as pure region.

Lydian.
d to dl THE HYPO-LYDIAN MODE Final, Fah ; Dominant, Lah. " " modes are rare, as the " discretionary and Melodies in the Hypo-Lydian Lydian pure mediaeval times converted these modes into the ordinary major scale.
VI.
:

;

N.B.

"
Bfc

of

"

Pater Superni Luminus," a Latin melody in the 6th
-i*

Mode

(with Bb).

m
F
major.
(Son)

This
VII.
"

is

seen to be a melody in

THE MIXO-LYDIAN OR

MODE

:

s to s

1 ;

Final,

Soh

;

Dominant, Ray*.
Setting

Veni Creator Spiritus," Old Latin Melody.

by

J. S.

BACH.

^E^gg
1

>5

1-C2.

^
J.

^F
-s|

J.

J

J
r

i

J.

-J-

S

" Sanctorum Meritis."

From

" " the one of the Salisbury Hymnal." Said to be Mixo-lydian tunes in existence."

finest

Words from Helmore's "Hymnal Noted."

Arranged by R. DUNSTAN.

The
r.

tri

-

umphs
that

ot
-

Their love

nev^

iLA^=^
-i

^

The Church Modes.

265

':-3
-i

:o
-

r
day aay
Pours t'ours
forth lortn

l^p?=ll u nn>j.i
~r.

For

these

the

lurcn Church

to10-

ner her

joy

ous

j 4 s^s=

j-

j

L-

-J-J.

A

lay,

J-7

j:

=^E3--g=l|=3 3
t

VIII.
"

THE HYPO-MIXO-LYDIAN MODE
From
the

:

r to r 1

;

Final, Soft
(in

;

Dominant, DoW.
style)

"

Trinity Melody." (Transposed.)

Mechlin Manual."

Arranged

modern

by R. DUNSTAN.

n

zai
g3~^
I

b=rJ^i

y~
I

T
r^r

c&~

gj^j a

J

^i^USUr
=st:

-

^

187

MUSICAL FORMS NOT PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED
)

:

(/.,

^Wwtwn'da.)

Also

spelt

Akmam,

Att*m*ig*e,

Almain,

^InrgraCrmences with rshorTuna^tld note.
H
&c.

Examp.es ,rom Hande, :-

*-

ife3^

s^

266

The Composer's Handbook.

The Allemande consisted of two parts each repeated and the length of any one of Handel specially favoured bars (or 7, 9, these repeated portions varied from 6 to 27 bars. he occasionally used 8 or 16. Both with Bach and Handel the Allemande is written 13) The Allemande, Prelude, and Air are the only movements in imitative contrapuntal style. in a Suite not taken from dance forms. Cavati'na (/.). (2) Specially, a melody of one move(i) A short simple song. (2) ment only (occasionally preceded by a recitative) without a second strain and Da Capo, in 2-4, 3-4, or 6-8 time, and in strains A rustic dance, generally Country Dance. (3) " Sir Roger de Coverley." or sections of 4 or 8 measures e.g., the well-known The partners in this dance are arranged in two opposing lines hence, perhaps,

n

;

;

;

Contre-danse.
(4)

Fa

la,

or Fal

each

line or stanza.

la. A short song, or a madrigal, with a fa la refrain at the end of Morley's ballets are good specimens.
J.

SAVILE, 1667.

l

Various Musical Forms.

267

Romance sans
words.

paroles (F.).

Roman'za
"

sen'za paro'le

(I.)

A

story or song without

Romanze'ro

(/.). (/.).

A

suite of

romantic

"

pieces for pianoforte.

Also called a Galliard. Romanesque.) for two persons, said to be a precursor of the Minuet.
(F.,
^

Romanes'ca

A

clr.nce in

3-4 time,

Serenade (F., Serenade; I., Serena' ta; G., Serena' de ; Stand'chcri). "Evening " music." air concert of a quiet character performed under the window (i) An 4 open of the person addressed." (2) An instrumental piece of similar character. (3) A pastoral cantata. (Handel's Acis and Galatea is a Serenata.) (4) A piece of chamber music in several movements a kind of Suite. " " Standchen is only used with meanings (i) and (2).
;

Serenatel'la
(14)

(/.).

A

little

serenade.

A

famous

" Stab'at Ma'ter Do'loro'sa (L.) The Lamentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary." hymn on the Crucifixion, by Jacoponus, I4th cent.

Among
Haydn,
in the
(15)

the best settings of the Stabat Mater are those of Palestrina, Astorga, Pergolesi, Rossini, Verdi, Dvorak, and Stanford.
Suite (F., pron. Sweet}.

Suite de pieces (F.).

A

set, cycle,

or series of pieces

same key. The suite was the precursor of the sonata and the symphony. It was a succession of dance movements, sometimes introduced by a prelude. The chief dance forms employed were the Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, and Gigue to these might be added the Gavotte, Bourree, Modern Orchestral Suites do not necessarily keep to the same key Minuet, Passepied, etc. The Suites of Bach and Handel are among the most important works of this throughout. kind. Examples of construction Bach French Suite, No. i, D minor Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Menuet i, Menuet 2, Gigue.
;
:

:

;

Bach

:

French Suite, No.
:

5,

G
;

major

;

Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gavotte,

Bourre'e, Loure, Gigue.

Handel

Suite

u,
3,

B[?

Suite (variations), Presto.
:

Handel Handel

D
G

Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue. major minor Prelude, Fuga, Allemande, Courante, Air and 5 Doubles
;

:

Suite

7,

minor

;

Ouverture, Presto, Andante, Allegro, Sarabande, Gigue,

Passacaille.
(16)

work

for

A F., Symphonie ; I., Sinfoni'a.} Symphony. (G., Symphonie', Sinfonie' ; an orchestra in the form of a Sonata, but (generally) with fuller development and greater

breadth of treatment.

The symphony is the most important form of instrumental composition. Beethoven " " still remaining unequalled. noble nine stands pre-eminent as a writer of symphonies, his " " are Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Spohr, Other great Mozart, Haydn, Symphonists
Brahms, and Tschaikowsky. A Symphonic Poem. (G., Sympho'nische Dich'tung ; F., Poeme symphonique.) (17) It is based upon a work for orchestra of the dimensions of a symphony, but in free form. " Rd. Strauss Poem." program or poem ; Liszt has been called the Father of the Symphonic is at present (1909) its most famous exponent. Symphonic Ode. A symphonic work for chorus and orchestra. (18)

"to touch," Tocca'ta. (/., from Tocca're, (19) piece in the nature of an improvization. Bach's organ toccatas are fine examples.
Toccati'na
;

"to play").

A

brilliant,

showy

Toccatel'la.

A
A

short toccata.

It

etc. light comedy with dialogue, pantomime, topical songs, (F.). (20) originated in popular convivial or topical street songs, etc

Vaudeville

268
188.

The Composer's Handbook.

SHAPING A MELODIC IDEA.

Of the nature of thematic development is that varied treatment of an essentially simple melodic progression which gives it a special shape and character. Thus the following passages mostly the initial notes of well-known themes are all r d (the first phrase of "Three based on (or announced by) the simple progression Blind Mice").

m

(i)

BEETHOVEN.

Pianoforte Sonata, Op. 8ia.

(2)

BEETHOVEN.

Overture,*" Leonora," No.

i.

EE3E
&c.
(3)

&c.
(4)

WAGNER.

Overture,

"

Flying Dutchman."

HAYDN.

Op.

74.

&c.

Ac.

(5)

HAYDN.

Op.

64.

(6)

MOZART.

Pianoforte Sonata in

D

r &&c.
(7)

&c.

CHOPIN.

Op.

27,

No.

2.

(8)

S.

BENNETT.

Overture.

&c.

(9)

CHOPIN.

Op.

62, No.

i.

(10)

BISHOP.

" Should he upbraid."

&:.

&C.
i.

(n)

BEETHOVEN. Pianoforte Sonata, Op. 27, No.

(12)

MOZART.

Quartet

in

F.

&c.
(13)

&c.

HAYDN.

Symphony

in

D.

HAYDN.

Symphony

in

C.

Ac.
(15)

&c.
1.

CHOPIN.

Op. 32, No.

(16)

CHOPIN.

Op. 57.

Ac.

&c.

(17)

HAYDN.

Op.

103.

(18)

SULLIVAN.

"

My

dearest Heart."

&c.

&c.

(19)

EBERLIN.

(20) (a)

HANDEL.

Chaconne

in

G.

Ac.

Beauty in Music.

269

&c.

&C.

(21)

MOZART.

Symphony

in C.

(22)

Variation of No. 15.

CHOPIN.

Op.

32,

No.

1.

B ^

* F

F^E

*

^'~*
i

fEt

i

*

^^-m

(23)
v

CHOPIN.

Op.

32,

No.

2.

&C.

The
(24)

following start with a short preliminary note (or notes)

:

"

Hope

told a flatt'ring tale."

(25)

BEETHOVEN.

Quintet in Eb-

SCHUBERT.

"

The Fishermaiden."

&c.

of the infinite

These suggestive extracts, which might be multiplied to almost any extent, serve to " " of a melodic idea. potentialities
"

illustrate

some

keys, in different times,

The student may exercise his ingenuity by inventing other and with variety of accent and rhythm.

variants

"

of

m
;

r d, in several different

such exercises help to Other simple progressions may afterwards be treated in a similar manner develop the sense of melodic grace and beauty, and to present what might otherwise be commonplace ideas
in original

and attractive forms.
IN Music.

189

BEAUTY

This chapter and this work may fitly close with some extracts from an article by Mr. Joseph Bennett (Daily Telegraph, March 28, 1908)
:

Beauty

of

Form,

Melodic Grace.
.

Connected Progressions.

"In what does musical beauty consist? Taking music as a matter of expression, it is clear that there must be beauty of form, and beauty of form In what in art is as imperative and absolute as we find it to be in nature. does j t cons i s t? Obviously in a power to charm, to excite pleasing sensahas been served. tions, and ensure their continuance till the purpose in view music Beauty of form demands note that I am referring strictly to abstract melodic grace, a balanced movement ; progressions so natural in point of connection that we receive them as inevitable, and as much variety of

Variety
si on.

of

Essential

These of all the parts. expression as is compatible with the essential unity never music of beautiful masters the which neglected. Expres- are the points great Their infinite changes of melodic detail all lay within the scope of the melodic a scope which they found ample for all desired principles just laid down Unity. effect in the nature of sensuous gratification

270
"

The Composer's Handbook.

The graces which make up beauty of form are now regarded as of less account than was the case in the days of the great masters. A new spirit has arisen, fostered by the seeming hopelessness of composing melodies equal in grace and charm to those of past days. To this spirit has been sacrificed, in large and apparently growing measure, the most precious of the qualities It has come to be thought that the themes which render music beautiful.
their setting forth, so characteristic of the old time, are profitless for present use, and that other means of arresting attention and winning repute must be adopted. Hence, the old melodic school is apparently dying out, as the older contrapuntal school did before it, leaving examples due to individual taste, but little more. What have we in place of the broad and graceful themes, such as that which so impressively opens the slow movement of Mendelssohn's violin concerto? We have, in large measure, mere snatches of tune, fitful, elusive, unsatisfactory to those who demand a speaking melody,

and

but, it must be granted, capable of witching effects when, in number and variety suited to the convenience of the composer, they are handled with skill. It is, of course, a matter of personal taste, concerning which there can be no disputing, but, as a lover of art in its purest and most exalted expressions, I lament the change through which we are losing the symmetry, the ordered " " the linke'd sweetness long drawn out of what is now called stateliness, and old-fashioned melody.

Shaping

of

Move-

not all that lies within the term musical form.' There are the various forms of treatment by which movements are shaped, For an example and, generally, the larger creations of the art determined.
is

"

But melodic form

'

Svm

honic

Form

a

Gradual Development.

most developed symphonies of the classic school. Standing these masterpieces, at least one point should never be passed ver The grand symphonic form was a slow creation, taken up by a succession of great men who developed it with loving care, from the primitive simplicity of Haydn to the definite elaboration of Brahms.
to the

we may go

m *^e
-

n ht

f

Perfect

Freedom

of

Abstract Music.

Much beauty in music is due to the perfect freedom of abstract art within the lines of form. That freedom is an almost unique endowment. Poetry enjoys it, but the full measure is given to music alone, because only that art exercises it absolutely without limit or restriction, in a field which extends over all the realms of feeling, and much of the domain of thought.
I have nothing to say, except that it is necessarily inferior in character, and therefore in status, to pure music. It has its place and its vocation it pleases a great many people, and tempers many absurdities with a sufficient allowance of cleverness to make the music acceptable.
is

"

"

Against what
'

called

'

programme music

'

Programme

Music,

'

;

Beauty
matter.

of Subject-

Moods and Emotions.

Impulses from
within.

Besides the beauty of phrase and theme, and that of treatment, good music has that beauty of subject which lies outside of, and apart from, a It is said that Haydn, in preparing a symphony, took some story, programme. or sequence of events, and worked upon it, without making the argument I do not know the I question if authority exists, public. authority for this but if that was the master's practice he was, of course, a composer of unavowed programme-music, and I have to add that, all works of that class being as beautiful as his, such music would need no defence. But still, it would be that there are necessary J to insist, for the conservation of the supremely r J good, , subjects unwritten and unspoken subjects which arise from moods and emotions which often, without taking definite form and purpose, move Here humanity to gusts of passion, or lap it in sweet and tender feeling. * s the gathering-ground of the composer of pure music, where he may be happy in the knowledge that he can lay his hand upon nothing base and unworthy unless, indeed, he so desire, which, in the circumstaances, is inconceivable. I wish our composers, would, more often than they do, utilise these impulses from within."
' '
;

"

,

,

,

.

.

.

,

.

;

;

'

'

Index.

271

INDEX
PAGE
Accent
Metrical
s of
s,

PAGE
Cavatina
265
15 26

Divided Beats Verbal and Musical

Accompaniment
,

Essentials of an
of of

, ,

Art Songs Duets

99 24 25 27 59 59, 63 66 82
24, 7

Changeable Chant Character of Measures Choruses Chromatic Modulation Church Modes
,

169-171 160 260
261
217, 219
31, 33
i

Harmony

of

Clarinet

Organ
Styles of to Ballads
to 3-part Writing

215 -77
59
84

Common

Metre Composition in General Composition, Materials of Compound Measures

2

s in
,

General

String
String, of Solos

,

Allemande

Amphibrachic Metre Anapaestic Metre Answer

177-216 178, 179-216 210-214 265 27, 36, 37 27, 36, 38
156
1

Conjunct Melody Contrabasso Contrary Motion Cornet
Counterpoint Countersubject Country Dance Courante Dactyllic Metre

24 6 178, 220
82, 91

218, 219, 234

Anthem
Aria
Arioso

72

78 78

148-152 156 265 134 27, 36
134, 145

Dance Forms
Descending Passages

Arpeggio Art Songs
Articulation

103
57,

89
254, 255, 259

66
163

Development Thematic
,

Ascending Passages Attacco Attendant Keys

89 168
42, 159

Diatonic Modulations

259 160
6,

Diminished Intervals Diminution
Disjunct Melody

97
6

115, 155

Augmentation

115, 155

Augmented

Intervals

Authentic Ballad Form, Extension of Ballads
,

98 260 68

Accompaniment

to

,

Metrical Structure of

Barcarole
Bass,
,

The Instrumental

Vocal and Instrumental in Music Bolero Bouree

57~59 59 57 145 209 208
269
145

Dorian Mode Double Bass Chants Chorus
Counterpoint

261 1 78, 220

15-23
171
79,

Duets and Trios

152 88

Economy

of

Melody
Melody

Effect of Measure on

107 26
49, 52

Eight-lined

Hymns

Beauty

Eights and Sevens

35
161

Enharmonic Modulation
Episode
Errors of Beginners

i35
7,

M5

156
2
218, 219

Cachuca Cadences Feminine
,

145 16, 30, 38, 53 12, 18

Euphonium
Examples

Inverted 9 - Tables of 13, 15, 16, 20, 23, 30, 38, 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52 Cadenza 94
,

of String Accompaniments .... 179-216 Exercises, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 33,
35, 38, 41, 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 66, 78, 86,

87, 117, 125, 129, 134, 137, 138, 141, 142,

145, 214, 269

Canon
Canonic Imitation Cantata
.

34>

I

53

Exposition

254, 255

"3
173

.

.

;

a Fugue Extended and Irregular Sentences
of

159 129

272

The Composer's Handbook.
PAGE

Extension of Song

Form

Fah Mode Fa la
Fanfare

137 263 265 142
12, 18

Melodic Figures
Intervals
6, 89,

163

97
103

Melody
,

in

General
of

89-106
107

based on Arpeggios

Feminine Cadence
Figure
First

Economy
Style

57, 163

,

Movement Form

255
42 29 217, 219 57 254 57, 125
138, 141

,

Harmonic Substructure of of, for Hymn-tunes

Five-lined
Florid

Hymns

Me Mode
Mental Effects Metre Metrical Accent

103-106 28 262
7

Melody

Flute

27

Form
, ,

Folk-Song in General
Metrical

24

Form
Minuet and Trio Form
Mixolydian Mode

57,125
134
138, 141

,

Minuet and Trio Sonata

255
135, 141

,

Song

Modes
Modulation
Morris Dance
10, 133,

264 260

Four-fold Sentences
Four-lines Eights

125

Sevens

Freedoms

in

Doubling Voices

36 35 208

Motet Motive
Musical Rudiments National Songs

57,

1

10,

159-162 265 265 163, 258
3

Free Fantasia

Fugue
Full

255 156-159
172 146 135, 146 134 169

Anthem

Galop Gavotte
Gigue
Glee
...

Nocturne Octuple Time

58 265 27 173
1

Opera
Oratorio Orchestra and Piano
String Orchestral Sketches
,

73

Grand Aria Gregorian Tones Ground Bass Harmonic Substructure

78 260
115
of

Organ Accompaniment
Point Overture

Melody

103-106
3

223 177 223 215 1 56
1

Harmony
,

74

Style for

Hymn-tunes

Homophonic Music Horn

29 165 218, 219
3

Paragraph, Two-sentence Three-sentence
,

132, 140
135, 141

How

Composers work

Hymn- Anthem
Hypodorian Mode Hypolydian Mode Hypomixolydian Mode Hypophrygian Mode Iambic Metre
Imitation Imitative Music Instrumental Bass, The Inverse Imitation
i

172

262

264 265 263
-7, 31
i,

Part-songs Passion Passion Play Pedal Perfect Cadence, The

- Phrasing Phrygian Mode Piano and Orchestra
Pianoforte Accompaniments Pivot Note
Pizzicato
.

165 265 265 156 23 162 262

223
.59, 66, 70-77, 8z, 84

19, 34, 811,

1

10

256 209
114

Plagal

93 178 260
146 147 165 1 74 134 256 94 163 153 153 27 261
254, 255
98,
19,
1

Leading Themes
Leit-Motiv

Long Metre Lydian Mode
Madrigal Male-voice Music

March
Materials of Composition

258 258 31-33 263 167 87 140, 237
76,

Polka
Polonaise

Polyphonic Music Prelude
Presto

Program Music
Prolonged Notes Punctuation

2

Mazurka
Measure
,

s,

Effect of, on Melody Character of the

146 24 26 26
2

Quadruple Counterpoint Quintuple Counterpoint
-

Time

Ray Mode
Recapitulation Recitative

Melodic Faculty, The Melodic Direction Extent

89 89, 96

Recte et Retro

74 155

5683

Index.

273

PAGE

Redowa
Redundant Entry
Refrain

47 159 57
*

Song without Words Stabat Mater

Removes

of

Key

16

Repeated Notes
Repetition Reprise

92 107 255

Requiem
Retrograde Imitation

266
115

137 267 Stretto 156 177 Stringed Orchestra String Accompaniments, Examples of ... 179-216 General Principles of 178 of Solos 210-214 s, How they are used 178
,

Styles of

Song Accompaniment

7-77
156 57 162 267 29

Rhapsody

266
99
of

Rhythm
Rhythmical Contents
Measures

Subject Sub-section

101

Sudden Modulation
Suite

Rhythmic Figures

163

Romance Romanesca
Romantic Music

266
267 255
l6 4

Melody Symphonic Poem
Syllabic

Rondo Round
Sarabande
Scale Passages

Symphony Tenor Horn
Tens and Elevens Thematic Development
Three-part Writing Three-sentence Paragraph

267 267
218, 219

!53

*34
ll
78

37 259 83
135, 141
57, 77 99, 100

Scena
Scherzo
Scoring for Small Orchestra

2 55

Through-composed Song

-

Strings

217-253 179-216
57 57 129
125
I

Time
Toccata Tonal and Real Sequences Tonality Transposing Instruments - Table
Triple Counterpoint

267

Section

in
5

Sentence
s,
,

Extended and Irregular
Four-fold

220 220
152
27, 35

in succession

32

Septuple Time Sequences
,

",

27 34, II0

Tonal and Real

m
T

Trochaic Metre Trumpet Metre Twelve-cadenced Tune

43 53

Sequential Imitation

II2

Serenade
Services

267
72

Two-part Writing Two-sentence Paragraph

79
132, 140
19, 82,

Seven-lined Hymns Shaping a Melodic Idea

48 268
3*, 33

Unison Passage:;. .'.... Unusual Beginnings
Variations

85
12

Short Metre Simple Measures Single Chants
,
,

24 5-* 5
7 *3

Varied Repetition Vaudeville Verbal and Musical Accents
Verse Viola
Violin

117 109

Major Minor

Anthem

Six-lined

Hymns

Slow Movement
Solo

43 255
J

Anthem Sonata Form
,

72

Violoncello

267 27 172 177, 220 I77> 2I 9 178, 220 246
79 223

2 55

Waltz
Waving-note

Finale of a

Songs Song Form
5683

255 57-78 I 35- I 4 I

Wind

Instruments,

How

to use

Word-painting

257

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A student's handbook,

by JOHN CURWEN.

The

(both notations)

fol'owing portions of the work are now published : Parts B to D, Construction Exercises in Elementary

Half morocco, Price, cloth, 7/6 net (no reduction); postage, jd. 9/6 net. Contains 14,000 musical terms, 6,000 biogr-phir.tl notices,

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Composit on.

HISTORY OF ENGLISH MUSIC.
monumental work
position, past

and present,

tracing tlie of Bnglish music.
|

Second Edition enlarged. HENRY UAVKY. (31*1.) A history and proving the xlv.inced

By

Contains

many new

*rid

important

fact*.

Price 6/-

postage <d.
Price j/.

HYMN LOVER, THE.

Part M, Ditto, continued,
postage ad.
1

4/-.

COMPENDIUM OF HARMONY. By
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GEO. OAKEY, Mus.B. (5082.) Price Comprises the subject matter of the first half of the Author * " Text Book of Harmony," the examples in Sol-fa only, with a new set of exercises. Third edition.
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By Rev. W. GARKETI BORDER. (5190.; postage +d. An account of the rise and proRre** of Third and revised edition.

Hymnody.

MEMORIALS OF JOHN CURWEN.
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By

his son,

j

SPENCE*

CCHWE.
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Price a/-: postage id.

MUSICAL

HAUNTS

IN

LONDON.

By

F.

G.

HOWARDS.

EIGHTY MUSICAL SENTENCES, to illustrate chromatic chords. By Sir G. A. MACFARREN. Staff, price 2/-, postage ad New
by G. Oakey, Mus.B. FIG 'RED BASS. By GBO. OAKBV, Mus.B.
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,

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Price T/;

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.

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MUSICI ANS OF ALL TIMES. Compiled by \V. G. W. GOODWORTH. (S.wM A new edition, a/6 postage ad. Concise biography of comp<- ,, teachers, artists, and all other musical workers, containing ,..-.(
;

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FuJST STEPS IN HARMONY and the Harmonising of Melodies. By RALPH DUNSTAN, Mus.D. (5136.) Price a/- cloth postage ad. A concise manual for beginners, staff notation. Including 250
j

SHORT DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL TERMS,
M.A.
(5304.)
; ;

A.

By ARNOLD KBNNBDT,
;

progressive exercises.

Third edition.

Price i/- postage id. cloth, 1/6 postage i\d. About 2,700 terms. Gives the phonetic pronunciation of foreign words, German, French, and Italian term< are included.

HANDBOOK OF

ACOUSTICS.

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T. F. HARRIS, B.Sc., F.C.S.

(5005.)

STUDENT'S MUSICAL HISTORY.
postage
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i

Hy H. DAVET.

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Pri-e

i/-

;

Contains Price 3/6 | posi 's;e 3d. A handbook for musical students. with numerous questions and an 18 chapter* profusMy illustrated
j

Id.

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;

cloth, 1/6

Appendix

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Seventh edition.

Continued.

LONDON

:

J.

CURWEN & SONS

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Text Books and Standard Works.]

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COMPANION FOB IF ACHER8.
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HARMONIUM AND AMERICAN ORGAN TUTOR. By

By J.S.CURWEN. (so8i.) ijth edition Gives the school teacher all necessary postage ijd. information on the Tonic Sol-fa system, in a compact and wellPupils.
1

H. FtsREt, Mus.D. (3170.) Price a/-; postage jjd. Specially adapted for students who have no previous knowledge of a keyboard instrument. Carefully graded ejrrcises. Popular selections. Third edition.

HOW

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HOW

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By

TO START A MEN'S CHOIR. By WALTER J. KIDNER, Conductor of the|'.Society of Bristol[Gleemen. Price 6d. CONTENTS : '5186.) The Alto Voice Balance of Voices Choice of Music Choir of
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and

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The method of teaching fully detailed in lessons. In each lesson, the abject matter and method or illustration are given in parallel columns, with blackboard scheme. Practical exercises, 164 in number,
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Competitions

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vocal
1

Fourth Edition.
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BOW TO TRAIN CHILDREN'S VOICES.
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|

By T. MASKBLL HARDY.

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MANUAL OF MUSIC, A. By RALPH DDNSTAN, Mus.Doc.
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Coven

ORGANS, ORGANISTS,

AND CHOIRS.

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B.

MINSHALL.

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WORSHIP MUSIC.
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By

]. S.

CCHWEN.

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PSYCHOLOGY FOR MUSIC TEACHERS.
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matters relative to Worship Music, arranged in three divisions Third edition, revised and enlarged. Historical, Practical, Descriptive,

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STUDIES IN WORSHIP MUSIC.
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Teacher's Music Certificate of the Tonic Sol-fa College, introducing also the Staff notation. all the 8.T.M.C. STUDIES. By L. C. VENABLES. (5611.) Exercises in requirements of the School Teacher's Music Certificate,
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Continue* above work Royal, Westminster Abbey Choir, &c. UNITED PRAISE. By F. G. EDWARDS. (5363.)
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on Tbi Chapel
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Wee 3/6
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A

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ol

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ART OF BREATHING. THE. ByLEoKoruut.
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BOY'S VOICE, THE.
postage 3d.

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Price a/6

i

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book of practical Information for choirmasters, with numerous hints from leading choir-trainers. Fifth edition.

A

Contains specimen

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lessons on Time.Tune, Transition, Proudman, W. G. McNaught, L. C. Hardcastle, the Editor, Mrs. Honeysett, F. Whincnp,
first

Harmony, by
M-us.B.

CHURCH AND CATHEDRAL CHORISTERS' SINGING METHOD. By
HAYDN KEETON, Mus.D.
and to
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(3066.)

J.

and Geo. Oakey,
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Progressive exercises calculated to teach boys

Price 2/6; doth, 3/6. Postag- )d. how to read music

TEACHER'S MANUAL, THE.

By JOHM CORWBW.
1

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Enlarged edition.

(55<>9.)

Eighth
especially

A

manual

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and

at

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DAILY STUDIES IN SPEAKING AND READING. By W. H. GRIFFITHS Price i/postage id. A text-book for pupil teachers, (3093.)
1

TRAINING COLLEGE MUSIC COURSE.

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1

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corresponding with the demands of the Board of Bducation.

Staff Notation Tenth edition with appendix. Price 3!- postage 3d. Course, Vocal and Theoretical, on the Movable Do system, arranged for the Certificate Examination, the Second so as to prepare directly

EXERCISES IN VOICE PRODUCTION AND ENUNCIATION, and Readers. By Dr. DCNSTAN. (35730 Cloth. 1/6
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Speaker*
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MANUAL OF VOICE PRODUCTION.
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choirs.

By HENRT J. B. DART. (3238. For the training of voices in schools
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and parish church

The

and

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Books for Klndergartners.
FIGURE DRAWING FOR CHILDREN
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this highly successful voice- trainer.

A

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By CAROLINE HUNT (513*). teacher. Postage 4*. Cloth, 3/6.

MECHANISM OF THE HUMAN VOICE.
I 4 th

By BMIL BEHNEE.
,

(5263.)

Profusely illustrated.

KINDERGARTEN BUILDING GIFTS (saai). By ELIZABETH HARRISON and BELLE WOODSON. A chapter on each gift, showing how it may be
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paper, 1/6 and succinct description of the bumar postage ad. Gives a clear witb larynx in untechnical language, illustrated with woodcuts, Appendix by Mrs. BMIL BEHNKE.
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;

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a/6

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With many
is

MIXED VOICE AND THE REGISTERS, THE. By W.
(3286.)

H. GRIFFITHS

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a book on gtntral Ktndtr-

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Cloth. a/6

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Photographs, diagrams, exercises, practical hints. Postage 3d. Second edition.

KINDERGARTEN MUSICAL TRAINING

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S.

McBuRNEY,

Mus.Doc., late Inspector of Music in Victorian Schools. A text-book " " Bird Modulator plan of teaching the Tonic Sol-fa illustrating the

NASAL RESONANCE.

By GRANVILLE HUMPHREYS.
on
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(5649-)

Price 6d.

A

thoughtful described.

pamphlet
to

subject.

Exercises

Method, with numerous infants' songs.

Price

i/-

;

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PRIMER OF ELOCUTION
HARRISON, M.A.
(5377.)

Recitation

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Song.

By FREDBRICE
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PIPPA'S

Essays on the child's standpoint, the morning with several hymn, light and colour, song chats, shape and sound, Cloth, a/6; tales from Browning, Longfellow, and other sources.

HOLIDAY

(5366).

Price, cloth, 1/6; postage id,

the study of Elocution, summarises vocal physiology, gives specimen
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postage i]&.

PRONUNCIATION FOB SINGERS.
Seventh edition.

By

Dr. A.

J

.

ELLH.

F.RA

(338;.)

For Choirmasters and Organists.
CdORAL AND ORCHESTRAL SOCIETIES. By L. C. VENABLES. (3036.) A book of practical bints and experiences for Price a/6 postage, 3d.
1

Minute Price 3/6 i postage 4d. 1 English Pronunciation of dani*? German, Italian, and a Mass in Latin forms part of the work.

and authoritative. and French songs,

the use of Conductors, Secretaries, and Committees.

Fifth edition.

GOLDEN KEY.
Cathedral.

Dr. A.

MADELEY RICHARDSON,
Price
i/-.

late organist of

Southwark

A pamphlet on English Church
(5664.)

music, giving the author's

ilNGBB'S GUIDE, THE. By JOHN ADCOCE. (3429.) Price if- 1 postage i id. Plain and practical rules on the singing of English, Italian, Latin, with a German, French, and of Scripture Proper Names, together of dictionary of musical terms (Italian and German),
pronouncing
musicians and of musical works, Ac.
Sixth edition.
Continued.

plan of work.

LONDON:

J.

CURWEN & SONS

Ltd.,

24

BERNERS STREET, W.

[Text Books and Standard
SOLO SINGER, THE. By SINCLAIR DUNN. (5444.) Price if- postage A Handbook giving hints to those who desire to become Solo ijd.
I

Works
Cloth, a/0

PIANIST'S MENTOR, THE.

By H. FISHER, Mus.Doc

(3_,6i.)

Singers author.

|

companion
:

to the

"

Solo Singer's

Vade Mecum," by the same

Sixth edition.
Its

postage jd. There is no music in this book, but it is crowded with information on points that are constantly cropping up in pianoforte The ten chapters deal with musical ornaments, the " invenpractice.
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"

SPEAKING VOICE
BEHNKB.

(5470.)

Development and Preservation. By Mrs. BMIL Adopted in numerous colleges. A course of vocal

right-reading,

of Bach, scales, arpeggios, studies, pieces, analysis of form, examinations, Italian and German vocabularies,

with photographs of physical exercises. training on hygienic principles, Seventh edition. Price 4/6 ; postage 46.

memorising music, &c.

Fourth edition, enlarged.

PLATING

VOICE PRODUCTION IN SINGING AND SPEAKING, based on scientific By WESLEY MILLS, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S., Protestor cf principles.
of one

" The product Physiology in McGill University, Montreal. (5626.) " O&e of who is equally versed in anatomy and music." Nineteen works on the subject." the most original and comprehensive Price 78. 6d. net (no reduction), postage jd. chapters,63 illustrations.

T. WHITE. Mns.Doc.Oxon. (5617.) Price 1/6; postage ijd. Bye-training for pianists and the culture of intelligent sight-reading. Second edition.

AT SIGHT.

By R.

PRACTICE CARDS FOR PIANO STUDENTS.

By

B.

MANSELL RAMSET.

VOICE TRAINER, THE.
price i/;

By JAMES A. BIECH. (5574-) Both notations, Practical hints and exercises for solo singers, postage id. edition. conductors, chonilists, and voice- training classes. Fifth

I. II. (5373-) Preparatory Grade. Junior Grade. HI. Intermediate Grade. IV. Senior Grade. Price 6d. each; postage id. These large cards, 13 by 10 inches, lie on the pianoforte desk, and give the daily routine of practice for technic suited to each grade. Posted in They are designed by a professor of long experience. cardboard tube.

VOICE-TRAINING EXERCISES FOR BOYS. Price i/postage id. By the (3576.)
1

By G. BERNARD GILBERT,
director of a choir that has
for

maintained

its

Hints, voice exercises,

competition championship and accompaniments.

in

many

years.

PROGRESSIVE PRIMER FOR THE PIANOFORTE. By H. A. DONALD. Price 1/4 An attractive book for little (3381.; postage ijd.
1

Sight Singing:.
flFTf STEPS IN SIGHT-SINGING.
Price a/;

By ARTHUR SOMERVBLL.

(5:30.)

A course of practice in singing is mapped out postage ad for beginners and schools, teaching Sol-fa and Staff side by side. for the Ample exercises and modulators are given, and explanations teacher. Exercises separately, 6d. Additional Exercises (znd set), 6d.
MUSIC.

Contains scales leading up to very simple little pieces, everywhere within reach of small hands. Eleventh edition. TEACHER'S GUIDE, THE, to the Lessons of " Mrs. Curwen's Pianoforte Method " (The Child Pianist). (3048.) Containing the Instruction! to the Teacher. Grades I and II, complete, 3/6 ; postage 4d. Mrs. Curwen's Pianoforte Method is a book of Theory and Practice
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for

Beginners

(Staff Notation),

by Mrs.

J.

SPENCER CORWEN.
SOMERVXLL.

(Se

separate advt.)

TEN

MINUTES'
Pri e a/6
;

TECHNIQUE.

By

ARTHUR

(3318-)

HOW TO HEAD
pp. xa8.

By JOHN CORWEN.

(5185.)
i/|

24 chapters,

44th thousand.

Teaches sight-singing by knowledge gained to the Staff notation, and teaches that thoroughly.

postage i4d. Price, cloth, 1/6 ; paper, the Tonic Sol-fa system, then applies the
Re-written, (3484.) Staff Notation exercises.

A series o'. technical exercises for each day postage 3d. in the week. The minimum of work is provided for pianoforte
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Second

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STANDARD COURSE, THE. By JOHN CORWEN.
1901.

Second edition,

added.

Bach
|

1906. topic in a section

Unison

TOUCH AND TECHNIC FOR ARTISTIC PIANOFORTE PLATING. By Dr. WM. MASON (of New York). (5545.) Edited, with numerous
PART I. Two-part exercises additions, by RIDLEY PRENTICE. (School of Touch). Price 3/-. PART II. Complete School of Scales Price 3/6. (Brilliant Passages).

by

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" Musical Size of Theory."

Price 3/6

postage 4d.

For Pianoforte Teachers and Students.
BERTINI'S STUDIES

Various.
HANDBELL RINGING.
postage ad.
; ;

FOR THE PIANOFORTE.
(5023.)

Edited
I

with
II, i/-

notes

by HENRY FISHER, Mus.Doc. postage i d. The purpose and
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Books

and

each

difficulties of

each study are pointed

FLETCHER. (5166.) Price a/6; " " Handon which the Criterion shows how to organise and train troupes of ringers, bell Ringers play and gives exercises and tunes arranged for the bells.

By

C.

W.

Explains the

m ethod

VAMPING.
in

CANDIDATE'S SELF-EXAMINER

the Scales and Arpeggios contained By PERCY A. in the Pianoforte Syllabus of the Associated Board. In Four Books: Lower Division, (5622.) SCHOLES, A.R.C.M. Division Intermediate Grade, Advanced Grade, i/- each.

A

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CONSTRUCTION, TUN

G, AND CARE OF THE PIANOFORTE. Bdited Price, limp (5085.) and largely re-written by H. FISHER, Mus.D. Shows people handy with tools how to repair cloth, i/- 1 postage, i|d. Fifth and tune their pianos, harmoniums, and American organs.
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Pamphlets on the History of
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ACCOUNT OF THE TONIC SOL-FA METHOD. By J OHN CURWBN.
The
principles, the
(5004.)

method cf

teachinc, and examples.

8 pp., id.

DEPPE EXERCISES IN TECHNIQUE FOR THE PIANOFORTE. Compiled
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MINOR NOTATION OF THE TONIC SOL-FA SYSTEM
by SEDLEY TAYLOR, M.A., with
of the minor urged that the key-note

(5383.)

AMY

FAY.

(9054-)

Price */ 6

'

postage id.

discussion and opinions.

Paper Mr. Taylor

EXERCISES, SCALES, AND ARPEGGIOS

for the Pianoforte.
;

By HENRY

mode should be

called

Doh.

ad. Arranged FISHER, Mus.Doc.Can tab. (5123.) Price a/- postage to the rapid progress of students in such manner as will most conduce of all grades.

36 pp., 6d.

STORY OF TONIC SOL-FA
CURWEN, President
of

(5498).

Historical

notes by J. SPENCER

the Tonic Sol-fa College.

Tenth

edition.

IMPERIAL METHOD FOR THE PIANOFORTE.
Mus.Doc.Cantab.
popular use.
classical

By HKNRY

FISHER,
for

Ample

Price a/-; postage ad. (5197.) Contains 8a studies directions.

A

30 pp., ad.

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pieces,

TESTIMONIES TO THE TONIC SOL-FA

and popular, also folk-songs and hymn-tunes.

LESCHETIZKT METHOD.
postage 4d.

By MARIE PRENTNER.
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(5235.)

Price 4/6

Opinions (55ao). of Schools, and workerc of leading musicians, scientists, Inspectors Sheets i, 3 and 4, of the system. in many spheres, on the usefulness

METHOD

|

Bverv up-to-date

and pianoforte teacher must

each 50

for

i/-.

have this work.
Price 1/6 MUSICIAN, THE. By RIDLEY PRENTICE. (5307.) InSixGrades. students. Helps each Grade postage ad. A guide for pianoforte of beautiful music. towards the better understanding and enjoyment the classical composers are analysed Considerably over 100 pieces by all form. The interest of the learner is excited and the
j

TONIC SOL-FAISTS

AND THE MINOR MODE
in the

(5537).

An

explanation

and defence of the Lah notation BOURKE. as pp., 6d.

Minor Mode, by

W. ROSTON

TONIC SOL-FA

METHOD

ts to musical

Opinions of clergymen, 16 pp., of the system.

IN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND (5538.) church organists, and others on the value
2<i.

stimulated. Theoretical knowledge is thui intelligence constantly with daily practice. The work accombrought into vital connection " " an entire course of study. Bach Grade the through pianist panies on an average from two to three is complete in itself, representing The pieces are arranged in progressive order. Thr years' work. a sixth edition having been called fo'. uccess of the work is proved by

TONIC SOL-FA LEAFLET
and notation
4 pp. 5
for

of the

The mental effects, the principles, and opuu ns. method, the modulator, exercises
(5539).

6d (5540).

TONIC SOL-FA

MOVEMENT

Council. before the Manchester Tonic Sol-fa

Lecture by SEDLEY TAYLOR, M.A., 33 PP-, 60-

LONDON

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WORKS ON VOCAL CULTURE
BOOKS ON THE VOICE.
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VOCAL DRILLS FOR CHOIRS.
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CHORAL DRILL EXERCISES
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Staff,

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By L. C. VENABLES. A series Tonic Sol-fa, zd. New edition,
series

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For mixed voices.

BOY'S VOICE. THE (5031). By J. SPENCER CURWEN. Numerous hints from leading choir-trainers. How to get into a choir school. What postage 4d. Fifth songs to sing. Choir management. Cloth, z/6
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CHORAL TECHNICS
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By H. ERNEST NICHOL, Mus.B. A

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HOW

TO TRAIN CHILDREN'S VOICES

(5188).

By

T.

MASKELL HARDY.
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part-songs illustrat ng various points of choir training. in choral form, for the use of choirs that aspire to a high Studies of degree precision, declamation, expression, and blending. Difficu'ties f/ol-fa, 8d. compressed in short space. Mixed voices. Staff, 1/6
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"

"

;

For school teachers and conductors of postage id. Fourth edition, enlarged.

ladies'

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STANDARD COURSE VOICE EXERCISES
Voice Exercises from CURWEN'S
"

(5492>-

Consisting

of

the

MECHANISM OF THE HUMAN VOICE
of the 2/6
;

(526}).

By EMIL BEHNKB.
subject.

One
Clothi

most successful and authoritative books on the
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;

Standard Course," comprising For use in classes. Chest, Klang, Tuning, and Register Exercises. Tonic Sol-fa. First and Second Sets, }d. each.

postage zd.

Fourteenth edition.
(jz86).

VOICE
GRIFFITHS.

MIXED VOICE AND THE REGISTERS

By W. H.

CULTURE FOR CHORAL SOCIETIES
breathing, vowel Both notations, zd.

(5571)-

By

G. F. ROOT.
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Bxercises in
expression.

and consonant

practice,

Photographs, diagrams, exercises, practical hints for tenors, baritones. Cloth, 2/6. Second edition. basses, and altos.
(5649). By GRANVILLE HUMPHREYS. A thoughtfu' pamphlet on an important subject. Exercises described. Price 6d. SOLO SINGER, THE (3444). By SINCLAIR DUNN. Advice to intending

NASAL RESONANCE

VOICE DEVELOPMENT (5572). By choirs. Register and breathing
resonance, classification, etc.

P.

HARTSOUGH.

For

classes

and

exercises, expression,

vocalisation,

Both notations, gd.

olo-singers. edition.

Specially helpful in choice of songs.

Price

i/-.

Sixth

SPEAKING VOICE, THE

course of By Mrs. EMIL BEHNKE. (3470). The development and preservation of the training for speakers. voice. Cloth, 4 '6; postage 4d. Seventh edition.

A

EXERCISES FOR THE ADULT VOICE.
DAILY STUDIES IN SPEAKING AND READING
GRIFFITHS.
(3093).

By W. H.

VOICE PRODUCTION IN SINGING
of

AND SPEAKING

" One MILLS, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.S. Based on scientific principles. the most original and comprehensive works on the subject.'' Nineteen chapters, 63 illustrations. Price 7/6 net (no reduction).
Postage 3d.

(3626).

By WESLEY

text-book for pupil teachers, corresponding with the demands of the Board of Education. Price i/- ; postage id.

A

EXERCISES IN VOICE PRODUCTION AND ENUNCIATION (or Speakers and Readers (5373). By Dr. DUNSTAN. Cloth, 1/6 postage i\<\.
;

FIFTY VOICE EXERCISES (3130). By CONCONK. The first and :.ost known set of Concone. The feature of this edition is the Tonic Sol-fa
vocal part above the Staff and accompaniments. Tonic Sol-fa only, gd. post. id.
;

VOICE TRAINER, THE
for solo-singers,

(3374).

By JAMES

A. BIRCH.

Hints and exercise

Staff, z/-

;

post. 3

'..

conductors, choralists, and voice-training classes Both notations, i/-. Fifth edition.

FORTY SINGING LESSONS FOR LOW VOICES

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By CONCONB.

EXERCISES FOR THE CHILD'S VOICE.
CHURCH AND CATHEDRAL CHORISTERS' SINGING METHOD
Price z/6
for

Contraltos and basses cannot afford to say that they do not know these exercises. They are in the G clef, and over the Staff is given Price z/- ; postage 3d. the Tonic Sol-fa vocal part.

(3066).
t<

PROGRESSIVE VOCAL STUDIES

(3384)-

By

B.

MANSELL RAMSFV.
Voice part
in

By HAYDN KEETON, Mus.D. Progressive exercises calculated teach boys how to read music and to train and develop their voice>
cloth, 3/6 ; postage 3d. Unison, S.C., and S.S.C.
;

Twelve melodious solfeggi, with accompaniment. Price i/Staff and Tonic Sol-fa. postage id.
;

Enlarged edition.

Exercise-

PROGRESSIVE VOCALISES
perfect melody.
i/-

(3613).

By H. PANOFKA.
Sol-fa

With Tonic

voice part.

Every piece Parts I and

i

a
II,

CURWEN'S SCHOOL VOICE EXERCISES
needs or has time for
notations.
is

(7014)-

All that a school teach,

each

;

postage id. each.

New

edition.

put on a chart for class use.

Price

i/-, hot

Postage id.
(3238).

SOLO SINGER'S VADE MECUM, THE

MANUAL OF VOICE PRODUCTION

By HENRY

J.

B.

DART

For the training of voices in schools and parish church choirs. Thi directions and exercises are those followed for many years by th< highly successful voice trainer. Staff, price i/- ; postage id.

($443)By SINCLAIR DUNN. A collection of Voice Exercises, as used by all the principal voiceWith accompaniments. Voice score in both notations. trainers.

Price

2/-

;

postage

ad.

VOCALISES FACILES
BORDESE.

(3633).

Taken from the Methode de Chant

of Lun.i

VOICE-TRAINING EXERCISES FOR BOYS
GILBERT.

By

G. the director of a choir that has maintained
(3376).

By

BERNAR
its

chain

Thirty-nine vocal exercises of medium compass. Sol- a notation under Staff. Breathing places marked. Price z/- ; post. zd.

pionship in competitions for many years. Hints, voice exerciseand accompaniments of a thoroughly practical kind are given. Staf.
i/;

postage id.

VOICE TRAINING EXERCISES (3373)ANNIE I. STAPLETON. With Studies and Style. Staff, z/- Tonic Sol-fa,
;

By
z/;

J.

PROUDMAN,

in Musical

assisted by Ornaments, Phrising,

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STAFF NOTATION COURSES.
ELEMENTS.
GUIDE TO SIGHT-SINGING
from the Staff Notation (3164). By R. DUNSTAN, M us. Doc. Cantab. The book prepares for the Junior School or Primary Certificate of the Incorporated Staff Sight-Singing A pocket-size College, of whose Council Dr. Dunstan is a member. book, with minute instructions and about 130 exercises. Price 6d.
(3476).

STAFF NOTATION THEORY
Price 6d.
;

(5480). By W. R. PHILLIPS. With exercises For Student Teachers' Examinations under the Board of Education

postage id.
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TEXT BOOK FOR ELEMENTARY STAFF NOTATION
WALTER JAMES KIDNER.

By

STAFF NOTATION, THE
In Staff notation.

By JOHN CURWEN.

For examinations

Especially adapted for Tonic Sol-faists preparing for the First Grade Staff Certificate of the Tonic Sol-fa Price i/- ; postage i}d. College.

Sol-fa

method.

practical introduction to the Staff on the Tonic With new appendix containing hints and abundant

A

TEXT BOOK FOR INTERMEDIATE STAFF NOTATION
same Author.
the Tonic Sol-fa College.

(5526).

By

the

exercises in translating

from one notation
:

to the other.

Price 6d.

Prepares for the Second Grade Staff Certificate of Price i/- ; postage i}d.

LONDON

J.

CURWEN & SONS

Ltd.,

24 BERNERS STREET, W.

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