Pro
V8i (SELECTseries 4)
International Design Codes Manual
DAA0378101/0005
Last updated: 11 January 2013
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International Design Codes Manual — i
Table of Contents
About STAAD.Pro 2
About the STAAD.Pro Documentation 4
Getting Started and Tutorials 4
Examples Manual 4
Graphical Environment 4
Technical Reference Manual 4
International Design Codes 5
Batch Design versus Design Modes 6
Batch Design 6
Design Modes 6
Section 1 Australian Codes 9
1A. Australian Codes  Concrete Design per AS 3600  2001 11
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998 19
Section 2 British Codes 49
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110 51
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000 67
2C. British Codes  Design per BS5400 93
2D. British Codes  Design per BS8007 97
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code 101
Section 3 Canadian Codes 119
3A. Canadian Codes  Concrete Design per CSA Standard A23.394 121
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601 129
3C. Canadian Codes  Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code S13694 165
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601 173
Section 4 Cypriot Codes 191
4A. Cypriot Codes  Concrete Design in Cyprus 193
International Design Codes Manual — iii
Section 5 Danish Codes 199
5A. Danish Codes  Steel Design per DS412 201
Section 6 Dutch Codes 205
6A. Dutch Codes  Steel Design per NEN 6770 207
Section 7 European Codes 211
7A. European Codes  Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2 213
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992] 219
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005] 235
7D. European Codes  National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005] 281
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11 356
Section 8 Finnish Codes 376
8A. Finnish Codes  Concrete Design per B4 378
8A. Finnish Codes  Steel Design per B7 382
Section 9 French Codes 386
9A. French Codes  Concrete Design per B.A.E.L 388
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code 394
Section 10 German Codes 404
10A. German Codes  Concrete Design Per DIN 1045 406
10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code 414
Section 11 Indian Codes 424
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456 426
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920 448
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984 472
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802 490
11E. Indian Codes  Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code 512
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007 520
Section 12 Japanese Codes 548
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ 550
iv — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ 558
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ 572
Section 13 Mexican Codes 590
13A. Mexican Codes  Concrete Design Per MEX NTC 1987 592
13B. Mexican Codes  Steel Design Per NTC 1987 604
Section 14 Norwegian Codes 614
14A. Norwegian Codes  Steel Design per NS 3472 / NPD 616
14B. Norwegian Codes  Steel Design per NORSOK N004 670
14C. Norwegian Codes  Concrete Design per NS 3473 692
Section 15 Russian Codes 696
15A. Russian Codes  Concrete Design Per SNiP 2.03.0184* 698
15B. Russian Codes  Steel Design Per SNiP 2.2381* (Edition 1999) 726
Section 16 Singaporian Codes 744
16A. Singaporean Codes  Concrete Design per CP65 746
Section 17 South African Codes 752
17A. South African Codes  Concrete Design per SABS01001 754
17B. South African Codes  Steel Design Per SAB Standard SAB01621:1993 760
Section 18 Spanish Codes 782
18A. Spanish Codes  Steel Design per NBEMV1031972 784
18A. Spanish Codes  Concrete Design per EHE 786
Section 19 Swedish Codes 790
19A. Swedish Codes  Steel Design per BSK 99 792
19B. Swedish Codes  Concrete Design per BBK 94 796
Section 20 American Aluminum Code 802
Section 21 American Transmission Tower Code 814
21A. American Transmission Tower Code  Steel Design per ASCE 1097 816
21B. American Transmission Tower Code  Steel Design per ASCE Manuals and
Reports 822
International Design Codes Manual — v
Section 22 Steel Design per American Petroleum
Institute Code 828
Section 23 ANSI/AISC N690 Design Codes 844
23A. ANSI/AISC N6901994 Code 846
23B. ANSI/AISC N6901984 Code 862
Section 24 American Society of Mechanical Engineers –
Nuclear Facility (ASME NF) Codes 882
24A. ASME NF 3000  1974 & 1977 Codes 884
24B. ASME NF 3000  1989 Code 896
24B. 18B.6 Example 904
24C. ASME NF 3000  2004 Code 908
24C. 18C.6 Example 918
24D. ASME NF 3000  2001 & 2004 Codes 922
Section 24 Technical Support 936
vi — STAAD.Pro
This documentation has been prepared to provide information pertaining to the various
international codes supported by STAAD. These codes are provided as additional codes by
Bentley Sytems, Incorporated. In other words, they do not come with the standard license
package. Hence, information on only some of the codes presented in this document may be
actually pertinent to the license package available to you.
This document is to be used in conjunction with the STAAD Technical Reference Manual and
the STAAD Application Examples Manual. Effort has been made to provide some basic
information about the analysis considerations and the logic used in the design approach. A
brief outline of the factors affecting the design along with references to the corresponding
clauses in the codes is also provided. Examples are provided at the appropriate places to
facilitate ease of understanding of the usage of the commands and design parameters. You are
urged to refer to the Examples Manual for solved problems that use the commands and
features of STAAD. Since the STAAD output contains references to the clauses in the code that
govern the design, we recommend that you consult the documentation of the code of that
country for additional details on the design criteria.
International Design Codes Manual — 1
About STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro is a general purpose structural analysis and design program with applications
primarily in the building industry  commercial buildings, bridges and highway structures,
industrial structures, chemical plant structures, dams, retaining walls, turbine foundations,
culverts and other embedded structures, etc. The program hence consists of the following
facilities to enable this task.
1. Graphical model generation utilities as well as text editor based commands for
creating the mathematical model. Beam and column members are represented using
lines. Walls, slabs and panel type entities are represented using triangular and
quadrilateral finite elements. Solid blocks are represented using brick elements. These
utilities allow the user to create the geometry, assign properties, orient cross sections as
desired, assign materials like steel, concrete, timber, aluminum, specify supports, apply
loads explicitly as well as have the program generate loads, design parameters etc.
2. Analysis engines for performing linear elastic and pdelta analysis, finite element
analysis, frequency extraction, and dynamic response (spectrum, time history, steady
state, etc.).
3. Design engines for code checking and optimization of steel, aluminum and timber
members. Reinforcement calculations for concrete beams, columns, slabs and shear
walls. Design of shear and moment connections for steel members.
4. Result viewing, result verification and report generation tools for examining
displacement diagrams, bending moment and shear force diagrams, beam, plate and
solid stress contours, etc.
5. Peripheral tools for activities like import and export of data from and to other widely
accepted formats, links with other popular softwares for niche areas like reinforced and
prestressed concrete slab design, footing design, steel connection design, etc.
6. A library of exposed functions called OpenSTAAD which allows users to access
2 — STAAD.Pro
About STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro’s internal functions and routines as well as its graphical commands to tap
into STAAD’s database and link input and output data to thirdparty software written
using languages like C, C++, VB, VBA, FORTRAN, Java, Delphi, etc. Thus, OpenSTAAD
allows users to link inhouse or thirdparty applications with STAAD.Pro.
About STAAD.Pro
International Design Codes Manual — 3
About the STAAD.Pro Documentation
The documentation for STAAD.Pro consists of a set of manuals as described below. These
manuals are normally provided only in the electronic format.
All the manuals can be accessed from the Help facilities of STAAD.Pro. If you want to obtain
a printed copy of the books, visit the docs.bentley.com site to check availability and order.
Bentley also supplies the manuals in the PDF format at no cost for those who want to print
them on their own. See the back cover of this book for addresses and phone numbers.
Getting Started and Tutorials
This manual contains information on the contents of the STAAD.Pro package, computer
system requirements, installation process, copy protection issues and a description on how to
run the programs in the package. Tutorials that provide detailed and stepbystep explanation
on using the programs are also provided.
Examples Manual
This book offers examples of various problems that can be solved using the STAAD engine.
The examples represent various structural analyses and design problems commonly
encountered by structural engineers.
Graphical Environment
This document contains a detailed description of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of
STAAD.Pro. The topics covered include model generation, structural analysis and design,
result verification, and report generation.
Technical Reference Manual
This manual deals with the theory behind the engineering calculations made by the STAAD
engine. It also includes an explanation of the commands available in the STAAD command
file.
4 — STAAD.Pro
About the STAAD.Pro Documentation
Getting Started and Tutorials
International Design Codes
This document contains information on the concrete, steel, aluminum, and timber design
codes that are supported in the batch design routines. Note that most steel and concrete batch
design routines for the US design codes can be found in the Technical Reference Manual.
Details of the steel design codes supported in the post processing Steel Design Mode can be
found in the User Interface manual. Details of the beam, column and slab concrete design
codes supported in the Concrete Design Mode can be found in the RC Designer manual.
The documentation for the STAAD.Pro Extension component(s) is available separately.
About the STAAD.Pro Documentation
International Design Codes Manual — 5
Batch Design versus Design Modes
STAAD.Pro has two means by which structural members can be designed.
Batch Design
Using this method, code checks and/or member selection is performed directly by the
analysis and design engine when an analysis is performed.
The contents of this manual, along with those in the Technical Reference manual, are all
used for batch design.
Design Modes
Code checks and member selection is performed in a postprocessing module for either Steel
Design or Concrete Design. These modes are available in the Graphical User Interface.
Refer to the Steel Design mode and Concrete Design mode help sections for additional
information.
Country/Region Code
Egypt 205 2001
Europe EC3 DD
Great Britain BS5950 2000
India IS 800
United States AISC ASD
Table 14.1Available steel design codes
in the Steel Design mode
6 — STAAD.Pro
Batch Design versus Design Modes
Batch Design
Note: Design per the Chinese steel code GB500172003 must be performed per the
localized STAAD SSDD interface. Please download and install this application from
Bentley SELECT.
Country/
Region
Code
Australia AS 3600
China GB50010
Egypt ECCS 203
Europe
Eurocode 2  1991
Eurocode 2  2004
France BAEL
Germany DIN 10451
Great Britain BS 8110
India IS456
Japan AIJ
Norway NS3473
Russia SP5210103
Singapore CP65
Spain EHE
Turkey TS 500
United States
ACI 31899
ACI 31805 /
318M05
Table 14.2Available design codes in
the Concrete Design codes
Batch Design versus Design Modes
International Design Codes Manual — 7
8 — STAAD.Pro
Section 1
Australian Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 9
10 — STAAD.Pro
1A. Australian Codes  Concrete Design per AS 3600  2001
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Australian code AS 3600
2001 Australian StandardConcrete Structures.
Design of members per AS 3600  2001 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
1A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l For Beams: Prismatic (Rectangular & Square)
l For Columns: Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)
1A.2 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section
properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250mm
width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be
assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. It is absolutely imperative that the user not
provide the cross section area (AX) as an input.
1A.3 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design.
Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design
being performed. Table 1A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available parameters
and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and
Newton before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
International Design Codes Manual — 11
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as
AUSTRALIAN to invokes
design per AS 3600  2001.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference
Manual.
CLEAR 25 mm
40 mm
For beam members.
For column members
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for
design. This value defaults
to YD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
FMC 40 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
Applicable values per
Clause 6.1.1.1 of AS 3600
2001:
20
25
32
40
50
65
FYMAIN 450 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main
reinforcing steel.
Applicable values per
Table 6.2.1 of AS 3600
2001:
250
400
450
500
Table 1A.1Australian Concrete Design per AS 3600 Parameters
12 — STAAD.Pro
1A. Australian Codes  Concrete Design per AS 3600  2001
Parameter Name Default Value Description
FYSEC 450 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcing steel.
Applicable values per
Table 6.2.1 of AS 3600
2001:
250
400
450
500
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main
reinforcement bar size.
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main
reinforcement bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary
reinforcement bar size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary
reinforcement bar size.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of
longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of
1.0 will mean spiral
reinforcement.
International Design Codes Manual — 13
Parameter Name Default Value Description
TRACK 0.0 For beam design:
0.0 = output consists
of reinforcement
details at the member
start, middle, and end
1.0 = critical moments
are printed in addition
to TRACK 0.0 output
2.0 = required steel for
intermediate sections
defined by NSECTION
are printedin addition
to TRACK 0.0 output
For column design:
0.0 = reinforcement
details are printed
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for
design. This value defaults
to ZD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
1A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. There are
two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated. One option is to perform
an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial loads and variable
moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect of deflections on
moment and forces and the effect of the duration of loads. Another option is to
approximately magnify design moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type of analysis,
use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. The PDELTA ANALYSIS
will accommodate the requirements of the second order analysis described by AS 3600,
except for the effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely
ignored because experts believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a
normal structural configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized
that the evaluation of slenderness effects is also by an approximate method. In this method,
additional moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on sidesway.
Considering all of the above information, a PDelta analysis—as performed by STAAD—may
be used for the design of concrete members. However the user must note that to take
advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be provided as primary load
14 — STAAD.Pro
1A. Australian Codes  Concrete Design per AS 3600  2001
cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact that load combinations are just
algebraic combinations of forces and moments, whereas a primary load case is revised during
the Pdelta analysis based on the deflections. Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5
for dead load etc.) should be provided by the user. STAAD does not factor the loads
automatically.
1A.5 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings
are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total
number of sections considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9, and 1). All of
these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes.
1A.5.1 Design for Flexure
Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging
(creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each
of the above mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these
critical sagging and hogging moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is
permitted. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a
message will be permitted in the output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes.
In the first pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single
layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the
preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple
layers. The entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the
changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the
preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been
made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per AS 3600. Although
exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will
be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration),
user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections
from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.
1A.5.2 Design for Shear
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear
design is performed at 13 equally spaced sections (0. to 1.) for the maximum shear forces
amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation
at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile
reinforcement provided by STAAD. Twolegged stirrups are provided to take care of the
balance shear forces acting on these sections.
Example of Input Data for Beam Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
International Design Codes Manual — 15
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN
1A.6 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases
are tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections.
By default, square and rectangular columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on
each side equally. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4).
This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases. All major criteria for selecting
longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as stipulated by AS 3600 have been taken care of in
the column design of STAAD.
Example of Input Data for Column Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN
1A.7 Slab or Wall Design
To design a slab or wall, it must be modeled using finite elements. The command
specifications are in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 of the specification.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the
reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The
parameters FYMAIN, FC, MAXMAIN, MINMAIN, and CLEAR listed in Table 1A.1 are relevant to slab
design. Other parameters mentioned in Table 1A.1 are not applicable to slab design.
16 — STAAD.Pro
1A. Australian Codes  Concrete Design per AS 3600  2001
Figure 1A.1  Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)
Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 25 ALL
CLEAR 40 ALL
DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN
International Design Codes Manual — 17
18 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Australian code AS 41001998
Standards Australia  Steel Structural Design.
Design of members per AS 3600  1998 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
1B.1 General
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state
design. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at
which they would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limitstate are
recognized  ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and
resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under
various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are
acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability, and serviceability. Accordingly, the most
economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the
designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such
parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for
each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of AS 4100.
A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and
assumptions is available in the specification document.
1B.1.1 Strength Limit States
Strength design capacities (φRu) are calculated and compared to userdefined design action
effects (S*), so as to ensure that S* ≤ φRu in accordance with AS 4100 3.4. Details for design
capacity calculations are outlined in the sections that follow.
1B.1.2 Deflection Limit States
STAAD.Pro’s AS 4100 implementation does not generally check deflections. It is left to the
user to check that both local member and frame deflections are within acceptable limits.
Note: Local member deflections parallel to the local member yaxis can be checked against
a userdefined maximum “span / deflection” ratio. This can be performed using the
DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 design parameters, however this is only available for MEMBER
Design. Details are provided in the sections that follow.
International Design Codes Manual — 19
1B.1.3 Eccentric Beam Reactions
STAAD.Pro does not automatically account for minimum eccentricity distances for beam
reactions being transferred to columns as per AS 4100 4.3.4. However member offsets can be
used to model these eccentricities.
Refer to Section 5.25 of the Technical Reference manual for further information on the
Member Offset feature.
1B.1.4 Limit States Not Considered
The following limit states are not directly considered in STAAD.Pro’s implementation of AS
4100.
Limit State Code
Reference
Stability AS 4100 3.3
Serviceability AS 4100 3.5
Brittle Fracture AS 4100 3.7
Fire AS 4100 3.9
Other Design
Requirements
AS 4100 3.11
Table 1B.1Limit States Not
Considered in STAAD.Pro AS 4100
Design
1B.1.5 Connection Design
STAAD.Pro and Bentley’s RAM Connection program currently do not support design of
connections in accordance with AS 4100. In some cases connection design may govern the
size of members. Such considerations are not considered in STAAD.Pro’s AS 4100 and should
be checked by separately.
1B.1.6 Bolts and Welds
Bolt holes and welds are not generally considered in STAAD.Pro’s AS 4100 member design.
Note: NSC and NSF design parameters are used to manually specify a reduction in net
section area for compression or tension capacity calculations. These can be used to
account for bolt hole area reductions. Further details are provided in the sections
that follow.
20 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
1B.2 Analysis Methodology
Either the elastic or dynamic analysis methods may be used to obtain the forces and moments
for design as per AS 4100 section 4.4. Analysis is done for the specified primary and repeat
loading conditions. Therefore, it is your responsibility to enter all necessary loads and load
combination factors for design in accordance with the AS/NZS 1170 Series or other relevant
design codes. You are allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and
using appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the
analysis requirements, regular stiffness analysis or PDelta analysis may be specified. Dynamic
analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results.
Note: Plastic analysis and design in accordance with AS 4100 section 4.5 is not
implemented in STAAD.Pro.
1B.2.1 Elastic Analysis
Two types of elastic analysis can be performed using STAAD.Pro in accordance with AS 4100:
i. First Order Linear, Elastic Analysis  used to perform a regular elastic stiffness analysis
as per AS 4100 4.4.2.1. Refer to Section 5.37.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for
additional details on this feature.
ii. Second Order PDelta Linear, Elastic Analysis  Depending on the type of structure, a
PDelta analysis may be required in order to capture secondorder effects as per AS 4100
4.4.1.2. Secondorder effects can be captured in STAAD.Pro by performing a PDelta
secondorder elastic analysis as per AS 4100 Appendix E. Refer to Section 5.37.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual for additional details on this feature.
Note: Moment amplification as per AS 4100 clause 4.4.2 is not considered.
Hint: In order to correctly capture secondorder effects for combination load cases
using a PDelta Analysis, the Repeat Load feature must be used. Secondorder
effects will not be correctly evaluated if the Load Combination feature is
used. Load Combinations are combinations of results where Repeat Loads
instruct the program to perform the analysis on the combined load actions.
Refer to Section 5.32.11 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional
details on using Repeat Loads.
1B.2.2 Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the results combined with static analysis results.
Refer Section 5.32.10 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on Dynamic
Loading and Analysis features.
International Design Codes Manual — 21
1B.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties, either the steel section library available in STAAD or
the User Table facility may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used
to assign properties from the builtin steel table. For more information on these facilities,
refer to Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
1B.4 Builtin Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, the properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into
these tables, shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members. An
example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this
section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the builtin steel section library may be
obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
General Profile Type Australian Sections Description
ISECTION WB, WC Welded beams and columns
UB, UC Universal beams and columns
TSECTION BT, CT Tees cut from universal beams and columns
CHANNEL PFC Parallel flange channels
ANGLE EA, UA Equal and unequal angles
TUBE SHS, RHS Square and rectangular hollow sections
PIPE CHS Circular hollow sections
Table 1B.2Available Australian Sections for STAAD.Pro AS 4100 Design
Note: STAAD.Pro will not design the following section types to AS 4100: Double Profiles
(D), Composite Sections (C), Top Cover Plates (TC), Bottom Cover Plates (BC), and
Top & Bottom Cover Plates (TB), Double Channels (D, BA, & FR) and Double
Angles (LD & SD). Refer to Section Profile Tables in the Graphical Environment for
these options.
Hint: When adding and assigning sections using the builtin steel section library
through the Graphical Environment, STAAD.Pro’s default tables are American. To
change the default tables to Australian, select File > Configuration from the
STAAD.Pro Start page (no input file open). Set the Default Profile Table to
Australian on the Configure Program dialog Section Profile Table.
22 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.
1B.4.1 UB Shapes
These shapes are designated in the following way.
20 TO 30 TA ST UB150X14.0
36 TO 46 TA ST UB180X16.1
1B.4.2 UC Shapes
The designation for the UC shapes is similar to that for the UB shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST UC100X14.8
23 56 TA ST UC310X96.8
1B.4.3 Welded Beams
Welded Beams are designated in the following way.
25 TO 35 TA ST WB700X115
23 56 TA ST WB1200X455
1B.4.4 Welded Columns
Welded Columns are designated in the following way.
25 TO 35 TA ST WC400X114
23 56 TA ST WC400X303
1B.4.5 Parallel Flange Channels
Shown below is the syntax for assigning names of channel sections.
1 TO 5 TA ST PFC75
6 TO 10 TA ST PFC380
1B.4.6 Double Channels
Backtoback double channels, with or without a spacing between them, are available. The
letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel.
11 TA D PFC230
17 TA D C230X75X25 SP 0.5
International Design Codes Manual — 23
In the above set of commands, member 11 is a backtoback double channel PFC230 with no
spacing in between. Member 17 is a double channel PFC300 with a spacing of 0.5 length units
between the channels.
1B.4.7 Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is
specified as follows:
16 20 TA ST A30X30X6
The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30 mm and a leg thickness of 6 mm.
This specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the zz axis specified in
Chapter 2. If the local Y axis corresponds to the zz axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle)
may be used.
17 21 TA RA A150X150X16
Note: Single angles must be specified with an “RA” (Single Angle w/Reverse YZ Axis) in
order to be designed to AS 4100. This is to ensure that the major and minor
principal axes align with the local member z and y axes respectively, similar to
other section profiles.
1B.4.8 Double Angles
Short leg backtoback or long leg backtoback double angles can be specified by means of
input of the words SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle,
either SD or LD will serve the purpose.
33 35 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6
37 39 TA LD A75X50X6
43 TO 47 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75
1B.4.9 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)
Tubes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the tube is as shown
below. This method is meant for tubes whose property name is available in the steel table. In
these examples, members 1 to 5 consist of a 2X2X0.5 inch size tube section, and members 6 to
10 consist of 10X5X0.1875 inch size tube section. The name is obtained as 10 times the depth,
10 times the width, and 16 times the thickness.
1 TO 5 TA ST TUB20202.5
6 TO 10 TA ST TUB100503.0
In the second method, tubes are specified by their dimensions. For example,
24 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
is a tube that has a height of 8 length units, width of 6 length units, and a wall thickness of
0.5 length units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed for TUBE
sections specified in this latter manner.
1B.4.10 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)
Pipes can be assigned in 2 ways. In the first method, the designation for the pipe is as shown
below. This method is meant for pipes whose property name is available in the steel table.
1 TO 5 TA ST PIP180X5
6 TO 10 TA ST PIP273X6.5
In the second method, pipe sections may be provided by specifying the word PIPE followed by
the outside and inside diameters of the section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 25 length units and inside diameter of 20 length
units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed on pipes specified in this
latter manner.
1B.4.11 Sample File Containing Australian Shapes
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 11 100 0 0
MEMB INCI
1 1 2 10
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES AUSTRALIAN
* UB SHAPES
1 TA ST UB200X25.4
* UC SHAPES
2 TA ST UC250X89.5
* CHANNELS
3 TA ST PFC125
* DOUBLE CHANNELS
4 TA D PFC200
* ANGLES
5 TA ST A30X30X6
International Design Codes Manual — 25
* REVERSE ANGLES
6 TA RA A150X150X16
* DOUBLE ANGLES  SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK
7 TA SD A65X50X5 SP 0.6
* DOUBLE ANGLES  LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK
8 TA LD A100X75X10 SP 0.75
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE HOLLOW SECTIONS)
9 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
10 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
PRINT MEMB PROP
FINISH
1B.5 Section Classification
The AS 4100 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus, local
buckling becomes an important criterion. Steel sections are classified as compact,
noncompact, or slender; depending upon their local buckling characteristics. This
classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. The design procedures
are different depending on the section class. STAAD determines the section classification for
the standard shapes and user specified shapes. Design is performed for all three categories of
section described above.
1B.6 Material Properties
For specification of material properties, the user can use either:
a. builtin material constants
b. userdefined materials
Refer Section 5.26.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Builtin
Material Constants feature.
Refer Section 2.26.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for further information on the Define
Material feature.
1B.6.1 Young’s Modulus of Elasticity (E)
STAAD.Pro’s default steel material’s E value is 205,000 MPa. However AS 4100 section 1.4
states that the modulus of elasticity should be taken as 200,000 MPa. There are a number of
options to change this value:
l change the steel material through the input file or GUI for each file created
l define a new steel material for each file created
l change the default STAAD.Pro metric E value in the file
26 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
C:/Windows/StaadPro20070.ini, going to the “[MaterialMetric]” section, and
changing E1=205.0e6 to E1=200.0e6. Restart STAAD.Pro for this to take effect.
Warning: Virtualization features of Windows Vista and Windows 7 may require
additional files to be modified. Contact Bentley Technical Support for
assistance.
1B.7 Member Resistances
The member resistance is calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in AS
4100. Calculated design capacities are compared to corresponding axial, bending moment, and
shear forces determined from the STAAD.Pro analysis. These are used to report the fail or pass
status for the members designed.
Two types of design checks are typically performed per AS 4100:
l Nominal section checks
l Nominal member checks
The nominal section capacity refers to the capacity of a crosssection to resists applied loads,
and accounts for crosssection yielding and local buckling effects. The nominal member
capacity on the other hand refers to the capacity of a member to resist applied loads, and
includes checks for global member buckling effects including Euler buckling, lateraltorsional
buckling, etc.
1B.7.1 Axial Tension
The criteria governing the capacity of tension members are based on two limit states per AS
4100 Section 7. The limit state of yielding of the gross section is intended to prevent excessive
elongation of the member.
The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area
φN
t
section axial tension capacities are calculated (Cl.7.2). Through the use of the NSF
parameter (see Table 1B.1), you may specify the net section area. STAAD calculates the tension
capacity of a member based on these two limit states per Cl.7.1 and Cl.7.2 respectively of AS
4100. Eccentric end connections can be taken into account using the KT correction factor,
perCl.7.3. The f
y
yield stress is based on the minimum plate yield stress. Parameters FYLD, FU,
and NSF are applicable for these calculations.
1B.7.2 Axial Compression
The compressive strength of members is based on limit states per AS 4100 Section 6. It is taken
as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member capacity. Nominal section
capacity, φN
s
, is a function of form factor (Cl.6.2.2), net area of the cross section, and yield
stress of the material. Through the use of the NSC parameter (see Table 1B.1), you may specify
the net section area. Note that this parameter is different from that corresponding to tension.
The program automatically calculates the form factor. The k
f
form factors are calculated based
International Design Codes Manual — 27
on effective plate widths per Cl.6.2.4, and the f
y
yield stress is based on the minimum plate
yield stress.
Nominal member capacity, φN
c
, is a function of nominal section capacity and member
slenderness reduction factor (Cl.6.3.3). This value is calculated about both principal x and y
axes. Here, you are required to supply the value of α
b
(Cl.6.3.3) through the ALB parameter
(see Table 1B.1). The effective length for the calculation of compressive strength may be
provided through the use of the parameters KY, KZ, LY, and LZ (see Table 1B.1).
1B.7.3 Bending
Bending capacities are calculated to AS 4100 Section 5. The allowable bending moment of
members is determined as the lesser of nominal section capacity and nominal member
capacity (ref. Cl.5.1).
The nominal section moment capacity, φM
s
, is calculated about both principal x and y axes
and is the capacity to resist crosssection yielding or local buckling and is expressed as the
product of the yield stress of the material and the effective section modulus (ref. Cl.5.2). The
effective section modulus is a function of section type (i.e., compact, noncompact, or
slender) and minimum plate yield stress f
y
. The nominal member capacity depends on overall
flexuraltorsional buckling of the member (ref.Cl.5.3).
Note: For sections where the web and flange yield stresses (f
y,web
and f
y.flange
respectively)
are different, the lower of the two yield stresses is applied to both the web and
flange to determine the slenderness of these elements.
Member moment capacity, φM
b
, is calculated about the principal x axis only (ref. Cl.5.6).
Critical flange effective crosssection restraints and corresponding design segment and sub
segments are used as the basis for calculating capacities.
1B.7.4 Interaction of Axial Force and Bending
Combined section bending and shear capacities are calculated using the shear and bending
interaction method as per Cl.5.12.3.
Note: This check is only carried out where φV
v
section web shear capacities are
calculated. Refer Table 1B.61 for details.
The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial
bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. Here, the adequacy of a
member is also examined against both section (ref. Cl.8.3.4) and member capacity
(ref.Cl.8.4.5). These account for both inplane and outofplane failures. If the summation of
the left hand side of the equations, addressed by the above clauses, exceeds 1.0 or the
allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 1B.1), the member is
considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.
28 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
1B.7.5 Shear
Section web shear capacity, φV
v
, is calculated per Cl.5.11, including both shear yield and shear
buckling capacities. Once the capacity is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the
cross section to the shear capacity of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both
local Y & Zaxes) exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see
Table 1B.1), the section is considered to have failed under shear.
Table 1B.61 below highlights which shear capacities are calculated for different profile types.
General Profile Type Australian
Section
Shear Checks
ISECTION
(i.e., parallel to minor
principal yaxis)
WB, WC,
UB, UC
Calculated for web only
TSECTION BT, CT
CHANNEL PFC
ANGLE EA, UA No checks performed
TUBE SHS, RHS Calculated parallel to both x &
y principal axes
PIPE CHS Per AS 4100 5.11.4
Table 1B.3Section Type Shear Checks
Note: Only unstiffened web capacities are calculated. Stiffened webs are not considered.
Bearing capacities are not considered.
1B.7.6 Torsion
STAAD.Pro does not design sections or members for torsion for AS 4100.
1B.8 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table 1B.1 are used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow
the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs. The design
scope indicates whether design parameters are applicable for MEMBER Design, PMEMBER Design,
or both.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
International Design Codes Manual — 29
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Design
Scope
Description
CODE  Must be specified as
AUSTRALIAN to invoke
design per AS 4100 
1998.
Design Code to
follow. See section
5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
ALB 0.0 Member section
constant (refer cl.
6.3.3)
If ALB is 0.0, it is
automatically
calculated based on
TABLE 6.3.3(1), 6.3.3
(2); otherwise the
input value is used.
ALM 0.0 Moment
modification factor
(refer cl. 5.6.1.1)
If ALM is 0.0, it is
automatically
calculated based
cl.5.6.1.1; otherwise
the input value is
used.
Table 1B.4Australian Steel Design Parameters
30 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Parameter
Name
Default Value Design
Scope
Description
BEAM 0.0 0.0 = design only for
end moments and
those at locations
specified by SECTION
command.
1.0 = Perform design
for moments at
twelfth points along
the beam.
DFF None (Mandatory for
deflection check)
Analytical
members
only
“Deflection Length”/
Maximum Allowable
local deflection.
DJ1 Start Joint of member Joint No. denoting
start point for
calculation of
“deflection length”
DJ2 End Joint of member Joint No. denoting
end point for
calculation of
“deflection length”
DMAX 45.0 [in.] Maximum allowable
depth (Applicable for
member selection)
DMIN 0.0 [in.] Minimum required
depth (Applicable for
member selection)
FU 500.0 [MPa] Ultimate strength of
steel.
FYLD 250.0 [MPa] Yield strength of
steel.
IST 1 Steel type  1  SR, 2 
HR, 3  CF, 4  LW, 5
 HW
Note: See p.47 of
AS 4100
1998.
International Design Codes Manual — 31
Parameter
Name
Default Value Design
Scope
Description
KT 1.0 Correction factor for
distribution of forces
(refer cl. 7.2)
KY 1.0 K value for general
column flexural
buckling about the
local Yaxis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.
KZ 1.0 K value for general
column flexural
buckling about the
local Zaxis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.
LHT 0 Physical
members
only
Load height position
as described in Table
5.6.3(2) of AS
4100:1998
0 = at
Shear
center
1 = At
top
flange
LY Member Length Length for general
column flexural
buckling about the
local Yaxis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.
LZ Member Length Length for general
column flexural
buckling about the
local Zaxis. Used to
calculate slenderness
ratio.
32 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Parameter
Name
Default Value Design
Scope
Description
MAIN 0.0 A value of either 0.0
or 1.0 suppresses the
slenderness ratio
check. checks are not
explicitly required per
AS 4100.
Any value greater
than 1.0 is used as the
limit for slenderness
in compression.
NSC 1.0 Net section factor for
compression
members = An / Ag
(refer cl. 6.2.1)
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for
tension members.
PBRACE None Physical
members
only
Refer to section 1B.11
for details on the
PBRACE parameter.
PHI 0.9 Capacity reduction
factor
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of
actual load effect to
the design strength.
SGR 0 Steel Grade. Refer to
Note a below.
0.0 = normal
grade
1.0 = high
strength grade
steel
SKL 1.0 A load height factor
given in Table 5.6.3(2)
SKR 1.0 A lateral rotation
restraint factor given
in Table 5.6.3(3)
International Design Codes Manual — 33
Parameter
Name
Default Value Design
Scope
Description
SKT 1.0 A twist restraint
factor given in Table
5.6.3(1)
TRACK 0.0 Output detail
0.0 = report only
minimum design
results
1.0 = report design
strengths in
addition to TRACK
0.0 output
2.0 = provide full
details of design
UNB Member Length Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
bottom flange for
calculating moment
resistance.
UNT Member Length Unsupported length
in bending
compression of the
top flange for
calculating moment
resistance.
1B.8.1 Notes
a. DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 – Deflection calculations
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2  DX1)
2
+ (DY2  DY1)
2
+ (DZ2  DZ1)
2
)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end node,
as the case may be.
Note: Deflection calculations are not applicable to PMEMBERs.
a. A straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which
local deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using
34 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
four joints and three members. The “Deflection Length” for all three members
will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1
and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members
here, DJ1 should be 1 and DJ2 should be 4.
D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.
PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL
b. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member
length and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
c. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not
perform a deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no
default value for DFF.
b. LHT Parameter
If the shear force is constant within the segment, longitudinal position of the load is
assumed to be at the segment end.
If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting downward determined
from shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top
flange (flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not
FU (FRU) or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.4.
If there is any variation of the shear force and the load is acting upward determined
from shear force variation and load height parameter indicates the load is acting on top
flange (flange at the positive local y axis) and restraints at the end of the segment is not
FU (FRU) or PU (PRU) Kl is assumed to be 1.0 as the load acting at the top flange is
contributing to stabilize against local torsional buckling.
c. SGR Parameter
AS 4100 defines the values of steel grades that are used as either normal steel or high
grade steel. The following table explains the material values used when either option is
specified for a particular shape:
International Design Codes Manual — 35
Section Type SGR Value Steel
Grade
Used
WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB and
WC WB, WC, Tee section cut from WB
and WC
0 (Normal) 300
1 (High) 400
UB, UC, Tee section cut from UB and
UC, EA, UA and all UPT sections UB,
UC, Tee section cut from UB and UC,
EA, UA and all UPT sections
0 (Normal) 300
1 (High) 350
Pipe, Tube, CHS, RHS, SHS Pipe, Tube,
CHS, RHS, SHS
0 (Normal) 250
1 (High) 350
Table 1B.5Steel Grades used for the SGR Parameter
Note: If a value for the FYLD parameter has been specified, then that value will be
used. Otherwise, the SGR value will be used to determine the yeild strength
and tensile strength values for the steel. based on maximum thickness of
the individual elements of the section. Only for shear capacity calculation
web thickness is used. Similarly, Tensile Strength is determined either from
FU parameter or from SGR parameter.
Warning: A check is introduced to see if yield stress is more than 450 MPa or not.
If it is, a warning is issued and the yield stress is set to 450 MPa.
The following example uses the Member design facility in STAAD.Pro. However, it is strongly
recommended to use the Physical member design capabilities for AS 4100:
PARAMETER 1
CODE AUSTRALIAN
ALB 0.0 MEMBER ALL
ALM 1.13 MEMBER ALL
BEAM 1.0 MEMBER ALL
DFF 250.0 MEMBER ALL
DMAX 0.4 MEMBER ALL
DMIN 0.25 MEMBER ALL
FU 400.0 MEMBER ALL
FYLD 310.0 MEMBER ALL
IST 2.0 MEMBER ALL
KT 0.85 MEMBER ALL
36 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
KX 0.75 MEMBER ALL
KY 1.0 MEMBER ALL
LX 4.5 MEMBER ALL
LY 6.0 MEMBER ALL
MAIN 1.0 MEMBER ALL
NSC 0.9 MEMBER ALL
NSF 1.0 MEMBER ALL
PHI 0.9 MEMBER ALL
RATIO 0.9 MEMBER ALL
SGR 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKT 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKL 1.0 MEMBER ALL
SKR 1.0 MEMBER ALL
TRACK 2.0 MEMBER ALL
UNB 3.4 MEMBER ALL
UNT 6.8 MEMBER ALL
CHECK CODE MEMBER ALL
1B.9 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to evaluate whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate for the specified loads as per AS 4100 requirements.
Hint: The member selection facility can be used to instruct the program to select a
different section if the specified section is found to be inadequate.
Code checking for an analytical member is done using forces and moments at every twelfth
point along the beam. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In
addition, the critical condition, governing load case, location (distance from the start joint)
and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed. The extent of detail of
the output can be controlled by using the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
Example of commands for code checking:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
CODE AUSTRALIAN
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
International Design Codes Manual — 37
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4
Note: Code checking cannot be performed on composite and prismatic sections.
1B.9.1 Physical Members
For physical members (PMEMBERs), code checks are performed at section stations positioned at
1/12
th
points along each analytical member included in the PMEMBER. It is up to you to
determine if these locations cover critical sections for design, and adjust as necessary. The
number of stations for PMEMBER Design cannot be altered, however the analytical members
can be split so that in effect more stations are checked for a PMEMBER.
For each section station along a PMEMBER, section capacity checks are carried for design
actions at that station location. Member capacity checks are also carried out for each station.
For these the program searches each side of the station to find adjacent effective restraints
and design forces and moments. This allows the program to determine the segment / sub
segment that the section station resides in, and then proceeds to calculate the member
capacities. Enough section stations should be included to capture all segments / sub
segments for checking.
Note: When checking combined actions for the section capacities, the design actions at
the section station are used. However when checking combined actions for the
member capacities, the maximum forces from anywhere along the segment / sub
segment being considered are used. This is as stipulated in AS 4100 8.2.
The output reports whether the member has PASSed or FAILed the design checks, as well as
the critical condition, critical load case, magnitudes of design actions for the most critical
crosssection location (distance from the start joint), and complete calculations for design.
The TRACK design parameter can be used to control the level of detail provided in the
output. Colorcoded results can also be viewed in the GUI’s Post Processing Beam  Unity
Check page.
In some cases some of the output will report “N/A” values. This occurs where a calculation
does not apply to a member. For example if a member never goes into tension then no values
can be reported in the tension capacity output sections.
Note: As per AS 4100 1.4, the TRACK 2.0 detailed level of output for PMEMBER Design
uses x and y subscripts to refer to major and minor principal axes respectively.
These differ to STAAD.Pro local member axes, where z and y refer to major and
minor principal axes.
38 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
1B.10 Member Selection
This process incrementally checks increasing section profile sizes until a size is found that is
AS 4100 compliant, or the largest section has been checked. Only section profiles of the same
type as modeled are incrementally checked, with the increasing sizes based on a least weight
per unit length criteria.
For example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it.
Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited
to sections in the user table.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
The design calculations for Member Selection are the same as for Code Checking.
Hint: A Fixed Group command is also available, and can be used to force all members
within a userdefined group to take the same section size based on the most critical
governing design criteria for all members within that group. This is particularly
useful when you want to use the Member Selection feature, but want a group of
elements to have the same size. Refer to Section 5.49 of the Technical Reference
Manual for information on using this feature.
Note: Member Selection will change member sizes, and hence will change the structure’s
stiffness matrix. In order to correctly account for this, a subsequent analysis and
Code Check should be performed to ensure that the final structure is acceptable.
This may need to be carried out over several iterations.
Example of commands for member selection:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
SELECT MEMB 3 4
Note: Composite and prismatic sections cannot be selected.
1B.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the AS 4100 specification which governs the design.
International Design Codes Manual — 39
1B.12 Physical Member Design
There are two methods available in STAAD.Pro for checking members against the
requirements of AS 4100:
a. Analytical member method
b. Physical member method
Herein these are referred to as MEMBER Design and PMEMBER Design respectively.
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or higher.
Traditionally STAAD.Pro performed code checks based on single analytical members (i.e.,
single members between two nodes). This implementation remains in place as shown in the
example in Section 1B.8. Physical Member (PMEMBER) Design on the other hand allows you to
group single or multiple analytical members into a single physical design member for the
purposes of design to AS 4100.
PMEMBER Design also has additional features, including:
l automated steel grades based on section type;
l automated tensile stress (f
u
) and yield stress (f
y
) values based on plate thicknesses;
l automated segment / subsegment design;
l improved detailed design calculation output; and
Thus, it is strongly recommended that PMEMBER Design be used, even for the design of
single analytical members.
1B.12.1 Modeling with Physical Members
Physical Members may be grouped by either of the following methods:
l STAAD.Pro Editor  Directly specify physical members in the input file. Refer to
Section 5.16.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
l Graphical Environment  Using the tools in the Steel Design toolbar, members can be
manually or automatically formed. Refer to Section 1.4 of the Graphical Environment
manual for additional information.
Note: When creating PMEMBERs for AS 4100, this must be performed in STAAD.Pro’s
Modeling mode. Do not use the Steel Design mode.
1B.12.2 Segment and SubSegment Layout
For calculation of member bending capacities about the principal xaxis, the PMEMBER
Design uses the concept of segment / subsegment design. By default PMEMBERs are
automatically broken up into design segments and subsegments based on calculated effective
restraints. Userdefined restraints assigned using the PBRACE design parameter are checked
40 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
to see if they are effective (i.e., if they are placed on the critical flange as per AS 4100 5.5).
Restraints not applied to the critical flange are ineffective and hence are completely ignored.
Refer to Section 1B.7 for further information on how userdefined restraints are applied using
the PBRACE design parameter, including available restraint types, and restraint layout rules.
Note: Segment and subsegment layouts for PMEMBERs may change for different load
cases considered for design. Some restraints may be effective for one particular load
case as they are found to apply to the critical flange, however for another load case
may be found not to act on the critical flange, and found to be ineffective. In other
words the critical flange can change for each load case considered.
Typically the critical flange will be the compression flange, except for segments with a “U”
restraint at one end, in which case it will be the tension flange (as is the case for a cantilever).
The PMEMBER Design uses the following routine to determine effective crosssection
restraints for each load case considered:
i. first all userdefined restraints are checked to see if they are applied to the compression
flange, with those that aren’t ignored;
ii. next a check is made to see if a “U” type restraint is found at either end of the
PMEMBER. If this is the case then any adjacent “L” restraints up to the next “F”, “FR”,
“P” or “PR” restraint are also ignored, regardless of whether they are placed on the
critical or noncritical flange. Refer AS 4100 5.4.2.4.
The compression flange in step 1 of the routine above is calculated based on the bending
moments at the locations of the restraints being considered. If the bending moment is zero at
the same location as a restraint then the following method is used to determine which flange
is critical at the zero moment location:
a. If the zero moment is at the end of the PMEMBER, then the compression flange is
based on the bending moment at a small increment from then end;
b. If the zero moment is along the PMEMBER and is a peak value, then the compression
flange is based on the bending moment at a small increment from that location;
c. If neither 1 or 2 above is valid, then the stiffer of the restraints at that location is taken.
The stiffness of different restraint types from the most stiff to least stiff are taken as
outlined in Table 1B.93.
Stiffness Restraint Type
Most Stiff FR
↓ F
↓ PR
Table 1B.6Assumed Order of
Restraint Stiffness for Zero Moment
Critical Flange
International Design Codes Manual — 41
Stiffness Restraint Type
↓ P
↓ L
↓ U
Least Stiff None
Once the effective restraints have been determined, the PMEMBER is divided into segments
bounded by “F”, “P”, “FR”, “PR” or “U” effective restraints. These segments are then further
divided into subsegments by effective “L” restraints.
Note: Subsegment lengths are not automatically checked to determine if they provide
full lateral restraint as per AS 4100 5.3.2.4.
For design of cantilevers, the free tip should have userdefined “U” restraints applied to both
top and bottom flanges.
Note: If the effective restraints for any load case consist of “U” or “L” restraints only, an
error will be reported.
1B.12.3 Physical Member Restraints Specification
The PBRACE parameter is used to specify the restraint condition along the top and bottom
flange of a PMEMBER.
General Format
PBRACE { TOP  BOTTOM } f
1
r
1
f
2
r
2
… f
52
r
52
(PMEMB pmemberlist)
Where:
f
n
is a fraction of the PMEMBER length where restraint condition is being
specified. This value is any ratio between 0.0 and 1.0.
r
n
is one of the possible restraint condition as in the following:
Designation,
r
1
Restraint
Type
Description
F Fully
restrained
P Partially
restrained
Table 1B.7Physical Member Restraint Types
42 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Designation,
r
1
Restraint
Type
Description
L Laterally
restrained
Cannot be specified at the
ends of design members.
U Unrestrained Can only be applied at the
ends of design members, and
must be applied to both
flanges to be effective.
Warning: Both top and
bottom flanges
can not be
unrestrained at
the same
location (as
this is
unstable).
FR Fully and
rotationally
restrained
PR Partially and
rotationally
restrained
C Continuously
restrained
The flange is assumed to be
continuously supported at
that flange up to next
restraint location. For
continuously supported
flange unbraced length is
assumed to be zero.
Example
PBRACE TOP 0.85 FR 0.33 PR 0.33 PR 0.25 F 0.75 L 0.5 PR 1.0 U 0.0
U
PBRACE BOTTOM 0.75 L 0.0 U 0.25 P 0.5 L 
1.0 U PMEMB 3 7
International Design Codes Manual — 43
Description
Refer to AS 4100 Section 5.5 for a full definition of the critical flange. Typically this will be the
compression flange, except for segments with U restraint at one end, then it will be the
tension flange (as is the case for cantilever portion at the end).
l when gravity loads are dominant (i.e., negative local yaxis direction), the critical
flange of a segment shall be the top flange (i.e., tension).
l when upward wind loads are dominant (i.e., positive local yaxis direction), the critical
flange shall be the bottom flange (i.e., tension).
Design physical members are divided into segments by “F”, “P”, “FR”, “PR” or “U” effective
section restraints. Segments are further broken down into subsegments by “L” restraints, but
only if the “L” restraints are deemed to be “effective”. “L” restraints are only considered to be
effective when positioned on the “critical” flange between “F”, “P”, “FR” or “FP” restraints. If
an “L” restraint is positioned on the noncritical flange it shall be completely ignored.
Further, if an “L” restraint is positioned between a “U” and an “F”, “P”, “FR” or “PR” restraint,
it shall be ignored (regardless of whether it is on the critical or noncritical flange).
Design members must have either a F, P, FR, PR, or U restraint specified at both ends, for
both flanges.
l If UNL is not specified, segment length is used as UNL and used as L in effective
length calculation as per 5.6.3.
l If ALM i.e., α_m is not provided, automatic calculation of ALM is done based on
moments within the segment.
l If SKR i.e., Kr is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on table 5.6.3(3)
considering restraint conditions are the end of the segment. If FR or PR is found at
only one of the end, Kr is assumed to be 0.85; if FR or PR is found at both the ends,
0.70 is used as Kr.
l If SKT i.e., Kt is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(1)
considering end restraints of the segment and section geometric information and
segment length.
l If SKL i.e., Kl is not provided, it is automatically calculated based on Table 5.6.3(2)
considering end restraints of the segment, Load Height Position parameter, LHT and
shear force variation within the segment.
Notes
a. If PMEMBER list is not provided, all the PMEMBERS are restrained by same
configuration.
b. It is not necessary to provide the restraint locations in sequence as the program sorts
them automatically.
c. Unless specified, PMEMBER ends are assumed to be Fully Restrained (F).
44 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
d. While designing any section of the member, effective restraints are searched on each
side of the section along the critical flange.
e. The types of restraints applied to the top and bottom flanges at each location
determines the effective section restraints. These are outlined in the table below:
Case Flange Restraint
on a Critical
Flange
Restraint on
a Non
Critical
Flange
Effective
Section
Restraint
I U U U
II 1 L Nothing L
2 Nothing L None
III 1 P or F Nothing or
U
F
2 Nothing or
U
P or F P
IV 1 PR or FR Nothing or
U
FR
2 Nothing or
U
PR or FR PR
V 1 L, P or F L, P, F, FR or
PR
F
2 FR or PR L, P, F, FR or
PR
FR
Table 1B.8Restraint Meanings in Critical and Noncritical Flanges
Note: The critical flange can change for each load case considered.
1B.12.4 Automated PMEMBER Design Calculations
The AS 4100 PMEMBER Design automates many design calculations, including those required
for segment / subsegment design.
International Design Codes Manual — 45
Automated Design
Calculations
PMEMBER
Design
Parameter
Comments
α
b
compression
member section
constant per AS 4100
6.3.3.
ALB
α
m
moment
modification factor per
AS 4100 5.6.1.1.
ALM Calculated based on moments
distribution for individual
segments and subsegments.
f
u
tensile strength per
AS 4100 2.1.2.
FU Based on nominal steel grade
specified using SGR design
parameter and section type.
f
y
yield stress per AS
4100 2.1.1.
FYLD Based on nominal steel grade
specified using SGR design
parameter and section type.
residual stress category
for AS 4100 Table 5.2
and AS 4100 Table
6.2.4.
IST Based on section type.
correction factor for
distribution of forces in
a tension member per
AS 4100 7.3.
KT Based on section type and
eccentric end connection
specified using EEC design
parameter.
Load height position
for automated
calculation of the kl
load height factor per
AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2).
LHT LHT is used for automating
calculation of kl load height
factors for segments and sub
segments, per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3
(2).
See "Load Height Position" on
page 47 for details.
Segment and sub
segment layout.
PBRACE Refer to the Segment and Sub
Segment Layout section above
for details.
Nominal steel grade. SGR Based on section types.
Table 1B.9Automated PMEMBER AS 4100 Design Parameters and
Calculations
46 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Automated Design
Calculations
PMEMBER
Design
Parameter
Comments
k
t
twist restraint factor
as per AS 4100 Table
5.6.3(1).
SKT Based on effective end restraints
for each segment / subsegment.
k
l
load height factor as
per AS 4100 Table 5.6.3
(2).
SKL Based on effective end restraints
for each segment / subsegment,
and LHT design parameter (refer
above).
k
r
lateral rotation
restraint factor as per
AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(3).
SKR Based on effective end restraints
for each segment / subsegment.
This is where the distinction
between “F” and “FR”, as well as
“P” and “PR” is used.
1B.12.5 Load Height Position
When LHT is set to 1.0 to specify a top flange load height position, STAAD.Pro takes the top to
be the positive local yaxis of the member.
Note: This may not literally be the top flange for say a column or beam with a beta angle.
The local member axes can be viewed in the GUI by selecting “Beam Orientation” in
the Diagrams Labels dialog (or Ctrl+O keyboard shortcut).
To automate kl using AS 4100 Table 5.6.3(2), the longitudinal position of the load also needs to
be considered, i.e., as either “within segment” or “at segment end”.
To determine which of these applies, the shear forces at the ends of each design segment /
subsegment is considered. If the shear force is found to have the same direction and
magnitude at both ends, it is assumed that loads act at the segment end.
If on the other hand the shear force at each end is found to have different directions or
magnitudes, loads are assumed to act within the segment.
Note: The above method includes an allowance for the selfweight of the member to be
considered, as the selfweight always acts through the shear center.
The net sum of the end shears is also used to determine if the load is acting in the positive or
negative local member yaxis direction. If LHT is set to 1.0 for top flange loading, the net sum
is used to determine whether the top flange loading is acting to stabilise or destabilise the
member for lateral torsional buckling. Negative local yaxis net loads act to destabilise the
segments / subsegments, whereas positive local yaxis net loads act to stabilise segments / sub
segments.
International Design Codes Manual — 47
1B.12.6 Example
PARAMETER 1
CODE AUSTRALIAN
DMAX 0.4 PMEMBER ALL
DMIN 0.25 PMEMBER ALL
KX 0.75 PMEMBER ALL
KY 1.0 PMEMBER ALL
LX 4.5 PMEMBER ALL
LY 6.0 PMEMBER ALL
LHT 0.0 PMEMBER ALL
NSC 0.9 PMEMBER ALL
NSF 1.0 PMEMBER ALL
PBRACE BOTTOM 0.0 F 1.0 F PMEMBER ALL
PBRACE TOP 0.0 P 0.5 L 1.0 P PMEMBER ALL
SGR 0.0 PMEMBER ALL
TRACK 2.0 PMEMBER ALL
CHECK CODE PMEMBER ALL
48 — STAAD.Pro
1B. Australian Codes  Steel Design per AS 4100  1998
Section 2
British Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 49
50 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the British code BS81101:1997
Structural use of concrete  Part 1: Code of practice for design and construction. Given the
width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a section, the program will calculate
the required reinforcement to resist the forces and moments.
Design of members per BS81101:1997 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
Note: It is strongly recommended that you perform new concrete design using the RC
Designer Module. The following is provided to allow old STAAD files to be run.
2A.1 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the
design to BS8110. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code
calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of
commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis.
Table 2A.1 contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE  Must be specified as BRITISH to invoke design
per BS8110.
Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
BRACE 0.0 0.0 = Column braced in both directions.
1.0 = Column unbraced about local Z
direction only
2.0 = Column unbraced about local Y
direction only
3.0 = Column unbraced in both Y and Z
directions
CLEAR 20 mm Clearance of reinforcement measured from
concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.
Table 2A.1British Concrete Design BS 8110 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 51
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member, in current units.
This value default is as provided as YD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam, in
current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local Y direction
for column design.
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z direction
for column design.
FC 30 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength, in
current units
FYMAIN 460
N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcement, in current
units (For slabs, it is for reinforcement in both
directions)
FYSEC 460
N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a, in
current units. Applicable to shear bars in
beams
MAX
MAIN
50mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.
MINMAIN 8mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50
MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary bar size a. Applicable to
shear reinforcement in beams
MMAG 1.0 Factor by which column design moments are
magnified
NSE
CTION
10 Number of equallyspaced sections to be
considered in finding critical moment for
beam design. The upper limit is 20.
52 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
SERV 0.0 Serviceability checks:
0.0 = No serviceability check
performed.
1.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were
continuous.
2.0 = Perform serviceability
check for beams as if they were
simply supported.
3.0 = Perform serviceability
check for beams as if they were
cantilever beams.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of beam, in
current units. (Only applicable for shear  use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending )
SRA 0.0 0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout
without considering torsional moment Mxy 
slabs only
500 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout with
Mxy used to calculate Wood & Armer
moments for design.
A = skew angle considered in Wood & Armer
equations where A is the angle in degrees.
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Critical Moment will not be printed
with beam design report. Column design gives
no detailed results.
1.0 = For beam gives min/max steel % and
spacing. For columns gives a detailed table of
output with additional moments calculated.
2.0 = Output of TRACK 1.0
List of design sag/hog moments and
corresponding required steel area at each
section of member
WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member, in current units.
This value default is as provided as ZD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
2A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations
International Design Codes Manual — 53
STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effects in the
analysis and design of concrete members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure
presented in BS8110 Part 1 1985 Section 3.8.2.2 In this section, the code recognizes that
additional moments induced by deflection are present and states that these 'secondary'
moments are accounted for by the design formula in Section 3.8.3. This is the method used
in the design for concrete in STAAD.
Alternatively STAAD houses a PDELTA ANALYSIS facility, which allows the effects of these
second order moments to be considered in the analysis rather than the design. In a PDELTA
analysis, after solving the joint displacements of the structure, the additional moments
induced in the structure are calculated. These can be compared to those calculated using the
formulation of BS8110.
2A.3 Member Dimensions
Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
*RECTANGULAR COLUMN 300MM WIDE X 450MM DEEP
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 300.
*CIRCULAR COLUMN 300MM DIAMETER
11 13 PR YD 300.
* TSECTION  FLANGE 1000.X 200.(YDYB)
*  STEM 250(THICK) X 350.(DEEP)
14 PRISM YD 550. ZD 1000. YB 350. ZB 250.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth x 300mm width)
and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to
be circular with 300mm diameter. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these members. If
shear area areas ( AY & AZ ) are to be considered in analysis, the user may provide them along
with YD and ZD. Also note that if moments of inertias are not provided, the program will
calculate them from YD and ZD. Finally a T section can be considered by using the third
definition above.
2A.4 Beam Design
Beam design includes both flexure and shear. For both types of beam action, all active beam
loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes and locate the critical sections.
The total number of sections considered is ten, unless that number is redefined with the
NSECTION parameter. From the critical moment values, the required positive and negative
bar pattern is developed with cutoff lengths calculated to include required development
length.
Shear design as per BS8110 clause 3.4.5 has been followed and the procedure includes critical
shear values plus torsional moments. From these values, stirrup sizes are calculated with
54 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
proper spacing. The program will scan from each end of the member and provide a total of two
shear regions at each, depending on the change of shear distribution along the beam. If
torsion is present, the program will also consider the provisions of BS8110  Part 2 section 2.4.
A table of shear and/or combined torsion is then provided with critical shear.
Stirrups not bent up bars are assumed in the design. The example output below shows a
sample output of an actual reinforcement pattern developed by STAAD. The following
annotations apply:
l LEVEL  Serial number of the bar center which may contain one or more bar
groups.
l HEIGHT  Height of bar level from the soffit of the beam in relation to its local y
axis.
l BAR INFO  Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and their size.
l FROM  Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the reinforcing bar.
l TO  Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the reinforcing bar.
l ANCHOR  States whether anchorage, either a hook or
l (STA,END) continuation, is needed at start (STA) or at the end (END).
The following is an example TRACK 2.0 beam design output:
====================================================================
B E A M N O. 13 D E S I G N R E S U L T S  FLEXURE
LEN  1500. mm FY  460. FC  30. SIZE  300. X 300. mm
LEVEL HEIGHT BAR INFO FROM TO ANCHOR
mm mm mm STA END

1 29. 4 8 MM 467. 1500. NO YES
2 264. 4 8 MM 0. 1158. YES NO
REQUIRED REINF. STEEL SUMMARY :

SECTION REINF STEEL(+VE/VE) MOMENTS(+VE/VE) LOAD(+VE/VE)
( MM ) (SQ. MM ) (KNMETER)
0. 0.0/ 184.4 0.00/ 19.71 0/ 3
125. 0.0/ 157.2 0.00/ 16.80 0/ 3
250. 0.0/ 129.9 0.00/ 13.89 0/ 3
375. 0.0/ 117.0 0.00/ 10.98 0/ 3
500. 0.0/ 117.0 0.00/ 8.07 0/ 3
625. 0.0/ 117.0 0.00/ 5.16 0/ 3
750. 0.0/ 117.0 0.00/ 2.25 0/ 3
875. 117.0/ 0.0 2.15/ 0.00 1/ 0
1000. 117.0/ 0.0 5.25/ 0.00 1/ 0
1125. 117.0/ 0.0 8.36/ 0.00 1/ 0
1250. 117.0/ 0.0 11.46/ 0.00 1/ 0
1375. 136.3/ 0.0 14.57/ 0.00 1/ 0
1500. 165.3/ 0.0 17.67/ 0.00 1/ 0
B E A M N O. 13 D E S I G N R E S U L T S  SHEAR
PROVIDE SHEAR LINKS AS FOLLOWS

International Design Codes Manual — 55
 FROM  TO  MAX. SHEAR  LOAD  LINKS  NO.  SPACING C/C 

 END 1 749 mm  24.8 kN  1  8 mm  5  187 mm 
 749 END 2  24.8 kN  1  8 mm  5  187 mm 

___ 7J____________________ 1500.X 300.X 300_____________________ 8J____
 
========================================================= 
 4No8 H 264. 0.TO 1158    
 5*8 c/c187    5*8 c/c187 
 4No8 H 29. 467.TO 1500  
 ====================================================
 
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
       
 oooo   oooo   oooo   
 4T8   4T8   4T8   
       
   4T8   4T8   4T8 
   oooo   oooo   oooo 
       
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
2A.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial bending at the ends. All active loadings are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load and is displayed. The requirements of BS8110 Part 1  section 3.8 are
followed, with the user having control on the effective length in each direction by using the
ELZ and ELY parameters as described in Table 2A.1. Bracing conditions are controlled by
using the BRACE parameter. The program will then decide whether or not the column is short
or slender and whether it requires additional moment calculations. For biaxial bending, the
recommendations of 3.8.4.5 of the code are considered.
Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. For rectangular and
square sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be arranged symmetrically. This
causes slightly conservative results in certain cases. Below is a typical column design results.
Using parameter TRACK 1.0, the detailed output below is obtained. TRACK 0.0 would merely
give the bar configuration, required steel area and percentage, column size and critical load
case.
==================================================================
==
C O L U M N N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
FY  460. FC 30. N/MM2 SQRE SIZE  300. X 300. MM,
AREA OF STEEL REQUIRED = 940. SQ. MM.
BAR CONFIGURATION REINF PCT. LOAD LOCATION

12 10 MM 1.047 1 EACH END
56 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
(PROVIDE EQUAL NUMBER OF BARS AT EACH FACE)

BRACED /SLENDER in z E.L.z= 4500 mm (3.8.1.3 & 5)
BRACED /SLENDER in y E.L.y= 4500 mm (3.8.1.3 & 5)
END MOMS. MZ1= 12 MZ2= 24 MY1= 15 MY2= 31
SLENDERNESS MOMTS. KNM: MOMZ= 2 MOMY= 2 
DESIGN LOADS KN METER: MOM.= 55 AXIAL LOAD= 74
DESIGNED CAP. KN METER: MOM.= 55 AXIAL CAP.= 74

2A.6 Slab Design
Slabs are designed to BS8110 specifications. To design a slab, it must first be modeled using
finite elements. The command specifications are in accordance with Section 5.52 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
A typical example of element design output is shown in below. The reinforcement required to
resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement
required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement ( Fig. 4.1 ). The
following parameters are those applicable to slab design:
l FYMAIN  Yield stress for all reinforcing steel
l FC  Concrete grade
l CLEAR  Distance from the outer surface to the edge of the bar. This is considered the
same on both surfaces.
l SRA  Parameter which denotes the angle of the required transverse reinforcement
relative to the longitudinal reinforcement for the calculation of Wood & Armer design
moments.
Other parameters, as shown in Table 2A.1 are not applicable.
2A.6.1 Wood & Armer equations
Ref: R H WOOD CONCRETE 1968 (FEBRUARY)
If the default value of zero is used for the parameter SRA, the design will be based on the Mx
and My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis. The SRA parameter (Set
Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce Wood & Armer moments into the
design replacing the pure Mx, My moments. These new design moments allow the Mxy
moment to be considered when designing the section. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may
be considered. SRA set to 500 will assume an orthogonal layout. If however a skew is to be
considered, an angle is given in degrees measured anticlockwise (positive) from the element
local xaxis to the reinforcement bar. The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and
shown in the design format.
The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 16 mm in both directions with the
longitudinal bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior face. Typical output is as follows:
ELEMENT DESIGN SUMMARYBASED ON 16mm BARS

MINIMUM AREAS ARE ACTUAL CODE MIN % REQUIREMENTS.
International Design Codes Manual — 57
PRACTICAL LAYOUTS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
FY=460, 6No.16mm BARS AT 150mm C/C = 1206mm2/metre
FY=250, 4No.16mm BARS AT 250mm C/C = 804mm2/metre
ELEMENT LONG. REINF MOMX /LOAD TRANS. REINF MOMY /LOAD
(mm2/m) (kNm/m) (mm2/m) (kNm/m)

 WOOD & ARMER RESOLVED MOMENTS FOR ELEMENT: 47 UNITS: METRE kN 
 LOAD MX MY MXY MX* MY*/Ma* ANGLE 
 1 10.441 13.347 1.270 0.000 0.000 0.000 TOP 
 1 10.441 13.347 1.270 11.710 14.617 0.000 BOTT 
 3 9.541 11.995 0.986 0.000 0.000 0.000 TOP 
 3 9.541 11.995 0.986 10.527 12.981 0.000 BOTT 

47 TOP : 195. 0.00 / 0 195. 0.00 / 0
BOTT: 229. 11.71 / 1 329. 14.62 / 1
2A.7 Shear Wall Design
Design of shear walls in accordance with BS 8110 has been added to the features of the
program.
The program implements the provisions of BS 8110 for the design of shear walls. It performs
inplane shear, compression, as well as inplane and outofplane bending design of
reinforcing. The shear wall is modeled by a single or a combination of Surface elements. The
use of the Surface element enables the designer to treat the entire wall as one entity. It
greatly simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to the analysis and design output.
The results are presented in the context of the entire wall rather than individual finite
elements thereby allowing users to quickly locate required information.
The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for user
specified number of sections given by SURFACE DIVISION (default value is 10) command. The
shear wall is designed at these horizontal sections. The output includes the required
horizontal and vertical distributed reinforcing, the concentrated (inplane bending)
reinforcing and the link required due to outofplane shear.
2A.7.1 Design Parameters
START SHEARWALL DESIGN
CODE BRITISH
shearwallparameters
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwalllist
END
The next table explains parameters used in the shear wall design command block above.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
58 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
FYMAIN
460
Mpa
Yield strength of steel, in current units.
FC 30 Mpa
Compressive strength of concrete, in current
units.
HMIN 6
Minimum size of horizontal reinforcing bars
(range 6 mm – 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
HMAX 36
Maximum size of horizontal reinforcing bars
(range 6 mm – 36 mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
VMIN 6
Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars
(range 6mm – 36mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
VMAX 36
Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars
(range 6mm – 36mm). If input is 6 (integer
number) the program will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
EMIN 6
Minimum size of vertical reinforcing bars
located in edge zones (range 6mm – 36mm).
If input is 6 (integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
EMAX 36
Maximum size of vertical reinforcing bars
located in edge zones (range 6mm – 36mm).
If input is 6 (integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
LMIN 6
Minimum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm).
If input is 6 (integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
LMAX 16
Maximum size of links (range 6mm – 16mm).
If input is 6 (integer number) the program
will assume 6 mm diameter bar.
CLEAR 25 mm Clear concrete cover, in current units.
Table 2A.2Shear Wall Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 59
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
TWOLAYERED 0
Reinforcement placement mode:
0. single layer, each direction
1. two layers, each direction
KSLENDER 1.5
Slenderness factor for finding effective
height.
1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary nodetonode
segments will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. For instance,
the line 2 TO 5GEN PIN assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5.
As the nodetonode distances were previously subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12
command, there will be an additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all
13 nodes will be assigned pinned supports. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are
not individually accessible to the user. They are created by the program to enable the
finite element mesh generation and to allow application of boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE PROPERTY
and SURFACE CONSTANTS, respectively.
5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START SHEARWALL DES
and END. The CODE command selects the design code that will be the basis for the
design. For British code the parameter is BRITISH. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST
command is followed by a list of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear
walls and/or shear wall components.
2A.7.2 Technical Overview
The program implements provisions of section 3.9 of BS 8110:Part 1:1997 and relevant
provisions as referenced therein, for all active load cases. The wall is designed as unbraced
reinforced wall. The following steps are performed for each of the horizontal sections of the
wall set using the SURFACE DIVISION command (see Description above).
Checking of slenderness limit
The slenderness checking is done for outofplane direction. For outofplane direction, the
wall is assumed to be simply supported. Hence, the provisions of clause 3.9.3.2.2 and 3.9.4.2 are
applicable. The default effective height is 1.5 times the clear height. User can change the
effective height. The limit for slenderness is as per table 3.23 for unbraced wall, which is taken
as 30.
60 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
Design for inplane bending (denoted by Mz in the shear wall force
output)
Walls are assumed to be cantilever beams fixed at their base and carrying loads to the
foundation.
Extreme compression fibre to centroid of tension (concentrated) reinforcement distance, d, is
taken as 0.8 horizontal length of the wall. Flexural design of the wall is carried out in
accordance with the provisions of clause no. 3.4.4. The flexural (concentrated vertical )
reinforcing is located at both ends (edges) of the length of the wall. The edge reinforcement is
assumed to be distributed over a length of 0.2 times horizontal length on each side. This
length is inclusive of the thickness of the wall. Minimum reinforcements are according to
table 3.25.
Design for inplane shear (denoted by Fxy in the shear wall force
output)
Limit on the nominal shear strength, v is calculated as per clause no. 3.4.5.2.
Nominal shear strength of concrete is computed as per table 3.8.
The design shear stress is computed as per clause no. 3.4.5.12 taking into consideration the
effect of axial load. The area of reinforcement is calculated and checked against the minimum
area as per clause no. 3.12.7.4.
Design for compression and outofplane vertical bending
This is denoted by Fy and My respectively in the shear wall force output.
The wall panel is designed as simply supported (at top and bottom), axially loaded with out
ofplane uniform lateral load, with maximum moments and deflections occurring at mid
height. Design is done as per clause no. 3.8.4 for axially loaded column with uniaxial bending.
The minimum reinforcement percentage is as per table 3.25. The maximum reinforcement
percentage of vertical reinforcement is as per clause no. 3.12.6.3. Links if necessary are calculated
as per the provisions of clause 3.12.7.5.
Design for outofplane shear (denoted by Qy in the shear wall
force output)
The outofplane shear arises from outofplane loading. The design shear stress is calculated as
per 3.4.5.2 and shear strength of concrete section is calculated as per table 3.8 considering
vertical reinforcement as tension reinforcement.
Shear reinforcements in the form of links are computed as per table 3.7 and the provisions of
clause 3.12.7.5.
International Design Codes Manual — 61
Design for outofplane horizontal bending (denoted by Mx in the
shear wall force output)
The horizontal reinforcement already calculated from inplane shear is checked against the
whole section subjected to outofplane bending and axial load. The axial load in this case is
the inplane shear. The section is again designed as axially loaded column under uniaxial
bending as per the provisions of clause 3.8.4. Extra reinforcement in the form of horizontal
bars, if necessary, is reported.
2A.7.3 Example
The following example starts from the definition of shear wall and ends at the shear wall
design.
.
.
SET DIVISION 12
SURFACE INCIDENCES
2 5 37 34 SUR 1
19 16 65 68 SUR 2
11 15 186 165 SUR 3
10 6 138 159 SUR 4
.
.
.
SURFACE PROPERTY
1 TO 4 THI 18
SUPPORTS
1 7 14 20 PINNED
2 TO 5 GEN PIN
6 TO 10 GEN PIN
11 TO 15 GEN PIN
19 TO 16 GEN PIN
.
.
SURFACE CONSTANTS
E 3150
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 8.68E005
ALPHA 5.5E006
.
62 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
.
START SHEARWALL DES
CODE BRITISH
UNIT NEW MMS
FC 25
FYMAIN 460
TWO 1
VMIN 12
HMIN 12
EMIN 12
DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4
END
2A.7.4 Shear Wall Design With Opening
The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear walls with rectangular
openings. The automatic meshing algorithm has been improved to allow variable divisions
along wall and opening(s) edges. Design and output are available for user selected locations.
Shear walls modeled in STAAD.Pro may include an unlimited number of openings. Due to the
presence of openings, the wall may comprise up with different wall panels.
Shear wall setup
Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface element perimeter nodes,
meshing divisions along nodetonode segments, opening(s) corner coordinates, and meshing
divisions of four edges of the opening(s).
SURFACE INCIDENCE n1, ..., ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1, ..., sdj 
RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION od1, ..., odk
Where:
n1, ..., ni  node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall,
s  surface ordinal number,
sd1, ..., sdj  number of divisions for each of the nodetonode distance on the
surface perimeter,
x1 y1 z1 (...)  coordinates of the corners of the opening,
od1, ..., odk  divisions along edges of the opening.
Note: If the sd1, ..., sdj or the od1, ..., odk list does not include all nodeto
node segments, or if any of the numbers listed equals zero, then the
International Design Codes Manual — 63
corresponding division number is set to the default value (=10, or as
previously input by the SET DIVISION command).
Default locations for stress/force output, design, and design output are set as follows:
SURFACE DIVISION X xd
SURFACE DIVISION Y yd
Where:
xd  number of divisions along X axis,
yd  number of divisions along Y axis.
Note: xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of the surface
where output is requested. The output is provided for sections located between
division segments. For example, if the number of divisions = 2, then the output
will be produced for only one section (at the center of the edge).
Stress/force output printing
Values of internal forces may be printed out for any userdefined section of the wall. The
general format of the command is as follows:
PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG ξ) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1, d2) LIST s1, ...,si
Where:
ξ  local axis of the surface element (X or Y),
a  distance along the ξ axis from start of the member to the full
crosssection of the wall,
d1, d2  coordinates in the direction orthogonal to ξ, delineating a fragment
of the full crosssection for which the output is desired.**
s1, ...,si  list of surfaces for output generation
** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. If the local axis is directed away from
the surface, the negative range is to be entered.
Note: If command ALONG is omitted, direction Y (default) is assumed. If command AT
is omitted, output is provided for all sections along the specified (or default) edge.
Number of sections will be determined from the SURFACE DIVISION X or
SURFACE DIVISION Y input values. If the BETWEEN command is omitted, the
output is generated based on full crosssection width.
64 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
Definition of wall panels
Input syntax for panel definition is as follows:
START PANEL DEFINITION
SURFACE i PANEL j ptype x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4
ENDPANEL DEFINITION
where:
i  ordinal surface number,
j  ordinal panel number,
ptype  WALL
x1 y1 z1 (...)  coordinates of the corners of the panel
Note: Design of COLUMN and BEAM panels is currently not available.
Shear wall design
The program implements different provisions of design of walls as per code BS 8110. General
syntax of the design command is as follows:
START SHEARWALL DESIGN
(...)
DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT c) LIST s
TRACK tr
ENDSHEARWALL DESIGN
Parameter TRACK specifies how detailed the design output should be:
0  indicates a basic set of results data (default),
1  full design output will be generated.
If the command AT is omitted, the design proceeds for all cross sections of the wall or panels,
as applicable, defined by the SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values.
a. No panel definition.
Design is performed for the specified horizontal full crosssection, located at a distance
c from the origin of the local coordinates system. If opening is found then
reinforcement is provided along sides of openings. The area of horizontal and vertical
bars provided along edges of openings is equal to that of the respective interrupted bars.
b. Panels have been defined.
International Design Codes Manual — 65
Design is performed for all panels, for the crosssection located at a distance c from the
start of the panel.
66 — STAAD.Pro
2A. British Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 59501:2000
Structural use of steelwork in building  Part 1: Code of practice for design  Rolled and welded
sections, Incorporating Corrigendum No. 1.
Design of members per BS 59501:2000 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
2B.1 General
The design philosophy embodied in BS5950:2000 is built around the concept of limit state
design, used today in most modern steel design codes. Structures are designed and
proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which they become unfit for their
intended use. Two major categories of limit state are recognized  serviceability and ultimate.
The primary considerations in ultimate limit state design are strength and stability while that
in serviceability limit state is deflection. Appropriate safety factors are used so that the chances
of limits being surpassed are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation of BS5950:2000, members are proportioned to resist the design
loads without exceeding the limit states of strength and stability. Accordingly, the most
economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria. This procedure is
controlled by the designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type or
other such parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks that code
requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The complete B.S.C. steel tables for both hot rolled and hollow sections are built into the
program for use in specifying member properties as well as for the actual design process. See
section 2B.4 for information regarding the referencing of these sections. In addition to
universal beams, columns, joists, piles, channels, tees, composite sections, beams with cover
plates, pipes, tubes, and angles, there is a provision for user provided tables.
STAAD.Pro 2006 and later have the additional option to design tapered I shaped (wide flange)
beams according to Annex G of BS5950. See Section 2B.13 for a complete description.
Single Angle Sections
Angle sections are unsymmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider
four axes: two principal, uu and vv and two geometric, aa and bb. The effective length for
the vv axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY · KY, if not specified. The aa and bb
axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be
specified using the LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG
parameter. The effective length in the aa axis is taken as LY · KY and the effective length in
the bb axis as LZ · KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or
RA specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., aa axis is parallel to the longer leg).
International Design Codes Manual — 67
Figure 2B.1  Axis orientation for single angles
ST angle and
USER table angles
RA angle
2B.2 Analysis Methodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular
stiffness analysis or PDelta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed
and the results combined with static analysis results.
2B.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties, the steel section library available in STAAD may be
used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the
builtin steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. Any
userdefined section may be specified, except for GENERAL or PRISMATIC sections. For more
information on these facilities, refer to Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
2B.4 BuiltIn Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, the properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into
these tables, shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.
Almost all BSI steel sections are available for input. A complete listing of the sections
available in the builtin steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the
graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections available:
68 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
2B.4.1 Universal Beams, Columns, and Piles
All rolled universal beams, columns and pile sections are available. The following examples
illustrate the designation scheme.
20 TO 30 TA ST UB305X165X54
33 36 TA ST UC356X406X287
100 102 106 TA ST UP305X305X186
2B.4.2 Rolled Steel Joists
Joist sections may be specified as they are listed in BSI80 with the weight omitted. In those
cases where two joists have the same specifications but different weights, the lighter section
should be specified with an "A" at the end.
10 TO 20 TA ST JO152X127
1 2 TA ST JO127X114A
2B.4.3 Channels
All rolled steel channel sections from the BSI table have been incorporated in STAAD. The
designation is similar to that of the joists. The same designation scheme as in BSI tables may
be used with the weight omitted.
10 TO 15 TA ST CH305X102
55 57 59 61 TA ST CH178X76
2B.4.4 Double Channels
Backtoback double channels, with or without spacing between them, are available. The letter
"D" in front of the section name will specify a double channel (e.g., D CH102X51, D CH203X89,
etc.)
51 52 53 TA D CH152X89
70 TO 80 TA D CH305X102 SP 5.
(specifies a double channel with a spacing of 5 length units)
Note: Facetoface double channels can not be used in a CHECK CODE command.
2B.4.5 Tee Sections
Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the
universal beam shapes from which they are cut. For example,
54 55 56 TA T UB254X102X22
International Design Codes Manual — 69
(tee cut from UB254X102X22)
2B.4.6 Angles
All equal and unequal angles are available for analysis. Two types of specifications may be used
to describe an angle section, either a standard, ST specification or reversed angle, RA
specification. Note, however, that only angles specified with an RA specification can be
designed.
The standard angle section is specified as follows:
15 20 25 TA ST UA200X150X18
This specification may be used when the local STAAD zaxis corresponds to the VV axis
specified in the steel tables. If the local STAAD yaxis corresponds to the VV axis in the
tables, type specification "RA" (reverse angle) may be used.
35 TO 45 TA RA UA200X150X18
2B.4.7 Double Angles
Short leg backtoback or long leg backtoback double angles can be specified by inputting
the word SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either LD
or SD will serve the purpose. For example,
14 TO 20 TA LD UA200X200X16 SP 1.5
23 27 TA SD UA80X60X6
"SP" denotes spacing between the individual angle sections.
Note: If the section is defined from a Double Angle User Table, then the section
properties must be defined with an 11
th
value which defines the radius of gyration
about an individual sections’ principal vv axis (See Technical Reference Manual,
5.19 User Steel Table Specification)
2B.4.8 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)
To designate circular hollow sections from BSI tables, use PIP followed by the numerical
value of diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the
value provided for diameter. The following example will illustrate the designation.
10 15 TA ST PIP213.2
(specifies a 21.3 mm dia. pipe with 3.2 mm wall thickness)
Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters
of the section. For example,
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2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
(specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20 in current length units)
Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is
used.
2B.4.9 Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections (Tubes)
Designation of tubes from the BSI steel table is illustrated below:
Figure 2B.2  BSI tube nomenclature
Example:
15 TO 25 TA ST TUB160808.0
Tubes, like pipes, can also be input by their dimensions (Height, Width and Thickness) and
not by any table designations.
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
(A TUBE THAT HAS A HEIGHT OF 8, A WIDTH OF 6, AND A WALL THICKNESS
OF 0.5 LENGTH UNITS)
Note: Only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections
specified this way.
2B.5 Member Capacities
The basic measure of capacity of a beam is taken as the plastic moment of the section. This is a
significant departure from the standard practice followed in BS449, in which the limiting
condition was attainment of yield stress at the extreme fibres of a given section. With the
introduction of the plastic moment as the basic measure of capacity, careful consideration
must be given to the influence of local buckling on moment capacity. To assist this, sections
are classified as either Class 1, plastic, Class 2, compact, Class 3, semicompact or Class 4,
slender, which governs the decision whether to use the plastic or the elastic moment capacity.
The section classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section. STAAD is
capable of determining the section classification for both hot rolled and built up sections. In
addition, for slender sections, BS5950 recommends the use of a 'stress reduction factor' to
International Design Codes Manual — 71
reduce the design strength. This factor is again a function of the geometry of the section and
is automatically determined by STAAD for use in the design process.
2B.5.1 Axial Tension
In members with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the
member. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the effective area as
outlined in Section 4.6 of the code. STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member
per this procedure, based on a user supplied net section factor (NSFa default value of 1.0 is
present but may be altered by changing the input value  see Table 2B.1), proceeding with
member selection or code check accordingly. BS5950 does not have any slenderness
limitations for tension members.
2B.5.2 Compression
Compression members must be designed so that the compression resistance of the member is
greater than the axial compressive load. Compression resistance is determined according to
the compressive strength, which is a function of the slenderness of the gross section, the
appropriate design strength and the relevant strut characteristics. Strut characteristics take
into account the considerable influence residual rolling and welding stresses have on column
behavior. Based on data collected from extensive research, it has been determined that
sections such as tubes with low residual stresses and Universal Beams and Columns are of
intermediate performance. It has been found that Ishaped sections are less sensitive to
imperfections when constrained to fail about an axis parallel to the flanges. These research
observations are incorporated in BS5950 through the use of four strut curves together with a
selection of tables to indicate which curve to use for a particular case. Compression strength
for a particular section is calculated in STAAD according to the procedure outlined in Annex
C of BS5950 where compression strength is seen to be a function of the appropriate Robertson
constant ( representing Strut Curve) corresponding Perry factor, limiting slenderness of the
member and appropriate design strength.
A departure from BS5950:1990, generally compression members are no longer required to be
checked for slenderness limitations, however, this option can be included by specifying a
MAIN parameter. Note, a slenderness limit of 50 is still applied on double angles checked as
battened struts as per clause 4.7.9.
2B.5.3 Axially Loaded Members With Moments
In the case of axially loaded members with moments, the moment capacity of the member
must be calculated about both principal axes and all axial forces must be taken into account.
If the section is plastic or compact, plastic moment capacities will constitute the basic
moment capacities subject to an elastic limitation. The purpose of this elastic limitation is to
prevent plasticity at working load. For semicompact or slender sections, the elastic moment
is used. For plastic or compact sections with high shear loads, the plastic modulus has to be
reduced to accommodate the shear loads. The STAAD implementation of BS5950 incorporates
the procedure outlined in section 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 to calculate the appropriate moment
capacities of the section.
72 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
For members with axial tension and moment, the interaction formula as outlined in section
4.8.2 is applied based on effective tension capacity.
For members with axial compression and moment, two principal interaction formulae must be
satisfied – Cross Section Capacity check (4.8.3.2) and the Member Buckling Resistance check
(4.8.3.3 ). Three types of approach for the member buckling resistance check have been
outlined in BS5950:2000  the simplified approach (4.8.3.3.1), the more exact approach (4.8.3.3.2)
and Annex I1 for stocky members. As noted in the code, in cases where neither the major axis
nor the minor axis moment approaches zero, the more exact approach may be more
conservative than the simplified approach. It has been found, however, that this is not always
the case and STAAD therefore performs both checks, comparing the results in order that the
more appropriate criteria can be used.
Additionally the equivalent moment factors, m
x
m
y
and m
yx
, can be specified by the user or
calculated by the program.
Members subject to biaxial moments in the absence of both tensile and compressive axial
forces are checked using the appropriate method described above with all axial forces set to
zero. STAAD also carries out cross checks for compression only, which for compact/plastic
sections may be more critical. If this is the case, COMPRESSION will be the critical condition
reported despite the presence of moments.
2B.5.4 Shear
A member subjected to shear is considered adequate if the shear capacity of the section is
greater than the shear load on the member. Shear capacity is calculated in STAAD using the
procedure outlined in section 4.2.3, also 4.4.5 and Annex H3 if appropriate, considering the
appropriate shear area for the section specified.
2B.5.5 Lateral Torsional Buckling
Since plastic moment capacity is the basic moment capacity used in BS5950, members are
likely to experience relatively large deflections. This effect, coupled with lateral torsional
buckling, may result in severe serviceability limit state. Hence, lateral torsional buckling must
be considered carefully.
The procedure to check for lateral torsional buckling as outlined in section 4.3 has been
incorporated in the STAAD implementation of BS5950. According to this procedure, for a
member subjected to moments about the major axis, the 'equivalent uniform moment' on the
section must be less than the lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. For calculation of
the buckling resistance moment, the procedure outlined in Annex B.2 has been implemented
for all sections with the exception of angles. In Annex B.2., the resistance moment is given as a
function of the elastic critical moment, Perry coefficient, and limiting equivalent slenderness,
which are calculated within the program; and the equivalent moment factor, m
LT
, which is
determined as a function of the loading configuration and the nature of the load (stabilizing,
destabilizing, etc).
International Design Codes Manual — 73
2B.5.6 RHS Sections  Additional Provisions
Rectangular Hollow sections are treated in accordance with S.C.I. recommendations in cases
when the plastic axis is in the flange. In such cases, the following expressions are used to
calculate the reduced plastic moduli:
For n ≥ 2t(D2t)/A
·
¸
¸
−
_
,
¸
+ −
1
]
1
−
−
S n n 1 1
rx
A
B t
D B t
A 4( )
2 ( )
2
For n ≥ 2t(B2t)/A
·
¸
¸
−
_
,
¸
+ −
1
]
1
−
−
S n n 1 1
ry
A
D t
B D t
A 4( )
2 ( )
2
2B.6 Design Parameters
Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5950 are listed in table 2B.1
along with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE 
Must be specified as BS5950
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
AD Depth at end/2
Distance between the reference axis
and the axis of restraint. See G.2.3
Table 2B.1British Steel Design BS5950:2000 Parameters
74 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BEAM 3.0
Beam divisions
0. Design only for end
moments or those locations
specified by the SECTION
command.
1. Calculate forces and
moments at 12
th
points
along the member. Establish
the location where Mz is the
maximum. Use the forces
and moments at that
location. Clause checks at
one location.
2. Same as BEAM = 1.0 but
additional checks are carried
out for each end.
3. Calculate moments at 12
th
points along the member.
Clause checks at each
location including the ends
of the member.
CAN 0
Deflection check method. See Note
1 below.
0. Deflection check based on
the principle that maximum
deflection occurs within the
span between DJ1 and DJ2.
1. Deflection check based on
the principle that maximum
deflection is of the
cantilever type (see note
below)
International Design Codes Manual — 75
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CB 1.0
Moment calculation:
1. BS5950 per clause B.2.5
(continuous) to calculate
Mb.
2. To calculate Mbs (simple) as
per Clause 4.7.7 as opposed
to Mb.
DFF
None
(Mandatory for
deflection check,
TRACK 4.0)
"Deflection Length" / Maxm.
allowable local deflection
See Note 1d below.
DJ1
Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point
for calculation of "Deflection
Length."
See Note 1 below.
DJ2
End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length."
See Note 1 below.
DMAX * 100.0cm Maximum allowable depth
DMIN * 0.0 cm Minimum allowable depth
ESTIFF 0.0
Clauses 4.8.3.3.1 and 4.8.3.3.2
0.0 = Fail ratio uses
MIN of 4.8.3.3.1,
4.8.3.3.2. and Annex I1
checks.
1.0 = Fail ratio uses
MAX of 4.8.3.3.1,
4.8.3.3.2. and Annex I1
checks.
KY 1.0
K factor value in local y  axis.
Usually, this is the minor axis.
KZ 1.0
K factor value in local z  axis.
Usually, this is the major axis.
76 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LEG 0.0
Valid range from 0 – 7 and 10. The
values correspond to table 25 of
BS5950 for fastener conditions. See
note 2 below.
LVV *
Maximum of Lyy
and Lzz
(Lyy is a term
used
by BS5950)
Used in conjunction with LEG for
Lvv as per BS5950 table 25 for
double angles. See note 6 below.
LY * Member Length
Length in local y  axis (current
units) to calculate (KY)(LY)/Ryy
slenderness ratio.
LZ * Member Length
Length in local z  axis (current
units) to calculate (KZ)(LZ)/Rzz
slenderness ratio.
MLT 1.0
Equivalent moment factor for
lateral torsional buckling as
defined in clause 4.8.3.3.4
MX 1.0
Equivalent moment factor for
major axis flexural buckling as
defined in clause 4.8.3.3.4
MY 1.0
Equivalent moment factor for
minor axis flexural buckling as
defined in clause 4.8.3.3.4
MYX 1.0
Equivalent moment factor for
minor axis lateral flexural buckling
as defined in clause 4.8.3.3.4
NSF 1.0
Net section factor for tension
members.
PNL * 0.0
Transverse stiffener spacing (‘a’ in
Annex H1)
0.0 = Infinity
Any other value used in the
calculations.
International Design Codes Manual — 77
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
PY *
Set according to
steel grade (SGR)
Design strength of steel
MAIN 0.0
Slenderness limit for members
with compression forces, effective
length/ radius of gyration, for a
given axis:
0.0 = Slenderness
not performed.
1.0 = Main structural
member (180)
2.0 = Secondary
member. (250)
3.0 = Bracing etc
(350)
RATIO 1.0
Permissible ratio of the actual
capacities.
SAME** 0.0
Controls the sections to try during
a SELECT process.
0.0 = Try every
section of the same
type as original
1.0 = Try only those
sections with a
similar name as
original, e.g., if the
original is an HEA
100, then only HEA
sections will be
selected, even if there
are HEM’s in the
same table.
78 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SBLT 0.0
Identify Section type for section
classification
0.0 = Rolled Section
1.0 = Built up
Section
2.0 = Cold formed
section
SWAY none
Specifies a load case number to
provide the sway loading forces in
clause 4.8.3.3.4 (See additional
notes)
SGR 0.0
Steel Grade per BS4360
0.0 = Grade S 275
1.0 = Grade S 355
2.0 = Grade S 460
3.0 = As per GB 1591
– 16 Mn
TB 0.0
LImit of moment capacity in Cl
4.2.5.1:
0 = Mc limit 1.5pyZ
1= Mc limit 1.2 pyZ
TRACK 0.0
Output details
0.0 = Suppress all
member capacity
info.
1.0 = Print all
member capacities.
2.0 = Print detailed
design sheet.
4.0 = Deflection
Check (separate
check to main select
/ check code)
International Design Codes Manual — 79
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
UNF 1.0
Factor applied to unsupported
length for Lateral Torsional
Buckling effective length per
section 4.3.6.7 of BS5950.
UNL * Member Length
Unsupported Length for
calculating Lateral Torsional
Buckling resistance moment
section 4.3.6.7 of BS5950.
WELD
1.0 closed
2.0 open
Weld Type, see AISC steel design
1.0 = Closed
sections. Welding on
one side only (except
for webs of wide
flange and tee
sections)
2.0 = Open
sections. Welding on
both sides (except
pipes and tubes)
* current units must be considered.
**For angles, if the original section is an equal angle, then the selected section will be an
equal angle and vice versa for unequal angles.
Note: There was an NT parameter in STAAD.Pro 2005 build 1003 which is now
automatically calculated during the design as it is load case dependant.
2B.6.1 Notes
1. CAN, DJ1, and DJ2 – Deflection
a. When performing the deflection check, you can choose between two methods.
The first method, defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter, is based on the
local displacement. Local displacement is described in Section 5.44 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
If the CAN parameter is set to 1, the check will be based on cantilever style
deflection. Let (DX1, DY1, DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global
axes) at the node defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1, the start node of the
member). Similarly, (DX2, DY2, DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or
the end node of the member.
80 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2  DX1)
2
+ (DY2  DY1)
2
+ (DZ2  DZ1)
2
)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end
node, as the case may be.
Then, if CAN is specified a value 1, dff = L/Delta
Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff
b. If CAN = 0, deflection length is defined as the length that is used for calculation
of local deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the
“Deflection Length” will be equal to the length of the member. However, in
some situations, the “Deflection Length” may be different. A straight line joining
DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are
measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using
four joints and three members. The “Deflection Length” for all three members
will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1
and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members
here, DJ1 should be 1 and DJ2 should be 4.
D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.
PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL
c. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member
length and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
d. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not
perform a deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no
default value for DFF.
e. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available
parameters for steel design.
2. LEG – follows the requirements of BS5950 table 28. This table concerns the fastener
restraint conditions for angles, double angles, tee sections and channels for slenderness.
The following values are available:
International Design Codes Manual — 81
Clause
Bold
Configuration
Leg
LEG
Parameter
4.7.10.2
Single Angle
(a)  2 bolts
short leg 1.0
long leg 3.0
(b)  1 bolts
short leg 0.0
long leg 2.0
4.7.10.3 Double
Angles
(a)  2 bolts
short leg 3.0
long leg 7.0
(b)  1 bolts
short leg 2.0
long leg 6.0
(c)  2 bolts
long leg 1.0
short leg 5.0
(d)  1 bolts
long leg 0.0
short leg 4.0
4.7.10.4 Channels
(a)  2 or more rows of bolts 1.0
(b)  1 row of bolts 0.0
4.7.10.5 Tee
Sections
(a)  2 or more rows of bolts 1.0
(b)  1 row of bolts 0.0
Table 2B.2 LEG Parameter values
The slenderness of single and double angle, channel and tee sections are specified in
BS 5950 table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member. To
define the appropriate connection, a LEG parameter should be assigned to the member.
The following list indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the
BS5950 connection definition:
Clause 4.7.10.2 Single Angle:
a. 2 Bolts: Short leg = 1.0, Long Leg = 3.0
b. 1 Bolt: Short Leg = 0.0, Long Leg = 2.0
For single angles, the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes, aa and bb as
well as the weak vv axis. The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:
La = KY * KY
Lb = KZ * LZ
82 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
The slenderness calculated for the vv axis is then used to calculate the compression
strength p
c
for the weaker principal axis (zz for ST angles or yy for RA specified
angles). The maximum slenderness of the aa and bb axes is used to calculate the
compression strength p
c
for the stronger principal axis.
Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not
appropriate, by setting the LEG parameter to 10, slenderness is calculated for the two
principal axes yy and zz only. The LVV parameter is not used.
For double angles, the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. In
addition, if using double angles from user tables, (Technical Reference Manual section
5.19) an eleventh value, r
vv
, should be supplied at the end of the ten existing values
corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle making up the pair.
3. PY – Steel Design Strength
The design parameter PY should only be used when a uniform design strength for an
entire structure or a portion thereof is required. Otherwise the value of PY will be set
according to the stipulations of BS5950 table 9 in which the design strength is seen as a
function of cross sectional thickness for a particular steel grade (SGR parameter) and
particular element considered. Generally speaking this option is not required and the
program should be allowed to ascertain the appropriate value.
4. UNL, LY, and LZ – Relevant Effective Length
The values supplied for UNL, LY and LZ should be real numbers greater than zero in
current units of length. They are supplied along with or instead of UNF, KY and KZ
(which are factors, not lengths) to define lateral torsional buckling and compression
effective lengths respectively. Please note that both UNL or UNF and LY or KY values
are required even though they are often the same values. The former relates to
compression flange restraint for lateral torsional buckling while the latter is the
unrestrained buckling length for compression checks.
5. TRACK – Control of Output Formats
When the TRACK parameter is set to 0.0, 1.0, or 2.0, member capacities will be printed in
design related output (code check or member selection) in kilonewtons per square
meter.
TRACK 4.0 causes the design to carry out a deflection check, usually with a different
load list to the main code check. The members that are to be checked must have the
parameters DFF, DJ1, and DJ2 set.
6. MX, MY, MYX, and MLT – Equivalent Moment Factors
The values for the equivalent moment factors can either be specified directly by the user
as a positive value between 0.4 and 1.0 for MX, MY and MYX and 0.44 and 1.0 for MLT.
International Design Codes Manual — 83
The program can be used to calculate the values for the equivalent moment factors by
defining the design member with a GROUP command (see the Technical Reference
Manual section 5.16 Listing of Members/Elements/Joints by Specification of GROUPS).
The nodes along the beam can then be defined as the location of restraint points with
J settings.
Additionally for the MLT parameter, the joint can be defined as having the upper
flange restrained (positive local Y) with the a U setting or the lower flange restrained
(negative local Y) with a L setting.
For example, consider a series of 5 beam elements as a single continuous member as
shown below:
To enable the steel design, the beam needs to be defined as a group, called MainBeam:
START GROUP DEFINITION
MEMBER
_MAINBEAM 11 2 38 12 3
END GROUP DEFINITION
Note: This can be done in the User Interface by selecting Tools > Create New
Group….
Therefore, this 5 beam member has 6 joints such that:
Joint 1 = Node 3
Joint 2 = Node 1
Joint 3 = Node 33
84 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Joint 4 = Node 14
Joint 5 = Node 7
Joint 6 = Node 2
a. Consider MX, MY and MYX
Say that this member has been restrained in its’ major axis (local Y) only at the
ends. In the minor axis (local Z) it has been restrained at the ends and also at
node number 33 (joint 3). For local flexural buckling, it has only been restrained
at its ends. Hence:
For the major axis, local Y axis:
MX _MainBeam J1 J6
For the minor axis, local Z axis:
MY _ MainBeam J1 J3 J6
For the lateral flexural buckling, local X axis:
MYX _ MainBeam J1 J6
b. Consider MLT
Say that this member has been restrained at its’ ends against lateral torsional buckling
and the top flange has been restrained at node number 33 (joint 3) and only the lower
flange at node number 7, (joint 5). Hence:
MLT _MainBeam J1 T3 L5 J6
To split the beam into two buckling lengths for L
y
at joint 14:
MY _groupname J1 J4 J6
7. SWAY – Sway Loadcase
This parameter is used to specify a load case that is to be treated as a sway load case in
the context of clause 4.8.3.3.4. This load case would be set up to represent the k
amp
M
s
mentioned in this clause and the steel design module would add the forces from this
load case to the forces of the other load case it is designed for.
Note that the load case specified with this parameter will not be designed as a separate
load case. The following is the correct syntax for the parameter:
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SWAY (load case
number)
ALL
MEMBER (member list)
_(group name)
International Design Codes Manual — 85
Example
SWAY 5 MEM 1 TO 10
SWAY 6 _MAINBEAMS
2B.7 Design Operations
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for the design of structural members as individual
components of an analyzed structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the
ability to carry out a number of different design operations. These facilities may be used
selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem.
The operations to perform a design are:
l Specify the load cases to be considered in the design; the default is all load cases.
l Specify design parameter values, if different from the default values.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection along with the list of
members.
These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the
design requirements.
2B.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per BS5950. Code checking is done using
the forces and moments at specific sections of the members. If no sections are specified, the
program uses the start and end forces for code checking.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members
have passed or failed the checks; the critical condition of BS5950 code (like any of the BS5950
specifications for compression, tension, shear, etc.); the value of the ratio of the critical
condition (overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the
governing load case, and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the
member where the critical condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the
user defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, except
profiles defined in GENERAL and ISECTION tables.
Note: PRISMATIC sections are also not acceptable steel sections for design per BS5950 in
STAAD.Pro.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
86 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
2B.9 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has
been performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest section,
which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected will be of
the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed. Member
selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the
maximum and minimum depth of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same
limitations as defined in section 2B.8 Code Checking.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as
prismatic or as above limitations for code checking.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
2B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated
fashion. The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has
been selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there
will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
CRITICAL COND
refers to the section of the BS5950 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design
FX, MY, and MZ
provide the axial force, moment in local Yaxis and the moment in local zaxis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments
(except torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are
the ones which are of interest, in most cases.
International Design Codes Manual — 87
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where
design forces govern.
TRACK
If the parameter TRACK is set to 1.0, the program will block out part of the table
and will print the allowable bending capacities in compression (MCY & MCZ) and
reduced moment capacities (MRY & MRZ), allowable axial capacity in compression
(PC) and tension (PT) and shear capacity (PV). TRACK 2.0 will produce the design
results as shown in section 2B.9.
An example of each TRACK setting follows:
2B.10.1 Example output for TRACK 0.0
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS BS4.3.6 0.769 3
179.66 C 0.00 334.46 0.00
2B.10.2 Example output for TRACK 1.0
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS BS4.3.6 0.769 3
179.66 C 0.00 334.46 0.00

 CALCULATED CAPACITIES FOR MEMB 1 UNIT  kN,m SECTION CLASS 1 
MCZ= 519.4 MCY= 234.3 PC= 2455.9 PT= 0.0 MB= 435.0 PV= 600.1
 BUCKLING COEFFICIENTS mLT = 1.00, mx = 1.00, my = 1.00, myx = 1.00 
 PZ= 3975.00 FX/PZ = 0.05 MRZ= 516.9 MRY= 234.3 

2B.10.3 Example output for TRACK 2.0
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST UC305X305X118 PASS BS4.3.6 0.769 3
179.66 C 0.00 334.46 0.00
=======================================================================
MATERIAL DATA
Grade of steel = S 275
Modulus of elasticity = 210 kN/mm2
Design Strength (py) = 265 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES (units  cm)
Member Length = 600.00
Gross Area = 150.00 Net Area = 127.50 Eff. Area = 150.00
zz axis yy axis
Moment of inertia : 27700.004 9060.001
Plastic modulus : 1960.000 895.000
88 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
Elastic modulus : 1761.526 589.460
Effective modulus : 1960.000 895.000
Shear Area : 103.471 37.740
DESIGN DATA (units  kN,m) BS59501/2000
Section Class : PLASTIC
Squash Load : 3975.00
Axial force/Squash load : 0.045
zz axis yy axis
Compression Capacity : 3551.7 2455.9
Moment Capacity : 519.4 234.3
Reduced Moment Capacity : 516.9 234.3
Shear Capacity : 1645.2 600.1
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units  kN,m)
(axis nomenclature as per design code)
xx axis yy axis
Slenderness : 44.153 77.203
Radius of gyration (cm) : 13.589 7.772
Effective Length : 6.000 6.000
LTB Moment Capacity (kNm) and LTB Length (m): 435.00, 6.000
LTB Coefficients & Associated Moments (kNm):
mLT = 1.00 : mx = 1.00 : my = 1.00 : myx = 1.00
Mlt = 334.46 : Mx = 334.46 : My = 0.00 : My = 0.00
CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units kN,m):
CLAUSE RATIO LOAD FX VY VZ MZ MY
BS4.2.3(Y) 0.143 3  85.6   
BS4.3.6 0.769 3  85.6  334.5 
BS4.7 (C) 0.098 1 239.7    
BS4.8.3.2 0.647 3 179.7 85.6 0.0 334.5 0.0
BS4.8.3.3.1 0.842 3 179.7   334.5 0.0
BS4.8.3.3.2 0.842 3 179.7   334.5 0.0
ANNEX I.1 0.714 3 179.7   334.5 0.0
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.
2B.11 Plate Girders
Sections will be considered for the Plate Girder checks (BS 5950 Section 4.4) if d/t > 70 ε for
‘rolled sections’ or d/t >62 ε for ‘welded sections’. The parameter SBLT should be used to
identify sections as rolled or welded; see the parameter list for more information.
If the plate girder has intermediate stiffeners, the spacing is set with the PNL parameter.
These are then used to check against the code clauses ‘4.4.3.2  Minimum web thickness for
serviceability’ and ‘4.4.3.3  Minimum web thickness to avoid compression flange buckling’.
The following printout is then included if a TRACK 2.0 output is selected:
Shear Buckling check is required: Vb = 1070 kN : qw = 118
N/mm2
d = 900 mm : t = 10 mm : a = 200 mm : pyf = 275 N/mm2
BS4.4.3.2 status = PASS : BS4.4.3.3 status = PASS
The section is then checked for shear buckling resistance using clause ‘4.4.5.2  Simplified
method’ and the result is included in the ratio checks.
International Design Codes Manual — 89
2B.12 Composite Sections
Sections that have been defined as acting compositely with a concrete flange either from a
standard database section using the CM option, or from a modified user WIDE FLANGE
database with the additional composite parameters, cannot be designed with BS5950:2000.
2B.13 Design of Tapered Beams
Sections will be checked as tapered members provided that are defined either as a Tapered I
section or from a USER table.
Example using a Tapered I section:
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 TO 5 TAPERED 100 2.5 75 25 4 25 4
Example using a USER table:
START USER TABLE
TABLE 1
UNIT CM
ISECTION
1000MM_TAPER
100 2.5 75 25 4 25 4 0 0 0
750MM_TAPER
75 2.5 50 25 4 25 4 0 0 0
END
You must specify the effective length of unrestrained compression flange using the parameter
UNL.
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance
with BS 59501:2000. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the
SECTION command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL
identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The user may
choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
The beam is designed as other wide flange beams apart from the Lateral Torsional Buckling
check which is replaced by the Annex G.2.2. check.
2B.13.1 Design Equations
A beam defined with tapered properties as defined above will be checked as a regular wide
flange (e.g., UB or UC), except that the following is used in place of clause 4.3.6, the lateral
torsional buckling check.
90 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
2B.13.2 Check Moment for Taper Members as per clause G.2.2
The following criterion is checked at each defined check position in the length of the member
defined by the BEAM parameter.
M
xi
≤ M
bi
(1  F
c
/P
c
)
Where:
F
c
is the longitudinal compression at the check location;
M
bi
is the buckling resistance moment M
b
from 4.3.6 for an equivalent
slenderness λ
TB
, see G.2.4.2, based on the appropriate modulus S, S
eff
, Z or Z
eff
of
the crosssection at the point i considered;
M
xi
is the moment about the major axis acting at the point i considered;
P
c
is the compression resistance from 4.7.4 for a slenderness λ
TC
.
y
, see G.2.3,
based on the properties of the minimum depth of crosssection within the
segment length L
2B.13.3 G.2.3 Slenderness lTC
λ
TC
= yλ
Where:
=
+
+ +
y
a h
a h λ x
( )
( )
1 2 /
1 2 / 0.05( / )
0.5
s
s
2
2 2
λ = L
y
/r
y
Where:
a is the distance between the reference axis and the axis of restraint,
h
s
is the distance between the shear centers of the flanges;
L
y
is the length of the segment;
r
y
is the radius of gyration for buckling about the minor axis;
x is the torsional index
2B.13.4 G.2.4.2 Equivalent slenderness ITB for tapered
members
λ
TB
= cn
t
ν
t
λ
Where, for a twoflange haunch:
=
+ +
v
t
a h
a h λ x ( )
4 /
1 2 / 0.05( / )
0.5
s
s
2 2
Where:
International Design Codes Manual — 91
C is the taper factor, see G.2.5;
2B.13.5 G.2.5 Taper factor
For an Isection with D ≥ 1.2B and x ≥ 20, the taper factor, c, is as follows:
= +
−
−
c 1 1
x
D
D
3
9
2/ 3
max
min
Where:
D
max
is the maximum depth of crosssection within the length Ly, see Figure
G.3;
D
min
is the minimum depth of crosssection within the length Ly, see Figure
G.3;
x is the torsional index of the minimum depth crosssection, see 4.3.6.8
Otherwise, c is taken as 1.0 (unity).
92 — STAAD.Pro
2B. British Codes  Steel Design per BS5950:2000
2C. British Codes  Design per BS5400
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 5400:Part 3:1982
Steel, concrete and composite bridges Part 3. Code of practice for design of steel bridges and
Amd No. 4051 and Amd No. 6488.
Design of members per BS 5400:Part 3:1982 requires the STAAD British Specialized Design
Codes SELECT Code Pack. It does not come as standard with British versions.
2C.1 General Comments
The British Standard, BS5400 adopts the limit state design philosophy and is applicable to
steel, concrete, and composite construction. The code is in ten parts covering various aspects of
bridge design. The implementation of part 3, Code of practice for design of steel bridges, in
STAAD is restricted in its scope to simply supported spans. It is assumed that the depth
remains constant and both construction and composite stages of steel ISections can be
checked. The following sections describe in more detail features of the design process currently
available in STAAD.
2C.2 Shape Limitations
The capacity of sections could be limited by local buckling if the ratio of flange outstand to
thickness is large. In order to prevent this, the code sets limits to the ratio as per clause 9.3.2.
In the event of exceeding these limits, the design process will terminate with reference to the
clause.
2C.3 Section Class
Sections are further defined as compact or noncompact. In the case of compact sections, the
full plastic moment capacity can be attained. In the case of noncompact sections, local
buckling of elements may occur prior to reaching the full moment capacity and for this reason
the extreme fibre stresses are limited to first yield. In STAAD, section types are determined as
per clause 9.3.7 and the checks that follow will relate to the type of section considered.
2C.4 Moment Capacity
Lateral torsional buckling may occur if a member has unrestrained elements in compression.
The code deals with this effect by limiting the compressive stress to a value depending on the
slenderness parameter which is a modified form of the ratio Le/Ry. Le is the effective length
governed by the provision of lateral restraints satisfying the requirements of clause 9.12.1. Once
the allowable compressive stress is determined then the moment capacity appropriate to the
section type can be calculated. STAAD takes the effective length as that provided by the user,
defaulting to the length of the member during construction stage and as zero, assuming full
restraint throughout, for the composite stage. The program then proceeds to calculate the
allowable compressive stress based on appendix G7 from which the moment capacity is then
determined.
2C.5 Shear Capacity
The shear capacity, as outlined in clause is a function of the limiting shear strength, l, which is
dependant on the slenderness ratio. STAAD follows the iterative procedure of appendix G8 to
International Design Codes Manual — 93
determine the limiting shear strength of the web panel. The shear capacity is then calculated
based on the formula given under clause 9.9.2.2.
2C.6 Design Parameters
Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with BS5400 are listed in table 2C.1.
Depending on the value assigned to the WET parameter, you can determine the stage under
consideration. For a composite design check, taking into consideration the construction
stage, two separate analyses are required. In the first, member properties are noncomposite
and the WET parameter is set to 1.0 . In the second, member properties should be changed to
composite and the WET parameter set to 2.0. Member properties for composite or non
composite sections should be specified from user provided tables (refer to section 5.19 of the
manual for specification of user tables). Rolled sections, composite or noncomposite, come
under WIDE FLANGE sectiontype and builtup sections under ISECTION. When specifying
composite properties the first parameter is assigned a negative value and four additional
parameters provided giving details of the concrete section. See user table examples provided.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ESTIFF 0 Specify the criteria used for the design of
compression members with moments.
0. Member passes if either Cl. 4.8.3.3.1 or Cl.
4.8.3.3.2 check.
1. Member passes if both Cl. 4.8.3.3.1 and Cl.
4.8.3.3.2 check.
KY 1.0 K value for bending about Yaxis. Usually this is
minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value for bending about Zaxis. Usually this is
major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for bending
about Yaxis, in current units of length.
LZ Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio for bending
about Zaxis, in current units of length.
Table 2C.1BS5400 Design Parameters
94 — STAAD.Pro
2C. British Codes  Design per BS5400
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
MAIN 1.0 Grade of concrete:
1. 30 N/mm2
2. 40 N/mm2
3. 50 N/mm2
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members.
PY * Yield stress of steel.
Set according to Design Strength of steel SGR
RATIO 1 Permissible ratio of actual to allowable stresses.
SBLT 0.0 Steel
0.0 = Rolled Section
1.0 = Built up Section
SGR 0.0 Steel Grade per BS4360
0. Grade 43
1. Grade 50
2. Grade 55
TRACK 1.0 Used to control the level of detail in the output
0. Suppress all member capacities
1. Print all member capacities
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length for calculating allowable
compressive bending stress, in current units of
length.
WET 0.0 Used to specify the stage of construction.
0. Wet stage with no data saved for
composite stage
1. Wet stage with data saved for composite
stage
2. Composite and wet stage combined
3. Composite stage only
International Design Codes Manual — 95
2C.7 Composite Sections
The definition of composite sections has been provided for in the standard sections definition
(refer to Section 5.20.1 of the Technical Reference Manual for details). This is purely for
analysis and for obtaining the right section properties. It uses the American requirement of 18
times depth (CT) as the effective depth. For more control with British sections two new
options are available in user provided tables.
2C.7.1 Wide Flange Composite
Using the standard definition of I sections in WIDE FLANGE, 4 additional values can now be
provided. The first is the width of concrete to the left of center of the steel web (b1). The
second is the concrete width to the right (b2). The third is the concrete depth (d1) to be
considered. The last is the modular ratio. The above values are accepted in the program by
adding a '' at the first position on the first line of data. The program now awaits four extra
values on line 2 as described above. If () is provided on the second line the program requires
another 2 breadths + 1 thickness for the bottom plate.
2C.7.2 I Section
The same is true for ISECTION definition in user table.
2C.7.3 Example
UNIT CM
WIDE FLANGE
C45752
66.5 44.98 .76 15.24 1.09 21345 645 21.3 34.185 33.223
150 150 30 10
ISECTION
PG9144
92.05 2.15 92.05 42.05 3.66 42.05 3.66 197.9 153.9 1730
40 40 12 1
The larger British sections have been coded as USER TABLES under wide flange and are
available on request to any existing user. Please note however that composite design is not
available in this portion of STAAD.
96 — STAAD.Pro
2C. British Codes  Design per BS5400
2D. British Codes  Design per BS8007
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the British code BS8007:1987
Design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids. It is recommended that the design
of the structure is carried out according to BS8110, unless modified by the recommendations
given in BS8007.
Design of members per BS8007:1987 requires the STAAD British Specialized Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack. It does not come as standard with British versions.
The information in this section is to be used in conjunction with the BS8110. See "British
Codes  Concrete Design per BS8110" on page 51
2D.1 Design Process
The design process is carried out in three stages.
1. Ultimate Limit States
The program is structured so that ultimate design is first carried out in accordance
with recommendations given in BS8110. All active design load cases are considered in
turn and a tabulated output is printed showing possible reinforcement arrangements.
12, 16, and 20 mm bars are considered with possible spacings from 100,125,150,175, and 200
mm. Within these spacings, the layout providing the closest area of steel is printed
under each bar size. Longitudinal and transverse moments together with critical load
cases for both hogging and sagging moments are also printed. Minimum reinforcement
is in any case checked and provided in each direction. Wood & Armer moments may
also be included in the design.
2. Serviceability Limit States
In the second stage, flexural crack widths under serviceability load cases are calculated.
The first and every other occurring design load case is considered as a serviceability load
case and crack widths are calculated based on bar sizes and spacings proposed at the
ultimate limit state check.
Crack widths due to longitudinal and transverse moments are calculated directly under
bars, midway between and at corners. A tabulated output indicating critical
serviceability load cases and moments for top and bottom of the slab is then produced.
3. Thermal crack widths
Finally thermal, crack width calculations are carried out. Through available parameters, the
user is able to provide information on the type of slab, temperature range and crack width
limits.
Surface zone depths are determined based on the type of slab and critical areas of
reinforcements are calculated and printed in a tabulated form.
Four bar sizes are considered and for each, max crack spacing, Smax and crack widths are
calculated for the critical reinforcements and printed under each bar size.
International Design Codes Manual — 97
Maximum bar spacing to limit crack widths to the user's limit is also printed under each bar
size.
2D.2 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the
design to BS8007.
These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code calculations but
give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values of commonly used
values for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis. Table 2D.1 contains a
complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
FC 30
N/mm
2
Concrete grade, in current units of length and
force.
CLEAR 20 mm Distance from the outer surface to the edge of
the bar, in current units of length. This is
considered the same on both surfaces.
SRA 0.0 Orthogonal reinforcement layout without
considering torsional moment Mxy  slabs on 
500.
orthogonal reinforcement layout with Mxy used
to calculate Wood & Armer moments for design.
A* Skew angle considered in Wood & Armer
equations. A* is any angle in degrees.
SCON 1 Parameter which indicates the type of slab ee.
ground or suspended as defined in BS8007
1 = Suspended Slab
2 = Ground Slab
TEMP 30
°
C Temperature range to be considered in thermal
crack width calculations
CRACK * 0.2 mm Limiting thermal crack width, in current units of
length.
Table 2D.1BS8007 Design Parameters
* Provided in current unit systems
98 — STAAD.Pro
2D. British Codes  Design per BS8007
2D.3 Structural Model
Structural slabs that are to be designed to BS8007 must be modeled using finite elements.
Refer to Section 1.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for information on the sign convention
used in the program for defining elements
It is recommended to connect elements in such a way that the positive local z axis points
outwards away, from the center of the container. In this manner the "Top" of elements will
consistently fall on the outer surface and internal pressure loads will act in the positive
direction of the local z axis.
An example of a rectangular tank is provided to demonstrate the above procedure.
Element properties are based on the thickness given under ELEMENT PROPERTIES command.
The following example demonstrates the required input for a 300 mm slab modeled with ten
elements.
UNIT MM
ELEMENT PROPERTIES
1 TO 10 THI 300.0
2D.4 Wood & Armer Moments
This is controlled by the SRA parameter. If the default value of zero is used, the design will be
based on the Mx and My moments which are the direct results of STAAD analysis. The SRA
parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be manipulated to introduce Wood & Armer
moments into the design replacing the pure Mx, My moments. These new design moments
allow the Mxy moment to be considered when designing the section. Orthogonal or skew
reinforcement may be considered. SRA set to 500 will assume an orthogonal layout. If
however a skew is to be considered, an angle is given in degrees, measured between the local
element x axis anticlockwise (positive). The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated
and shown in the design format.
International Design Codes Manual — 99
100 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel
Code
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the British code BS 59505:1998
Structural use of steelwork in building  Part 5: Code of practice for design of cold formed thin
gauge sections . The program allows design of single (noncomposite) members in tension,
compression, bending, shear, as well as their combinations. Cold work of forming
strengthening effects have been included as an option.
Design of members per BS 59501:2000 requires the STAAD British Std Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
2E.1 CrossSectional Properties
The user specifies the geometry of the crosssection by selecting one of the section shape
designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the “The Steel Construction
Institute”, (Design of Structures using Cold Formed Steel Sections).
The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:
l Channel with Lips
l Channel without Lips
l Z with Lips
l Pipe
l Tube
Shape assignment may be done using the General  Property page of the graphical user
interface (GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file.
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. STAAD.Pro uses unreduced
section properties in the structure analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section
properties are used in the design stage, as applicable.
2E.2 Design Procedure
The following two design modes are available:
2E.2.1 Code Checking
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance
with BS 59505:1998. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the
SECTION command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a
PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The
user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
International Design Codes Manual — 101
2E.2.2 Member Selection
The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (BS
standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least
weight criterion. In addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member
may be specified. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially
specified (i.e., channel, angle, etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, presents design
results for that section. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the
initial one can be found, the program leaves the member unchanged, regardless of whether it
passes the code check or not.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Member Selection command.
The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Section 4 of the subject
code. Crosssectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for
compliance with:
l Clause 6.2.2, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression
l Clause 4.2, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression
2E.3 Design Equations
2E.3.1 Tensile Strength
The allowable tensile strength, as calculated in STAAD as per BS59505, section 7 is described
below.
The tensile strength, P
t
of the member should be determined from clause 7.2.1
P
t
= A
e
p
y
Where:
A
e
is the net area An determined in accordance with cl.3.5.4
p
y
is the design strength
2E.3.2 Combined bending and tension
As per clause 7.3 of BS 59505:1998 members subjected to both axial tension and bending
should be proportioned such that the following relationships are satisfied at the ultimate
limit state
F
t
/P
t
+ M
z
/M
cz
+ M
y
/M
cy
≤ 1
M
z
/M
cz
≤ 1
and
M
y
/M
cy
≤ 1
Where
102 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
F
t
is the applies tensile strength
P
t
is the tensile capacity determined in accordance with clause 7.2.1 of the subject
code
M
z
,M
y
,M
cz
,M
cy
are as defined in clause 6.4.2 of the subject code
2E.3.3 Compressive Strength
The allowable Compressive strength, as calculated in STAAD as per BS59505, section 6 is
described below
For sections symmetrical about both principal axes or closed crosssections which are not
subjected to torsional flexural buckling, the buckling resistance under axial load, Pc, may be
obtained from the following equation as per clause 6.2.3 of the subject code
=
+ −
P
c
P P
ϕ ϕ P P
E cs
E cs
2
For Sections symmetrical about a single axis and which are not subject to torsional flexural
buckling, the buckling resistance under axial load, Pc, may be obtained from the following
equation as per clause 6.2.4 of the subject code
′ =
+
P
c
M P
M P e ( )
c c
c c s
Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clauses.
2E.3.4 Torsional flexural buckling
Design of the members which have at least one axis of symmetry, and which are subject to
torsional flexural buckling should be done according to the stipulations of the clause 6.3.2
using factored slenderness ratio αL
E
/r in place of actual slenderness ratio while reading Table
10 for the value of Compressive strength(p
c
).
Where:
α = (P
E
/P
TF
) when P
E
> P
TF
α = 1, otherwise
Where the meanings of the symbols used are indicated in the subject clause.
2E.3.5 Combined bending and compression
Members subjected to both axial compression and bending should be checked for local
capacity and overall buckling
Local capacity check as per clause 6.4.2 of the subject code
F
c
/P
cs
+ M
z
/M
cz
+ M
y
/M
cy
≤ 1
International Design Codes Manual — 103
2E.3.6 Overall buckling check as per clause 6.4.3 of the
subject code
For Beams not subjected to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied
+ + ≤
−
−
1
F
P
M
C M
M
C M
1
1
c
c
z
bx cz
F
c
P
Ez
y
by cy
F
c
P
Ey
For Beams subjected to lateral buckling, the following relationship should be satisfied
+ + ≤
−
1
F
P
M
M
M
C M 1
c
c
z
b
y
by cy
F
c
P
Ey
F
c
is the applied axial load
P
cs
is the short strut capacity as per clause 6.2.3
M
z
is the applied bending moment about z axis
M
y
is the applied bending moment about y axis
M
cz
is the moment capacity in bending about the local Z axis in the absence of
F
c
and M
y
, as per clause 5.2.2 and 5.6
M
cy
is the moment capacity in bending about the local Y axis, in the absence of
F
c
and M
z
,as per clause 5.2.2 and 5.6
M
b
is the lateral buckling resistance moment as per clause 5.6.2
P
Ez
is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the local Z
axis
P
Ey
is the flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the local Y
axis
C
bz
,C
by
are taken as unity unless their values are specified by the user
M
cz
, M
cy
, and M
b
are calculated from clause numbers 5.2.2 and 5.6 in the manner described
herein below.
2E.3.7 Calculation of moment capacities
For restrained beams, the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater then
the bending moment resistance of the section, M
c
M
cz
= S
zz
x p
o
M
cy
= S
yy
x p
o
=
−
p p 1.13 0.0019
o
D
t
Y
y
280
w s
Where
104 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
M
cz
is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis
M
cz
is the Moment resistance of the section in z axis
p
o
is the limiting stress for bending elements under stress gradient and should
not greater then design strength p
y
For unrestrained beams the applied moment based on factored loads should not be greater
than the smaller of the bending moment resistance of the section , M
c
, and the buckling
resistance moment of the beam, M
b
Then buckling resistance moment, M
b,
may be calculated as follows
= ≤
+ −
M M
b
M M
ϕ ϕ M M
c
E y
B B E y
2
φ
B
= [M
y
+ (1 + η)M
E
]/2
M
Y
is the yield moment of the section , product of design strength p
y
and elastic
modules of the gross section with respect to the compression flange Zc
M
E
is the elastic lateral buckling resistance as per clause 5.6.2.2
η is the Perry coefficient
Please refer clause numbers 5.2.2 and 5.6 of the subject code for a detailed discussion regarding
the parameters used in the abovementioned equations.
2E.3.8 Shear Strength
The maximum shear stress should not be greater then 0.7 × p
y
as per clause 5.4.2
The average shear stress should not exceed the lesser of the shear yield strength, p
v
or the shear
buckling strength, q
cr
as stipulated in clause 5.4.3 of the subject code.
The parameters are calculated as follows :
p
v
= 0.6·p
y
q
cr
= (1000·t/D)
2
N/mm
2
P
v
= A·min(p
v
, q
cr
)
Where:
P
v
is the shear capacity in N/mm
2
p
y
is the design strength in N/mm
2
t is the web thickness in mm
D is the web depth in mm
2E.3.9 Combined bending and Shear
For beam webs subjected to both bending and shear stresses the member should be designed
International Design Codes Manual — 105
to satisfy the following relationship as per the stipulations of clause 5.5.2 of the subject code
(F
v
/P
v
)
2
+ (M/M
c
)
2
≤ 1
Where:
F
v
is the shear force
M is the bending moment acting at the same section as F
v
M
c
is the moment capacity determined in accordance with 5.2.2
2E.4 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table 2E.1 are used to control the design procedure. These
parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus allow
the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of
these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CODE BS5950 COLD Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference
Manual.
Table 2E.1British Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters
106 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
Parameter Name Default Value Description
BEAM 1.0 When this parameter is set
to 1.0 (default), the
adequacy of the member is
determined by checking a
total of 13 equally spaced
locations along the length
of the member. If the
BEAM value is 0.0, the 13
location check is not
conducted, and instead,
checking is done only at
the locations specified by
the SECTION command
(See STAAD manual for
details. For TRUSS
members only start and
end locations are
designed.
CMZ 1.0 Coefficient of equivalent
uniform bending C
b
. See
BS:59505:1998,5.6. Used
for Combined axial load
and bending design.
CMY 1.0 Coefficient of equivalent
uniform bending C
b
. See
BS:59505:1998,5.6. Used
for Combined axial load
and bending design.
CWY 1.0 Specifies whether the cold
work of forming
strengthening effect
should be included in
resistance computation.
See BS:59505:1998,3.4
0 – effect
should not
be included
1 – effect
should be
included
International Design Codes Manual — 107
Parameter Name Default Value Description
FLX 1 Specifies whether
torsionalflexural buckling
restraint is provided or is
not necessary for the
member. See BS:5950
5:1998, 5.6
Values:
0 – Section
subject to
torsional
flexural
buckling
1 – Section
not subject
to torsional
flexural
buckling
FU 430 MPa Ultimate tensile strength
of steel in current units.
FYLD 250 MPa Yield strength of steel in
current units.
KX 1.0 Effective length factor for
torsional buckling. It is a
fraction and is unitless.
Values can range from 0.01
(for a column completely
prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large
value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio
for twisting for
determining the capacity
in axial compression.
108 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
Parameter Name Default Value Description
KY 1.0 Effective length factor for
overall buckling about the
local Yaxis. It is a fraction
and is unitless. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely
prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large
value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio
for determining the
capacity in axial
compression.
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for
overall buckling in the
local Zaxis. It is a fraction
and is unitless. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a
member completely
prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large
value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio
for determining the
capacity in axial
compression.
LX Member length Unbraced length for
twisting. It is input in the
current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01
(for a member completely
prevented from torsional
buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R
ratio for twisting for
determining the capacity
in axial compression.
International Design Codes Manual — 109
Parameter Name Default Value Description
LY Member length Effective length for overall
buckling in the local Y
axis. It is input in the
current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01
(for a member completely
prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large
value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio
for determining the
capacity in axial
compression.
LZ Member length Effective length for overall
buckling in the local Z
axis. It is input in the
current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01
(for a member completely
prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large
value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio
for determining the
capacity in axial
compression.
110 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
Parameter Name Default Value Description
MAIN 0 Specify the design for
slenderness against the
maximum slenderness as
per Clause 6.2.2:
0 – Do not
check
slenderness
ratio
1 – Check
members
resisting
normal loads
(180)
2  Check
members
resisting self
weight and
wind loads
(250)
3  Check
members
resisting
reversal of
stress (350)
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for
tension members
DMAX 2540.0
cm.
Maximum allowable
depth. It is input in the
current units of length.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual
to allowable stresses
International Design Codes Manual — 111
Parameter Name Default Value Description
TRACK 0 This parameter is used to
control the level of detail
in which the design
output is reported in the
output file. The allowable
values are:
0  Prints
only the
member
number,
section
name, ratio,
and
PASS/FAIL
status.
1  Prints the
design
summary in
addition to
that printed
by TRACK 1
2  Prints
member and
material
properties in
addition to
that printed
by TRACK 2.
2E.5 Verification Problem
Shown below is a verification example for reference purposes.
In this problem, we have assigned Channel sections with lips to different members. Member
numbers 28 to 31 have been assigned section 230CLHS66X16,member numbers 3 TO 6 and 15
TO 19 have been assigned the section 230CLMIL70X30 and member numbers 1, 2, 7 TO 14
have been assigned the section 170CLHS56X18. These members have been designed as per BS
5950 Part 5. Other sections have been assigned from the AISI shapes database (American
coldformed steel) and designed in accordance with that code.
112 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
2E.5.1 Solution
A. Bending Check
As per Clause 5.2.2.2 of BS 5950 –Part 5 the limiting compressive
stress, p
o
, for stiffened webs is given by the minimum of
=
−
p p 1.13 0.0019
o
D
t
Y
y
280
w s
p
0
= Py, where Py = Min ( FYLD, 0.84·FU) = 361.2 N/mm
2
So that
p
0
= [1.13  0.0019·(170/1.8)·(279.212/280)
1/2
]·361.2 = 332.727 N/mm
2
The limiting compressive moments in local Y and Z axes will be given by
M
cz
= S
zz
·p
o
= 27,632.4(332.727) = 9.19(10)
6
N·mm
M
cy
= S
yy
·p
o
= 27,632.4(5,427.50) = 3.46(10)
6
N·mm
Maximum bending moment about local Z = 2159 N·m at node 7
Maximum bending moment about local Y = 19.755 N·m at node 7
Bending Ratio Z = 2.15 X10
6
/ 9.19 X10
6
= 0.235
Bending Ratio Y = 19755.3 / 3.46 X10
6
= 0.0057
Biaxial Bending ratio = 0.235 + 0.0057 = 0.2407
Buckling resistance moment M
b
As per section 5.6.2, the buckling resistance moment
= ≤
+ −
M M
b
M M
ϕ ϕ M M
c
E y
B B E y
2
Where:
The Yield moment of section is given by
M
Y
= S
zz
· p
o
= 9.19(10)
6
N·mm
The elastic buckling resistance moment as per clause 5.6.2.2 is calculated to be
M
E
= 4.649(10)
6
N·mm
And
φ
B
= [M
y
+ (1 + η)M
E
]/2
So that
φ
B
= [9.19(10)
6
+ (1 + 0.0)4.649(10)
6
]/2 = 2.325(10)
10
Which yields
International Design Codes Manual — 113
= = ⋅
⋅
+
− ⋅
M N mm 9.98(10)
b
4.649(10) 9.19(10)
2.325(10) 2.325(10) 4.649(10) 9.19(10)
6
6 6
10 10
2
6 6
B. Compression Check
The Axial force induced in member# 1 is 3,436.75 N
The elastic flexural buckling load P
E
= 1.185(10)
6
N
The short strut capacity (Pcs ) is given by
A
eff
·py = 457.698(344) = 157,448 N
Perry Coefficient (η) = 0.02074
φ = [P
cs
+ (1 + η)P
E
]/2 = 683,512.45 N
Buckling resistance
= =
+ −
P N 153, 782
c
P P
ϕ ϕ P P
E cs
E cs
2
For Channel section (being singly symmetric), Buckling Resistance as per clause 6.2.4 is
′ =
+
P
c
M P
M P e ( )
c c
c c s
Where:
The limiting compressive moment, M
c
, in the relevant direction is equal to 9.19(10)
6
N·mm,as calculated above
And the distance, e
s
, of the geometric neutral axis of the gross cross section and that of
the effective cross section is equal to 38.24 m
So that,
′ = =
⋅
+
P N 93, 788.7
c
( )
9.19(10) 153, 782
9.19(10) 153, 782 38.24
6
6
Compression ratio = 3,436.75/93,788.7 = 0.0366
C. Axial Compression and Bending
+ + ≤
−
1
F
P
M
M
M
C M 1
c
c
z
b
y
by cy
F
c
P
Ey
3,436.75/93,788.7 + 2.15(10)6/(9.98(10)
6
) + 19,755.3/[1.0 * 3.46(10)
6
(1  3,436.75/1.185(10)
6
)]
= 0.2578
Local capacity check as per clause 6.4.2
+ + = + + = 0.2647
F
P
M
M
M
M
3, 436.75
457.698(379.212)
2.15(10)
9.19(10)
19, 755.3
1.81(10)
c
cs
z
cz
y
cy
6
6 6
114 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
Overall buckling check per 6.4.3
+ + ≤
−
−
1
F
P
M
C M
M
C M
1
1
c
c
z
bx cz
F
c
P
Ez
y
by cy
F
c
P
Ey
= 0.2773
D. Shear Check as per clause 5.4.2 and 5.4.3
p
v
= 0.6·p
y
= 0.6(379.212) = 227.52 N/mm
2
q
cr
= (1000·t/D)
2
= (1000·1.8/170)
2
= 112.11 N/mm
2
P
v
= A·min(p
v
, q
cr
)
Shear resistance Y = 33,579.4 N
Shear resistance Z = 21,148.6 N
Shear Ratio Y = 5,627.72/33,579.4 = 0.1675
Shear Ratio Z = 5,627.72/21,148.6 = 0.0031
E. Shear Check with Bending as per clause 5.5.2
Shear with bending on Z
(F
v
/P
v
)
2
+ (M
z
/M
cz
)
2
= (5,627.72/33,579.4)
2
+ [2.15·10
6
/(9.19·10
6
)]
2
= 0.08327
Shear with bending on Y
(F
v
/P
v
)
2
+ (M
y
/M
cy
)
2
= (67.114/21,148.6)
2
+ [19,755.3/(3.46·10
6
)]
2
= 0.000043
2E.5.2 Comparison
Criteria STAAD.Pro Result
Hand
Calculation
Difference
Axial compression ratio 0.037 0.0366 none
Axial compression and
bending interaction
ratio (overall buckling)
0.278 0.2773 none
Bending Z ratio 0.236 0.235 none
Bending Y ratio 0.006 0.0057 none
Biaxial bending ratio 0.2407 0.241 none
Shear Z ratio 0.168 0.1675 none
Shear Y ratio 0.003 0.0031 none
Table 2E.2Comparison for verification problem
International Design Codes Manual — 115
Criteria STAAD.Pro Result
Hand
Calculation
Difference
Bending Z and Shear Y
interaction ratio
0.084 0.08327 none
Bending Y and Shear Z
interaction ratio
0.000 0.000043 none
2E.5.3 Input File
STAAD SPACE
SET ECHO OFF
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT FEET KIP
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 5 0; 2 0 5 10; 3 10 5 0; 4 10 5 10; 5 5 5 0; 6 5 5 10; 7 0 5
2; 8 0 5 4;
9 0 5 6; 10 0 5 8; 11 10 5 2; 12 10 5 4; 13 10 5 6; 14 10 5 8; 15
5 5 2;
16 5 5 4; 17 5 5 6; 18 5 5 8; 19 10 0 0; 20 10 0 10; 21 0 0 10;
22 0 0 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 7; 2 3 11; 3 1 5; 4 2 6; 5 5 3; 6 6 4; 7 7 8; 8 8 9; 9 9 10;
10 10 2;
11 11 12; 12 12 13; 13 13 14; 14 14 4; 15 5 15; 16 15 16; 17 16
17; 18 17 18;
19 18 6; 20 7 15; 21 15 11; 22 8 16; 23 16 12; 24 9 17; 25 17 13;
26 10 18;
27 18 14; 28 1 22; 29 2 21; 30 3 19; 31 4 20; 32 1 21; 33 21 4;
34 4 19;
35 19 1; 36 2 20; 37 20 3; 38 3 22; 39 22 2;
MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED AMERICAN
32 TO 39 TABLE ST 3LU3X060
20 TO 27 TABLE ST 3HU3X075
MEMBER PROPERTY COLDFORMED BRITISH
28 TO 31 TABLE ST 230CLHS66X16
3 TO 6 15 TO 19 TABLE ST 230CLMIL70X30
1 2 7 TO 14 TABLE ST 170CLHS56X18
UNIT MMS
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES LIST 32 20 28 3 1
SUPPORTS
19 TO 22 PINNED
UNIT FEET
116 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 4.176E+006
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 0.489024
ALPHA 6.5E006
DAMP 0.03
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
BETA 90 MEMB 20 TO 27
MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 1 TO 39
MEMBER TENSION
32 TO 39
UNIT FEET KIP
LOAD 1 VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL
MEMBER LOAD
3 TO 6 20 TO 27 UNI GY 0.3 0 5
JOINT LOAD
1 2 FX 0.6
2 4 FZ 0.6
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK
UNIT KGS CM
PRINT JOINT DISP LIST 1 4 16
PRINT SUPPORT REACTIONS
PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 3 24 28
UNIT KIP INCH
PARAMETER 1
CODE AISI
FYLD 55 ALL
CWY 1 ALL
BEAM 1 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 20 21
PARAMETER 2
CODE BS5950 COLD
TRACK 2 MEMB 1 TO 19 28 TO 31
CHECK CODE MEMB 1 2
FINISH
International Design Codes Manual — 117
2E.5.4 Output
The excerpts from the design output for member number 1 are as follows:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (BS59505v1.1)
***********************
UNITS : MM, KN, KNM, MPA


 MEMBER# 1 SECTION: 170CLHS56X18 LEN: 609.60 LOCATION: 609.60

 STATUS: PASS RATIO = 0.278 GOV.MODE: 6.4Bend + Compress GOV.LOAD: 1



MATERIAL DATA:
Yield strength of steel : 379.21 N/mm2
Ultimate tensile strength : 430.00 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES:(units  cm)
Section Name : 170CLHS56X18
Member Length : 60.96
Gross Area(Ag) : 5.45 Net Area (Ae): 4.58
zz axis yy axis
Moment of inertia (I) : 237.27 21.93
Moment of inertia (Ie) : 235.46 19.42
Elastic modulus (Zet) : 27.85 5.20
Elastic modulus (Zec) : 27.55 10.42
DESIGN DATA:
zz axis yy axis
Compression Capacity (Pc) : 93.70
Moment Capacity (Mc) : 9.17 3.47
Shear Capacity (Pv) : 21.00 33.50
LTB Capacity (Mb) : 9.17
EACH CLAUSE CHECK UNDER CRITICAL LOAD :
CLAUSE COMBINATION RATIO
BS6.3 Compression ratio  Axial 0.037
BS6.4 BendCompression ratio 0.278
BS5.1 Bending Ratio  Z 0.236
BS5.1 Bending Ratio  Y 0.006
BS5.1 Biaxial Bending Ratio 0.241
BS5.4 Shear Ratio  Z 0.168
BS5.4 Shear Ratio  Y 0.003
BS5.5.2 Bending Z & Shear  Y Ratio 0.084
BS5.5.2 Bending Y & Shear  Z Ratio 0.000
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.
118 — STAAD.Pro
2E. British Codes  Design per British Cold Formed Steel Code
Section 3
Canadian Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 119
120 — STAAD.Pro
3A. Canadian Codes  Concrete Design per CSA Standard
A23.394
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Candadian code CSA A23.3
1994 Design of Concrete Structures. Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular
columns) of a section, the program will calculate the required reinforcement to resist the
forces and moments.
Design of members per CSA A23.3 1994 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
3A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l For Beams  Prismatic (Rectangular, Square & Tee)
l For Columns  Prismatic (Rectangular, Square and Circular)
l For Slabs  4noded Plate Elements
3A.2 Member Dimensions
Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 300.
11 14 PR YD 300.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450mm depth and 300mm width)
and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be assumed to be
circular with a 300mm diameter
3A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations
STAAD provides the user with two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the
analysis and design of concrete members. The first method is equivalent to the procedure
presented in CSA STANDARD A23.394 Clause 10.13. STAAD accounts for the secondary
moments, due to axial loads and deflections, when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used.
After solving for the joint displacements of the structure, the program calculates the
additional moments induced in the structure due to the PDelta effect. Therefore, by
performing a PDelta analysis, member forces are calculated which will require no user
modification before beginning member design. Refer to Section 5.37.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual for additional details on this analysis facility.
The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is
through user supplied moment magnification factors (see the parameter MMAG in Table 3A.1).
Here the user approximates the additional moment by supplying a factor by which moments
International Design Codes Manual — 121
will be multiplied before beginning member design. This second procedure allows
slenderness to be considered in accordance with Clause 10.14 of the code.
Note: STAAD does not factor loads automatically for concrete design. All the proper
factored loads must be provided by the user before the ANALYSIS specification.
While performing a PDelta analysis, all load cases must be defined as primary load cases. If
the effects of separate load cases are to be combined, it should be done either by using the
REPEAT LOAD command or by specifying the load information of these individual loading
cases under one single load case. Usage of the LOAD COMBINATION command will yield
incorrect results for PDelta Analysis in STAAD.Pro.
3A.4 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per CSA
STANDARD A23.394. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for
code calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design process. Default values,
which are commonly used numbers in conventional design practice, have been used for
simplicity. Table 3A.1 contains a list of available parameters and their default values. It is
necessary to declare length and force units as Millimeter and Newton before performing the
concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Param
eter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CLB 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar at bottom of cross
section.
CLS 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar along the side of
the cross section.
CLT 40mm Clear cover to reinforcing bar at top of cross
section.
DEPTH YD Depth of the concrete member. This value
defaults to YD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
Table 3A.1Canadian Concrete Design CSAA23.394 Parameters
122 — STAAD.Pro
3A. Canadian Codes  Concrete Design per CSA Standard A23.394
Param
eter
Name
Default
Value
Description
EFACE 0.0 Face
of
Support
Distance of face of support from end node of
beam. Used for shear and torsion calculation.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
FC 30
N/mm
2
Specified compressive strength of concrete.
FYMAIN 400N/m
m
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
FYSEC 400
N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.
MAX
MAIN
Number
55 bar
Maximum main reinforcement bar size.
MINM
AIN
Number
10 bar
Minimum main reinforcement bar size
MINSEC Number
10 bar
Minimum secondary (stirrup) reinforcement
bar size.
MMAG 1.0 A factor by which the column design moments
will be magnified.
NSE
CTION
12 Number of equallyspaced sections to be
considered in finding critical moments for
beam design.
REINF 0.0 Tied Column. A value of 1.0 will mean spiral.
SFACE 0.0 Distance of face of support from start node of
beam. Used for shear and torsion calculation.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
TRACK 0.0 0. Critical Moment will not be printed out
with beam design report.
1. Moments will be printed.
International Design Codes Manual — 123
Param
eter
Name
Default
Value
Description
WIDTH ZD Width of the concrete member. This value
defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
3A.5 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings
are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes, and locate critical sections. The total
number of sections considered is thirteen (start, end, and 11 intermediate), unless that
number is redefined with the NSECTION parameter.
3A.5.1 Design for Flexure
Design for flexure is performed per the rules of Chapter 10 of CSA Standard A23.394.
Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging
(creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each
of the thirteen sections. Each of these sections are designed to resist the critical sagging and
hogging moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is permitted. If the
section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a message will be
printed in the output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In the first pass,
effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single layer of
assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the preliminary
design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or multiple layers. The
entire flexure design is performed again in a second pass taking into account the changed
effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement provided after the
preliminary design. Final provision of flexural reinforcements are made then. Efforts have
been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as per CSA Standard
A23.394. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design
output (which finally will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account other
practical considerations), the user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided by
STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be prepared.
The following annotations apply to the output for Beam Design.
LEVEL
Serial number of bar level which may contain one or more bar group.
HEIGHT
Height of bar level from the bottom of beam.
BAR INFOrmation
Reinforcement bar information specifying number of bars and size.
FROM
Distance from the start of the beam to the start of the rebar.
124 — STAAD.Pro
3A. Canadian Codes  Concrete Design per CSA Standard A23.394
TO
Distance from the start of the beam to the end of the rebar.
ANCHOR
(STA,END)
States whether anchorage, either a hook or continuation, is needed at start (STA) or
at the end (END) of the bar.
3A.5.2 Design for Shear and Torsion
Design for shear and torsion is performed per the rules of Chapter 11 of CSA Standard A23.394.
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear
design is performed at the start and end sections. The location along the member span for
design is chosen as the effective depth + SFACE at the start, and effective depth + EFACE at
the end. The load case which gives rise to the highest stirrup area for shear & torsion is chosen
as the critical one. The calculations are performed assuming 2legged stirrups will be provided.
The additional longitudinal steel area required for torsion is reported.
The stirrups are assumed to be Ushaped for beams with no torsion, and closed hoops for
beams subjected to torsion.
3A.5.3 Example of Input
Example of Input Data for Beam Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE CANADA
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN
3A.6 Column Design
Column design is performed per the rules of Chapters 7 & 8 of the CSA Standard A23.394.
Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends. All active loadings are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections.
For rectangular and square sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally
distributed on each side. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of four
(4). This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases.
Example of Input Data for Column Design
International Design Codes Manual — 125
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE CANADIAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN
3A.7 Slab/Wall Design
To design a slab or wall, it must be modeled using finite elements. The commands for
specifying elements are in accordance with the relevant sections of the Technical Reference
Manual.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My using the same principles as those for
beams in flexure. The width of the beam is assumed to be unity for this purpose. These
moments are obtained from the element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical
Reference Manual). The reinforcement required to resist Mx moment is denoted as
longitudinal reinforcement and the reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted
as transverse reinforcement. The effective depth is calculated assuming #10 bars are provided.
The parameters FYMAIN, FC, CLT, and CLB listed in Table 3A.1 are relevant to slab design.
Other parameters mentioned in Table 3A.1 are not applicable to slab design. The output
consists only of area of steel required. Actual bar arrangement is not calculated because an
element most likely represents just a fraction of the total slab area.
Figure 3A.1  Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)
Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
126 — STAAD.Pro
3A. Canadian Codes  Concrete Design per CSA Standard A23.394
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE CANADA
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLB 40 ALL
DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN
International Design Codes Manual — 127
128 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard
CAN/CSAS1601
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Canadian code CAN/CSAS1601
Limit States Design of Steel Structures.
Design of members per CAN/CSAS1601 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
3B.1 General Comments
The design of structural steel members in accordance with the specification CAN/CSA S1601
Limit States Design of Steel Structures is can be used in STAAD.Pro. This code supercedes the
previous edition of the code CAN/CSA – S16.194.
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state
design. Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at
which they would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limitstates
are recognized  ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and
resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under
various loading conditions and at the same time the probability of limits being surpassed is
acceptably low.
In the STAAD.Pro implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads
without exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the
most economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the
designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such
parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for
each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD.Pro implementation of
CAN/CSAS1601. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying
concepts and assumptions is available in the specification document.
3B.2 Analysis Methodology
The elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is
done for the specified primary and combination loading condition. You are allowed complete
flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to create
necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular stiffness
analysis or PDelta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed and the
results combined with static analysis results.
3B.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties, the steel section library available in STAAD.Pro may be
used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign properties from the
builtin steel table. Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility. For
more information on these facilities, refer to the STAAD.Pro Technical Reference Manual.
International Design Codes Manual — 129
3B.4 Builtin Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, the properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into
these tables, shear deformation is always considered during the analysis of these members.
Almost all Canadian steel sections are available for input. A complete listing of the sections
available in the builtin steel section library may be obtained by using the tools of the
graphical user interface.
Following is the description of the different types of sections available:
3B.4.1 Welded Wide Flanges (WW shapes)
Welded wide flange shapes listed in the CSA steel tables can be designated using the same
scheme used by CSA. The following example illustrates the specification of welded wide
flange shapes.
100 TO 150 TA ST WW400X444
34 35 TA ST WW900X347
3B.4.2 Wide Flanges (W shapes)
Designation of wide flanges in STAAD is the same as that in CSA tables. For example,
10 TO 75 95 TO 105 TA ST W460X106
100 TO 200 TA ST W610X101
3B.4.3 S, M, HP shapes
In addition to welded wide flanges and regular wide flanges, other I shaped sections like S, M
and HP shapes are also available. The designation scheme is identical to that listed in the
CSA tables. While specifying the sections, it should be remembered that the portion after the
decimal point should be omitted. Thus, M310X17.6 should be specified as M310X17 and
S180X22.8 should be specified as S180X22. Examples illustrating specifications of these shapes
are provided below.
10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST S510X98
45 TO 55 TA ST M150X6
88 90 96 TA ST HP310X79
3B.4.4 Channel Sections (C & MC shapes)
C and MC shapes are designated as shown in the following example. As in S, M and HP
sections, the portion after the decimal point must be omitted in section designations. Thus,
MC250X42.4 should be designated as MC250X42.
130 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
55 TO 90 TA ST C250X30
30 TO 45 TA ST MC200X33
3B.4.5 Double Channels
Backtoback double channels, with or without spacing between them, are specified by
preceding the section designation by the letter D. For example, a backtoback double channel
section C200X28 without any spacing in between should be specified as:
100 TO 120 TA D C200X28
If a spacing of 2.5 length units is used, the specification should be as follows:
100 TO 120 TA D C200X28 SP 2.5
Note that the specification SP after the section designation is used for providing the spacing.
The spacing should always be provided in the current length unit.
3B.4.6 Angles
To specify angles, the angle name is preceded by the letter L. Thus, a 200X200 angle with a
25mm thickness is designated as L200X200X25. The following examples illustrate angle
specifications.
75 TO 95 TA ST L100X100X8
33 34 35 TA ST L200X100X20
Note that the above specification is for “standard” angles. In this specification, the local zaxis
(see Fig. 2.6 in the Technical Reference Manual) corresponds to the Y’Y’ axis shown in the
CSA table. Another common practice of specifying angles assumes the local yaxis to
correspond to the Y’Y’ axis. To specify angles in accordance with this convention, the reverse
angle designation facility has been provided. A reverse angle may be specified by substituting
the word ST with the word RA. Refer to the following example for details.
10 TO 15 TA RA L55X35X4
The local axis systems for STANDARD and REVERSE angles is shown in Fig. 2.6 of the STAAD
Technical Reference manual.
3B.4.7 Double Angles
To specify double angles, the specification ST should be substituted with LD (for long leg
backtoback) or SD (short leg backtoback). For equal angles, either SD or LD will serve the
purpose. Spacing between angles may be provided by using the word SP followed by the value
of spacing (in current length unit) after section designation.
25 35 45 TA LD L150X100X16
International Design Codes Manual — 131
80 TO 90 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2.5
The second example above describes a double angle section consisting of 125X75X6 angles
with a spacing of 2.5 length units.
3B.4.8 Tees
Tee sections obtained by cutting W sections may be specified by using the T specification
instead of ST before the name of the W shape. For example:
100 TO 120 TA T W200X42
will describe a T section cut from a W200X42 section.
3B.4.9 Rectangular Hollow Sections
These sections may be specified in two possible ways. Those sections listed in the CSA tables
may be specified as follows.
55 TO 75 TA ST TUB80X60X4
In addition, any tube section may be specified by using the DT(for depth), WT(for width),
and TH(for thickness) specifications.
For example:
100 TO 200 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
will describe a tube with a depth of 8 in., width of 6 in. and a wall thickness of 0.5 inches.
Note that the values of depth, width and thickness must be provided in current length unit.
3B.4.10 Circular Hollow Sections
Sections listed in the CSA tables may be provided as follows:
15 TO 25 TA ST PIP33X2.5
132 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
In addition to sections listed in the CSA tables, circular hollow sections may be specified by
using the OD (outside diameter) and ID (inside diameter) specifications. For example:
70 TO 90 TA ST PIPE OD 10.0 ID 9.0
will describe a pipe with an outside diameter of 10 length units and inside diameter of 9.0
length units. Note that the values of outside and inside diameters must be provided in terms
of current length unit.
Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian shapes
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KNS
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 17 160 0 0
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2 16
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES CANADIAN
* W SHAPES
1 TA ST W250X18
* WW SHAPES
2 TA ST WW700X185
* S SHAPES
3 TA ST S200X27
* M SHAPES
4 TA ST M130X28
* HP SHAPES
5 TA ST HP310X132
* MC CHANNELS
6 TA ST MC150X17
* C CHANNELS
7 TA ST C180X18
* DOUBLE CHANNELS
International Design Codes Manual — 133
8 TA D C250X37 SP 1.0
* ANGLES
9 TA ST L55X35X5
* REVERSE ANGLES
10 TA RA L90X75X5
* DOUBLE ANGLES, LONG LEG BACK TO BACK
11 TA LD L100X90X6 SP 2.0
* DOUBLE ANGLES, SHORT LEG BACK TO BACK
12 TA SD L125X75X6 SP 2.5
* TUBES
13 TA ST TUB120807
* TUBES
14 TA ST TUBE DT 16.0 WT 8.0 TH 0.8
* PIPES
15 TA ST PIP273X6.3
* PIPES
16 TA ST PIPE OD 16.0 ID 13.0
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH
3B.5 Section Classification
The CSA specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus, local buckling
becomes an important criterion. Steel sections are classified as plastic (Class 1), compact (Class
2), noncompact (Class 3), or slender element (Class 4) sections depending upon their local
buckling characteristics (See Clause 11.2 and Table 1 of CAN/CSAS1601). This classification is
a function of the geometric properties of the section. The design procedures are different
depending on the section class. STAAD.Pro determines the section classification for the
standard shapes and user specified shapes.
Note: The design of Class 4 sections requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build
2007.07 or higher. Otherwise, design is performed for sections that fall into the
category of Class 1,2 or 3 sections only.
3B.6 Member Resistances
The member resistances are calculated in STAAD.Pro according to the procedures outlined in
section 13 of the specification. These depend on several factors such as members unsupported
lengths, crosssectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios
and so on. Note that the program automatically takes into consideration appropriate
resistance factors to calculate member resistances. Explained here is the procedure adopted in
STAAD.Pro for calculating the member resistances.
134 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Note: The design of Class 4 sections requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build
2007.07 or higher.
3B.6.1 Nomenclature
A = Area.
A
e
= Effective area.
A
f
= Area of flange.
A
w
= Area of web.
b
e
= Effective Flange width.
C
f
= Compressive force in a member or component under factored load.
C
r
= Factored compressive resistance.
C
w
= Warping torsional constant.
C
y
= Axial compressive load at yield stress.
D = Outside diameter of pipe section.
E = Elastic modulus of steel.
F
e
= Elastic critical buckling stress.
F
y
= Yield strength.
F
ye
= Effective yield stress of section in compression to account for elastic local buckling.
h = Clear depth of web.
K = Effective length factor.
L = Length or span of member.
M
f
= Bending moment in a member or component under factored load.
M
r
= Factored moment resistance of a member.
M
y
= Yield moment resistance.
S = Elastic section modulus.
S
e
= Effective section modulus.
W = Web thickness.
λ = Nondimensional slenderness parameter in column formula.
λ
ye
= Effective nondimensional slenderness parameter in column formula considering
effective yield stress.
= Resistance factor
International Design Codes Manual — 135
3B.6.2 Members Subject to Axial Forces
Axial Tension
The criteria governing the capacity of tension members is based on two limit states. The limit
state of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of the
member. The second limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective
net area. The net section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter
NSF (see Table 3B.1). STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on these two
limits states per Cl.13.2 of CAN/CSAS1601. Parameters FYLD, FU, and NSF are applicable for
these calculations.
Axial Compression
The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause 13.3 of the code. The
equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive resistance is a
function of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area times the Yield
Strength) as well as the slenderness factor (KL/r ratios). The effective length for the
calculation of compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KT,
KY, KZ, LT, LY, and LZ (see Table 3B.1). Some of the aspects of the axial compression capacity
calculations are :
1. For frame members not subjected to any bending, and for truss members, the axial
compression capacity in general column flexural buckling is calculated from Cl.13.3.1
using the slenderness ratios for the local YY and ZZ axis. The parameters KY, LY, KZ
and LZ are applicable for this.
2. For single angles, which are frame members not subjected to any bending or truss
members, the axial compression capacity in general column flexural buckling and local
buckling of thin legs is calculated using the rules of the AISC  LRFD code, 2
nd
ed.,
1994. The reason for this is that the Canadian code doesn’t provide any clear guidelines
for calculating this value. The parameters KY, LY, KZ, and LZ are applicable for this.
3. The axial compression capacity is also calculated by taking flexuraltorsional buckling
into account. The rules of Appendix D, page 1109 of CAN/CSAS1601are used for this
purpose. Parameters KT and LT may be used to provide the effective length factor and
effective length value for flexuraltorsional buckling. Flexuraltorsional buckling
capacity is computed for single channels, single angles, Tees and Double angles.
4. The variable “n” in Cl.13.3.1 is assumed as 2.24 for WWF shapes and 1.34 for all other
shapes.
5. While computing the general column flexural buckling capacity of sections with axial
compression + bending, the special provisions of 13.8.1(a), 13.8.1(b) and 13.8.1(c) are
applied. For example, Lambda = 0 for 13.8.1(a), K=1 for 13.8.1(b), etc.)
For Class 4 members subjected to axial compression, factored compressive resistance should
be determined by either of the following equations.
136 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
a. C
r
= ϕA
e
F
y
(1+λ
2n
)
1⁄n
Where:
n = 1.34
λ = √(F
y
/F
e
)
F
e
=(π
2
E)/(KL/r)
2
Ae is calculated using reduced element widths meeting the maximum width to
thickness ratio specified in Table 1.
Effective width required for the calculation of effective area Ae, for different section
shapes are as follows.
l For flanges of Isection, Tsection and channel section and legs of angle section
b
e
= 200t/√(F
y
)
l For stem of Tsection
b
e
= 340t/√(F
y
)
l For flanges of HSS rectangular or Tube sections
b
e
= 670t/√((F
y
)
l For circular HSS or Pipe section
D= 23000t/(F
y
b. C
r
= ϕAF
ye
(1+λ
ye
2n
)
1⁄n
Where:
n = 1.34
λ
ye
= √(F
ye
/F_e )
F
e
=(π
2
E)/(KL/r)
2
With an effective yield stress, F
ye
, determined from the maximum width (or diameter)
tothickness ratio meeting the limit specified in Table 1.
Following are the expressions for effective yield stress for different shaped section.
l For Isection, Tsection, channel section and angle section
F
ye
= 40000/(b/t)
2
l For rectangular HSS section
F
ye
= 448900/(b/t)
2
l For circular HSS section
F
ye
= 23000/(D/t)
International Design Codes Manual — 137
3B.6.3 Members Subject to Bending
The laterally unsupported length of the compression flange for the purpose of computing the
factored moment resistance is specified in STAAD with the help of the parameter UNL. If
UNL is less than one tenth the member length (member length is the distance between the
joints of the member), the member is treated as being continuously laterally supported. In
this case, the moment resistance is computed from Clause 13.5 of the code. If UNL is greater
than or equal to one tenth the member length, its value is used as the laterally unsupported
length. The equations of Clause 13.6 of the code are used to arrive at the moment of resistance
of laterally unsupported members. Some of the aspects of the bending capacity calculations
are :
1. The weak axis bending capacity of all sections except single angles is calculated as
For Class 1 & 2 sections, φ·P
y
· F
y
For Class 3 sections, φ · S
y
· F
y
where
φ = Resistance factor = 0.9
P
y
= Plastic section modulus about the local Y axis
S
y
= Elastic section modulus about the local Y axis
F
y
= Yield stress of steel
2. For single angles, the bending capacities are calculated for the principal axes. The
specifications of Section 5, page 6283 of AISCLRFD 1994, 2
nd
ed., are used for this
purpose because the Canadian code doesn’t provide any clear guidelines for calculating
this value.
3. For calculating the bending capacity about the ZZ axis of singly symmetric shapes
such as Tees and Double angles, CAN/CSAS1601 stipulates in Clause 13.6(d), page 131,
that a rational method, such as that given in SSRC’s Guide to Stability Design Criteria
of Metal Structures, be used. Instead, STAAD uses the rules of Section 2c, page 655 of
AISCLRFD 1994, 2
nd
ed.
Laterally Supported Class 4 members subjected to bending
i. When both the web and compressive flange exceed the limits for Class 3 sections, the
member should be considered as failed and an error message will be thrown.
ii. When flanges meet the requirements of Class 3 but web exceeds the limits for Class 3,
resisting moment shall be determined by the following equation.
′ ·
¸
−
¸
¸
−
_
,
1
]
1
M M 1 0.0005
r r
A
A
h
w M ϕ
1, 900
/
w
f f s
138 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Where Mr = factored moment resistance as determined by Clause 13.5 or 13.6 but not to
exceed My = factored moment resistance for Class 3 sections = My
If axial compressive force is present in addition to the moment, modified moment
resistance should be as follows.
¹ ¹
′ ·
¹
'
¹
−
¸
−
1
]
1
¹
;
)
−
M M 1 0.0005 1, 900
r r
A
A
h
w
C ϕC
M ϕ
( )
1 0.65 /
/
w
f
f y
f s
C
y
= A · F
y
S = Elastic section modulus of steel section.
iii. For sections whose webs meet the requirements of Class 3 and whose flanges exceed the
limit of Class 3, the moment resistance shall be calculated as
M
r
= ϕ · S
e
· F
y
Where:
S
e
= effective section modulus determined using effective flange width.
l For Rectangular HSS section, effective flange width
b
e
= 670 · t/√(F
y
)
l For Isection, Tsection, Channel section, effective flange width and for Angle
section, effective length width
b
e
= 200 · t/√(F
y
)
But shall not exceed 60 · t
Laterally Unsupported Class 4 members subjected to bending
As per clause 13.6(b) the moment resistance for class4 section shall be calculated as follows
i. When M
u
> 0.67M
y
=
−
M ϕM 1.15 1
r y
M
M
0.28
y
u
M
r
should not exceed ϕS
e
F
y
ii. When M
u
≤ 0.67M
y
M
r
=ϕM
u
Where, as per clause 13.6(a),
M
u
=(ω
2
π)/L √(EI
y
GJ + (πE/L)
2
I
y
C
w
)
For unbraced length subjected to end moments
ω
2
=1.75 + 1.05k + 0.3k
2
≤ 2.5
International Design Codes Manual — 139
When bending moment at any point within the unbraced length is larger than the larger
end moment or when there is no effective lateral support for the compression flange at one of
the ends of unsupported length
ω
2
= 1.0
k = Ratio of the smaller factored moment to the larger moment at opposite ends of the
unbraced length, positive for double curvature and negative for single curvature.
Se = effective section modulus determined using effective flange width.
l For Rectangular HSS section, effective flange width
b
e
= 670t/√(F
y
)
l For Isection, Tsection, Channel section, effective flange width and for Angle section,
effective length width
b
e
= 200t/√(F
y
)
But shall not exceed 60t.
This clause is applicable only for I shaped and Channel shaped section as there is no guide
line in the code for other sections.
3B.6.4 Members Subject to Combined Forces
Axial compression and bending
The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial
bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. In these equations, the
additional bending caused by the action of the axial load is accounted for by using
amplification factors. Clause 13.8 of the code provides the equations for this purpose. If the
summation of the left hand side of these equations exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided
using the RATIO parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 141), the member is considered
to have failed under the loading condition.
Axial tension and bending
Members subjected to axial tension and bending are also designed using interaction
equations. Clause 13.9 of the code is used to perform these checks. The actual RATIO is
determined as the value of the left hand side of the critical equation.
3B.6.5 Shear
The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 13.4 of
the code. Once this is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross section to the
shear resistance of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y & Z axes)
exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table 3B.1), the
section is considered to have failed under shear. The code also requires that the slenderness
ratio of the web be within a certain limit (See Cl.13.4.1.3, page 129 of CAN/CSAS1601).
140 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Checks for safety in shear are performed only if this value is within the allowable limit. Users
may bypass this limitation by specifying a value of 2.0 for the MAIN parameter.
3B.7 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table 3B.1 may be used to control the design procedure.
These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus
allow the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CODE
BEAM 1.0 0.0 = design
only for end
moments and
those at locations
specified by
SECTION
command.
1.0 = Perform
design for
moments at
twelfth points
along the beam.
CB 1.0 Greater than 0.0
and less than 2.5
: Value of
Omega_2
(Cl.13.6) to be
used for
calculation.
Equal to 0.0 :
Calculate
Omega_2
Table 3B.1Canadian Steel Design CSAS1601 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 141
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CMY 1.0 1.0 = Do not
calculate Omega
1 for local Y axis.
2.0 = Calculate
Omega1 for local
Y axis.
Used in Cl.13.8.4
of code
CMZ 1.0 1.0 = Do not
calculate Omega
1 for local Z axis.
2.0 = Calculate
Omega1 for local
Z axis.
Used in Cl.13.8.4
of code
DFF None(Mandatory for
deflection check)
“Deflection
Length”/Maxm.
Allowable local
deflection.
DJ1 Start Joint of member Joint No.
denoting start
point for
calculation of
“deflection
length”
DJ2 End Joint of member Joint No.
denoting end
point for
calculation of
“deflection
length”
DMAX 45.0 in. Maximum
allowable depth
(Applicable for
member
selection)
142 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Parameter Name Default Value Description
DMIN 0.0 in. Minimum
required depth
(Applicable for
member
selection)
FYLD 300.0 MPa Yield strength of
steel.
FU 345.0 MPa Ultimate
strength of steel.
KT 1.0 K value for
flexural torsional
buckling.
KY 1.0 K value for
general column
flexural buckling
about the local Y
axis. Used to
calculate
slenderness ratio.
KZ 1.0 K value for
general column
flexural buckling
about the local Z
axis. Used to
calculate
slenderness ratio.
LT Member Length Length for
flexural torsional
buckling.
LY Member Length Length for
general column
flexural buckling
about the local Y
axis. Used to
calculate
slenderness ratio.
International Design Codes Manual — 143
Parameter Name Default Value Description
LZ Member Length Length for
general column
flexural buckling
about the local Z
axis. Used to
calculate
slenderness ratio.
MAIN 0.0 0.0 = Check
slenderness ratio
against the
limits.
1.0= Suppress the
slenderness ratio
check.
2.0 = Check
slenderness ratio
only for column
buckling, not for
web (See Section
3B.6, Shear)
NSF 1.0 Net section factor
for tension
members.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio
of actual load
effect to the
design strength.
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Report only
minimum design
results.
1.0 = Report
design strengths
also.
2.0 = Provide full
details of design.
144 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Parameter Name Default Value Description
UNB Member Length Unsupported
length in
bending
compression of
the bottom
flange for
calculating
moment
resistance.
UNT Member Length Unsupported
length in
bending
compression of
the top flange for
calculating
moment
resistance.
3B.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per the CAN/CSAS1601 requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. If the
BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1, moments are calculated at every twelfth point along
the beam. When no sections are specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default),
design will be based on member start and end forces only. The code checking output labels
the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical condition, governing load case,
location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments
are also printed. The extent of detail of the output can be controlled by using the TRACK
parameter.
Example of commands for CODE CHECKING:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
CODE CANADIAN
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
UNL 15 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 3 4
International Design Codes Manual — 145
3B.9 Member Selection
The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member
that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most
recent analysis. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. For
example, a member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it.
Selection of members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be
limited to sections in the user table. Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES,
PIPES or members listed as PRISMATIC.
Example of commands for MEMBER SELECTION:
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER
FYLD 330E6 MEMB 3 4
NSF 0.85 ALL
KY 1.2 MEMB 3 4
UNL 15 MEMB 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
SELECT MEMB 3 4
3B.10 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CAN/CSAS1601 specification which governed
the design.
If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0, factored member resistances will be printed. Following is
a description of some of the items printed.
CR
Factored compressive resistance
TR
Factored tensile resistance
VR
Factored shear resistance
MRZ
Factored moment resistance (about zaxis)
MRY
Factored moment resistance (about yaxis)
Further details can be obtained by setting TRACK to 2.0.
CR1
CAPACITY (C
r
) PER 13.8.2(a)
CR2
CAPACITY (C
r
) PER 13.8.2(b)
146 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
CRZ
SEE 13.8.2(b) for uniaxial bending (called C
RX
in that Clause)
CTORFLX
Capacity in accordance with 13.8.2(c)
3B.11 Verification Problems
In the next few pages are included several verification examples for reference purposes. Since
the S1601 code is similar in many respects to the previous edition of the code (CAN/CSA S16.1
94), the solved examples of the 1994 edition of the CISC Handbook have been used as reference
material for these examples.
3B.11.1 Verification Problem No. 1
Steel beam with uniform load, wide flange section. Static analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_ver_prob1.std
Reference
CAN/CSAS16.194, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Example 1 page 591.
Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam resistance and beam deflection.
Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL)
F
y
= 300 Mpa CSA G40.21M
Simply supported beam has a 8.0 m span; Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0, unsupported length 1.0 m
Allowable Live Load deflection, L/300 = 8000/300 = 27 mm
Factored Uniform Load IS 7 kN/m DEAD, 15 kN/m LIVE.
Steel section is W410X54
International Design Codes Manual — 147
Comparison
Critera Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Interaction
Ratio
0.88 0.883 none
Beam
Resistance
(kN·m)
284 283.20 none
Beam
Deflection
(mm)
21 20.81 none
Table 3B.2CAN/CSAS16 Verification Problem 1
comparison
STAAD Output
****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 591
3. * CISC EXAMPLE 1 PAGE 591, LIMIT STATES DESIGN, CSAS16.194
4. * SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD
5. * LIVE LOAD DEFLECTION OF L/300
7. UNIT MMS KN
8. JOINT COORDINATES
9. 1 0 0 0; 2 8000 0 0
10. MEMBER INCIDENCES
11. 1 1 2
13. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
14. 1 TABLE ST W410X54
16. CONSTANTS
17. E STEEL ALL
18. POISSON 0.3 ALL
20. SUPPORTS
21. 1 PINNED
22. 2 FIXED BUT MY MZ
24. UNIT METER KN
25. LOAD 1 DEAD
26. MEMBER LOAD
27. 1 UNI GY 7
148 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
29. LOAD 2 LIVE
30. MEMBER LOAD
31. 1 UNI GY 15
33. LOAD COMB 3 1.25DL + 1.5 LL
34. 1 1.25 2 1.5
36. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BANDWIDTH= 1/ 1/ 5 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 2, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 5
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILOWORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 19641.6 MB
37. LOAD LIST 2
38. PRINT SECTION DISPLACEMENTS
MEMBER SECTION DISPLACEMENTS

UNIT =INCHES FOR FPS AND CM FOR METRICS/SI SYSTEM
MEMB LOAD GLOBAL X,Y,Z DISPL FROM START TO END JOINTS AT 1/12TH PTS
1 2 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5471 0.0000
0.0000 1.0528 0.0000 0.0000 1.4824 0.0000
0.0000 1.8086 0.0000 0.0000 2.0120 0.0000
0.0000 2.0812 0.0000 0.0000 2.0120 0.0000
0.0000 1.8086 0.0000 0.0000 1.4824 0.0000
0.0000 1.0528 0.0000 0.0000 0.5471 0.0000
0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
MAX LOCAL DISP = 2.08115 AT 400.00 LOAD 2 L/DISP= 384
************ END OF SECT DISPL RESULTS ***********
40. LOAD LIST 3
41. PARAMETER
42. CODE CANADIAN
43. TRACK 2 ALL
44. UNL 1 ALL
45. FYLD 300000 ALL
46. BEAM 1 ALL
47. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  (CAN/CSAS1601)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE  KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST W410X54 (CANADIAN SECTIONS)
PASS CSA13.8.2+ 0.883 3
0.00 C 0.00 250.00 4.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)

CROSS SECTION AREA = 6.84E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 8.00E+02
IZ = 1.86E+04 SZ = 9.26E+02 PZ = 1.05E+03
IY = 1.02E+03 SY = 1.15E+02 PY = 1.77E+02
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT  KN,M)
International Design Codes Manual — 149

CR1 = 1.846E+03 CR2 = 2.732E+02
CRZ = 1.570E+03 CTORFLX = 2.732E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY = 1.805E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 2.732E+02
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 4.778E+01 MRZ = 2.832E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 5.379E+02 VRZ = 4.604E+02
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 207.170 KL/RZ = 48.447 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 300.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 1.000
OMEGA1 (YAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA1 (ZAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 0.000E+00 Z AXIS = 0.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 5.08E+01
48. STEEL TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKEOFF

PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no
density.
ST W410X54 8.00 4.203
PRISMATIC STEEL 0.00 0.000

TOTAL = 4.203
************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************
49. FINISH
3B.11.2 Verification Problem No. 2
Steel beam/column, wide flange section. Static Analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_ver_prob2.std
Reference
CAN/CSAS16.194, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Handbook Example, Page 4_106.
Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam and column resistance.
Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL).
F
y
= 300 MPa CSA G40.21M
Simply supported beam/column has a 3.7 m span, Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0
factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of
150 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
200 kN*m and 300 kN*m
Steel section is W310X129
Comparison
Critera Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Interaction
Ratio
0.96 0.98 2%
Beam
Resistance
(kN·m)
583 584 none
Column
Resistance
(kN)
3,800 3,820 none
Table 3B.3CAN/CSAS16 Verification Problem2
comparison
STAAD Output
****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4106
2. *
3. * COMPRESSION + MAJOR AXIS BENDING
4. *
5. UNIT METER KN
6. JOINT COORDINATES
7. 1 0 0 0; 2 0 3.7 0
8. *
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
10. 1 1 2
11. *
12. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
13. 1 TABLE ST W310X129
14. *
15. CONSTANTS
16. E STEEL ALL
17. POISSON STEEL ALL
18. *
International Design Codes Manual — 151
19. SUPPORTS
20. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ
21. 2 FIXED BUT FY MY MZ
22. *
23. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD
24. JOINT LOAD
25. 2 FY 2000
26. 2 MZ 200
27. 1 MZ 300
28. *
29. PDELTA 3 ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BANDWIDTH= 1/ 1/ 5 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 5
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILOWORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 19641.2 MB
++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35
++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35
++ Adjusting Displacements 8:54:35
31. PRINT MEMBER FORCES
MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEARY SHEARZ TORSION MOMY MOMZ
1 1 1 2000.00 135.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 300.00
2 2000.00 135.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 200.00
************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************
33. PARAMETER
34. CODE CANADIAN
35. TRACK 2 ALL
36. FYLD 300000 ALL
37. LY 3.7 ALL
38. LZ 3.7 ALL
39. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  (CAN/CSAS1601)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE  KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST W310X129 (CANADIAN SECTIONS)
PASS CSA13.8.2C 0.980 1
2000.00 C 0.00 300.00 0.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)

CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.65E+02 MEMBER LENGTH = 3.70E+02
IZ = 3.08E+04 SZ = 1.94E+03 PZ = 2.16E+03
IY = 1.00E+04 SY = 6.51E+02 PY = 9.90E+02
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT  KN,M)
152 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601

CR1 = 4.459E+03 CR2 = 3.820E+03
CRZ = 4.296E+03 CTORFLX = 3.820E+03
TENSILE CAPACITY = 4.359E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 3.820E+03
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.672E+02 MRZ = 5.840E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 7.419E+02 VRZ = 1.505E+03
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 47.477 KL/RZ = 27.094 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.700
OMEGA1 (YAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA1 (ZAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.351E+02 Z AXIS = 0.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 2.12E+01
40. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKEOFF

PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no
density.
ST W310X129 3.70 4.694
PRISMATIC STEEL 0.00 0.000

TOTAL = 4.694
MEMBER PROFILE LENGTH WEIGHT
(METE) (KN )
1 ST W310X129 3.70 4.694
************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************
42. FINISH
3B.11.3 Verification Problem No. 3
Steel beam/column, wide flange section. Static Analysis, 3D beam element.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/can_ver_prob3.std
Reference
CAN/CSAS16.194, National Standard of Canada, Limit States Design of Steel Structures. The
Canadian Standards Association, 1994 with CISC (Canadian Institute of Steel Construction)
handbook. CISC Handbook Example, Page 4108.
Problem
Find the interaction ratio, beam and column resistance.
Given
E = 200000 MPa (STEEL).
F
y
= 300 MPa CSA G40.21M
Simply supported beam/column has a 3.7 m span, Ky is 1.0, Kz 1.0, Lu = 3.7 m
International Design Codes Manual — 153
factored axial load is 2000 kN and end moments of
200 kN*m and 300 kN*m in the strong axis and 100 kN*m at each end in the weak axis.
Steel section is W310X143.
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Interaction
Ratio
0.998 1.00 none
Beam
Resistance,
Weak axis
(kN·m)
300 299 none
Beam
Resistance,
Strong axis
(kN·m)
630 650 3.2%
Column
Resistance
(kN)
4,200 4,222 none
Table 3B.4CAN/CSAS16 Verification Problem 3
comparison
STAAD Output
****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro *
* Version Bld *
* Proprietary Program of *
* Research Engineers, Intl. *
* Date= *
* Time= *
* *
* USER ID: *
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 4108
2. *
3. * ( COMPRESSION + BIAXIAL BENDING )
4. *
5. UNIT METER KN
6. JOINT COORDINATES
7. 1 0 0 0; 2 0 3.7 0
8. *
9. MEMBER INCIDENCES
154 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
10. 1 1 2
11. *
12. MEMBER PROPERTY CANADIAN
13. 1 TABLE ST W310X143
14. *
15. CONSTANTS
16. E STEEL ALL
17. POISSON STEEL ALL
18. *
19. SUPPORTS
20. 1 FIXED BUT MX MZ
21. 2 FIXED BUT FY MX MY MZ
22. *
23. LOAD 1 FACTORED LOAD
24. JOINT LOAD
25. 2 FY 2000
26. 2 MZ 200
27. 2 MX 100
28. 1 MZ 300
29. 1 MX 100
30. *
31. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 2
ORIGINAL/FINAL BANDWIDTH= 1/ 1/ 6 DOF
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 6
SIZE OF STIFFNESS MATRIX = 1 DOUBLE KILOWORDS
REQRD/AVAIL. DISK SPACE = 12.0/ 19641.2 MB
33. PARAMETER
34. CODE CANADIAN
35. CMY 2 ALL
36. CMZ 2 ALL
37. CB 1 ALL
38. TRACK 2 ALL
39. FYLD 300000 ALL
40. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  (CAN/CSAS1601)
******************************************
ALL UNITS ARE  KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
* 1 ST W310X143 (CANADIAN SECTIONS)
FAIL CSA13.8.2A 1.000 1
2000.00 C 100.00 300.00 0.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)

CROSS SECTION AREA = 1.82E+02 MEMBER LENGTH = 3.70E+02
IZ = 3.47E+04 SZ = 2.15E+03 PZ = 2.41E+03
IY = 1.12E+04 SY = 7.28E+02 PY = 1.11E+03
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0
International Design Codes Manual — 155
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT  KN,M)

CR1 = 4.912E+03 CR2 = 4.222E+03
CRZ = 4.737E+03 CTORFLX = 4.222E+03
TENSILE CAPACITY = 4.802E+03 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 4.912E+03
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 2.987E+02 MRZ = 6.504E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 8.037E+02 VRZ = 1.678E+03
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 47.077 KL/RZ = 26.802 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 3.700
OMEGA1 (YAXIS) = 0.40 OMEGA1 (ZAXIS) = 0.40 OMEGA2 = 1.00
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 1.351E+02 Z AXIS = 5.405E+01
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 1.98E+01
41. STEEL MEMBER TAKE OFF ALL
STEEL TAKEOFF

PROFILE LENGTH(METE) WEIGHT(KN )
In Steel Takeoff the density of steel is assumed for members with no
density.
ST W310X143 3.70 5.171
PRISMATIC STEEL 0.00 0.000

TOTAL = 5.171
MEMBER PROFILE LENGTH WEIGHT
(METE) (KN )
1 ST W310X143 3.70 5.171
************ END OF DATA FROM INTERNAL STORAGE ************
42. FINISH
3B.11.4 Verification Problem No. 4
A slender, cantilever beam subjected to a uniform load. Static analysis, 3D beam element.
Reference
CISC Example 1, page 591, Limit State Design, CSAS16.194
Problem
A cantilever beam of length 4 meter is subjected to uniformly distributed load of 3 KN/Meter
in both major and minor axis. Axial compression of 8 KN is also applied to the member. User
defined steel section Sect_Class4 from is assigned to the member.
Given
Design forces
8.0 KN (Compression)
6.0 KNm (BendingY)
156 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
6.0 KNm (BendingZ)
6.0 KN (ShearY)
6.0 KN (ShearZ)
Section Properties(Sect_Class4):
Area = 2766 mm
2
Depth of section, D = 150 mm
Thickness of web Tw = 7 mm
Width of flange Bf = 150 mm
Thickness of flange Tf = 6 mm
Moment of inertia about Z axis, Iz = 1086.96X10
4
mm
4
Moment of inertia about Y axis, Iy = 337.894X10
4
mm
4
Moment of inertia about X axis, Ix = 3.7378X10
4
mm
4
Warping constant, Cw = 1.752X10
10
mm
6
Member Length L = 2 m, Unbraced length = 100mm.
Material
FYLD = 300 MPa
E = 2.05E+05 MPa
G = E/2.6 MPa
Solution
Slenderness Ratio
Effective Length factor along Local YAxis = KY = 1
Effective Length factor along Local ZAxis = KZ = 1
Slenderness ratio about Z axis, L/Rz = 31.9
Slenderness ratio about Y axis, L/Ry = 57.22
Maximum Slenderness Ratio, L/Rmax = 57.22
Section Classification
Bf/Tf = 150*0.5/6 = 12.5 > 200/sqrt(Fy) = 11.54
Flange is Class 4.
d/Tw = (1502.0*6)/7 = 19.714
International Design Codes Manual — 157
(1100/sqrt(Fy))*(10.39*Cf/ *Cy)=(1100/sqrt(300))*(10.39*8000/(0.9*2766*300)) =
63.24
Web is Class 1.
Overall section is Class 4 section.
Check against axial compression (Clause 13.3.3)
Effective width, Beff = 200*Tf/sqrt(300) = 69.24
Effective area, Aeff = 69.24*6*4+(1502*6)*7 = 2627.76 mm
4
.
Effective yield stress, FYLDeff =40000/( 0.5*Bf/Tf)
4
=256 MPa.
As per Clause 13.3.3(a),
Elastic critical buckling, Fe = π
4
*E/ L_Rmax
4
= 617.956 MPa.
Nondimensional slenderness ratio, λ = sqrt(FYLD/Fe) =0.697
Axial compressive resistance, Cr = *Aeff*FYLD*(1+0.697^(2*1.34))^(1/1.34) = 557886.104 N.
As per Clause 13.3.3(b),
Elastic critical buckling, Fe = π
4
*E/ L_Rmax
4
= 617.956 MPa.
Effective nondimensional slenderness ratio, λeff = sqrt(FYLDeff/Fe) = 0.644
Axial compressive resistance, Cr = *Area*FYLDeff*(1+0.644^(2*1.34))^(1/1.34) = 521726.94 N.
Axial compressive resistance Min(557886.104, 521726.94) = 521726.94 N.
Check against bending (Clause 13.5(c))
As the web of the section meets the requirement of Class 3 and flange exceeds Class 3 limit,
flexural resistance should be calculated as per clause 13.5(c).iii.
Effective moment of inertia about Z axis,
Izeff =2*(2*69.24*6
3
)/12 + 2*(2*69.24*6)*(1506)*(1506)/4 + (7*(1502*6)
3
)/12
=10152591.12 mm
4
.
Effective section modulus about Z axis,
Szeff = 10152591.12*2/150 = 135367.88 mm
3
.
Effective moment of inertia about Y axis,
Iyeff =(2*6*(2*69.24)
3
)/12 +(0.5*(1506)*7
3
)/12 =2657648.856 mm
4
.
Effective section modulus about Y axis,
Syeff = 2657648.856/69.24 = 38383.144 mm
3
.
Major axis bending resistance if member is laterally supported,
158 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
Mrz1 = *Szeff*FYLD= 0.9*135367.88*300 =36549327.6 Nmm.
Minor axis bending resistance,
Mry = *Syeff*FYLD = 0.9*38383.144*300 = 10363448.88 Nmm.
If the member is laterally unsupported major axis bending resistance is determined by clause
13.6(b).
As the value of one of the end moments is 0.0, ω2 = 1.75.
Where, as per clause 13.6(a),
Mu = (1.75*3.14/2000)*sqrt(205000*337.894X10
4
*78846.154*3.7378X10
4
+
(3.14*205000/2000)
4
*337.894X10
4
*1.752X10^10) =2.48X10
8
My = Sz*FYLD = (1086.96X10
4
X2/150) *300 =43478400.
Since Mu > 0.65My,
Moment of resistance Mrz2 = 1.15*0.9*43478400*(10.28*43478400/2.48X10
8
) =42791153.71 Nmm
= 42.79 KNm.
Mrz2 should not be more than Mrz1. Since, Mrz2 > Mrz1 in this example, Mrz2 = Mrz1.
Mrz2 = 36549327.6 Nmm = 36.549 KNm
Comparison
Criteria Hand
Cal
culation
STAAD.Pro Result Com
ments
Axial
com
pressive
resistance
521.73 KN 5.219X10
2
KN none
Major axis
bending
resistance
36.549 KN
m
36.57 KNm none
Minor axis
bending
resistance
10.363 KN
m
10.38 KNm none
Table 3B.5CAN/CSAS16 Verification Problem 4 comparison
STAAD Output
****************************************************
* *
* STAAD.Pro V8i SELECTseries2 *
* Version 20.07.07.XX *
International Design Codes Manual — 159
* Proprietary Program of *
* Bentley Systems, Inc. *
* Date= AUG 17, 2010 *
* Time= 17: 6:23 *
* *
* USER ID: Bentley *
****************************************************
1. STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 591
INPUT FILE: s1601 verification example.STD
2. START JOB INFORMATION
3. ENGINEER DATE 16FEB10
4. END JOB INFORMATION
5. * CISC EXAMPLE 1 PAGE 591, LIMIT STATES DESIGN, CSAS16.194
6. * SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM WITH UNIFORM LOAD
7. * LIVE LOAD DEFLECTION OF L/300
8. UNIT MMS KN
9. JOINT COORDINATES
10. 1 0 0 0; 2 2000 0 0
11. MEMBER INCIDENCES
12. 1 1 2
13. START USER TABLE
14. TABLE 1
15. UNIT METER KN
16. WIDE FLANGE
17. SECT_CLASS4
18. 0.002766 0.15 0.007 0.15 0.006 1.08696E005 3.37894E006 3.7378E008 
19. 0.00105 0.0018
20. END
21. UNIT METER KN
22. DEFINE MATERIAL START
23. ISOTROPIC MATERIAL1
24. E 2.05E+008
25. POISSON 0.3
26. ISOTROPIC STEEL
27. E 2.05E+008
28. POISSON 0.3
29. DENSITY 76.8195
30. ALPHA 1.2E005
31. DAMP 0.03
32. END DEFINE MATERIAL
33. MEMBER PROPERTY
34. 1 UPTABLE 1 SECT_CLASS4
35. UNIT MMS KN
36. CONSTANTS
37. MATERIAL STEEL ALL
38. SUPPORTS
39. 1 FIXED
40. UNIT METER KN
41. LOAD 1 LC1
42. MEMBER LOAD
43. 1 UNI GY 3
44. 1 UNI GZ 3
160 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
45. JOINT LOAD
46. 2 FX 8
47. PERFORM ANALYSIS
P R O B L E M S T A T I S T I C S

NUMBER OF JOINTS/MEMBER+ELEMENTS/SUPPORTS = 2/ 1/ 1
SOLVER USED IS THE INCORE ADVANCED SOLVER
TOTAL PRIMARY LOAD CASES = 1, TOTAL DEGREES OF FREEDOM = 6
48. LOAD LIST 1
49. PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1
VERIFICATION CISC 1994 HANDBOOK EXAMPLE PAGE 591  PAGE NO. 3
MEMBER END FORCES STRUCTURE TYPE = SPACE

ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (LOCAL )
MEMBER LOAD JT AXIAL SHEARY SHEARZ TORSION MOMY MOMZ
1 1 1 8.00 6.00 6.00 0.00 6.00 6.00
2 8.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
************** END OF LATEST ANALYSIS RESULT **************
50. PARAMETER 1
51. CODE CANADIAN
52. CB 0 ALL
53. TRACK 2 ALL
54. FYLD 300000 ALL
55. CHECK CODE ALL
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  (CAN/CSAS1601 ) V2.0
********************************************
ALL UNITS ARE  KNS MET (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
International Design Codes Manual — 161
1 ST SECT_CLASS4 (UPT)
PASS CSA13.8.3B 0.760 1
8.00 C 6.00 6.00 0.00
MEMBER PROPERTIES (UNIT = CM)

CROSS SECTION AREA = 2.77E+01 MEMBER LENGTH = 2.00E+02
IZ = 1.09E+03 SZ = 1.45E+02 PZ = 1.63E+02
IY = 3.38E+02 SY = 4.51E+01 PY = 6.92E+01
IX = 3.74E+00 CW = 1.75E+04
EFFECTIVE MEMBER PROPERTIES FOR CLASS4 SECTION(UNIT = CM)

EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION AREA = 2.63E+01
EFFECTIVE IZ = 1.02E+03 EFFECTIVE SZ = 1.35E+02
EFFECTIVE IY = 2.66E+02 EFFECTIVE SY = 3.85E+01
EFFECTIVE YILED STRESS = 256.0 MPA
COMPRESSIVE CAPACITIES FOR CLASS 4 SECTION(UNIT = MPA)

BASED ON EFFECTIVE AREA
CR1 = 7.098E+02 CR2 = 5.582E+02 CRZ = 6.705E+02
CTORFLX = 5.582E+02
BASED ON EFFECTIVE YIELD STRENGTH
CR1 = 6.373E+02 CR2 = 5.219E+02 CRZ = 6.084E+02
CTORFLX = 5.219E+02
MATERIAL PROPERTIES (UNIT = MPA)

FYLD = 300.0 FU = 345.0 E = 2.05E+05 G = 7.88E+04
SECTION CAPACITIES (UNIT  KN,M)

CR1 = 6.373E+02 CR2 = 5.219E+02 SECTION CLASS 4
CRZ = 6.084E+02 CTORFLX = 5.219E+02
TENSILE CAPACITY = 7.300E+02 COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY = 5.219E+02
FACTORED MOMENT RESISTANCE : MRY = 1.038E+01 MRZ = 3.657E+01
MU = 2.486E+02
FACTORED SHEAR RESISTANCE : VRY = 1.871E+02 VRZ = 3.208E+02
MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

162 — STAAD.Pro
3B. Canadian Codes  Steel Design per CSA Standard CAN/CSAS1601
NET SECTION FACTOR FOR TENSION = 1.000
KL/RY = 57.222 KL/RZ = 31.904 ALLOWABLE KL/R = 200.000
UNSUPPORTED LENGTH OF THE COMPRESSION FLANGE (M) = 2.000
OMEGA1 (YAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA1 (ZAXIS) = 1.00 OMEGA2 = 1.75
SHEAR FORCE (KNS) : Y AXIS = 6.000E+00 Z AXIS = 6.000E+00
SLENDERNESS RATIO OF WEB (H/W) = 1.97E+01
56. FINISH
*********** END OF THE STAAD.Pro RUN ***********
**** DATE= AUG 17,2010 TIME= 17: 6:28 ****
************************************************************
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International Design Codes Manual — 163
164 — STAAD.Pro
3C. Canadian Codes  Design Per Canadian Cold Formed
Steel Code S13694
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Canadian code S13694
Specification for the Design of ColdFormed Steel Structural Members, including revisions
dated May, 1995. The program allows design of single (noncomposite) members in tension,
compression, bending, shear, as well as their combinations. For laterally supported members in
bending, the Initiation of Yielding method has been used. Cold work of forming
strengthening effects have been included as an option.
Design of members per S13694 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
3C.1 CrossSectional Properties
The user specifies the geometry of the crosssection by selecting one of the section shape
designations from the Gross Section Property Tables published in the "ColdFormed Steel
Design Manual", AISI, 1996 Edition.
The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:
l Channel with Lips
l Channel without Lips
l Angle with Lips
l Angle without Lips
l Z with Lips
l Z without Lips
l Hat
Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface
(GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file.
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. STAAD.Pro uses unreduced
section properties in the structure analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section
properties are used in the design stage, as applicable.
3C.2 Design Procedure
The following two design modes are available:
3C.2.1 Code Checking
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance
with CSA 136. Code checking is carried out for locations specified via the SECTION command
or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a PASS/FAIL identifier and a
RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. You may choose the degree of
detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
International Design Codes Manual — 165
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
3C.2.2 Member Selection
You may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (AISI
standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least
weight criterion. In addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member
may be specified. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially
specified (i.e., channel, angle, etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, present design
results for that section. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the
initial one can be found, the program leaves the member unchanged, regardless of whether it
passes the code check or not.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Member Selection command.
3C.2.3 Code Sections Implemented
The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Clauses 5.6.2.1 through
3 and 5.6.2.6 through 8. Crosssectional properties and overall slenderness of members are
checked for compliance with
l Clause 5.3, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression
l Clause 5.4, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression
l Clause 5.5, Maximum Section Depths.
The program will check member strength in accordance with Clause 6 of the Standard as
follows:
l Resistance factors listed in Clauses 6.2 (a), (b), and (e) are used, as applicable.
l Members in tension  Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6.3.1 and
6.3.2.
l Members in bending and shear
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:
l 6.4.1 General,
l 6.4.2 and 6.4.2.1 Laterally Supported Members, compressive limit stress based on
Initiation of Yielding,
l 6.4.3 Laterally Unsupported Members,
l 6.4.4 Channels and ZShaped Members with Unstiffened Flanges  additional
limitations,
l 6.4.5 Shear in Webs,
166 — STAAD.Pro
3C. Canadian Codes  Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code S13694
l 6.4.6 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs.
l Members in compression
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:
o
6.6.1.1, 6.6.1.2 (a) and (d), and 6.6.1.3 General,
o
6.6.2 Sections Not Subject to TorsionalFlexural Buckling,
o
6.6.3 Singly Symmetric Sections,
o
6.6.4 PointSymmetric Sections,
o
6.6.5 Cylindrical Tubular Sections.
l Members in compression and bending
Resistance calculations are based on Clause 6.7.1, Singly and Doubly Symmetric Sections.
Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be provided.
3C.3 Design Parameters
The following table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and
selection of design options.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified S136.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
Table 3C.1Canadian Cold Formed Steel Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 167
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BEAM 1.0 When this parameter is set to 1.0
(default), the adequacy of the member
is determined by checking a total of 13
equally spaced locations along the
length of the member. If the BEAM
value is 0.0, the 13 location check is not
conducted, and instead, checking is
done only at the locations specified by
the SECTION command (See STAAD
manual for details). If neither the
BEAM parameter nor any SECTION
command is specified, STAAD will
terminate the run and ask the user to
provide one of those 2 commands. This
rule is not enforced for TRUSS
members.
CMZ 1.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform
bending Ω
z
. See CSA 136, 6.7.2. Used
for Combined axial load and bending
design. Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CMY 0.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform
bending Ω
y
. See CSA 136, 6.7.2. Used
for Combined axial load and bending
design. Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CWY 0 Specifies whether the cold work of
forming strengthening effect should be
included in resistance computation.
See CSA 136, 5.2.
0. effect should not be included
1. effect should be included
DMAX 1000.0 Maximum depth permissible for the
section during member selection. This
value must be provided in the current
units.
DMIN 0.0 Minimum depth required for the
section during member selection. This
value must be provided in the current
units.
168 — STAAD.Pro
3C. Canadian Codes  Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code S13694
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
FLX 1 Specifies whether torsionalflexural
buckling restraint is provided or is not
necessary for the member. See CSA 136,
6.6.2
0. Section subject to torsional
flexural buckling and restraint
not provided
1. restraint provided or
unnecessary
FU 450 MPa Ultimate tensile strength of steel in
current units.
FYLD 350 MPa Yield strength of steel in current units.
KT 1.0 Effective length factor for torsional
buckling. It is a fraction and is unit
less. Values can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented from
torsional buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio for twisting
for determining the capacity in axial
compression.
KY 1.0 Effective length factor for overall
column buckling about the local Y
axis. It is a fraction and is unitless.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented from
buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for determining the capacity in
axial compression.
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for overall
column buckling in the local Zaxis. It
is a fraction and is unitless. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
International Design Codes Manual — 169
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LT Member
length
Unbraced length for twisting. It is
input in the current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented from
torsional buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio for twisting
for determining the capacity in axial
compression.
LY Member
length
Effective length for overall column
buckling in the local Yaxis. It is input
in the current units of length. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
LZ Member
length
Effective length for overall column
buckling in the local Zaxis. It is input
in the current units of length. Values
can range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members, See CSA 136, 6.3.1.
STIFF Member
length
Spacing in the longitudinal direction
of shear stiffeners for stiffened flat
webs. It is input in the current units of
length. See section CSA 136, 6.4.5
170 — STAAD.Pro
3C. Canadian Codes  Design Per Canadian Cold Formed Steel Code S13694
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TRACK 0 This parameter is used to control the
level of detail in which the design
output is reported in the output file.
The allowable values are:
0. Prints only the member
number, section name, ratio,
and PASS/FAIL status.
1. Prints the design summary in
addition to that printed by
TRACK 1
2. Prints member and material
properties in addition to that
printed by TRACK 2.
TSA 1 Specifies whether bearing and
intermediate transverse stiffeners
satisfy the requirements of CSA 136,
6.5. If true, the program uses the more
liberal set of interaction equations in
6.4.6.
0. stiffeners do not comply with
6.5
1. stiffeners comply with 6.5
International Design Codes Manual — 171
172 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard
CAN/CSA08601
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing timber design based on the Canadian code CSA 08601
Wood Design Standard.
Design of members per CSA 08601 requires the STAAD CAN/AUS/SA Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
3D.1 General Comments
The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which
they would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limitstate are
recognized  ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and
resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for the entire structure
under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed
are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, the code checking portion of the program checks whether
code requirements for each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of CSA086
01. A detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and
assumptions is available in the specification document.
3D.2 Analysis Methodology
Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user.
The user is allowed complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using
appropriate load factors to create necessary loading situations.
3D.3 Member Property Specifications
A timber section library consisting of Sawn and Glulam timber is available for member
property specification.
For specification of member properties, for Sawn timber the timber section library available in
STAAD may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands used to assign
properties from the builtin timber table.
For Glulam timber, member properties can be specified using the YD (depth) and ZD (width)
specifications and selecting Combination and Species specifications from the builtin table.
The assignment is done with the help of the PRISMATIC option (Refer to Section 5.20 of the
Technical Reference Manual)
3D.4 Builtin Timber Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin timber tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, the properties are also used for member design.
International Design Codes Manual — 173
Following are the description of the different types of species combination available:
3D.4.1 Douglas FirLarch
The following example illustrates the specification of Douglas FirLarch species combination.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST DFL_SELSTR_2X2_BM
3D.4.2 HemFir
Designation of HemFir species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST HEMFIR_SELSTR_2X10_BM
3D.4.3 Northern Species
Designation of Northern species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST NORTHERN_SELSTR_3X12_BM
3D.4.4 SprucePineFir
Designation of SprucePineFir species combination in STAAD is as follows.
100 TO 150 TABLE ST SPF_SELSTR_3X8_BM
3D.4.5 Glu Laminated timber
Designation of Glulam timber in STAAD involves defining the material, specifying the
dimensions, and associating the material with the member through the CONSTANTS
command.
UNIT CM KN
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC GLT_D.FIRL24FEX
E 51611.7
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 2.5E005
174 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
ALPHA 1.2E011
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY TIMBER CANADIAN
1 PRIS YD 12 ZD 6
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL GLT_D.FIRL24FEX MEMB 1
3D.4.6 Example
Sample input file to demonstrate usage of Canadian timber
STAAD PLANE EXAMPLE FOR DIMENSIONAL LUMBER
UNIT FEET POUND
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 6 0 0; 3 12 0 0; 4 18 0 0;
5 24 0 0; 6 6 3 0; 7 12 6 0; 8 18 3 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 4; 4 4 5; 5 1 6; 6 6 7; 7 7 8; 8 8 5;
9 2 6; 10 3 7; 11 4 8; 12 6 3; 13 3 8;
UNIT FEET POUND
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC SPF_SELSTR_4X10_BM
E 1224
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 25
ALPHA 5.5E006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY TIM CAN
1 TO 4 9 TO 11 TABLE ST SPF_SELSTR_4X10_BM
5 TO 8 12 13 TABLE ST SPF_SELSTR_4X10_BM
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL SPF_SELSTR_4X10_BM MEMB 1 TO 4 9 TO 11
MATERIAL SPF_SELSTR_4X10_BM MEMB 5 TO 8 12 13
International Design Codes Manual — 175
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH
3D.5 Member Resistance
The member resistances are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in
section 5 (for sawn lumber) and 6 (for Glulam) of CSA08601.
These depend on several adjustment factors as follows:
KD
Load duration factor (Clause 4.3.2.2CSA08601, Table 4.3.2.2)
KH
System factor (Clause 5.4.4 and 6.4.3 and Table 5.4.4 CSA08601)
K_T
Treatment factor (Clause 5.4.3 and 6.4.4 CSA08601)
KSB
Service condition factor applicable to Bending at extreme fibre (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2
CSA08601)
KSV
Service condition factor applicable to longitudinal shear (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2
CSA08601)
KSC
Service condition factor applicable to Compression parallel to the grain (Table 5.4.2
and 6.4.2 CSA08601)
K_SCP
Service condition factor applicable to Compression perpendicular to the grain
(Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2 CSA08601)
KSE
Service condition factor applicable to modulus of elasticity (Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2
CSA08601)
KST
Service condition factor applicable to tension parallel to the grain (Table 5.4.2 and
6.4.2 CSA08601)
KZB
Size factor applicable to bending (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 CSA08601)
KZV
size factor applicable to shear(Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 CSA08601)
KZT
size factor applicable to tension parallel to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 
CSA08601)
KZCP
size factor applicable to compression perpendicular to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table
5.4.5 CSA08601)
176 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
K_ZC
size factor applicable to compression parallel to grain (Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5 
CSA08601)
CHIX
Curvature factor (Clause 6.5.6.5.2CSA08601)
CV
shear load coefficient (Table 6.5.7.4A CSA08601)
KN
Notch factor(Clause 5.5.5.4CSA08601)
All of these factors must be specified as input according to the classification of timber and
stress grade.
Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistances.
3D.5.1 Axial Tension
i. For Sawn timber
The criterion governing the capacity of tension members is based on one limit state.
The limit state involves fracture at the section with the minimum effective net area.
The net section area may be specified by the user through the use of the parameter NSF
(see Table 3B.1). STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a member based on this limit
state per Clause 5.5.9 of CSA08601.
ii. For Glulam timber
The design of glulam tension members differs from sawn timber since CSA 08601
assigns different specified strength for gross and net section. The specified strength at
net section is slightly higher than the strength of the gross section. Therefore, Glulam
tension members are designed based on two limit states. The first one is the limit state
of yielding in the gross section. The second limit state involves fracture at the section
with the minimum effective net area. The netsection area may be specified by the user
through the use of the parameter NSF (see Table 3B.1). STAAD calculates the tension
capacity of a member based on these two limits states per Clause.6.5.11 of CSA08601.
3D.5.2 Axial Compression
The compressive resistance of columns is determined based on Clause.5.5.6 and Clause.6.5.8.4
of CSA08601. The equations presented in this section of the code assume that the compressive
resistance is a function of the compressive strength of the gross section (Gross section Area
times the Yield Strength) as well as the slenderness factor (Kc). The effective length for the
calculation of compression resistance may be provided through the use of the parameters KX,
KY, KZ, LX, LY and LZ (see Table 3B.1).
3D.5.3 Bending
The bending resistance of Sawn members are determined based on Clause 5.5.4 of CSA08601
and for glulam members are determined based on Clause 6.5.6.5 of CSA08601. The allowable
International Design Codes Manual — 177
stress in bending is multiplied by Lateral stability factor, KL to take in account whether
lateral support is provided at points of bearing to prevent lateral displacement and rotation
3D.5.4 Axial compression and bending
The member strength for sections subjected to axial compression and uniaxial or biaxial
bending is obtained through the use of interaction equations. Clause 5.5.10 and 6.5.12 of the
code provides the equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side of these
equations exceeds 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table
3B.1), the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.
3D.5.5 Axial tension and bending
The member strength for sections subjected to axial tension and uniaxial or biaxial bending is
obtained through the use of interaction equations. Clause 5.5.10 and 6.5.12 of the code
provides the equations for this purpose. If the summation of the left hand side of these
equations exceeds 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table
3B.1), the member is considered to have FAILed under the loading condition.
3D.5.6 Shear
The shear resistance of the cross section is determined using the equations of Clause 5.5.5 and
6.5.7.2 of the code. Once this is obtained, the ratio of the shear force acting on the cross
section to the shear resistance of the section is calculated. If any of the ratios (for both local Y
& Z axes) exceed 1.0 or the allowable value provided using the RATIO parameter (see Table
3B.1), the section is considered to have failed under shear.
3D.6 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table below may be used to control the design procedure.
These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus
allows the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of
these parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
178 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as TIMBER CANADIAN.
Design Code to follow. See section
5.51.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
CHIX 1.0 Curvature Factor for Compression
[Clause 6.5.6.5.2]
CV 1.0 Shear Load Coefficient [Table 6.5.7.4A]
KD 1.0 Load Duration Factor [Clause.4.3.2,
Table 4.3.2]
KH 1.0 System Factor [Clause 5.4.4/6.4.3, Table
5.4.4]
KN 1.0 Notch Factor [Clause 5.4.7.2.2]
KSB 1.0 Service Condition Factor for Bending
at Extreme Fibre
Applicable for bending at extreme fibre
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]
KSC 1.0 Service Condition Factor for
Compression,
Applicable for compression parallel to
grain [Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]
KSE 1.0 Service Condition Factor for Modulus
of Elasticity,
Applicable for modulus of elasticity
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]
KST 1.0 Service Condition Factor for Tension,
Applicable for tension parallel to grain
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]
KSV 1.0 Service Condition Factor for Shear,
Applicable for longitudinal shear
[Table 5.4.2 and 6.4.2]
KX 1.0 K value for flexural torsional buckling
Table 3D.1Canadian Timber Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 179
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
KY 1.0 K value in local Yaxis, usually minor
axis
KZ 1.0 K value in local Zaxis, usually major
axis
KZB 1.0 Size Factor for Bending,
Applicable for bending [Clause.5.4.5
and Table 5.4.5]
KZCP 1.0 Size Factor for Compression,
Applicable for compression
perpendicular to grain [Clause .5.4.5
and Table 5.4.5]
KZT 1.0 Size Factor for Tension,
Applicable for tension parallel to grain
[Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5]
KZV 1.0 Size Factor for Shear [Clause 5.4.5 and
Table 5.4.5]
K_SCP 1.0 Service Condition Factor for
Compression,
Applicable for compression
perpendicular to grain [Clause 5.4.2
and Table 6.4.2]
K_T 1.0 Treatment Factor [Clause 5.4.3/6.4.4]
K_ZC 1.0 Size Factor for Compression,
Applicable for compression parallel to
grain [Clause 5.4.5 and Table 5.4.5]
LX Member
length
Length for flexural torsional buckling
LY Member
length
Length in local Y axis for slenderness
value KL/r
LZ Member
length
Length in local Z axis for slenderness
value KL/r
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members
180 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
RATIO 1.0 Permissible Ratio of Actual to
Allowable Value
3D.7 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per the CSA08601 requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. The
code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical
condition, governing load case, location (distance from the start joint) and magnitudes of the
governing forces and moments are also printed.
Refer to Section 4.4 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.51.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Code Checking command.
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER CAN
KD 0.99 ALL
KH 0.99 ALL
K_T 0.99 ALL
KSB 0.99 ALL
KSV 0.99 ALL
KSC 0.99 ALL
KSE 0.99 ALL
KST 0.99 ALL
KZB 0.99 ALL
KZV 0.99 ALL
KZT 0.99 ALL
KZCP 0.99 ALL
K_ZC 0.99 ALL
CV 0.99 ALL
KN 0.99 ALL
K_SCP 0.99 ALL
CHIX 0.99 ALL
RATIO 0.99 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
3D.8 Member Selection
Member selection based CSA0862001 is not available.
International Design Codes Manual — 181
3D.9 Tabulated Results of Timber Design
Results of code checking and member selection are presented in a tabular format. The term
CRITICAL COND refers to the section of the CSA08601 specification, which governed the
design.
Pu
Actual Load in Compression
Tu
Actual Load in Tension
Muy
Ultimate moment in y direction
Muz
Ultimate moment in z direction
V
Ultimate shear force
SLENDERNESS_Y
Actual Slenderness ratio in y direction
SLENDERNESS_Z
Actual Slenderness ratio in z direction
PY
Factored Compressive capacity in y direction
PZ
Factored Compressive capacity in z direction
T
Factored tensile capacity
MY
Factored moment of resistance in y direction
MZ
Factored moment of resistance in z direction
V
Factored shear resistance
SLENDERNESS
Allowable slenderness ratio
3D.10 Verification Problems
These verification examples are included for reference purposes.
3D.10.1 Verification Problem No. 1
Determine the Canadian Glulam section column in axial compression, with design per
Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601). Column is effectively pinned at both ends and
braced at midheight in all direction.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulamcolumn.std
182 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Reference
Example 4, page 116, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Length = 9000 mm
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength (kN)
295 293.793 none
Table 3D.2CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 1
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/
LOADING/
FX MY MZ
LOCATION
===================================================================
====
1 175.00X228.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCEPINE12CE
PASS CL.5.5.10/6.5 0.728
1
214.00 C 0.00 0.00
0.0000


 LEZ = 4500.000 LEY = 4500.000 LUZ = 9000.000 LUY =
9000.000mm 


 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV
= 1.000 
 KSC = 1.000 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB
= 1.000 
 KZV = 1.000 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.000
CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000



 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm)

International Design Codes Manual — 183
 Pu = 214.000

 Tu = 0.000

 Muy = 0.000

 Muz = 0.000

 V = 0.000

 SLENDERNESS_Y = 19.737

 SLENDERNESS_Z = 25.714

 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm)

 PY = 413.943

 PZ = 293.793

 T = 0.000

 MY = 0.000

 MZ = 0.000

 V = 0.000

 SLENDERNESS = 50.000



3D.10.2 Verification Problem: 2
Determine the bending capacity of a Canadian Glulam section single span floor beam, with
design per Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601). The compression edge assumed fully
supported.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulambeam.std
Reference
Example 2, page 59, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Length = 7,500 mm, Beam Spacing = 5,000 mm, Standard load condition, Dry service
condition, Untreated
184 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength in
Bending
(kN·m)
208 208.323 none
Design
Strength in
Shear (kN)
101 100.776 none
Table 3D.3CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 2
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 130.00X646.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_D.FIRL20FE
FAIL CL.5.5.5/6.5. 1.008 1
0.00 T 0.00 0.00 0.0000

 LEZ = 7500.000 LEY = 7500.000 LUZ = 7500.000 LUY = 7500.000mm 
 
 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 
 KSC = 1.000 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 
 KZV = 1.000 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.000 CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000 
 
 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm) 
 Pu = 0.000 
 Tu = 0.000 
 Muy = 0.000 
 Muz = 0.000 
 V = 101.625 
 SLENDERNESS_Y = 16.932 
 SLENDERNESS_Z = 1.529 
 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm) 
 PY = 0.000 
 PZ = 0.000 
 T = 0.000 
 MY = 41.923 
 MZ = 208.323 
 V = 100.776 
 SLENDERNESS = 50.000 

International Design Codes Manual — 185
3D.10.3 Verification Problem No. 3
Determine the capacity of a Canadian Glulam section in axial tension, with design per the
Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_glulamtension.std
Reference
Example 3, page 158, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Dry service condition, Untreated
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength in
Tension (kN)
257 256.636 none
Table 3D.4CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 3
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 80.00X266.00 CANADIAN GLULAM GRADE:GLT_SPRUCEPINE14TE
PASS CL.5.5.10/6.5 0.974 1
250.00 T 0.00 0.00 0.0000

 LEZ = 4500.000 LEY = 4500.000 LUZ = 9000.000 LUY = 9000.000mm 
 
 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 
 KSC = 1.000 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 
 KZV = 1.000 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.000 CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000 
 
 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm) 
 Pu = 0.000 
 Tu = 250.000 
 Muy = 0.000 
 Muz = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 
 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm) 
186 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
 PY = 0.000 
 PZ = 0.000 
 T = 256.636 
 MY = 0.000 
 MZ = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 

3D.10.4 Verification Problem No. 4
Determine the Canadian Sawn section column in axial compression, with design per the
Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601). Column is effectively pinned at both ends.
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_column.std
Reference
Example 2, page 113, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Unbraced Length = 5,000 mm
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength (kN)
130 129.223 none
Table 3D.5CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 4
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO2_8X8_POST
PASS CL.5.5.10/6.5.12 0.882 1
114.00 C 0.00 0.00 0.0000

 LEZ = 5000.000 LEY = 5000.000 LUZ = 5000.000 LUY = 5000.000mm 
 
 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 
 KSC = 0.910 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 
 KZV = 1.000 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.050 CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000 
 
 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm) 
International Design Codes Manual — 187
 Pu = 114.000 
 Tu = 0.000 
 Muy = 0.000 
 Muz = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 
 SLENDERNESS_Y = 26.178 
 SLENDERNESS_Z = 26.178 
 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm) 
 PY = 129.223

 PZ = 129.223

 T = 0.000 
 MY = 0.000 
 MZ = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 
 SLENDERNESS = 50.000 

3D.10.5 Verification Problem No. 5
Determine the bending capacity of a Canadian sawn section single span floor beam, with
design per the Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_beam1.std
Reference
Example 1, page 58, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Length =6000mm, Beam Spacing = 3000mm, Standard load condition, Dry service condition,
Untreated
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength in
Bending
(kN·m)
79.8 79.732 none
Design
Strength in
Shear (kN)
46.1 46.170 none
Table 3D.6CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 5
188 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO1_10X16_BM
FAIL CL.5.5.5/6.5.6 1.066 1
0.00 T 0.00 49.20 0.0000

 LEZ = 3000.000 LEY = 3000.000 LUZ = 3000.000 LUY = 3000.000mm 
 
 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.000 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 
 KSC = 1.000 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB = 0.900 
 KZV = 0.900 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.050 CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000 
 
 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm) 
 Pu = 0.000 
 Tu = 0.000 
 Muy = 0.000 
 Muz = 49.200 
 V = 49.200 
 SLENDERNESS_Y = 4.511 
 SLENDERNESS_Z = 2.158 
 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm) 
 PY = 0.000 
 PZ = 0.000 
 T = 0.000 
 MY = 79.800 
 MZ = 79.732 
 V = 46.170 
 SLENDERNESS = 50.000 

3D.10.6 Verification Problem No. 6
Determine the capacity of a Canadian Sawn section in axial tension, with design per the
Canadian wood design code (CSA:08601).
This example is included in the installation of STAAD.Pro as
…/SProV8i/STAAD/Examp/Can/canada_sawn_lumber_tension.std
Reference
Example 2, page 158, Canadian Wood Design Manual, 2001
Given
Dry service condition, Untreated
International Design Codes Manual — 189
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Design
Strength in
Tension (kN)
185 184.338 none
Table 3D.7CAN/CSA08601 Verification Problem 6
Output for Member Design
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (S086)
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
1 ST DFL_NO1_6X8_BM
PASS CL.5.5.10/6.5.12 0.781 1
144.00 T 0.00 0.00 0.0000

 LEZ = 5000.000 LEY = 5000.000 LUZ = 5000.000 LUY = 5000.000mm 
 
 KD = 1.000 KH = 1.100 KT = 1.000 KSB = 1.000 KSV = 1.000 
 KSC = 0.910 K_SCP = 1.000 KSE = 1.000 KST = 1.000 KZB = 1.000 
 KZV = 1.000 KZT = 1.000 KZCP = 1.000 K_ZC = 1.050 CHIX = 1.000 
 CV = 1.000 KN = 1.000 
 
 ACTUAL LOADS : (KNm) 
 Pu = 0.000 
 Tu = 144.000 
 Muy = 0.000 
 Muz = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 
 ALLOWABLE CAPACITIES OF THE SECTION: (KNm) 
 PY = 0.000 
 PZ = 0.000 
 T = 184.338

 MY = 0.000 
 MZ = 0.000 
 V = 0.000 

190 — STAAD.Pro
3D. Canadian Codes  Wood Design Per CSA Standard CAN/CSA08601
Section 4
Cypriot Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 191
192 — STAAD.Pro
4A. Cypriot Codes  Concrete Design in Cyprus
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Cyrpiot code Seismic code
for reinforced concrete structures in Cyprus.
Design of members per this code requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
International Design Codes Manual — 193
194 — STAAD.Pro
4B.1 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the
design to the concrete code of Cyprus. These parameters not only act as a method to input
required data for code calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design
process. Default values of commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have
been chosen as the basis. Table 4A.1 contains a complete list of available parameters with their
default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE  Must be specified as CYPRUS.
Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
BRACE 0.0 Bracing parameter for column design:
0. Column braced in both directions
1. Column braced in only the local Y
direction.
2. Column braced in only the local Z
direction.
3. Column unbraced in either direction.
CLEAR 20 mm Clearance of reinforcement measured from
concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member, in current units.
This value default is as provided as YD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam, in
current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local Y direction
for column design.
Table 4B.1Cypriot Concrete Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 195
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z direction
for column design.
FC 4.0 ksi Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength, in
current units
FYMAIN 60 ksi Yield Stress for main reinforcement, in current
units (For slabs, it is for reinforcement in both
directions)
FYSEC 60 ksi Yield Stress for secondary reinforcement a, in
current units. Applicable to shear bars in
beams.
MAX
MAIN
50 mm Maximum required reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN above.
MINMAIN 8 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 32 40 50
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary bar size a. Applicable to
shear reinforcement in beams
MMAG 1.0 Factor by which column design moments are
magnified
NSE
CTION
12 Number of equallyspaced sections to be
considered in finding critical moment for
beam design. The upper limit is 23.
SERV 0.0 Serviceability checks:
0. No serviceability check performed.
1. Perform serviceability check for beams
as if they were continuous.
2. Perform serviceability check for beams
as if they were simply supported.
3. Perform serviceability check for beams
as if they were cantilever beams.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of beam, in
current units. (Only applicable for shear  use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending )
196 — STAAD.Pro
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
SRA 0.0 Skew angle considered in Wood & Armer
equations where A is the angle in degrees.
Two special values are also considered:
0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout without considering
torsional moment Mxy slabs
only
500 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout with Mxy used to
calculate Wood & Armer
moments for design.
TRACK 0.0 Controls level of detail in output:
0. Critical Moment will not be printed
with beam design report. Column
design gives no detailed results.
1. For beam gives min/max steel % and
spacing. For columns gives a detailed
table of output with additional
moments calculated.
2. Beam design only. Details of
reinforcement at sections defined by
the NSECTION parameter.
WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member, in current units.
This value default is as provided as ZD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
International Design Codes Manual — 197
198 — STAAD.Pro
Section 5
Danish Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 199
200 — STAAD.Pro
5A. Danish Codes  Steel Design per DS412
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Danish code DS412 1998 Code of
Practice for the structural use of steel.
Design of members per DS412 1998 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
International Design Codes Manual — 201
202 — STAAD.Pro
5B.1 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table 5A.1 may be used to control the design procedure.
These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program and thus
allow you to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers
for conventional design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these
parameter values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE  Must be specified as DS412
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
BEAM 1.0 1.0 = Calculate von Mises at twelfth points along
the beam.
BY 1.0 Buckling length coefficient, Beta, about the local
Y axis.
BZ 1.0 Buckling length coefficient, Beta, about the local
Z axis.
CB 1.0 Lateral buckling coefficient. Used to calculate the
ideal buckling moment.
CMY 1.0 Water depth, in meters, for hydrostatic pressure
calculation for pipe members.
CMZ 0.21 AlphaT in connection with lateral buckling.
CY Buckling curve coefficient, Alpha, about local Y
axis.
CZ Buckling curve coefficient, Alpha, about local Z
axis.
DMAX 1,000
mm
Maximum allowable depth (Applicable for
member selection)
Table 5B.1Danish Steel Design DS412 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 203
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
DMIN 0.0 mm Minimum required depth (Applicable for member
selection)
FYLD 235
N/mm
2
Yield strength of steel.
MF 1.15 Ratio of material factor to resistance factor.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect to the
design strength.
SSY Equivalent moment factor, BetaM, for local Yaxis.
Valid values between 0 and 2.5.
SSZ Equivalent moment factor, BetaM, for local Zaxis.
Valid values between 0 and 2.5.
TRACK 0.0 Used to specify a level of detail in output:
0. Report only minimum design results.
1. Report design strengths also.
2. Provide full details of design.
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length in bending compression of
the bottom flange for calculating moment
resistance.
204 — STAAD.Pro
Section 6
Dutch Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 205
206 — STAAD.Pro
6A. Dutch Codes  Steel Design per NEN 6770
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Dutch code NEN 6770 TGB 1990
 Steel structures  Basic requirements and basic rules for calculation of predominantly
staticaly loaded structures .
Design of members per NEN 6770 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
6A.1 Design Parameters
Available design parameters to be used in conjunction with NEN 6770 are listed in table 6A.1
along with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number till it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE 
Must be specified as DUTCH
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
BEAM 3.0
Used to specify the number of sections to be
check along the length of the beam:
0. Check sections with end forces only.
1. Check at location of maximum Mz
along beam.
2. Check sections with end forces and
forces at location of BEAM = 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point of the beam
and report the maximum.
Table 6A.1Dutch Steel Design NEN 6770 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 207
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CMM 1.0
Loading type per Tables F.1.1 and F.1.2
1. Pin ended member with uniform
loading
2. Fix ended member with uniform
loading
3. Pin ended member with central point
load.
4. Fix ended member with central point
load.
5. Pin ended member with point loads at
third points.
6. Pin ended member with varying end
moments.
CMN 1.0
Used to describe the end restraints:
1.0 = No fixity
0.7 = One end fixed, the other
free.
0.5 = Both ends fixed.
DFF
None
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check,
TRACK 4.0)
"Deflection Length" / Maximum allowable
local deflection
See Note 1d in Section 2B.6.
DJ1
Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length" . See Note 1
below.
DJ2
End Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting end point for calculation
of "Deflection Length". See Note 1 below.
DMAX 10,000 cm Maximum allowable depth
DMIN 0.0 cm Minimum allowable depth
KY 1.0
K factor value in local y  axis. Usually, this is
the minor axis.
208 — STAAD.Pro
6A. Dutch Codes  Steel Design per NEN 6770
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
KZ 1.0
K factor value in local z  axis. Usually, this is
the major axis.
LY
Member
Length
Length in local y  axis (current units) to
calculate (KY)(LY)/Ryy slenderness ratio.
LZ
Member
Length
Length in local z  axis (current units) to
calculate (KZ)(LZ)/Rzz slenderness ratio.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members.
PY
Set
according
to steel
grade (SGR)
Design strength of steel
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the actual capacities.
SAME 0.0
Controls the sections to try during a SELECT
process.
0. Try every section of the same type as
original
1. Try only those sections with a similar
name as original (e.g., if the original is
an HEA 100, then only HEA sections
will be selected, even if there are HEM’s
in the same table).
SBLT 0.0
Identify Section type for section classification
0. Rolled Section
1. Built up Section
SGR 0.0
Steel Grade
0. Grade Fe 360
1. Grade Fe 430
2. Grade Fe 510
International Design Codes Manual — 209
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
TRACK 0.0
Used to control the level output detail:
0. Output summary of results.
1. Output summary of results with
member capacities.
2. Output detailed results.
3. Deflection Check (separate check to
main select / check code)
UNL
Member
Length
Unrestrained member length in lateral
torsional buckling checks.
210 — STAAD.Pro
6A. Dutch Codes  Steel Design per NEN 6770
Section 7
European Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 211
212 — STAAD.Pro
7A. European Codes  Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the European code EC2 ENV
199211:1991 E Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures  Part 11: General rules and rules for
buildings.
Design of members per EC2 ENV 199211:1991 E requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
7A.1 Design Operations
The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Perform the design for the member as appropriate.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The parameters referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate
specific design properties to individual members considered in the design operation.
7A.2 Eurocode 2 (EC2)
Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1, General rules and rules for buildings, provides
design rules applicable to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete used in buildings and civil
engineering works. It is based on the limit state philosophy common to modern standards.
The objective of this method of design is to ensure that possibility of failure is reduced to a
negligible level. This is achieved through application of factors to both the applied loads and
the material properties. The code also provides guidelines on the global method of analysis to
be used for calculating internal member forces and moments. STAAD provides a number of
methods for analysis, allowing Geometric Nonlinearity as well as PDelta effects to be
considered.
7A.3 National Application Documents
Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application
Documents to be used with EC2. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and
may also provide supplements to the rules in EC2.
The current version of EC2 implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules provided
in EC2 and has not been modified by any National Application Documents.
7A.4 Material Properties and Load Factors
Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strengths, as given in table
2.3 of EC2, by the material partial safety factors γ
c
for concrete and γ
s
for reinforcements. The
magnitude in STAAD is 1.5 for concrete and 1.15 for reinforcements.
Material coefficients in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by numerical
values provided in the input file.
International Design Codes Manual — 213
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 21.71 KN/mm
2
Shear Modulus, G = E / 2 (1 + v)
Poisson's Ratio, v = 0.25
Unit weight, ρ = 23.56 KN/m
3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on γ
F
, the partial safety factor for the action
under consideration. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable
values for the factors and their use in various load combinations.
7A.5 Columns
Columns are designed for axial compressive loads and possible moments at the ends of the
member. If a particular load case causes tension in the column being designed that load case
is ignored, the design proceeds with a warning message given to that affect.
All active load cases will be considered in the design and reinforcements are assumed
symmetrically arranged in the cross section.
The maximum reinforcement calculated after all design load cases have been considered is
then reported as the critical required area of reinforcement.
Slender columns are also covered in the design process, the program will make due allowance
for the additional moment that has to be considered in the design.
Note: Sway type structures are not directly covered in the current implementation of
EC2. This effect, however, can be accounted for by the PDELTA analysis option.
7A.6 Beams
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these actions active load cases are
scanned to create appropriate envelopes for the design process. Maximum torsional moment is
also identified and incorporated in the design.
7A.6.1 Design for flexure
Reinforcement for both positive and negative moments is calculated on the basis of the
section properties provided by the user. If the required reinforcement exceeds the maximum
allowable then the section size is inadequate and a massage to that effect is given in the
output. Parabolicrectangular stress distribution for the concrete section is adopted and as
moment redistribution is not available in STAAD analysis, the limit for N.A to depth ratio is
set according to clause 2.5.3.4.2 (5) of the code.
If required, compression reinforcement will be provided in order to satisfy the above limits. It
is important to know that beams are designed for the flexural moment MZ only. The
moment MY is not considered in the design at all.
214 — STAAD.Pro
7A. European Codes  Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2
7A.6.2 Design for Shear
Shear reinforcement design is based on the standard method mentioned in clause 4.3.2.4.3
where it is assumed the notional strut inclination is constant. Depending on the shear
distribution within the member it may be possible that nominal shear reinforcement will be
sufficient to cater for the design shear forces. If this is not the case an attempt is made to
identify regions where nominal reinforcement is insufficient and appropriate reinforcement is
then calculated to cover the excess design shear force.
The maximum shear force that can be carried without crushing the concrete is also checked
and if exceeded, a message to revise the section size is given in the output file.
7A.6.3 Design for Torsion
Torsional moments arising as a result of equilibrium requirements need to be designed for at
the ultimate limit state. Reinforcement for torsional moments consists of stirrups combined
with longitudinal bars. The combined magnitude of shear stress arising from shear forces and
torsional moments are checked in order to establish whether the section size is adequate. If
section size is inadequate a massage is given in the output file, otherwise, full design is carried
out and both shear links and longitudinal bars required are calculated and, where necessary,
links are combined with the shear force links and printed in a tabulated manner in the output
file.
7A.7 Slabs
Slabs can only be designed for if finite elements are used to represent them in the model of
the structure. In the main the design follows the same procedure as for flexure except that
shear forces are assumed to be resisted without the provision of shear reinforcements. In cases
where this may not be the case users must ensure that necessary checks are carried out. The
output for the slab design refers to longitudinal reinforcements, which coincides with the
local x direction of the element, and, transverse reinforcement, which coincides with the local
y direction of the element.
Also, reference is made to 'TOP' and BOTT' reinforcement which relates to the element's
'TOP' and 'BOTTOM' as determined from the connectivity of the element. This may not
coincide with the slab's actual top and bottom and, if desired, you must ensure this through
the numbering scheme of the elements. The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of
16mm in both directions with the longitudinal bar being the layer closest to the slab exterior
faces. Refer to Figure 1.21 in Section 1.61. of the Technical Reference Manual for additional
information.
7A.8 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to
default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure. Depending
on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the parameter
default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new setting must
be compatible with the active "unit" specification. Table 8A.1 lists all the relevant EC2
parameters together with description and default values.
International Design Codes Manual — 215
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BRACE 0.0 0.0 = Column braced in both
directions.
1.0 = Column unbraced about
local Z direction only
2.0 = Column unbraced about
local Y direction only
3.0 = Column unbraced in both Y
and Z directions
CLEAR * 20mm Clearance of reinforcement
measured from concrete surface to
closest bar perimeter.
DEPTH *YD Depth of concrete member. This
value default is as provided as YD
in MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE *0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE
must be positive
numbers.
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local
Y direction for column design.
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local
Z direction for column design.
FC * 30N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress / cube
strength
FYMAIN *460 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main
reinforcement (For slabs, it is for
reinforcement in both directions)
Table 7A.1Concrete Design EC2 Parameters
216 — STAAD.Pro
7A. European Codes  Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
FYSEC *460N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcement. Applicable to shear
bars in beams
MINMAIN 8mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12
16 20 25 32 40 50
MINSEC 8mm Minimum secondary bar size a.
Applicable to shear reinforcement
in beams
MAXMAIN 50mm Maximum required reinforcement
bar size Acceptable bars are per
MINMAIN above.
MMAG 1.0 Factor by which column design
moments are magnified
NSECTION 10 Number of equallyspaced sections
to be considered in finding critical
moment for beam design. The
upper limit is 20.
SERV 0.0 0.0 = No serviceability check
performed.
1.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were
continuous.
2.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were simply
supported.
3.0 = Perform serviceability check
for beams as if they were cantilever
beams.
SFACE *0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam. (Only applicable for shear 
use MEMBER OFFSET for bending
)
International Design Codes Manual — 217
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SRA 0.0 0.0 = Orthogonal
reinforcement layout without
considering torsional moment Mxy
slabs only
500 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout with Mxy used to calculate
Wood & Armer moments for
design.
A = Skew angle considered
in Wood & Armer equations where
A is the angle in degrees.
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Critical Moment will not be
printed with beam design report.
Column design gives no detailed
results.
1.0 = For beam gives min/max steel
% and spacing. For columns gives a
detailed table of output with
additional moments calculated.
2.0 = Output of TRACK 1.0
List of design sag/hog moments
and corresponding required steel
area at each section of member
WIDTH *ZD Width of concrete member. This
value default is as provided as ZD
in MEMBER PROPERTIES.
* Provided in current unit system
218 — STAAD.Pro
7A. European Codes  Concrete Design Per Eurocode EC2
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV
199311:1992]
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the European code EC3 DD ENV
199311:1992 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings.
Design of members per EC3 DD ENV 199311:1992 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
Note: The DD ENV 199311:1992 code has now been officially superseded by EN 19931
1:2005. Hence releases of STAAD.Pro subsequent to version SS3 (20.07.08.xx) will not
support this design code. The SS3 build will perform member design to this code
for legacy files but has this code removed from the design codes list in the GUI.
Users are advised to use the EN 199311:2005 version for Eurocode 3 design.
Hint: Design per EC3 DD ENV 199311:1992 is also available in the Steel Design mode in
the Graphical User Interface.
7B.1 General Description
The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate ‘Parameter’ values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform codechecking and/or member selection.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The ‘Parameters’ referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate
specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design
operation.
7B.1.1 Eurocode 3 DD ENV 199311:1992 (EC3 DD)
The DD ENV version of Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1.1 General rules and rules
for buildings (EC3 DD) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings
and civil engineering works. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is
common to modern standards. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that
possibility of failure is reduced to a negligible level. This is achieved through application of
safety factors to both the applied loads and the material properties.
The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating
internal member forces and moments. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may
be used in all cases. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. These are
“Simple”, “Continuous”, and “Semicontinuous” which reflect the ability of the joints to
developing moments under a specific loading condition. In STAAD only “Simple” and
“Continuous” joint types can be assumed when carrying out global analysis.
International Design Codes Manual — 219
7B.1.2 National Application Documents
Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Application
Documents to be used with EC3. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and
may also provide supplements to the rules in EC3.
The current version of EC3 DD implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules
provided in DD ENV 199311:1992 and has not been modified by any National Application
Document.
Note: National Annex documents are available for EC3 BS EN 199311:2005. See
"European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]" on page 235
7B.1.3 Axes convention in STAAD and EC3
By default, STAAD defines the major axis of the crosssection as ZZ and the minor axis as Y
Y. A special case where ZZ is the minor axis and YY is the major axis is available if the SET Z
UP command is used and is discussed in Section 5.5 of the Technical Reference Manual. The
longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to
the end with the same positive direction.
EC3, however, defines the principal crosssection axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the
orthogonal right hand rule. See figure below.
Bear this difference in mind when examining the codecheck output from STAAD.
Figure 7B.1  Axis convention in STAAD and EC3
7B.2 Analysis Methodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations.
7B.3 Material Properties and Load Factors
The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 DD design is based on table 3.1 of the
code. Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic yield strength by the
220 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
material partial safety factor Γm. The magnitude of Γm in STAAD is 1.1 which is applicable to
all section types. A separate safety factor parameter named GB1 is used to check the resistance
of a member to buckling and also has a default value of 1.1.
Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by
user’s numerical values provided in the input file.
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 205000 N/mm2
Shear Modulus, G = E/2(1+ ν)
Poisson’s Ratio, ν = 0.3
Unit weight, Γ = 76.8 KN/m3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on Γ
f
, the partial safety factor for the action
under consideration. In STAAD the user is allowed total control in providing applicable values
for the factors and their use in various load combinations.
7B.4 Section Classification
The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a crosssection prevents the
development of full section capacity. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior
to determining the section capacities. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their
geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. For each load case
considered in the design process, STAAD determines the section class and calculates the
capacities accordingly.
The EC3 DD design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that are of
Class 1 2 or 3 as defined in section 5.3.2 of the code. However, the design of members that have
a ‘Class 4’ section profile are limited to WIDE FLANGE, TEE, SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE
ANGLE, and RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS. Also builtup user sections that are class
4 sections are not dealt with in the current version of EC3 design in STAAD.Pro.
Laced and battened members are not considered in the current version of EC3 DD design
module in STAAD.Pro.
7B.5 Member Design
7B.5.1 Design of Beams as per DD ENV 199311:1992
EC3 DD design in STAAD.Pro considers members that are primarily in bending and/or shear
as beams and performs cross section and member capacity checks in accordance with the code.
The main requirement for a beam is to have sufficient crosssection resistance to the applied
bending moment and shear force. The possibility of lateraltorsional buckling is also taken into
consideration when the full length of the member has not been laterally restrained.
The bending capacity is primarily a function of the section type and the material yield
strength and is determined according to Cl. 5.4.5 of the code. The shear capacity and the
corresponding shear checks are done as per section 5.4.6 of the code.
International Design Codes Manual — 221
There are four classes of crosssections defined in EC3. Class 1 and 2 sections can both attain
full capacity with the exception that the class 2 sections cannot sustain sufficient rotation
required for plastic analysis of the model. Hence the full plastic section modulus is used in
the design calculations. Class 3 sections, due to local buckling, cannot develop plastic
moment capacity and the yield stress is limited to the extreme compression fibre of the
section. The elastic section modulus is used to determine the moment capacity for class 3
sections. Class 4 sections do suffer from local buckling and explicit allowance must be made
for the reduction in section properties before the moment capacity can be determined.
Further, because of interaction between shear force and bending moment, the moment
resistance of the crosssection may be reduced. This, however, does not occur unless the value
of applied shear forces exceeds 50% of the plastic shear capacity of the section. In such cases
the web is assumed to resist the applied shear force as well as contributing towards the
moment resistance of the crosssection.
As mentioned in the previous section, the design of class 4 sections is limited to WIDE
FLANGE, TEE, SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE, and RECTANGULAR HOLLOW
SECTIONS. The effective section properties are worked out as described in Cl. 5.3.5 of the
code.
Beams are also checked for lateraltorsional buckling according to section 5.5.2 of the code.
The buckling capacity is dependent on the section type as well as the unrestrained length,
restraint conditions and type of applied loading. The lateral torsional buckling checks
involves the calculation of the ‘Elastic critical moment’, Mcr, which is calculated in STAAD as
per the method given in Annex F of the code.
In the presence of a shear force, beams are also checked for shear as per section 5.4.6 of the
code. In cases where the members are subject to combined bending and shear, the combined
bending and shear checks are done in STAAD as per clause 5.4.7 of the code.
7B.5.2 Design of Axially Loaded Members
The design of members subject to tension loads alone are performed as per Cl 5.4.3 of the
code. The tension capacity is calculated based on yield strength, material factor Γm and cross
sectional area of the member with possible reduction due to bolt holes. When bolt holes need
to be considered in the capacity calculations the value used for Γm is 1.2 and the yield
strength is replaced with the ultimate tensile strength of the material. The tension capacity is
then taken as the smaller of the full section capacity and the reduced section capacity as
stated above.
The design of members subject to axial compression loads alone are performed as per Cl 5.4.4
of the code. For members with class 1 2 or 3 section profiles, the full section area is considered
in calculating the section capacity. However in case of class 4 sections, the ‘effective cross
section’ is considered to calculate the compressive strength. Also any additional moments
induced in the section due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective section will also
be taken into account as per clause 5.4.8.3 of the code. The effective section properties for class
4 sections will be worked out as given in Cl.5.3.5 of the code.
In addition to the cross section checks, buckling resistance will also be checked for such
members. This is often the critical case as the buckling strength of the member is influenced
222 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
by a number of factors including the section type and the unbraced length of the member.
The buckling capacity is calculated as per Cl. 5.5 of the code.
DD ENV 199311:1992 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double
channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out the slenderness of such
members. In these cases, the EC3 DD design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods specified
in BS 59501:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 and table 25 of BS
59501:2000 are used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module
Single Angle Sections
Angle sections are unsymmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider
four axes: two principal, uu and vv and two geometric, aa and bb. The effective length for
the vv axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY · KY, if not specified. The aa and bb
axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be
specified using the LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG
parameter. The effective length in the aa axis is taken as LY · KY and the effective length in
the bb axis as LZ · KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or
RA specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., aa axis is parallel to the longer leg).
Figure 7B.2  Axis orientation for single angles
ST angle and USER
table angles
RA angle
7B.5.3 Design of members with combined axial load and
bending
The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a coexistent axial
load. This is then checked against the lateraltorsional buckling resistance of the section. The
EC3 DD design module in STAAD takes such a scenario into account and performs the
International Design Codes Manual — 223
necessary checks as per Cl. 5.4.8 of the code. Class 1 and class 2 sections are checked as per cl.
5.4.8.1 and Class 3 and Class 4 sections are checked as per clauses 5.4.8.2 and 5.4.8.3
respectively. The effective section properties for class 4 sections are worked out as given in Cl.
5.3.5 of the code.
Generally, EC3 requires checking crosssection resistance for local capacity and also checking
the overall buckling capacity of the member. In the case of members subject to axial tension
and bending, there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into
consideration. This is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and
calculating an effective applied moment for the section. The checks are done as per Cl. 5.5.3 of
the code. In case of a combined axial compressive load and bending moment, the member
will be checked as per the rules in section 5.5.4 of the code.
The presence of large shear force can also reduce the bending resistance of the section under
consideration. If the shear load is large enough to cause a reduction in bending resistance,
then the reduction due to shear has to be taken into account before calculating the effect of
the axial load on the bending resistance of the section. If the member is subject to a
combined shear, axial load and bending moment then the section capacity checks will be
done as per Cl. 5.4.9 of the code.
As stated in the previous section, DD ENV 199311:1992 does not specifically deal with single
angle, double angles, double channels or Tee sections and does give a method to work out
the slenderness of such members. In these cases, the EC3 DD design module of STAAD.Pro
uses the methods specified in BS 59501:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members.
Cl. 4.7.10 of BS 59501:2000 is used in the current version of the EC3 DD design module.
Please refer to the note in section 5B.5.2 for St and RA angle specifications.
Please note that laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current
version of EC3 DD design module in STAAD.Pro.
7B.6 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to
default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the
parameter default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new
setting must be compatible with the active “unit” specification.
The following table lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and
default values.
224 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE Undefined You must specify EC3 or EUROPE.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
BEAM 3 Parameter to control the number of
sections to checked along the length
of a beam:
0. Check sections with end
forces only
1. Check at location of
maximum Mz along beam
2. Check sections with end
forces and forces at location of
BEAM 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point
along the beam and report
the maximum
Refer to Note 2 below.
CAN 0 Member will be considered as a
cantilever type member for
deflection checks.
0 indicates that member will not be
treated as a cantilever member
1 indicates that the member will be
treated as a cantilever member
CMM 1.0 Indicates type of loading on
member. Valid values range from 1 to
6.
Refer to Table 7B.3 for more
information on its use.
Table 7B.1Steel Design Parameters EC3 DD
International Design Codes Manual — 225
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CMN 1.0 Indicates the level of EndRestraint.
1.0 = No fixity
0.5 = Full fixity
0.7 = One end free and
other end fixed
DMAX 100.0 cm Maximum allowable depth for the
member.
DMIN 0 Minimum required depth for the
member.
DFF None (Mandatory
for deflection
check)
Deflection limit
DJ1 Start Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length".
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length".
FU Ultimate tensile strength of steel
GB1 1.1 Partial safety factor used in buckling
checks for compression members
GM0 1.1 Corresponds to the Γ
m0
factor in DD
ENV 199311:1992
GM1 1.1 Corresponds to the Γ
m1
factor in DD
ENV 199311:1992
GM2 1.1 Corresponds to the Γ
m2
factor in DD
ENV 199311:1992
KY 1.0 K factor in local y axis.
KZ 1.0 K factor in local z axis.
226 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LEG 0.0 Connection type
Refer to Note 1 below.
LVV Maximum of Lyy
and Lzz (Lyy is a
term used by
BS5950)
Buckling length for angle about its
principle axis
LY Member Length Compression length in local y axis,
Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy)
LZ Member Length Compression length in local z axis,
Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz)
PLG 0 (Polish NA only) Perform additional
checks per Cl. 6.3.3
0. Ignore additional PN EN
checks
1. Include additional PN EN
checks
See "Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction
factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and kzz" on
page 326
PY Yield Strength The yield strength default value is
set based on the default value of the
"SGR" parameter.
NSF 1.0 Net tension factor for tension
capacity calculation.
RATIO 1 Permissible ratio of loading to
capacity.
SBLT 0.0 Indicates if the section is rolled or
builtup.
0.0 = Rolled
1.0 = Builtup
International Design Codes Manual — 227
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SGR 0.0 Steel grade as per table 3.1 in EC3.
0.0 = Fe 360
1.0 = Fe 430
2.0 = Fe 510
TRACK 0 Controls the level of detail of output.
0 = minimum
1 = intermediate
2 = maximum
4 = perform a
deflection check
See note 3 below.
UNF 1.0 Unsupported buckling length as a
factor of the beam length
UNL Member Length Unrestraint length of member used
in calculating the lateraltorsional
resistance moment of the member.
ZIV 0.8 Specifies a reduction factor for
vectoral effects to be used in axial
tension checks [Cl 5.5.3(2)]
7B.6.1 Notes
1. LEG – (Ref: Table 25 BS5950)
The slenderness of single and double angle, channel and tee sections are specified in
BS 5950 table 25 depending on the connection provided at the end of the member
(Refer to section 5B.5(A).2). To define the appropriate connection, a LEG parameter
should be assigned to the member.
The following table indicates the value of the LEG parameter required to match the
BS5950 connection definition:
228 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
Clause Bold
Configuration
Leg LEG
Parameter
4.7.10.2
Single
Angle
(a)  2 bolts short
leg
1.0
long
leg
3.0
(b)  1 bolts short
leg
0.0
long
leg
2.0
4.7.10.3
Double
Angles
(a)  2 bolts short
leg
3.0
long
leg
7.0
(b)  1 bolts short
leg
2.0
long
leg
6.0
(c)  2 bolts long
leg
1.0
short
leg
5.0
(d)  1 bolts long
leg
0.0
short
leg
4.0
4.7.10.4
Channels
(a)  2 or more rows of
bolts
1.0
(b)  1 row of bolts 0.0
4.7.10.5 Tee
Sections
(a)  2 or more rows of
bolts
1.0
(b)  1 row of bolts 0.0
Table 7B.2LEG Parameter values
International Design Codes Manual — 229
For single angles, the slenderness is calculated for the geometric axes, aa and bb as
well as the weak vv axis. The effective lengths of the geometric axes are defined as:
La = KY * KY
Lb = KZ * LZ
The slenderness calculated for the vv axis is then used to calculate the compression
strength pc for the weaker principal axis (zz for ST angles or yy for RA specified
angles). The maximum slenderness of the aa and bb axes is used to calculate the
compression strength pc for the stronger principal axis.
Alternatively for single angles where the connection is not known or Table 25 is not
appropriate, by setting the LEG parameter to 10, slenderness is calculated for the two
principal axes yy and zz only. The LVV parameter is not used.
For double angles, the LVV parameter is available to comply with note 5 in table 25. In
addition, if using double angles from user tables, (Refer to Section 1.7.3 of the
Technical Reference Manual) an eleventh value, rvv, should be supplied at the end of
the ten existing values corresponding to the radius of gyration of the single angle
making up the pair.
2. BEAM
Ensure that this parameter is set to either 1 or 2 while performing code checking for
members susceptible to Lateral  Torsional Buckling.
CMM
Val
ue
Loading and Support Conditions
1
2
3
4
Table 7B.3Values for the CMM Parameter
230 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
CMM
Val
ue
Loading and Support Conditions
5
6
3. Checking beam deflection
With the TRACK parameter set to 4, the members included in a CHECK CODE command
will be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the stress capacity using the
current LOAD LIST.
If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required, then 2 parameter blocks with
code checks are required, one with a TRACK 4 command and one with a TRACK 0, 1, or
2, thus:
LOAD LIST 1 TO 10
PARAMETER 1
CODE EN 1993
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMBER 1
***************************
LOAD LIST 100 TO 110
PARAMETER 2
TRACK 4 ALL
DFF 300 MEMB 1
DJ1 1 MEMB 1
DJ2 4 MEMB 1
CODE MEMB 1
Note: While both sets of code checks will be reported in the output file, only the
last code check results are reported in the GUI.
7B.7 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per DD ENV 199311:1992. Code checking is
done using the forces and moments at specific sections of the members.
International Design Codes Manual — 231
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members
have passed or failed the checks; the critical condition ; the value of the ratio of the critical
condition (overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the
governing load case, and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the
member where the critical condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the
user defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, with
two exceptions; GENERAL and ISECTION. The EC3 DD design module does not consider these
sections or PRISMATIC sections in its design process.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
7B.8 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis
has been performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest
section, which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected
will be of the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed.
Member selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits
the maximum and minimum depth of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same
limitations as defined in section 5B.7(A) Code Checking.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as
prismatic or as the limitations specified in section 5.B.7(A).
7B.9 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated
fashion. The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has
been selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there
will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
CRITICAL COND
refers to the clause in DD ENV 199311:1992 code which governs the design.
232 — STAAD.Pro
7B. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [DD ENV 199311:1992]
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design.
FX, MY, and MZ
provide the axial force, moment in local Yaxis and the moment in local zaxis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments
(except torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are
the ones which are of interest, in most cases.
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where
design forces govern.
Note: For a TRACK 2 output, the module will also report all the relevant clause checks
that have been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the load case
that caused the critical ratio as well as the corresponding forces that were used for
the respective checks. A TRACK 2 output will also include the various design data
used for the calculations such as the section modulii, section class, section capacity
etc.
International Design Codes Manual — 233
234 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 1993
11:2005]
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the European code EC3 BS EN 1993
11:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 1.1 General rules and rules for buildings.
Note: The implementation of EN199311:2005 includes the amendments as per CEN
corrigenda of February 2006 and April 2009.
Design of members per EC3 BS EN 199311:2005 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
7C.1 General Description
The main steps in performing a design operation are:
1. Selecting the applicable load cases to be considered in the design process.
2. Providing appropriate ‘Parameter’ values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform codechecking and/or member selection.
These operations can be repeated by the user any number of times depending on the design
requirements. The ‘Parameters’ referred to above provide the user with the ability to allocate
specific design properties to individual members or member groups considered in the design
operation.
7C.1.1 Eurocode 3  EN 199311:2005 (EN 1993)
The EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3, Design of steel structures, Part 1.1 General rules and rules
for buildings (EN 1993) provides design rules applicable to structural steel used in buildings
and civil engineering works. It is based on the ultimate limit states philosophy that is
common to modern standards. The objective of this method of design is to ensure that
possibility of failure is reduced to a negligible level. This is achieved through application of
safety factors to both the applied loads and the material properties.
The code also provides guidelines on the global methods of analysis to be used for calculating
internal member forces and moments. STAAD uses the elastic method of analysis which may
be used in all cases. Also there are three types of framing referred to in EC3. These are
“Simple”, “Continuous”, and “Semicontinuous” which reflect the ability of the joints to
developing moments under a specific loading condition. In STAAD only “Simple” and
“Continuous” joint types can be assumed when carrying out global analysis.
7C.1.2 National Annex Documents
Various authorities of the CEN member countries have prepared National Annex Documents
to be used with EC3. These documents provide alternative factors for loads and may also
provide supplements to the rules in EC3.
International Design Codes Manual — 235
The current version of EC3 (EN 1993)implemented in STAAD adheres to the factors and rules
provided in EN 199311:2005. The current version of STAAD.Pro includes the following
National Annexes viz.
a. British National Annex [NA to BS EN 199311:2005]
b. The Dutch National Annex [NENEN 199311/NB] and
c. Norwegian National Annex [NSEN 199311:2005/NA2008]
d. French National Annex [Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 199311:2005]
e. Finnish National Annex [SFS EN 199311:2005]
f. Polish National Annex [PN EN 199311:2005]
g. Singaporean National Annex [SS EN 199311:2005]
h. Belgian National Annex [NBN EN 199311:2005]
The choice of a particular National Annex is based on the value of a new NA parameter that is
set by the user when specifying the EN 1993 version of Eurocode 3. See "European Codes 
National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]" on page 281 for a description of the NA
parameter.
7C.1.3 Axes convention in STAAD and EC3
By default, STAAD defines the major axis of the crosssection as ZZ and the minor axis as Y
Y. A special case where ZZ is the minor axis and YY is the major axis is available if the SET Z
UP command is used and is discussed in Section 5.5 of the Technical Reference Manual. The
longitudinal axis of the member is defined as X and joins the start joint of the member to
the end with the same positive direction.
EC3, however, defines the principal crosssection axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the
orthogonal right hand rule. See figure below.
Bear this difference in mind when examining the codecheck output from STAAD.
Figure 7C.1  Axis convention in STAAD and EC3
See "Example of a TRACK 2 output" on page 278 for an example of how this appears when Y is
up (default).
7C.2 Analysis Methodology
236 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations.
7C.3 Material Properties and Load Factors
The characteristic yield strength of steel used in EC3 (EN 1993) design is based on table 3.1 of
the code. Design resistances are obtained by dividing the characteristic value of a particular
resistance by the global partial safety factor for the resistance, γ
m
. The magnitude of γ
m
is
based on Cl. 6.1 of EN 199311:2005 and can change depending on the selected National Annex.
Material coefficients for steel in STAAD take the following default values unless replaced by
user’s numerical values provided in the input file.
Modulus of Elasticity, E = 205000 N/mm
2
Shear Modulus, G = E/2(1+ ν)
Poisson’s Ratio, ν = 0.3
Unit weight, Γ = 76.8 KN/m
3
The magnitude of design loads is dependent on γ
f
, the partial safety factor for the action under
consideration. You are allowed total control in providing applicable values for the factors and
their use in various load combinations.
7C.4 Section Classification
The occurrence of local buckling of the compression elements of a crosssection prevents the
development of full section capacity. It is therefore imperative to establish this possibility prior
to determining the section capacities. Cross sections are classified in accordance with their
geometrical properties and the stress pattern on the compression elements. For each load case
considered in the design process, the program determines the section class and calculates the
capacities accordingly. It is worth noting that the section class reported in the design output
corresponds to the most critical loadcase among those being considered for design.
The EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD can design members with all section profiles that
are of Class 1, 2, or 3 as defined in section 5.5 of the code. However, the design of members that
have a Class 4 section profile are limited to:
l wide flange
l tee
l single channel
l single angle
l rectangular hollow sections
l circular hollow sections
Also builtup user sections that are class 4 sections are not dealt with in the current version of
EC3 design in STAAD.Pro, unless they are defined as any of the section types given above.
International Design Codes Manual — 237
The design of laced and battened members is not considered in the current version of EC3
(EN 1993) design module in STAAD.Pro. The current version also does not support the design
of tapered section profiles or ISections with top and/or bottom plates.
7C.5 Member Design
EN 199311:2005, together with any specified National Annex, is used for code check or
selection of all cross sections and shapes listed in Section 7C.4. However, where EN 1993 or
the National Annex has not specified a method or values for a specific clause or parameter,
STAAD.Pro uses NonContradictory Complimentary Information (NCCI) documents as
explained in the following corresponding sections.
The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis
and ultimate limit state design. Two major failure modes are recognized:
l failure by overstressing
l failure by stability considerations
The following sections describe the salient features of the design approach. Members are
proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the characteristic stresses or
capacities. Member selection is done on the basis of selecting the most economic section on
the basis of the least weight criteria. It is generally assumed that you (the engineer) will take
care of the detailing requirements, such as the provision of stiffeners, and check the local
effects like flange buckling, web crippling, etc.
Note: The design of class 4 (slender) sections is limited to WIDE FLANGE, TEE, SINGLE
CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE, and RECTANGULAR & CIRCULAR HOLLOW
SECTIONS. The effective section properties are evaluated as described in Cl. 6.2.2.5
of the code.
You are allowed complete control over the design process through the use of the parameters
listed in Table 7C.4. Default values of parameters will yield reasonable results in most
circumstances. However, you should control the design and verify results through the use of
the design parameters.
7C.5.1 Members Subject to Axial Loads
The cross section capacity of tension only members is checked for ultimate limit state as
given in Cl. 6.2.3 of the code.
Compression members will be checked for axial capacity of the cross section in addition to
lateral buckling/stability. The cross section capacity will be checked as given in section 6.2.4 of
the code.
Lateral stability of a pure compression member will be checked as per the method given in Cl.
6.3 of the code. The compression member stability will be verified as:
≤ 1.0
N
N
Ed
b Rd ,
Where N
b,Rd
is the design buckling resistance given by:
238 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
= N
b Rd
χA f
γ
,
y
M1 for Class 1, 2, or 3 crosssections
= N
b Rd
χ A f
γ
,
eff y
M1 for Class 4 crosssections
Where:
χ is the reduction factor as given in section 6.3.12 of the code. The buckling curves used to
evaluate the reduction factor are selected from Table 6.2 of the code based on the cross section
type and the steel grade.
Note: Only the five grades of steel given in table 6.2 will be used when selecting the
buckling curve. The steel grade used for this selection is based on the SGR design
input parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 261). Even if you have specified a
custom yield strength (using the PY parameter), the choice of a buckling curve will
be based on the value of SGR parameter.
Compression members that are susceptible to torsional or torsional flexural buckling are
checked for these modes of failure as well. The nondimensional slenderness ¯λ
T
for these
members is evaluated per Cl. 6.3.1.4 of the EN 1993 code. The maximum slenderness among the
flexural buckling slenderness, torsional slenderness, and torsionalflexural slenderness is used
to evaluate the reduction factor, χ, for such members. The elastic torsional buckling load, N
cr,
T
, and the elastic torsionalflexural buckling load, N
cr,TF
, are evaluated based on the method
given in the NCCI “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes” (unless otherwise specified by a particular National Annex). The effective
length for the members can be controlled using the KZ, KY, LZ and LY parameters. If these
parameters are specified, the effective length will be calculated as KZ*LZ for length about the
ZZ axis and KY*LY for length about the YY axis. By default, the effective length will be taken
as the member length.
EN 199311:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double channels, or
Tee sections and does not provide a method to evaluate the slenderness of such members. In
these cases, the EC3 (EN 1993) design module of STAAD.Pro uses the methods specified in BS
59501:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these members. Cl. 4.7.10 and Table 25 of BS 5950
1:2000 are used in the current version of the Eurocode 3 design module.
Single Angle Sections
Angle sections are unsymmetrical and when using BS 5950:2000 table 25 you must consider
four axes: two principal, uu and vv and two geometric, aa and bb. The effective length for
the vv axis, Lvv, is taken as the LVV parameter or LY · KY, if not specified. The aa and bb
axes are determined by which leg of the angle is fixed by the connection and should be
specified using the LEG parameter, see section 5B.6 for more information on the LEG
parameter. The effective length in the aa axis is taken as LY · KY and the effective length in
the bb axis as LZ · KZ.
The following diagram shows the axes for angles which have been defined with either an ST or
RA specification and is connected by its longer leg (i.e., aa axis is parallel to the longer leg).
International Design Codes Manual — 239
Figure 7C.2  Axis orientation for single angles
ST angle and
USER table angles
RA angle
7C.5.2 Members Subject to Bending Moments
The cross section capacity of a member subject to bending is checked as per Cl .6.2.5 of the
code. The condition to be satisfied is:
≤ 1.0
M
M
Ed
c Rd ,
Where M
c,Rd
is the is the design resistance given by:
= = M M
c Rd pl Rd
W f
γ
, ,
pl y
M0 for class 1 and 2 crosssections
= = M M
c Rd el Rd
W f
γ
, ,
el y
M
,min
0 for class 3 crosssections
= M
c Rd
W f
γ
,
eff y
M
,min
0 for class 4 crosssections
Cross sectional bending capacity checks will be done for both major and minor axis bending
moments.
Members subject to major axis bending will also be checked for Lateral Torsional Buckling
resistance as per Section 6.3.2 of the code. The design buckling resistance moment M
b,Rd
will
be calculated as:
= M χ W
b Rd
LT
y
f
γ
,
y
M1
Where:
χ
LT
is the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling. This reduction factor is
240 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
evaluated per Cl. 6.3.2.2 or Cl 6.3.2.3 of the EN 1993 code depending on the
section type. For I sections, the program will by default use Cl. 6.3.2.3 to evalute
χ
LT
and for all other sections the program will resort to Cl 6.3.2.2. However, if a
particular National Annex has been specified, the program will check if the
National Annex expands on Cl.6.3.2.3 (Table 6.5) to include sections other than I
sections. If so, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 for the crosssection(s) included in
Cl. 6.2.2.3 (or Table 6.5). For all other cases the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2.
Note: You have the option to choose the clause to be used to calculate χ
LT
through the MTH design parameter. Setting MTH to 0 (default value)
will cause the program to choose Cl.6.3.2.3 for I Sections and Cl 6.2.3.2
for all other section types. As mentioned above, if the National Annex
expands on Cl. 6.3.2.3 to include sections other than I Sections, the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 by default.
When using Cl. 6.3.2.3 to calculate χ
LT
, the program will consider the correction
factor kc (Table 6.6 of EN 199311:2006) based on the value of the KC parameter
in the design input. By default the value of KC will be taken as 1.0. If you want
the program to calculate kc, you must explicitly set the value of the KC parameter
to zero.
Note: If the National Annex specifies a different method to calculate kc (e.g.
the British, Singapore & Polish NAs), the program will use that
method by default even if the KC parameter has not been explicitly set
to zero. If the NA method does not deal with a specific condition
while working out kc, the program will then fall back to table 6.6 of
the code, thus ensuring that kc is considered for the particular NA.
The nondimensional slenderness λ
LT
(used to evaluate χ
LT
) for both the above cases is
evaluated as:
= λ
LT
W f
M
y y
cr
Where:
M
cr
is the elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling. EN 199311 does
not however specify a method to evaluate M
cr
. Hence, the program will make use
of the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311 to evaluate M
cr
by
default.
Note: The method specified in Annex F will be used only when the raw EN
199311:2005 code is used without any National Annex. If a National
Annex has been specified, the calculation of M
cr
(and λ
LT
) will be
done based on the specific National Annex. (See "European Codes 
National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]" on page 281 for
International Design Codes Manual — 241
specific details). If the National Annex does not specify a particular
method or specify a reference document, the program will use the
NCCI document SN003aENEU for doubly symmetric sections and
SN030aENEU for monosymmetric sections that are symmetric
about their weak axis. For all other sections types the program will
use Annex F of DD ENV 199311 to calculate M
cr
. In cases where
Annex F does not provide an adequate method to evaluate Mcr, such
as for Channel sections, the program will resort to the method as per
Cl.4.3.6 of BS 59501:2000 to calculate the lateral torsional buckling
resistance moment (Mb,Rd) for the member.
7C.5.3 Members Subject to Shear
The cross section capacity of a member subject to shear is checked as per Cl. 6.2.6 of the code.
The condition to be satisfied is:
≤ 1.0
V
V
Ed
c Rd ,
Where:
V
c,Rd
is the is the shear design resistance given by:
= = V V
c Rd pl Rd
A f
γ
( )
, ,
/ 3
v y
M0
A
v
is the shear area and is worked out for the various section types as given in
Cl. 6.2.6(3) of the code.
Shear Buckling
For sections that are susceptible to shear buckling, the program will perform the shear
buckling checks as given in Section 5 of EN 199315. The shear buckling checks will be done
only for I –Sections and Channel sections. Shear stresses induced from torsional loads are
taken into account while performing torsion checks.
Note: Web shear buckling is checked in STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 3) (release
20.07.08) and later.
The susceptibility of a section to shear buckling will be based on the criteria given in Cl 5.1(2)
of EN 199315 as is as given as follows:
a. For unstiffened webs, if h
w
/t > 72ε/η, the section must be checked for shear buckling.
The design resistance is calculated as:
= ≤ V V
b Rd bw Rd
η f t
γ
, ,
3
yw w
M1
242 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
= V
bw Rd
χ f h t
γ
,
3
w yw w
M1
Where:
h
w
= distance between flanges of an I Section (i.e., depth  2x flange
thickness).
t = thickness of the web
ε = √(235/f
y
), where fy is the yield stress
η = 1.2 for steel grades up to and including S 460 and = 1.0 for other steel
grades
k
τ
as defined in sections below
χ
w
is the web contribution factor obtained from Table 5.1 of the EC3 code
and is evaluated per the following table:
Slenderness
Parameter
Rigid End
Post
Nonrigid End
Post
λ
w
< 0.83/η η η
0.83/η ≤ λ
w
< 1.08 0.83/λ
w
0.83/λ
w
λ
w
> 1.08 1.37/(0.7
+ λ
w
)
0.83/λ
w
Table 7C.1Evaluate of χ
w
=
⋅
λ
w
h
t 86.4 ϵ
w
b. For stiffened webs, if h
w
/t > 31·E√k
τ
/η, the section must be checked for shear buckling.
The design resistances considers tension field action of the web and flanges acting as
struts in a truss model. This is calculated as:
= + ≤ V V V
b Rd bw Rd bf Rd
η f t
γ
, , ,
3
yw w
M1
Where:
V
bf,Rd
is the flange resistance per Cl.5.4 for a flange not completely
utilized by bending moment.
·
¸
−
¸
¸
_
,
1
]
1
1
V 1
bf Rd
h t f
cγ
M
M
,
2
f f yf
M
Ed
f Rd
2
1 ,
b
f
is the width of the flange which provides the least axial resistance, not
to be taken greater than 15εt
f
on each side of the web.
t
f
is the thickness of the flange which provides the least axial resistance.
International Design Codes Manual — 243
M
f,Rd
= M
f,k
/γ
M0
, the moment of resistance of the cross section
consisting of the effective area of the flanges only. For a typical I Section
or PFD, this is evaluated as b·t
f
·h
w
. When an axial load, N
Ed
, is present,
the value of M
f,Rd
is reduced by multiplying by the following factor:
−
¸
1
]
1
1
1
¸
¸
+
_
,
1
N
Ed
A
f
A
f
f
yf
γ
M
1 2
0
A
f1
and A
f2
are the areas of the top and bottom flanges, respectively.
=
+
c a 0.25
b t f
t h f
1.6
f f yf
w yw
2
2
a = transverse stiffener spacing. The equation of c is likewise used to solve
for a sufficient stiffener spacing in the case of demand from loads
exceeding the calculated capacity for a specified stiffener spacing.
The following equation must be satisfied for the web shear buckling check to pass:
= ≤ η 1.0
V
V
3
Ed
b Rd ,
Where:
V
Ed
is the design shear force.
Note: The shear forces due to any applied torsion will not be accounted for if the TOR
parameter has been specifically set to a value of 0 (i.e., ignore torsion option).
If the stiffener spacing has not been provided (using the STIFF parameter), then the program
assumes that the member end forms a nonrigid post (case c) and proceeds to evaluate the
minimum stiffener spacing required.
7C.5.4 Members Subject to Torsion
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or later.
General
Eurocode 3 (EN 199311:2005) gives very limited guidance for the analysis and design of
torsion members. While both elastic and plastic analyses are permitted generally, the design
analysis methods for torsion discussed within EC3 are primarily based on elastic methods.
Also, only the first yield design resistance is specifically discussed for torsion members.
Furthermore, there is no guidance on section classification nor on how to allow for the effects
of local buckling on the design resistance for combined torsional effects. EC3 also does not
specifically deal with members subject to combined bending and torsion and loosely states
that the yield criteria (Eqn 6.1 in the code) can be used for elastic verification.
244 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
The method used by STAAD.Pro is therefore based on the SCI publication “P057: Design of
members subject to combined bending and torsion”. Though this publication is based on the
British standard BS 59501, the principles from this document are applied in the context of
Eurocode 3.
Note: At the time this feature has been implemented in STAAD.Pro, SCI are in the
process of updating document P057 to be in accordance with Eurocode 3. Hence
this method might be subject to modifications subject to the publication of a newer
version of P057. The NCCI document “SN007bENEU: Torsion” will also be
referenced where appropriate.
Code Basis
Torsion design in EC3 is given in Cl. 6.2.7 of EN 199311:2005. Therefore, this clause is used
primarily for this implementation.
EN 199311:2005 does not deal with members subject to the combined effects of torsion and
lateral torsional buckling. However, EN 199316 considers such a condition in Appendix A.
Therefore, STAAD.pro uses Appendix A of EN 199316 to check for members subject to
combined torsion and LTB.
The following clauses from EC3 are then considered:
l Cl. 6.2.7(1)
l Cl. 6.2.7(9)
l Cl. 6.2.7(5)
l EC3 6 App A
Note: STAAD.Pro does, however, use this clause (6.2.7) to report the output for all torsion
checks. Also any distortional deformations and any amplification in the torsional or
shear stresses due to distortions will be neglected by the program.
l Clause 6.2.7(1)
States that for members subject to torsion, the design torsional moment T
Ed
at each
cross section should satisfy:
T
Ed
/ R
Rd
≤ 1.0
Where:
T
Rd
is the design torsional resistance of the cross section.
This is the primary condition that will need to be satisfied for members subject to
torsion. The method for working out the torsional resistance T
Rd
, for the various cases
is dealt in the following sections.
l Cl. 6.2.7(9)
International Design Codes Manual — 245
States that:
For combined shear force and torsional moment, the plastic shear
resistance accounting for torsional effects should be reduced from V
pl,Rd
to V
pl,T,Rd
and the design shear force should satisfy:
V
Ed
/ V
pl,T,Rd
≤ 1.0
The code also gives means to evaluate V
pl,T,Rd
in equations 6.26 to 6.28. These
equations, however, only deal with I/H sections, Channel sections, and structural
hollow sections (RHS, SHS, CHS). Therefore, the application of Cl. 6.2.7(9) is only
performed for these section profiles.
l Cl 6.2.7(5)
States that the yield criteria given in Cl. 6.2.1(5) of EN 199311:2005 may be used for
elastic verification. STAAD.Pro evaluates the stresses due to the various actions on the
cross section and applies this yield criterion.
The program allows for two types of checks for members subject to torsion for EC3 design:
I. Basic Stress Check: This method is intended to be a simplified stress check for
torsional effects. This method will produce the output corresponding to Cl. 6.2.7(5) of
EN 199311.
II. Detailed Checks: This method will perform a full torsional analysis of the member. All
four of the clause checks mentioned earlier will be performed.
The details of these checks are as described below.
You have the option to choose the method to be used for a specific member or group of
members. This will be facilitated by setting the value of the TORSION. The TORSION parameter
set to zero by default, which results in torsion checks only being performed if the member is
subject to torsional moments (i.e., for this default setting, the program will ignore torsion
checks if there is no torsional moment in the member). Setting the value of the TORSION
parameter to three (3) will cause the program to ignore all torsional moments. The detailed
output (i.e., TRACK 2) will indicate that torsion has been ignored for that particular member.
The details of setting the values to one (1) or two (2) and the corresponding checks performed
are as described below. See "Design Parameters" on page 261 for additional details.
Note: If the TORSION parameter is set to 1 or 2, the program will perform the appropriate
checks even if the member is not subject to torsional moments. In such cases, the
program will perform the checks with a value of zero for the torsional moment.
Basic stress check
This method is used when the TORSION parameter is specified as one (1).
This method is intended to be a simplified stress check for torsional effects per Cl. 6.2.7(5).
Any warping stresses that may develop due to the end conditions will be ignored for this
option. The program will consider the forces (including torsion) at various sections along the
246 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
length of the member and for each section, will calculate the resultant stress (Von Mieses) at
various points on the cross section. The location and number of points checked for a cross
section will depend on the cross section type and will be as described below.
The stress check will be performed using equation 6.1 of EN 199311:2005 as given below:
+
−
+
≤ 3 1
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
τ
f γ /
2
/
2
/ / /
2
x Ed
y M
z Ed
y M
x Ed
y M
z Ed
y M
Ed
y M
,
0
,
0
,
0
,
0 0
Where:
σ
x,Ed
is the longitudinal stress
σ
z,Ed
is the transverse stress and
τ
Ed
is the resultant shear stress.
Note: Since transverse stresses are very small under normal loading conditions (excluding
hydrostatic forces), the term will be negligible and hence is taken as zero.
σ
x,Ed
= σ
x
+ σ
bz
+ σ
by
= F
x
/A
x
+ M
z
/Z
z
+ M
y
/Z
y
τ
Ed
= T/J · t + V
y
·Q/(I
z
·t) + V
z
·Q/(I
y
*t)
Where:
T is the torsion at the particular section along the length of the member
J is the torsion constant
t is the thickness of the web/flange
V is the shear force
Q is the statical moment about the relevant axis
I is the second moment of area about the relevant axis
The stress check as per equation 6.1 is performed at various stress points of a cross section as
shown in figures below:
International Design Codes Manual — 247
Shape Section Sketch
Doubly
symmetric
wide flange
profile
Pipe
profiles
α =
tan
1
(M
z
/M
y
)
Tube
profiles
248 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Shape Section Sketch
Channel
profiles
The resultant ratio will be reported under Cl. 6.2.7(5) in the detailed design output.
Detailed stress check
This method is used when the TORSION parameter is specified as two (2).
This method performs a detailed torsional analysis of a member depending on the torsion
loading conditions and the support conditions at the member ends. This method is based on
the SCI publication P057 and includes any warping stresses (direct warping stresses and
warping shear stresses) depending on the end conditions of the member. This implementation
considers seven different cases of loading and end conditions as given in publication P057 –
Section 6. The loading/end conditions for a member are specified by the use of the CMT design
parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 261 for parameter values and descriptions).
All the equations used to evaluate the torsional moments and associated stresses are as given
in Appendix B of P057. The resultant stresses are evaluated at various sections along the length
of the member and the following checks will be performed:
Clause 6.2.7(1) – Torsional resistance of the section.
In general, the torsion at any section T
Ed
is resolved into two components, viz.
The pure torsional (St. Venant’s) moment (T
t,Ed
) and
The warping torsional moment(T
w,Ed
)
Therefore,
International Design Codes Manual — 249
T
Ed
= T
t,Ed
+ T
w,Ed
= GJφ’ = EHφ’’’
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
φ’ and φ’’’ are the first and third derivates of twist (φ ), respectively, and
depend on the end conditions and loading. These are evaluated from the
equations in Annex B of P057 and are based the specified CMT parameter.
Note: Although the equation given the NCCI document SN007bENEU can be used to
evaluate T
wrd
, the NCCI does not give the eqn. to evaluate φ’’’. Therefore, Annex B
of P057 is used.
The torsional resistance of the section is also considered as the sum of the pure torsion
resistance and the warping torsion resistance. The pure torsion resistance (T
t,Rd
) and the
warping torsional resistance (T
w,Rd
) are evaluated as:
For closed sections:
T
t,Rd
= 2 · A
c
· t · τ
max
Where:
A
c
is the area enclosed by the mean perimeter
t is the max thickness
τ
max
is the max. allowable shear stress = (fy/√3)/ Γm0
For open sections (I & channel):
T
t,Rd
= τ
max
· J / t
Where:
J is the torsion const
t is the max thickness.
T
w,Rd
= (f
y
/ Γ
m0
)· t · b
2
/ 6
Where:
b is the width of the section
t is the thickness of the flange for I sections; minimum of flange or web
thickness channel sections
The check according to Cl 6.2.7(1) will then be performed to ensure that the following
conditions are satisfied:
T
t,Ed
/ T
t,Rd
≤ 1
T
w,Ed
/ T
w,Rd
≤ 1
T
Ed
/ T
Rd
≤ 1
250 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Clause 6.2.7(9) – Plastic shear resistance due to torsion
STAAD.Pro checks for shear resistance of a section based on Cl. 6.2.6 for EC3 and the plastic
shear resistance (in the absence of torsion) is evaluated as:
= V
pl Rd
A f
γ
( )
,
/ 3
v y
M0
Where:
A
v
is as pre Cl.6.2.6 (3) for the various sections
When torsion is present, along with the shear force, the design shear resistance will be
reduced to V
pl,T,Rd
, where V
pl,T,Rd
is evaluated as follows:
i. For I or H Sections:
= − V V 1
pl T Rd
τ
f γ
pl Rd
( )
, ,
1.25 / 3 /
,
Ed
y M
,
0
ii. For Channel Sections:
=
− −
V V 1
pl T Rd
τ
f γ
τ
f γ
pl Rd
( ) ( )
, ,
1.25 / 3 / / 3 /
,
Ed
y M
w Ed
y M
,
0
,
0
iii. For Structural Hollow Sections:
=
−
V V 1
pl T Rd
τ
f γ
pl Rd
( )
, ,
/ 3 /
,
Ed
y M
,
0
Where
τ
t,Ed
is the shear stress due to direct (St. Venant’s) torsion and
τ
w,Ed
is the shear stress due to warping torsion.
The various shear stresses due to torsion τ
t,Ed
and τ
w,Ed
are evaluated as follows:
i. For Closed sections:
The shear stresses due to warping can be ignored as they will be insignificant and
hence:
τ
t,Ed
= T
Ed
/(2·A
c
·t)
[Ref NCCI Sn007bENEU]
Where:
T
Ed
is the applied torsion,
A
c
is the area delimited by the mean perimeter and
t is the thickness of the cross section
τ
w,Ed
= 0, since warping is ignored
ii. For Open sections [I, H, Channel] sections:
International Design Codes Manual — 251
For I and H sections, the web will not be subject to warping stresses and therefore
warping shear can be ignored (τ
w,Ed
=0).
The stress due to pure torsion is evaluated as:
τ
t,Ed
= G·t·φ’
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
G is the shear modulus
φ’ is a function depending on the end condition and loading(T). This
will be taken from section 6 and Annex B of P057.
Note: Although the maximum stress is at the thickest section of the profile, the
program uses the web thickness for this clause (since the shear capacity is
based on the web area) unless the load is parallel to the flanges, in which
case the flange thickness is used.
For channel sections that are free to warp at the supports and, thus, are not subject to
warping stresses:
The warping shear stress is evaluated as:
τ
w,Ed
= E·S
w
·φ’’’ / t
[Ref SCI pub. P057]
Where:
E is the elastic modulus,
S
w
is the warping statistical moment and
φ’ is a function depending on the end condition and loading(T). This
will be taken from section 6 and Annex B of P057.
t is the thickness of the element.
Clause 6.2.7(5) – Check for elastic verification of yield
Eurocode 3 gives yield criterion as per eqn. 6.1 and STAAD.Pro uses the yield criterion given
in EC3. When a member is subject to combined bending and torsion, some degree of
interaction occurs between the two effects. The angle of twist caused by torsion is amplified
by the bending moments and will induce additional warping moments and torsional shears.
Account must also be taken of the additional minor axis moments produced by the major
axis moments acting through the torsional deformations, including the amplifications
mentioned earlier.
For members subject to bending and torsion, the stresses are evaluated as follows:
252 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Direct bending stress (major axis): σ
bz
= M
z
/ Z
z
Direct bending stress (minor axis): σ
by
= M
y
/ Z
y
Direct stress due to warping: σw = E·W
ns
· φ’’
Direct stress due to twist (min. axis): σ
byt
= M
yt
/ Z
y
Direct stress due to axial load (if any): σ
c
= P/ A
Where:
M
z
is the major axis moment & My is the minor axis moment.
φ’’ is the differential function based on twist (ref P057 Annex B. & Table 6)
W
ns
is the normalized warping function.
M
yt
= φ·M
z
(see Appendix B of P057 to evaluate φ)
Shear stresses due to torsion and/or warping is evaluated as described above for Clause 6.2.7(9).
Check for yield (capacity checks) is then done according to Eqn 6.1 of EN 199311:2005, as
described for the Basic Stress Check (TORSION = 1):
+
−
+
≤ 3 1
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
σ
f γ
τ
f γ /
2
/
2
/ / /
2
x Ed
y M
z Ed
y M
x Ed
y M
z Ed
y M
Ed
y M
,
0
,
0
,
0
,
0 0
Clause EC3:6 App A – Check for combined Torsion and Lateral Torsional
buckling
The interaction check due to the combined effects of bending (including lateral torsional
buckling) and torsion will be checked using Annex A of EN 19936: 2007. Note that this
interaction equation does not include the effects of any axial load.
Warning: At present, SCI advises that no significant work has been published for this case
and work is still ongoing. So at present is advisable not to allow for torsion in a
member with large axial load.
Members subject to combined bending and torsion will be checked to satisfy:
+ + ≤ 1
M
χ M γ
C M
M γ
k k k T
T γ / / /
y ED
LT y RK M
MZ
z Ed
z RK M
w zw α
w Ed
w Rk M
,
, 1
,
, 1
,
, 1
Where:
C
mz
is the equivalent uniform moment factor for bending about the zz axis,
according to EN 199311 Table B.3.
= − k 0.7
w
T
T γ
0.2
/
w Ed
w Rk M
,
, 1
= − k 1
zw
M
M γ /
z Ed
z Rk M
,
, 1
International Design Codes Manual — 253
=
−
k
α
M M
1
1 /
y Ed y cr , ,
M
y,Ed
and M
z,Ed
are the design values of the maximum moment about the yy
and zz axis, respectively.
M
y,Rk
and M
z,Rk
are the characteristic values of the resistance moment of the
crosssection about it yy and zz axis, respectively, from EN 199311, Table 6.7.
M
y,cr
is the elastic critical lateraltorsional buckling moment about the yy axis.
T
w,Ed
is the design value of the warping torsional moment.
T
w,Rk
is the characteristic value of the warping torsional resistance moment.
χ
LT
is the reduction factor for lateral torsional buckling according to 6.3.2 of EN
199311.
Note: For all of the above checks the effective length of the member to be used for
torsion can be set by using the EFT design parameter.
7C.5.5 Members Subject to Combined Forces
Members subject to Bending and Axial Force
When a member is subject to a combined axial load and a bending moment, the program
evaluates a reduced moment capacity based on Cl. 6.2.9 of the code. For Class 1, 2, and 3
sections, the program evaluates the reduced moment from the equations given in Cl. 6.2.9.1 of
the code. For class 4 sections, the interaction equation given by equation 6.44 are checked.
In the case of members subject to axial load and biaxial bending, the program will consider
the interaction equation 6.41 of the code.
Note: By default, the program will use the values of the constants ‘α’ and ‘β’ as given in
the code for the different sections types. However, you can override these values
using the ALPHA and BETA design parameters (See "Design Parameters" on page
261).
Note: The program uses the parameter ELB (See "Design Parameters" on page 261) to
override the Cl.6.2.9 checks for combined axial load and bending case. When
specfied as 1, the program uses the more general equation 6.2 of EN 199311,
instead.
Members subject to Bending, Shear, and Axial Force
When a member is subject to a combined axial load, shear force, and a bending moment, the
program evaluates the reduced yield strength as given in Cl 6.2.10 (3) of the code. The
reduction in the yield strength is done only when the applied shear force exceeds 50% of the
254 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
design shear resistance V
pl,Rd
. This reduced yield strength is then used to evaluate the reduced
moment capacity of the section.
Members subject to Bending and Axial Compression
The bending resistance of members could be reduced by the presence of a coexistent axial
load. This is then checked against the lateraltorsional buckling resistance of the section. The
EN 1993 design module in STAAD takes such a scenario into account and performs the
necessary checks as per Cl. 6.3.3 of the code.
Generally, EC3 requires checking crosssection resistance for local capacity and also checking
the overall buckling capacity of the member. In the case of members subject to axial tension
and bending, there is provision to take the stabilizing effect of the tension load into
consideration. This is achieved by modifying the extreme compression fibre stress and
calculating an effective applied moment for the section. The checks are done as per Cl. 6.2.9 of
the code. In case of a combined axial compressive load and bending moment, the member is
checked per the rules in section 6.3.3 of the code. The program checks to ensure that both the
interaction equations 6.61 and 6.62 of the code are satisfied. The interaction factors kzz, kyy,
kzy & kyz will be evaluated using Annex B of EN 199311 by default. Hence for the EN 199311
code in STAAD.Pro (without National Annexes), uses Annex B. The choice between using
Annex A and Annex B will be based on the choice specified by a particular National Annex, if
used. If the National Annex itself gives a choice between Annex A and Annex B, the program
uses Annex B to evaluate the interaction factors.
Note: EN 199311:2005 does not specifically deal with single angle, double angles, double
channels or Tee sections and does give a method to evaluate the slenderness of such
members. In these cases, the Eurocode 3 (EN 199311) design module of STAAD.Pro
uses the methods specified in BS 59501:2000 to calculate the slenderness of these
members. Cl. 4.7.10 of BS 59501:2000 is used in the current version of the EC3
design module. See "Single Angel Sections" for ST and RA angle specifications.
Note: Laced or battened compression members are not dealt within the current version of
EC3 (EN 1993) design module in STAAD.Pro.
7C.5.6 Design of Slender pipe sections to EN 199316
The design of Slender CHS sections is performed per EN 199316:2007 (hereafter, EC36). EC3
6 does not specify additional or modified safety factors. Therefore, the program uses the
default safety factors from EN 199311.
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters.
EC36 deals with four types of ultimate limits states: plastic limit state, cyclic capacity limit
state, buckling limit state, and fatigue. The following are considered by STAAD.Pro:
International Design Codes Manual — 255
l LS1 – Plastic limit state: Deals with the condition when the capacity of the structure is
exhausted by yielding of the material.
l LS3 – Buckling Limit state: Deals with the condition in which the structure (or shell)
develops large displacements normal to the shell surface, caused by loss of stability
under compressive and/or shear membrane stresses.
The limit state verification is made based on the “Stress design” method described in EC36.
The stress design approach takes into account three categories of stresses:
l Primary stresses: Stresses that are generated for the member to be in equilibrium with
the direct imposed loads.
l Secondary stresses: Those that are generated for internal compatibility or for
compatibility at supports due to imposed loads or displacements (e.g., temperature,
settlement etc.)
l Local stresses: Local stresses generated due to cyclic loading (or fatigue).
Only the primary stresses are considered the program. The primary stresses considered are
those generated due to axial loads, bending, shear and /or a combination of these conditions.
Note: In the context of slender pipe section design for the Eurocode 3 module, the
secondary and local stresses can be neglected since the loads and corresponding
stresses dealt with in the design engine are largely direct and shear stresses.
The local axis coordinate system for a CHS is defined as:
circumferential
around the circumference of the circular cross
section (θ)
meridional
along the length of the member (x)
normal
perpendicular to the tangential plane formed by
the circumferential and meridional directions
(n)
and the corresponding membrane stresses will follow the convention given below:
Figure 7C.3  Nomenclature for membrane and transverse stresses in Slender CHS sections
Membrane stresses Transverse stresses
256 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Stress Design
Stress checks are made based on the “Stress design” method as per Section 8.5 of the code. This
section deals with the buckling strength of the member (LS3). The principle is to evaluate the
membrane stresses due to the applied loads and then compare that to the buckling strength,
which is evaluated giving due consideration for local buckling effects.
The membrane stresses are evaluated as given in Annex A of the code. The pipe section is
considered as an unstiffened cylindrical shell.
i. Meridional Stresses:
1. Axial load
F
x
= 2·π·r·P
x
σ
x
= F
x
/(2·π·r·t)
2. Axial stress from bending
M = π·r
2
·P
x,max
σ
x
= ±M/(π
2
·r·t)
ii. Shear Stress:
1. Transverse force, V
V = π·r·P
θ,max
τ
max
= ±V/(π·r·t)
2. Shear from torsional moment, M
M
t
= 2π·r
2
·P
θ
τ = M
t
/(2π
2
·r
2
·t)
Where:
r is the radius of the middle surface of the shell wall.
t is the wall thickness of the cylinder
Calculation of Axial Buckling Stress
The buckling strength of A slender pipe section is evaluated using the method given in section
8.5.2 ofEC36. The design buckling stresses (buckling resistance) are calculated separately for
axial, circumferential, and shear. The circumferential stresses are ignored in STAAD.Pro.
The naming convention and the coordinate axis used will be as given in the following
diagram:
International Design Codes Manual — 257
Figure 7C.4  Naming convention and coordinate system used for the buckling stress of a slender CSH
section
The axial buckling resistance is given by:
σ
x,Rd
= σ
x,Rk
/γ
M1
Note: Γ
M1
will have the same default value of 1.0 as in EN 199311.
σ
x,Rk
is the characteristic buckling strength given by:
σ
x,Rk
= Χ
x
· f
yk
Where:
χ
x
is the meridional buckling reduction factor. χ
x
is evaluated per Section 8.5.2
(4) of EC36 and is determined as a function of the relative shell slenderness
given by:
= λ
x
f
σ
yk
x cr ,
Where:
σ
x,cr
is the elastic buckling critical stress.
Once the relative slenderness is evaluated, the reduction factor is calculated as follows:
χ = 1 when λ ≤ λ
0
= −
−
−
χ β 1
λ λ
λ λ
η
P
0
0 when λ
0
< λ < λ
P
χ = α/λ
2
when λ
P
≤ λ
Where:
λ
p
is the plastic limit for slenderness given by:
=
−
λ
P
α
β 1
258 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
The meridional buckling parameters the factors α and β are evaluated per section D.1.2.2 of
EC36.
Note: A ‘Normal’ fabrication quality will be assumed when evaluating the fabrication
quality parameter as given in table D.2 of the code, unless the fabrication quality is
set using the FAB design parameter. See "Design Parameters" on page 261
The elastic critical buckling stress, σ
x,cr
and the factors α and β are evaluated per Annex D of
EC36. The details are as given below:
The CHS section is classified based on the following criteria:
CHS Length Classification Criteria
Short ω ≤ 1.7
Medium 1.7 < ω ≤ 0.5· r/t
Long ω > 0.5· r/t
Where:
= ω
l
rt
The elastic critical buckling critical stress is evaluated as:
σ
x,Rcr
= 0.605·E·C
x
·(t/r)
Where:
C
x
is a factor dependant upon the CHS length classification as described in
section D.1.2.1 of EC36.
Note: For a long cylinder, there are two separate methods that can be used
to evaluate the C
x
factor: Eqns D.9/10 and Eqn D.12. Initially the
program evaluates C
x
based on the maximum from equations D.9 and
D.10. However, for long cylinders that satisfy the conditions in
equation D.11, the program will also work out Cx based on equation
D.12 and then choose the minimum obtained from D.12 and D.9/10.
Calculation of Shear Buckling Stress
The shear buckling resistance is given by:
τ
xθ,Rd
= τ
xθ,Rk
/γ
M1
Note: γ
M1
will have the same default value of 1.0 as in EN 199311.
τ
xθ,Rk
is the characteristic buckling shear strength given by:
International Design Codes Manual — 259
τ
xθ,Rk
= Χ
θ
· f
yk
Where:
χ
θ
is the shear buckling reduction factor. χ
θ
will be worked out as given in
section 8.5.2(4) of En 199316 and is determined as a function of the relative
shell slenderness given by:
= λ
θ
f
τ
yk
xθ cr ,
Where:
τ
xθ,Rk
is the elastic buckling critical stress.
The reduction factor, χ
θ
, is then evaluated as described for the axial buckling stress, based on
the same λ
p
, α, and β parameters given in Annex D of EC36.
The CHS section is classified based on the following criteria:
CHS Length Classification Criteria
Short ω ≤ 10
Medium 10 < ω ≤ 8.7· r/t
Long ω > 8.7· r/t
Where:
= ω
l
rt
The elastic critical buckling critical stress is evaluated as:
=
τ EC 0.75
xθ Rcr τ
ω r
,
1
Where:
C
τ
is a factor dependant upon whether the CHS length classification as
described in section D.1.4.1 of EC36.
Note: A ‘Normal’ fabrication quality will be assumed when working out the
fabrication quality parameter as given in table D.6 of the code, unless
the fabrication quality is set using the FAB design parameter.
Buckling Strength Verification
The buckling strength verification will be performed so as to satisfy the following conditions:
For axial stresses:
σ
x,Ed
≤ σ
x,Rd
260 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
For shear stresses:
τ
xθ,Ed
≤ τ
xθ,Rd
For a combined case of axial and shear stresses acting together, an interaction check will be
done according to equation 8.19 of the code as below:
+
≤ 1
σ
σ
k
τ
τ
k
x Ed
x Rd
x
xθ Ed
xθ Rd
τ
,
,
,
,
Where:
k
x
and k
τ
are the interaction factors as given in section D.1.6 of EN 199316:
k
x
= 1.25 + 0.75 · χ
x
k
τ
= 1.75 + 0.25 · χ
τ
7C.6 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to
default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, you may have to change some or all of the parameter
default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the n setting must be
compatible with the active “unit” specification.
Table 7C.4 lists all the relevant EC3 parameters together with description and default values.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE  Must be specified as EN 19931
1:2005 to invoke design per Eurocode
3:2005 (EN 1993).
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
ALH 0.5 The ratio of the distance of the point
torque (from the start of the member)
to the length of the member. The
default value of 0.5 represents torque
acting at the midspan of a
symmetrically loaded member. Values
can range from 0 to 1.
Table 7C.2Steel Design Parameters EC3 EN
International Design Codes Manual — 261
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ALPHA 1.0 Used to input a user defined value for
the α factor in equation 6.41 for
combined bending and axial force
checks.
BEAM 3 Parameter to control the number of
sections to checked along the length
of a beam:
1. Check at location of maximum
Mz along beam
2. Check sections with end forces
and forces at location of
BEAM 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13th point
along the beam and report the
maximum
BETA 1.0 Used to input a user defined value for
the β factor in equation 6.41 for
combined bending and axial force
checks.
C1 1.132 Corresponds to the C1 factor to be
used to calculate Elastic critical
moment M
cr
as per Clause 6.3.2.2
C2 0.459 Corresponds to the C2 factor to be
used to calculate Elastic critical
moment M
cr
as per Clause 6.3.2.2
C3 0 Corresponds to the C3 factor to be
used to calculate Elastic critical
moment M
cr
as per Clause 6.3.2.2
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CAN 0 Member will be considered as a
cantilever type member for deflection
checks.
0 indicates that member
will not be treated as a
cantilever member
1 indicates that the
member will be treated
as a cantilever member
CMM 1.0 Indicates type of loading and support
conditions on member. Used to
calculate the C1, C2, and C3 factors to
be used in the M
cr
calculations.
Can take a value from 1 to 8.
Refer to Table 7C.5 for more
information on its use.
CMN 1.0 Indicates the level of EndRestraint.
1.0 = No fixity
0.5 = Full fixity
0.7 = One end free and
other end fixed
CMT 1 Used to indicate the loading and
support condition for torsion (ref. SCI
publication P057).
Can take a value of 17. The values
correspond to the various cases
defined in section 6 and App. B of
SCIP057.
Refer to Table 7C.6 for more
information
International Design Codes Manual — 263
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
DFF 0
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check,
TRACK 4.0)
"Deflection Length" / Max.. allowable
local deflection
See Note 1d below.
DJ1 Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length" .
See Note 1 below.
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length". See
Note 1 below.
DMAX 100.0 cm Maximum allowable depth for the
member.
DMIN 0 Minimum required depth for the
member.
EFT Member
Length
Effective length for torsion. A value of
0 defaults to the member length.
ELB 0 Used to specify the method for
combined axial load + bending checks
0. Uses Cl. 6.2.9 of EN 19931
1:2005
1. Uses Cl. 6.2.1(7)  Eqn. 6.2 of EN
199311:2005
264 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ESTIFF 0 (For use with the Dutch NA only)
Method for checking columns
forming part of (non)/buttressed
framework:
0. Checks per Cl 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN
6770: Section 1
1. Checks per Cl 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN
6770: Section 2
See "Clause 12.3.1.2.3 (NEN 6770):
Rotation/bending capacity" on page
293 for additional description on this
parameter.
FAB 3 Used to specify the fabrication class to
be used to check for slender (Class 4)
CHS/pipe sections (EN 199316:2007)
1. Class A – Excellent
2. Class B – High
3. Class C – Normal
FU 0 Ultimate tensile strength of steel.
GM0 1.0 Corresponds to the γ
m0
factor in EN
199311:2005
GM1 1.0 Corresponds to the γ
m1
factor in EN
199311:2005
GM2 1.25 Corresponds to the γ
m2
factor in EN
199311:2005
International Design Codes Manual — 265
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
GST 0 Used to specify the section type to be
used for designing a “General Section”
from the user table. The member will
be considered as the specified type
with the user defined properties. The
available options and corresponding
values are as below:
0. ISection
1. Single Channel
2. Rectangular Hollow Section
3. Circular Hollow Section
4. Angle Section
5. Tee Section
Note: This parameter will be
ignored if it has been
assigned to any section
other than a General
Section.
KC 1.0 Corresponds to the correction factor as
per Table 6.6 of EN 199311:2005.
Program will calculate kc
automatically if this parameter is set
to 0.
Note: For the British, Singapore,
& Polish NAs, kc will be
calculated as given in the
NA by default.
KY 1.0 K factor in local y axis. Used to
calculate the effective length for
slenderness and buckling calculations.
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
KZ 1.0 K factor in local z axis. Used to
calculate the effective length for
slenderness and buckling calculations.
LEG 0 Slenderness values for angles as
determined from BS 59502000 Table
25.
See "Design Parameters" on page 74
LVV Max. value of
Lyy
Leg length for Lvv (length about vv
axis of single angle section), as per Lyy.
Used for slenderness calculations.
LY Member
Length
Compression length in local y axis,
Slenderness ratio = (KY)*(LY)/(Ryy)
LZ Member
Length
Compression length in local z axis,
Slenderness ratio = (KZ)*(LZ)/(Rzz)
International Design Codes Manual — 267
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
MTH 0 Used to select the clause to be used to
calculate the LTB reduction factor,
χ
LT
. The available options and
corresponding values are as below:
0. Use default method based on
section type (default)
1. Use Cl.6.3.2.2
2. Use Cl.6.3.2.3
By default, the program will use Cl
6.3.2.3 for rolled & builtup Isections
and Cl. 6.3.2.2 for all other sections. If,
however, the specified National Annex
expands on Cl. 6.3.2.3 to include other
section types (e.g., the UK NA), the
program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 by default
for that particular section type.
See "European Codes  National
Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 19931
1:2005]" on page 281 for additional
details on NA documents.
MU 0 To be used with CMM values of 7 and 8.
See Table 7C.4.
Note: Currently valid only with
the French & Belgian NAs.
NA 0 Choice of National Annex to be used
for EC3 design. See "European Codes 
National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN
199311:2005]" on page 281 for values
allowed for this parameter.
(See "National Annex Documents" on
page 235 for more information)
268 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
NSF 1.0 Net tension factor for tension capacity
calculation.
PLG 0 To be used to determine whether to
include the additional interaction
checks as per CL. NA.20(2) and NA.20
(3) of the Polish National Annex.
Note: This parameter will be
applicable only to the
Polish NA
PY Yield
Strength
The yield strength default value is set
based on the default value of the SGR
parameter.
RATIO 1 Permissible ratio of loading to
capacity.
SBLT 0.0 Indicates if the section is rolled or
builtup.
0.0 = Rolled
1.0 = Builtup
International Design Codes Manual — 269
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
SGR 0 Steel grade as in table 3.1 of EN 19931
1:2005
0.0  indicates S 235
grade steel
1.0  indicates S 275
grade steel
2.0  indicates S 355
grade steel
3.0  indicates S 420
grade steel
4.0  indicates S 460
grade steel
Note: As EN 199311:2005 does
not provide a buckling
curve in table 6.2 for grade
S 450 steel (in Table 3.1 of
EN 199311:2005), the
program will use the same
buckling curves as for grade
S 460 when calculating the
buckling resistance as per
clause 6.3.
STIFF Member
Length or
depth of
beam,
whichever is
lesser
Distance between transverse stiffener
plates, used to prevent web shear
buckling. If not specified or if a value
of 0 is provided, the program will
assume the web is unstiffened.
TOM 0 Total torsion for design used for
torsion checks. Can be used to
override the total torsional moment to
be used for member design.
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
TORSION 0 Method to be used for a specific
member or group of members:
0. Perform basic torsion checks if
member is subject to torsion.
1. Perform basic stress check
(Ignore warping effects).
2. Perform detailed checks
(including warping effects).
3. Ignore all torsion checks
Note: For options 1 or 2, the
program will perform the
torsion related checked
even if torsional moment is
absent and will use a value
of zero for the torsional
moment.
TRACK 0 Specify level of detail in output.
0. Summary of results only.
1. Summary with member
capacities.
2. Detailed results.
4. Deflection check results only.
UNF 1 Unsupported length as a fraction of
the actual member length.
UNL Member
Length
Unrestrained length of member used
in calculating the lateraltorsional
resistance moment of the member.
International Design Codes Manual — 271
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ZG +Section
Depth/2
Distance of transverse load from shear
center. Used to calculate M
cr
.
Note: For Tee sections, ZG will
have a default value of
(+Flange thickness/2)
Notes:
1. CAN, DJ1, and DJ2 – Deflection
a. When performing the deflection check, you can choose between two methods.
The first method, defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter, is based on the
local displacement. Local displacement is described in Section 5.44 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
If the CAN parameter is set to 1, the check will be based on cantilever style
deflection. Let (DX1, DY1, DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global
axes) at the node defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1, the start node of the
member). Similarly, (DX2, DY2, DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or
the end node of the member.
Compute Delta = SQRT((DX2  DX1)
2
+ (DY2  DY1)
2
+ (DZ2  DZ1)
2
)
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 & DJ2 or, between start node and end
node, as the case may be.
Then, if CAN is specified a value 1, dff = L/Delta
Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff
b. If CAN = 0, deflection length is defined as the length that is used for calculation
of local deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the
“Deflection Length” will be equal to the length of the member. However, in
some situations, the “Deflection Length” may be different. A straight line
joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections
are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using
four joints and three members. The “Deflection Length” for all three members
will be equal to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1
and DJ2 should be used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members
here, DJ1 should be 1 and DJ2 should be 4.
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.
PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL
c. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member
length and local deflections will be measured from original member line.
d. It is important to note that unless a DFF value is specified, STAAD will not
perform a deflection check. This is in accordance with the fact that there is no
default value for DFF (see Table 2B.1).
e. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available
parameters for steel design.
2. CMM Parameter
The values of CMM for various loading and support conditions are as given below:
CMM
Val
ue
Loading and Support Conditions
1
2
3
4
Table 7C.3Values for the CMM Parameter
International Design Codes Manual — 273
CMM
Val
ue
Loading and Support Conditions
5
6
7
varying end moments and uniform loading
8
varying end moments and central point
load
3. Checking beam deflection
With the TRACK parameter set to 4, the members included in a BEAM CHECK command
will be checked for the local axis deflection rather than for the stress capacity using the
current LOAD LIST.
If both stress capacity and deflection checks are required, then 2 parameter blocks with
code checks are required, one with a TRACK 4 command and one with a TRACK 0, 1
or 2, thus:
LOAD LIST 1 TO 10
PARAMETER 1
CODE EN 1993
TRACK 2 ALL
CODE CHECK MEMBER 1
***************************
LOAD LIST 100 TO 110
PARAMETER 2
TRACK 4 ALL
DFF 300 MEMB 1
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
DJ1 1 MEMB 1
DJ2 4 MEMB 1
CHECK CODE MEMB 1
Note: While both sets of code checks will be reported in the output file, only the
last code check results are reported in the STAAD.Pro graphical interface.
4. CMT Parameter
The values of CMM for various loading and support conditions are as given below:
CMT
Value
Description Diagram
1 (Default) : Concentrated Torque
at Ends. Ends Torsion fixed and
Warping fixed
2 Concentrated Torque along
length of member. Ends Torsion
fixed and Warping free
3 Concentrated Torque along
length of member. Ends Torsion
fixed and Warping fixed
4 Uniform Torque in member.
Ends Torsion fixed and Warping
free
5 Uniform Torque in member.
Ends Torsion fixed and Warping
fixed
6 Concentrated Torque in
cantilever. End Torsion fixed and
Warping fixed
Table 7C.4Loading and Support Conditions represented by CMT
Parameter Values
International Design Codes Manual — 275
CMT
Value
Description Diagram
7 Uniform Torque in cantilever.
End Torsion fixed and Warping
fixed
Note: For CMT = 2 and CMT = 3, you have the option of specifying the distance at
which the concentrated torque acts, measured from the start of the
member. This can be done by using the ALH design parameter. The ALH
parameter indicates the ratio of the distance of the point torque (from the
start of the member) to the length of the member. This parameter will have
a default value of 0.5 (i.e., the torque acts at the center of the span) and will
accept values ranging from 0 to 1.
Note: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds preceding
this release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this parameter is no
longer required in EN 199311:2005. Hence any legacy files that use GB1 parameter
will indicate an error message and you will be required to substitute GB1 with GM1,
in accordance with EN 199311:2005.
7C.7 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to ascertain whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate. The adequacy is checked as per EN 199311:2005 and a corresponding
National Annex (if specified). Code checking is done using the forces and moments at specific
sections of the members.
When code checking is selected, the program calculates and prints whether the members
have passed or failed the checks; the critical condition; the value of the ratio of the critical
condition (overstressed for value more than 1.0 or any other specified RATIO value); the
governing load case, and the location (distance from the start of the member of forces in the
member where the critical condition occurs).
Code checking can be done with any type of steel section listed in Section 2B.4 or any of the
user defined sections as described in Section 1.7.3 of the Technical Reference Manual, with the
exception of ISECTION. ISECTION has been currently excluded since the option of Tapered
section design is currently not supported in the EC3 module. The EC3 (EN 1993) design
module does not consider these sections or PRISMATIC sections in its design process.
Note: Checks for slender sections to EN 199311 are limited to ISECTIONS, TEE,
SINGLE CHANNEL, SINGLE ANGLE and CIRCULAR & RECTANGULAR HOLLOW
SECTIONS.
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7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Code checking for GENERAL sections can be also done using the EN1993 module. The program
will design GENERAL sections as I sections by default. However, you are given the option to
choose a ‘section type’ to be considered while designing the member. Refer to the description
of the GST design parameter in Section 7C.6 for details.
7C.8 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has
been performed, the program can select the most economical section, i.e., the lightest section,
which fulfills the code requirements for the specified member. The section selected will be of
the same type section as originally designated for the member being designed. Member
selection can also be constrained by the parameters DMAX and DMIN, which limits the
maximum and minimum depth of the members.
Member selection can be performed with all the types of steel sections with the same
limitations as defined in Section 7C.7.
Selection of members, whose properties are originally input from a user created table, will be
limited to sections in the user table.
Member selection cannot be performed on members whose section properties are input as
prismatic or as the limitations specified in Section 7C.7.
7C.9 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the results in a tabulated
fashion. The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
refers to the member number for which the design is performed.
TABLE
refers to steel section name, which has been checked against the steel code or has
been selected.
RESULTS
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILED. If the RESULT is FAIL, there
will be an asterisk (*) mark on front of the member.
CRITICAL COND
refers to the clause in EN 199311:2005 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number, which governed the design.
FX, MY, and MZ
provide the axial force, moment in local Yaxis and the moment in local zaxis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments
(except torsion) to perform design, only FX, MY and MZ are printed since they are
the ones which are of interest, in most cases.
International Design Codes Manual — 277
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where
design forces govern.
Note: For a TRACK 2 output, the module will also report all the relevant clause checks
that have been performed and will also indicate the critical ratio and the load case
that caused the critical ratio as well as the corresponding forces that were used for
the respective checks. A TRACK 2 output will also include the various design data
used for the calculations such as the section modulii, section class, section capacity
etc.
If an NA parameter (other than 0) has been specified and if the particular National Annex
requires additional checks outside those specified in EN 199311:2005 (e.g., The Dutch
National Annex), the respective NA clauses and any associated code clauses will be listed
along with the critical ratios and the forces that were used for these clause checks.
7C.9.1 Example of a TRACK 2 output
Documentation notes appear in red.
Note: The results and output follow the axis convention as described in Section 7C.1.3
Code title & version
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  BS EN 1993
11:2005
********************************************
National Annex used, if any
NATIONAL ANNEX  NA to BS EN
199311:2005
Design engine version
PROGRAM CODE REVISION V1.9 BS_EC3_2005/1
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
Member number, section profile & table
1 ST HD320X127 (EUROPEAN SECTIONS)
Design status, critical code clause, & critical ratio
PASS EC
6.3.3662 0.045 1
Section forces & critical section location
25.00 C 5.00
10.00 0.00
=======================================================================
MATERIAL DATA
Grade of steel = USER
Modulus of elasticity = 205 kN/mm2
Design Strength (py) = 275 N/mm2
SECTION PROPERTIES (units  cm)
Member Length = 500.00
Gross Area = 161.30 Net Area = 161.30
"zaxis" here refers to bending about ZZ (when Y is Up), where as EC3 uses the YY axis convention.
zaxis yaxis
278 — STAAD.Pro
7C. European Codes  Steel Design to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
Moment of inertia : 30820.004 9239.001
Plastic modulus : 2149.000 939.100
Elastic modulus : 1926.250 615.933
Shear Area : 81.998 51.728
Radius of gyration : 13.823 7.568
Effective Length : 500.000 500.000
DESIGN DATA (units  kN,m) EUROCODE NO.3 /2005
Section class as per Table 5.2
Section Class : CLASS 1
Max. cross section capacity (A · f
y
/GM0
Squash Load : 4435.75
Axial force/Squash load : 0.006
Partial safety factors used
GM0 : 1.00 GM1 : 1.00 GM2 :
1.10
zaxis yaxis
Slenderness ratio (KL/r) : 36.2 66.1
Compression Capacity : 4078.2 3045.5
Tension Capacity : 4435.8 4435.8
Moment Capacity : 591.0 258.3
Reduced Moment Capacity : 591.0 258.3
Shear Capacity : 1301.9 821.3
BUCKLING CALCULATIONS (units  kN,m)
Lateral Torsional Buckling Moment MB = 591.0
Factor C1 used in M
cr
calculations and End restraint factor (corresponds to the CMN design
parameters
co
e
fficients
C1 & K : C1 =2.578 K =1.0, Effective Length= 5.000
Elastic Critical Moment for LTB, Mcr = 1541.5
Critical Load For Torsional Buckling, NcrT = 13898.0
Critical Load For TorsionalFlexural Buckling, NcrTF = 13898.0
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
FX MY MZ LOCATION
=======================================================================
CRITICAL LOADS FOR EACH CLAUSE CHECK (units kN,m):
Max. ratio, loadcase, & section forces for each clause check
CLAUSE RATIO LOAD
FX VY VZ MZ
MY
EC6.3.1.1 0.008 1 25.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0
EC6.2.9.1 0.020 1 25.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0
EC6.3.3661 0.035 1 25.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0
EC6.3.3662 0.045 1 25.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0
EC6.3.2 LTB 0.017 1 25.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 5.0
Torsion and deflections have not been considered in the design.
_________________________
************** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN **************
International Design Codes Manual — 279
280 — STAAD.Pro
7D. European Codes  National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN
199311:2005]
A number of countries that have signed up to the replace their current steel design standards
with the Eurocode, EN 199311:2005, known commonly as Eurocode 3, have published their
National Annex documents. These documents make small changes to the base document and
STAAD.Pro has been updated to incorporate some of these National Annex documents.
The parameter NA sets the default material gamma factors and any additional changes outlined
in the country specific National Annex such as specific equations or methods. These are
described for each National Annex document in the following sections.
The output file printout has been updated to indicate which National Annex (if any) has been
used in a code check / select process (For all TRACK settings).
Design of members per EC3 National Annexes requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
7D.1 General Format
The format of the EN 199311:2005 National Annex is as follows:
CODE EN 1993
NA f1
{Code parameters: See "Design Parameters" on page 261 }
Where: f1 represents the number designation for a specific country's National Annex:
NA Value Country
0 None — Uses the base EN 199311:2005 code, with no
national annex changes or additions. The default values
specified in En 199311:2005 will be used for the partial
safety factors and various parameter values where
applicable (default).
1 United Kingdom (British NA) — Uses the BS EN 1993
11:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with the UK
National Annex.
2 Netherlands (Dutch NA) — Uses the NEN EN 19931
1:2005 version of the code.
The Dutch National Annex [NENEN 199311/NB] has
been added in this module. Please note that the Dutch
National requires additional checks as per NEN 6770
and NEN 6771 which will also be performed during
design checks with this parameter value
Table 7D.1Table 5B1.2(B)  Numerical Code for Eurocode National Annex
International Design Codes Manual — 281
NA Value Country
3 Norway (Norwegian NA) — Uses the NSEN 19931
1:2005 version of the code. The Norwegian National
Annexe [ NSEN 199311:2005/Na 2008] has been added
to this implementation.
4 France (French NA) — Uses the Annexe Nationale a la
NF EN 199311:2005 version of the code along with the
French National Annex..
5 Finland (Finnish NA)  Uses the SFS EN 199311:2005
version of Eurocode 3 along with the Finnish National
Annex.
6 Poland (Polish NA)  Uses the PN EN 199311:2005
version of Eurocode 3 along with the Polish National
Annex.
7 Singapore (Singaporean NA)  Uses the SS EN 19931
1:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with the
Singaporean National Annex.
8 Belgium (Belgian NA)  Uses the NBN EN 199311:2005
version of Eurocode 3 along with the Belgian National
Annex.
9 Malaysian (Malaysian NA)  Uses the MS NE 19931
1:2005 version of Eurocode 3 along with the Malaysian
National Annex.
7D.2 Specifying the design engine to use a national
annex
Use the following procedure to include additional check specified by a National Annex:
1. In the Modeling mode, select the Design  Steel tab.
The Steel Design  Whole Structure dialog box opens.
2. In the Current Code dropdown menu, select EN 199311:2005.
3. Click Define Parameters….
The Design Parameters dialog box opens.
4. Select the NA parameter in the list box.
5. Select the option corresponding to the National Annex document you want to use .
6. Click Add.
This will insert the following commands into the STAAD input file:
282 — STAAD.Pro
7D. European Codes  National Annexes to Eurocode 3 [EN 199311:2005]
CODE EN 199311:2005
NA n
Refer to EC3 steel design for additional information on steel design per EC3.
A design performed to the new Eurocode 3 National Annex is displayed in the output file
(*.ANL) with the following header, in addition to the base EC3 output.
International Design Codes Manual — 283
7D.1 Dutch National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Dutch National Annex—titled NENEN 199311/NB—for use with
Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that require additional
clauses from the Dutch National Annex (hereafter referred to as DNA) are described in the
following sections.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the DNA.
Note: Clause 6.3.2.4 deals with a simplified assessment method for beams. STAAD.Pro only
uses the more accurate method (6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 in EC3) and therefore this
section is ignored.
7D.1.1 Axis Convention
The local axis convention in the Dutch codes is: Y – major axis & Z – minor axis (as opposed to
the convention followed in STAAD.Pro).
Figure 7D.1  Local axis convention used in the Dutch NA to EC3
7D.1.2 Clause 6.1 – General
The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.25
International Design Codes Manual — 284
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the DNA (NA 3
is specified)..
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
7D.1.3 Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear
The DNA requires the implementation of causes 11.3.1.1 and 11.3.1.3 of NEN 6770.
Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and Class 2 Isection profiles
Class 1 and class 2 I section profiles must satisfy the interaction formulae given in tables 10 &
11 of NEN 6770.
Table 10 Provides interaction checks for bending about the major axis (All necessary terms
and formulae are described below):
1. If V
z;s;d
≤ 0.5·V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 0.5 · a
1
· N
pl;d
, check equation 11.3.1
2. If V
z;s;d
≤ 0.5·V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 0.5 · a
1
· N
pl;d
, check equation 11.3.2
3. If V
z;s;d
> 0.5·V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 0.5 · a
2
· N
v;u;d
, check equation 11.33
4. If V
z;s;d
> 0.5·V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 0.5 · a
2
· N
v;u;d
, check equation 11.34
Where:
V
z;s;d
= Actual Shear force in the section along Z axis
V
z;pl;d
= Shear capacity of section along Z  axis
= A
w
· f
y;d
/ √3
f
y;d
= yield stress
285 — STAAD.Pro
Figure 7D.2  Definition of A
w
A
w
= A  2 (bf  tw  2r) tf
N
s;d
= Axial force in the section
N
pl;d
= Axial capacity of section = A · f
y;d
M
y;s;d
= Bending moment about major axis
M
y;pl;d
= Plastic moment capacity of section = f
y;d
· W
y;pl
W
y;pl
= Plastic section modulus
a
1
= min( A2bfx tf)/A , 0.5) used in tables 10 & 11
a
2
= see eqn 11.310 used in tables 10 & 11
M
v;y;ud
= see eqn 11.3.12
N
;v;u;d
= see eqn 11.313
Table 11: Provides interaction formulae for bending about the minor axis
1. If V
y;s;d
≤ 0.25 · V
y;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 1.0 · a
1
· N
pl;d
check equation 11.35
2. If V
y;s;d
≤ 0.25 · V
y;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 1.0 · a
1
· N
pl;d
check equation 11.36
3. IfV
y;s;d
> 0.25 · V
y;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 1.0 · a
1
· N
v;u;d
check equation 11.37
4. If V
y;s;d
> 0.25 · V
y;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 1.0 · a
1
· N
v;u;d
check equation 11.38
Where:
V
y;s;d
= Actual Shear force in the section along Yaxis
V
y;pl;d
= Shear capacity of section along Yaxis
= V bt 2
y pl d f
f
; ;
3
y d ;
International Design Codes Manual — 286
M
v;z;u;d
= q · M
z;pld
= q · f
y;d
· W
pl;z;d
W
pl;z;d
= plastic section modulus about minor axis) & q as per eqn 11.314
N
v;u;d
= N
pl;d
– 2·(1  q)·b
f
· t
f
· f
y;d
Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN 6770) : Class 1 and Class 2 Square and
rectangular hollow sections
This clause requires class 1 and class 2 square and rectangular tube profiles to satisfy the
interaction equations in Table 13.
1. If V
z;s;d
≤ 0.25 · V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 0.5 · a
3
· N
pl;d
check equation 11.3.22
2. If V
z;s;d
≤ 0.25 · V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 0.5 · a
3
· N
pl;d
check equation 11.3.23
3. If V
z;s;d
> 0.25 · V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
≤ 0.5 · a
4
· N
v;u;d
check equation 11.324
4. If V
z;s;d
> 0.25 · V
z;pl;d
and N
s;d
> 0.5 · a
4
· N
v;u;d
check equation 11.325
Where
V
z;s;d
= Actual Shear force in the section along Zaxis
V
z;pl;d
= Shear capacity of section along Zaxis
b = breadth of section
h = height of section
A = area of section
= =
+
V V A
z pl d z cl d
h
b h
f
; ; ; ;
3
y d ;
a
3
= min{ (A  2 · b · t)/A or 0.5}
a
4
= from equation 11.3.27
7D.1.4 Clause 6.2.10 – Bending shear and axial force
Requires the implementation of clauses 11.3.1.1 to 11.3.1.3 and 11.3.2.1 to 11.3.2.3 of NEN 6770 and
clause 11.3 of NEN 6771
Clause 11.3.1.1 (NEN 6770) and Clause 11.3.1.3 ( NEN 6770)
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285
Clause 11.3.1.2 (NEN 6770): Class 1 and class 2 circular hollow
(CHS) profiles
Class 1 and class 2 sections with circular hollow profiles should satisfy the interaction
equations given in table 12.
287 — STAAD.Pro
l Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.17
l Check #2 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d check equation 11.3.18.
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285 of this document for equations to derive
Vz;s;d
Vz;pl;d = Shear capacity of CHS sections
= V 2
pl d
A
π
f
;
3
y d ;
See equations 11.319 and 11.320 to evaluate Mv;y;u;d and N;v;u;d.
To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index ‘z’ in the above equations
with ‘y’ (should be the same of CHS sections).
Clause 11.3.2 ( NEN 6770)
Section 11.3.2 in general deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear. The general
condition to be satisfied in this case is given by equation 11.331 of NEN 6770
+
≤ β β 1
M
M
a
M
M
a
0 1
y s d
N V y u d
z s d
N V z u d
; ;
; ; ; ;
1
; ;
; ; ; ;
2
Clause 11.3.2.1 : Class 1 and class2 Isections with biaxial bending
+ shear + axial force
The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d are to be taken from tables 14 and 15 of
NEN 6770 respectively.
Checks for table 14:
1. Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.32
2. Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.33
3. Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.334
4. Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.5 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a2 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.335
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285 for equations to evaluate Vz;s;d, My;pl;d,
Npl;d, Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and Vz;pl;d.
Checks for table 15:
1. Check #1 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.36
2. Check #2 – If Vy;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.37
3. Check #3 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.338
4. Check #4 – If Vy;s;d > 0.25 Vy;pl;d and Ns;d > 1.0 x a1 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.339
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285 for equations to evaluate Vy;s;d, Mz;pl;d,
Npl;d, Mv;z;ud, N;v;u;d, a1 ,a2 and Vy;pl;d.
See table 16 for α1, α1, β0 and β1 use in tables 14 and 15.
International Design Codes Manual — 288
Clause 11.3.2.2 : Class 1 and Class 2 Circular hollow tubes
The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11331, see
description of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 17 of NEN 6770.
1. Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.44
2. Check #2 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d use equation 11.3.45.
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285 for equations to evaluate Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d,
and Npl;d use in equations 11.3.44 & 11.3.45.
For values to be used for α1, α2, β1 and β2 in this case refer to table 18 of NEN 6770.
Clause 11.3.2.3 : Class 1 and class2 Rectangular and square
hollow tubes
The formula to evaluate M;N;v;y;u;d and M;N;v;z;u;d (to be used in equation 11331, see
description of clause 11.3.2 above) are to be taken from table 19 of NEN 6770.
1. Check #1 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equation 11.348
2. Check #2 – If Vz;s;d ≤ 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a3 x Npl;d use equation 11.3.49
3. Check #3 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d ≤ 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d use equation 11.350
4. Check #4 – If Vz;s;d > 0.25 Vz;pl;d and Ns;d > 0.5 x a4 x Nv;u;d check equation 11.351
See "Clause 6.2.8 – Bending and shear" on page 285 for equations to evaluate Vz;pl;d, My;pl;d,
Npl;d, Mv;y;ud, N;v;u;d, a3, a4 and Vz;pl;d to be used in the above equations. For values to be
used for α1, α2, β1 and β2 in this case refer to table 20 of NEN 6770.
To check for these conditions about the y axis, substitute the index ‘z’ in the above equations
with ‘y’.
Clause 11.3 ( NEN 6771)
In general, this section deals with Biaxial bending with axial force and shear for class 3 and
class 4 sections.
Check for class 3 sections: For class 3 sections use the method in section 11.3 NEN 6770. For
class 3 sections the methods and equations discussed above can be used with the ‘plastic
section modulus’ being substituted with the ‘elastic modulus’.
Check for class 4 sections: Class 4 sections can be treated as class 3 sections if the effective
section properties are used as given in clause 10.2.4.2.3 of NEN 6771. Working out the effective
section properties for slender sections has already been done in STAAD.Pro.
For I section profiles and tubular sections, the following cases are checked:
1. If M;y;s;d / MN;y;f;u;d ≤ 1 check equation 11.27 ( given below)
V
z;s;d
/V
z;u;d
≤ 1
289 — STAAD.Pro
Where
V
z;s;d
is the shear for in the Z direction
V
z;u;d
is the shear capacity in the Z direction for ultimate limit state.
For an I section,
= V A
z u d w et
f
; ;
2
3
;
3
y d ;
Where
Aw,ef = effective web area as given in section 10.2.4.2.3.
MN;y;f;u;d is the moment capacity about the Y axis for the effective
section. = ( fy·W,eff)
2. If M;y;s;d / MN;y;f;u;d > 1 and M;y;s;d / M;y;f;u;d ≤1 check equation 11.213 (given below):
≤
+
¸
¸
−
_
,
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
−
¸
¸
−
_
,
¹
;
¹
)
¹
1
M
M M M 1 1
y s d
N y f u d N y u d N y f u d
V
z s d
V
z u d
; ;
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
2
; ;
; ;
2
7D.1.5 Clause 6.3 – Buckling resistance of members
The DNA introduces a new clause 6.3.0, which in turns requires the checks as per clauses
12.1.2.2, 12.13.2 and 12.1.4.2 of NEN 6771 to be applied.
Clause 12.1.2.2 (NEN 6771)
This clause in NEN 6771 determines the relative torsional slenderness and is given as:
= λ
θ re
N
F
,
c u d
E θ
; ;
;
Where:
N
c;u;d
= A·f
y;d
A = area of section
f
y;d
= the yield stress
F
E;θ
is the Eulertorsion formula
This value of slenderness is to be used to calculate the modification factors used in section 6.3
of EC3.
Clause 12.1.3.2 (NEN 6771)
This clause works out the relative torsionalflexural buckling slenderness for compression
members. The relative torsionalflexural buckling slenderness is given as:
= λ
tk re
N
F
,
c u d
E tk
; ;
;
International Design Codes Manual — 290
Where
N
c;u;d
= A·f
y;d
A = area of section
f
y;d
= yield stress
F
E;tk
is the Euler torsional buckling strength
Clause 12.1.4.2 (NEN 6771)
Buckling lengths of rotationally restrained bars with intermediate spring supports.
Note: STAAD.Pro does not allow for these end conditions, specifically. The effective
length factors may be used to accommodate this requirement.
7D.1.6 Clause 6.3.1.3 – Slenderness for flexural buckling
The Dutch NA requires the implementation of clause 12.1.1.3 and 12.1.5.3.2 of NEN 6770 and
clause 12.1.1.3 of NEN 6771.
Clause 12.1.1.3 (NEN 6770)
This clause gives the equations to evaluate the effective lengths for various support
conditions. STAAD.Pro uses the effective length factor ‘K’ which allows the user to set/modify
the effective lengths for a member.
Clause 12.1.5.3.2 (NEN 6770)
This clause gives methods to evaluate the buckling length of lattice sections. We do not deal
with latticed section in the current version of STAAD.Pro. In any case the buckling length
can be adjusted using the ‘K’ factor.
Clause 12.1.1.3 (NEN 6771)
This clause again deals with working out the effective lengths of prismatic and nonprismatic
rods. Again, the ‘K’ factor in the current implementation of STAAD.Pro is adequate to cater
for adjusting the effective lengths as necessary.
7D.1.7 Clause 6.3.1.4 – Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
The DNA requires the implementation of clauses 12.1.2 and 12.1.3 of NEN 6770
Clause 12.1.2 (NEN 6770): Torsional stability
IPE, HEA, HEB & HEM sections and pipe sections do not need to be checked for torsional
instability.
If torsional checks need to be performed, they should be done according to 12.1.2 of NEN 6771.
291 — STAAD.Pro
Clause 12.1.2 (NEN 6771)
This clause gives the condition to check for torsion instability. The condition being:
≤ 1
N
ω N
c s d
θ c u d
; ;
; ;
Where:
N
c;s;d
= the applied axial load
N
C;u;d
= the axial capacity = A · f
y
.
= ω
θ
σ
f
θ d
u d
;
;
Clause 12.1.3 (NEN 6770): Torsional flexural stability
Doubly symmetric sections need not be checked for torsional flexural instability. However, for
I sections that have rigid supports that is not along the axis of the section and any other
sections will need to be checked as per clause 12.1.3 of NEN 6771.
Clause 12.1.3 (NEN 6771)
This clause gives the condition to check for torsional flexural instability. The condition being:
≤ 1
N
ω N
c s d
t k c u d
; ;
; ; ;
Where:
N
c;s;d
and N
c;u;d
as in clause 12.1.2 above.
7D.1.8 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 – Lateral torsional buckling
curves
Clause 6.3.2.2 – Lateral torsional buckling curves  general
The DNA states that the values for the imperfection factor, αLT, to be used in equation 6.56 of
EC3 are to be obtained from sTable 6.3 of EC3. These are the values used by STAAD.Pro.
Clause 6.3.2.3 – Lateral torsional buckling curves for rolled
sections or equivalent welded sections
The DNA states that:
1. The values for the:
l Imperfection factor αLT0 = 0.4 (used in equation 6.57 of EC3)
l Β = 0.75 (used in equation 6.57 of EC3)
These are the default values used by the program.
International Design Codes Manual — 292
2. The buckling curves shall be selected as per Table 6.5.
3. The reduction factor, f, is given by
F = 1 – 0.5(1  kc)[1  2x (λLT 0.8)
2
].
kc is a correction factor for moment distribution determined from Table 6.6. This
value can be specified or calculated by the program using the KC parameter. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
The current implementation of STAAD.Pro conservatively uses a value of f = 1.0.
7D.1.9 Clause 6.33 – Uniform members in bending and axial
compression
The DNA recommends the use of the method in Annex B of EC3 to determine the values of
kyy, kyz, kzy and kzz to be used in 6.3.3 ( EC3) checks. STAAD.Pro uses the method in
Annex B.
Clause 12.3.1.2.3 (NEN 6770): Rotation/bending capacity
The Dutch NA also requires additional checks as per clause 12.3.1.2.3 of NEN 6770.
The checks given in this clause deals with additional checks for columns that form part of a
buttressed or nonbutressed framework. The program uses the ESTIFF parameter with two
different values to identify the framework type:
ESTIFF
value
Description
0
(default) Column part of a buttressed
framework. Selecting this value will
internally perform the checks as per section
1 of clause 12.3.1.2.3
1
Column is not part of a buttressed
framework. Selecting this value will
internally perform the checks as per section
2 of clause 12.3.1.2.3
Table 7D.1Framework parameter ESTIFF values for the
Dutch NA
These checks are described below:
1. For columns in buttressed frameworks the buckling length is to be taken based on
either
l the system length or
l the distance between adjacent lateral supports
The following conditions should also be satisfied:
293 — STAAD.Pro
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d < 0.15, no additional checks are required
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d ≥ 0.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then
+ ≤ 1
N
N
λ
120
c s d
p d
y ; ;
;
Where:
N
c;s;d
is the axial load in the section
N
pl;d
= Axial capacity of section = A·f
y;d
λ
y
= Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Yaxis)
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d ≥ 0.15 and the steel grade is S355 then
+ ≤ 1
N
N
λ
100
c s d
p d
y ; ;
;
Where:
N
c;s;d
= the axial load in the section
N
pl;d
= Axial capacity of section = A·f
y;d
λ
y
= Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Yaxis)
2. For columns that are not part of buttressed frameworks the following additional checks
need to be done:
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d < 0.15, no additional checks are required
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d ≥ 0.15 and the steel grade is S235 or S 275 then
+ ≤ 1
N
N
λ
100
c s d
p d
y ; ;
;
Where:
N
c;s;d
= the axial load in the section and
N
pl;d
= Axial capacity of section = A·f
y;d
λ
y
= Slenderness of the section about the major axis ( Yaxis)
If Nc;s;d/ Npl;d ≥ 0.15 and the steel grade is S355 then
+ ≤ 1
N
N
λ
80
c s d
p d
y ; ;
;
International Design Codes Manual — 294
7D.1 Norwegian National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Norwegian National Annex—titled NA to BS EN 199311:2005—for use
with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that require additional
clauses from the Norwegian National Annex are:
7D.1.1 Clause 6.1(1) – General: Partial Safety Factors for
buildings
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l Resistance of crosssections  γ
M0
= 1.05
l Resistance of members to instability  γ
M1
= 1.05
l Resistance of cross sections to tension  γ
M2
= 1.25
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the Norwegian
NA (NA 3 is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below refer to the
corresponding clauses in the Norwegian NA.
International Design Codes Manual — 295
7D.1 UK National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the UK National Annex  titled NA to BS EN 199311:2005  for use with
Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes to the base
document.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the UKNA.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
The UK NA specifies the value of λc0 for I, H channel or box section to be used in
equation 6.59 of BS EN 199311:2005 as 0.4. However, STAAD.Pro does not use this
clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is ignored for the UK National
Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
The value of the modification factor kfl to be used in equation 6.60 of BS EN 19931
1. However, STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this
clause is ignored for the UK National Annex.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 that have been dealt with in the UK National Annex
(hereafter referred to as the UKNA) are:
7D.1.1 Clause 6.1(1) – General: Partial Safety Factors for
buildings
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the UK National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.1
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the UKNA (NA 1
is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
International Design Codes Manual — 296
Warning: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds
preceding this release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this
parameter is no longer required in EN 199311:2005. Hence, any legacy files that
use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to
substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 199311:2005.
7D.1.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The UKNA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of BS EN 199311:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the ‘Elastic
Critical Buckling Moment’, Mcr. The UK National Annex does not specify a particular
method to calculate M
cr
. Hence the calculation of M
cr
has been based on the following NCCI
documents:
SN003aENEU – Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional
Buckling:
This document provides a method to calculate ‘Mcr’ specifically for doubly symmetric
sections only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in
the proposed implementation.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
is given in the NCCI as:
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z ( )
cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
s s 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
s
w
w
s
t
s
2
2
2
2
C
1
and C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
member. The NCCI provides values for C
1
and C
2
for the different cases as given in the tables
below:
297 — STAAD.Pro
This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
International Design Codes Manual — 298
The implementation of EC3 in STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the
bending moment diagram through the CMM parameter. The first two loading conditions
mentioned above and its variants can be dealt with by using the existing values of the CMM
parameter (i.e., 1 to 6). Hence the appropriate values from this NCCI will be used for ‘C1’ and
‘C2’ coefficients depending on the value of CMM specified. The default value of CMM is 1, which
considers the member as a pin ended member with UDL along its span. The user will also
have the option to specify specific values for C
1
and C
2
using the C1 and C2 parameters in the
design input mode. See "Design Parameters" on page 261
However, for cases with end moments and transverse loading, the NCCI provides graphs to
evaluate the C1 and C2 coefficients. It does not however, provide a set of equations for these
graphs. However the “end moments and transverse loading” condition cannot be currently
specified in the design input. Hence this implementation will introduce two new values for
the CMM parameter viz.
CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading.
CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load.
For these two conditions, the UK National Annex (nor the NCCI) does not provide equations
to evaluate C1 and C2. Hence in STAAD.Pro the user will have to use the new ‘C1’ & ‘C2’
parameters to input the required values for C1 & C2 to be used in calculating Mcr. For values
of 7 or 8 for the CMM parameter, the program will issue a warning if C1 and C2 have not been
specified.
Note: If the NA parameter has not been specified, the program obtains the values of C1
and C2 from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
SN030aENEU – Monosymmetrical uniform members under
bending and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this
implementation the elastic critical moment for ‘TeeSections’ will be worked out using the
method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a monosymmetric builtup
section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for TeeSections. In any case,
the actual LTB capacity will still be worked out as per BS 59501 as in the current EC3
implementation.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as :
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − −
¸
¸
−
_
,
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
e e
( )
( )
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
3
1
s
x
x
w
w
s
x T
x
2
2
2
2
299 — STAAD.Pro
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
implementation will consider C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
as given in the tables below:
The CMM parameter (see section (i) above) specified during design input will determine the
values of C1, C2 and C3. The default value of CMM is 1, which considers the member as a pin
ended member with UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the “end
moments and transverse loading” condition. The user however can use the new C1, C2 and C3
parameters to input the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr. As
described in section (i) above, the user must use C1, C2 and C3 parameters along with CMM
values of 7 and 8.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
The current implementation of EC3 in STAAD takes into account of the end conditions using
the CMN parameter. A value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design
input. Hence the above methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on
plan and which have no warping restraints, i.e., CMN = 1.0. For members with partial or end
fixities (ie, CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), the proposed implementation will fall back on to the
method and coefficients in DD ENV 199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) the
proposed implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
International Design Codes Manual — 300
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section.
The value of ‘zg’ is considered positive if the load acts towards the shear center and is
negative if it acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the
load acts towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear
center. The user will be allowed to modify this value by using the new ‘ZG’ parameter.
Specifying a value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at
the shear center of the section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
7D.1.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The UKNA specifies different values for the λ
LT,0
and β factors to be used in equation 6.57 of
BS EN 199311 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. The current implementation in
STAAD.pro does not differentiate between rolled and welded sections and uses the default
values in BS EN 199311 for λLT,0 and β. The values specified in the UKNA are:
l For rolled sections and hotrolled & cold formed hollow sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.4
β = 0.75
l For welded sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.2
β = 1.00
The current implementation of STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of BS
EN 199311:2005. The UKNA specifies different limits and buckling curves to be used in this
clause as given below:
Cross Section Limits Buckling
Curve
Rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections
and hotfinished hollow sections
h/b ≤ 2 b
2.0 < h/b ≤ 3.1 c
h/b > 3.1 d
Angles (for moments in the major principle plane) d
All other hotrolled sections d
Welded, doubly symmetric sections and
coldformed hollow sections
h/b ≤ 2 c
2.0 < h/b ≤ 3.1 d
Table 7D.1Buckling curves to use with BS EN 199311:2005
This table again does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded doubly
symmetric sections with h/b ≥ 3.1 and welded nondoubly symmetric sections. Hence for
301 — STAAD.Pro
these cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base code as per
clause 6.3.2.2(2).
7D.1.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per UK NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the UK Annex) in STAAD.Pro, by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl.
6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the UK National Annex states that Table 6.5 in BS EN 199311:2005 should be
replaced with the table given in the NA (See section 4.3 of this document). Hence for all cases
dealt with by the table in the UK NA, this implementation will choose the buckling curves
from the UK National Annex. For any case that is not dealt with by the table in the UK NA,
the program will use the method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Hence for the following cross sections the program will use the Table in the UK NA for
choosing a buckling curve for LTB checks (when the UK NA has been specified):
l Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections
l Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)
l Angle Sections
l Any other rolled section
l Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1
For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of BS EN 199311:2005 to
evaluate χLT
l Welded I & H Sections with h/b ≥ 3.1.
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χLT .
In any case the Elastic critical moment “Mcr” (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be worked out as given in section 4.2 of this document. Since the UK
National Annex uses the NCCIs mentioned in the sections above, this implementation will
only consider end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0 (See section
International Design Codes Manual — 302
4.2 above). For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this implementation will use the
method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input
= 0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the section
has been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in
design input).
7D.1.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
The UK NA specifies the use of eqn. 6.58 of BS EN 199311:2005 to evaluate the modification
factor ‘f’ for the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
. To evaluate the modification factor BS EN 19931
1:2005 uses a correction factor ‘kc’ given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The UKNA however, specifies that the correction factor ‘kc’ is to be obtained as below:
Kc = 1 / √C1, where C1 is to be obtained from the NCCI documents given in section 4.2 of this
document. The NCCI document SN003aENEU specifies the values of C1 to be used in table
3.1 as shown below. This proposed implementation will allow for the reduction factor based
on the UKNA.
303 — STAAD.Pro
These values are for an end restraint factor of k=1 (ie CMN=1.0). Hence for all other values of
CMN (ie 0.7 or 0.5) this implementation will use the values of C1 from DD ENV 199311:1992
Annex F.
The program will use a default value of 1.0 for ‘kc’. However the user can also input a custom
value of ‘kc’ by setting the design parameter ‘KC’ to the desired value. The user can also get
the program to calculate the value of ‘kc’ automatically by setting the value of the ‘KC’
parameter in the design input to 0. This will cause the program to evaluate a value of C1
corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the member and in turn
calculate ‘kc’ as given in the NA. To evaluate C1, the program will use the NCCI documents
mentioned in section 4.2 of this document.
7D.1.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The UKNA recommends that the method in Annex A or Annex B of BS EN 199311:2005 can
be used to calculate the interaction factors for Cl. 6.3.3 checks in the case of doubly symmetric
sections. The proposed implementation will hence use equations in Annex B of BS EN 19931
1:2005 to calculate these interaction factors for doubly symmetric sections. The current
implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.pro uses the method in Annex B.
However for nondoubly symmetric sections, the UK NA gives the option of using Annex B
with some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA3.2 of the UK NA). The UK NA requires
additional checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values of λ and X to be used
in equations 6.61 and 6.62 of BS EN 199311:2005.
As per the UK NA, for nondoubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the weak axis (λy
in STAAD) and the corresponding reduction factor χy should be taken as the values from the
highest values of slenderness (λ) among the flexural buckling slenderness (λy), torsional
slenderness (λ
T
) and torsionalflexural slenderness (λ
TF
) as given in Clauses 6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of
BS EN 199311:2005. Hence for nondoubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the
critical nondimensional slenderness as:
λ
y
= the maximum of either λ from Cl. 6.3.1.3 or λ
T
from Cl. 6.3.1.4
= λ
T
A f
N
y
cr
Where:
N
cr
= min (N
CrT
, N
crTF
).
The UK NA or EC3 does not however specify a method to evaluate NCrT or NcrTF. Hence this
implementation will use the method specified in the NCCI document “SN001aENEU:
Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” to calculate these. See
section 4.9 below for details.
Note: The UK National Annex or EC3 does not deal with angle sections in specific and
hence this implementation will use the method used in the current EC3
International Design Codes Manual — 304
implementation to deal with slenderness of angle sections. In the current
implementation this is done as per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950. This proposed
implementation will still use the same method for single and double angle
sections to evaluate the slenderness.
Clause NA 3.2 of the UK NA also requires that “Where the section is not an I Section or a
hollow section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the
purposes of this clause”. Hence for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are NOT I, H, SHS,
RHS or CHS sections, the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.
7D.1.7 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of BS EN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the non
dimensional slenderness λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling checks.
BS EN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of BS EN 199311:2005).
The NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the N
cr,TF
and N
cr,T
factors and therefore
these methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the UK NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
7D.2 French National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the French National Annex  titled Annexe Nationale a la NF EN 19931
1:2005  for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes
to the base document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
305 — STAAD.Pro
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the French National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the French National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the FrenchNA.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the French National Annex (hereafter referred to as FRNA) and that are relevant to
the proposed implementation are:
7D.2.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)  Material Properties
The material strengths (i.e.,  steel grade strengths) to be used with NF EN 199311 are given in
Table 3.1 of the code. The French National Annex however, specifies a separate table (Table 3.1
NF) for the yield and tensile strengths of steel grades. This new table replaces Table 3.1 in NF
EN 199311:2005. Table 3.1 NF excludes steel grades from standards EN 102101 and EN 102191
that are given in EC3.
STAAD.Pro uses the steel grades and values from the table given in the National Annex (i.e., 
Table 3.1 NF). Table 3.1 NF is similar to table 3.1 in EC3, apart from the f
u
values for S 355 and
S355 W grade steel.
Standard and grade of
steel
Nominal thickness, t, of the element
(mm)
t 40 mm
40 mm < t <= 80
mm
f
y
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
(N/mm
2
)
f
y
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
(N/mm
2
)
EN 10025
2
S 235 235 360 215 360
S 275 275 430 255 410
S 355 355 490 335 470
S 450 440 550 410 550
Table 7D.2Material strengths specified for use with the NFNA
International Design Codes Manual — 306
Standard and grade of
steel
Nominal thickness, t, of the element
(mm)
t 40 mm
40 mm < t <= 80
mm
f
y
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
(N/mm
2
)
f
y
(N/mm
2
)
f
u
(N/mm
2
)
EN 10025
3
S 275 N/NL 275 390 255 370
S 355 N/NL 355 490 335 470
S 420 N/NL 420 520 390 520
S 460 N/NL 460 540 430 540
EN 10025
4
S 275 M/ML 275 370 255 360
S 355 M/ML 355 470 335 450
S 420 M/ML 420 520 390 500
S 460 M/ML 460 540 430 530
EN 10025
5
S 235 W 235 360 215 340
S 355 W 355 490 335 490
EN 10025
6
S 460
Q/QL/QL 1
460 570 440 550
If you specify a steel grade that is not given in the Annex Table 3.1 (NF) but is present in
Table 3.1 of EN 199311:2005, the program uses the values from Table 3.1 of EN 199311:2005.
The appropriate yield strength (f
y
) used is shown in the design output file.
7D.2.2 Clause 6.1(1) – General
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the French National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.25
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the NFNA (NA
4 is specified).
307 — STAAD.Pro
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Warning: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds
preceding this release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this
parameter is no longer required in EN 199311:2005. Hence, any legacy files that
use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to
substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 199311:2005.
7D.2.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The French NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of NF EN 199311:2005 to calculate
the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the “Elastic Critical
Buckling Moment”, M
cr
. The French NA gives a method to evaluate M
cr
in its “Annex MCR”.
This implementation will make use of this method to evaluate Mcr. Annex MCR however deals
with the calculation of Mcr for doubly symmetric sections. Hence this implementation will
use this method only for doubly symmetric sections. For mono symmetric sections that are
symmetric about the minor axis (i.e Tee sections) this implementation will use the method
from the NCCI document SN030aENEU as given in the section below. For any other type of
section that is not dealt with by the Annex, this implementation will use the method and
tables given in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
Annex MCR
This document provides a method to calculate M
cr
specifically for doubly symmetric sections
only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method in this
implementation.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
is given as:
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z ( )
cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
s s 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
s
w
w
s
t
s
2
2
2
2
C
1
and C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions. The
NCCI provides values for C
1
and C
2
for the different cases as given in Table1 and Table 2 of the
Annex. Table 1 deals with the condition of a simply supported member with end moments and
the value of C
1
is determined by the end moment ratio (Refer to the NA for details). Clause 3.2
of the National Annex however gives a formula to evaluate C
1
as:
International Design Codes Manual — 308
=
+ +
C
ψ ψ
1
1
0.325 0.423 0.252
2
This formula however does not match the values given in Table 1 of the NA. Hence this
implementation will use the values of C1 from Table 1 if the end moment ration (ψ) is exactly
equal to the values of ψ in the table. For all other cases this implementation will calculate the
value of C1 from equation (6) in the Annex.
The value of C2 will be determined from Table 2 of the Annex based on the loading and end
conditions (i.e the CMM parameter in STAAD).
The user will also have the option to specify specific values for C
1
and C
2
using the C1 and C2
parameters in the design input mode. See "Design Parameters" on page 261
The French NA considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
The first two cases and its variants can be defined using with the existing CMM parameter
values in STAAD.Pro. However the third condition cannot be currently specified in the
design input. Hence this implementation will introduce two new values for CMM viz.
CMM 7:Member with varying end moments and uniform loading.
CMM 8: Member with varying end moments and central point load.
The load to moment ratio (μ) will then be used in the calculations will then be used to
calculate C1 and C2 as given in section 3.5 of Annex MCR (See Annex MCR in the NA for
details).
This implementation will also introduce a new parameter ‘MU’ to be specified when using
CMM = 7 or 8. The load to moment ratio (μ) to be used in the calculations is to be input
using the new ‘MU’ parameter. This implementation will require that for the French National
Annex if CMM = 7 or 8 has been specified, the user should also either specify a value for ‘MU’
or input the values for C1 and C2 using the ‘C1’ and/or ‘C2’ parameters directly.
Note: The new parameter MU will currently be applicable only in the context of the
French NA.
SN030aENEU – Monosymmetrical uniform members under
bending and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this
implementation the elastic critical moment for ‘TeeSections’ will be worked out using the
method in this NCCI.
309 — STAAD.Pro
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a monosymmetric
builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee
Sections.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as:
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − −
¸
¸
−
_
,
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
e e
( )
( )
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
3
1
s
x
x
w
w
s
x T
x
2
2
2
2
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
implementation will consider C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
as given in the tables below:
The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2 and C3.
The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the “end moments and transverse
loading” condition. The user however can use the new ‘C1’, ‘C2’ and ‘C3’ parameters to input
the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr.
International Design Codes Manual — 310
Note: If ‘MU’ as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU
and use the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. The current implementation of EC3
in STAAD.Pro obtains these values from Annex F of DD ENV version of 19931
1:1992.
Also, the NCCI document and Annex MCR of the FRNA assume that the member under
consideration is free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the
member( k = kw=1 .i.e., CMN parameter =1.0). Hence the above methods will be used only for
members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no warping restraints. For members
with partial or end fixities (ie, CMN = 0.5 or CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back
on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV 199311:1992.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section.
The value of ‘zg’ is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is
negative if it acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the
load acts towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear
center. The use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a
value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear
center of the section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document “SN006aENEU” to
calculate Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific
formulae to evaluate the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in
STAAD.Pro.
7D.2.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The FRNA provides equations to evaluate the λ
LT,0
and α
LT
factors given in clause 6.3.2.3
For rolled doubly symmetric sections use:
= + λ 0.2 0.1
LT
b
h
, 0
= − ≥ α λ 0.4 0.2 0
LT
b
h
LT
2
Note: Since EN 199311:2005 limits the value of λ
LT,0
to 0.4, STAAD.Pro limits λ
LT,0
to a
maximum value of 0.4.
For welded doubly symmetric sections use:
= λ 0.3
LT
b
h
, 0
311 — STAAD.Pro
= − ≥ α λ 0.5 0.25 0
LT
b
h
LT
2
For other sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.2
α
LT
= 0.76
And for all sections, β = 1.0
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of NF EN 199311 to evaluate the
Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor χ
LT
.
7D.2.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
The French NA specifies that the modification factor is to be obtained as per the default
method given in EC3. Hence this implementation will use the existing functionality to
evaluate the correction factor kc to be used in the modification factor f.
The program uses a default value of 1.0 for kc. However the user can also input a custom value
of kc by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. You may instruct the program to
calculate the value of kc automatically by setting the value of the KC parameter in the design
input to 0. This will cause the program to evaluate kc from Table 6.6 of NF EN 199311:2005.
This will correspond to the end conditions and the bending moment of the member (i.e., the
value of CMM parameter specified).
For CMM = 7, the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.90 or 0.91 based on the end
moment ratio.
For CMM = 8, the program will choose the value of kc to be either 0.77 or 0.82 based on the end
moment ratio.
An additional check will also be performed as given below:
≤ χ
LT
λ
, mod
1
LT
2
The French Annex specifies that the modification factor is applicable only to members that are
free to rotate on plan (i.e., CMN 1.0). Hence for all other values of CMN, this implementation
will ignore ‘f’ and hence will use χ
LT,mod
= χ
LT
.
7D.2.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The French NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A of NF EN 199311:2005 to
calculate these interaction factors. STAAD.pro uses the method in Annex B for design per EC3
(without National Annex). Therefore, the method in Annex A has been added into the
program.
International Design Codes Manual — 312
Note: The NA mentions that this method can be extended to singly symmetric I
Sections (symmetric about the minor axis) if the elastic properties are used instead
of the plastic properties. However, since STAAD does not have a provision to specify
such sections, this case will not be considered for this implementation.
The NA also mentions that torsional flexural buckling needs to be taken into account in case
of mono symmetric sections. This is taken into account based on the method given in the
NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes”. See "Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and torsionalflexural
buckling" on page 313
The NA also recommends a lower limit as given below for the term C
mi,0
in Table A.2 of
Annex A:
≥ − C 1
mi
N
N
, 0
Ed
cr i ,
7D.2.7 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of NF EN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the non
dimensional slenderness λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling checks.
NF EN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of NF EN 199311:2005).
The NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the N
cr,TF
and N
cr,T
factors and therefore
these methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the French NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
313 — STAAD.Pro
7D.3 Finnish National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Finnish National Annex  titled National Annex to Standard SFSEN
199311  for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes
to the base document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Finnish National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Finnish National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the FinnishNA.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the Finnish National Annex (hereafter referred to as SFSNA) and that are relevant to
the proposed implementation are:
7D.3.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)  Material Properties
The material strengths (i.e., steel grade strengths) to be used with SFSEN 199311 are given in
Table 3.1 of the code. These steel grade values are specified using the SGR parameter (See
"Design Parameters" on page 261).
The Finnish National Annex states in Cl. 3.1(2) that, apart from the steel grades specified in
Table 3.1 of SFS EN 199311, the following steel grades can also be used:
l Steel grades S315MC, S355MC, S420MC and S460MC according to SFSEN 101492
l Steel grades S260NC, S315NC, S355NC and S420NC according to SFSEN 101493
These grades of steel can be specified by using the PY (Yield Strength) and FU (Ultimate
Strength) parameters in STAAD.Pro. Set these parameters to the respective values as given in
SFSEN 101492/3 for the steel grades specified above. The choice of the buckling curve to be
used is based on the value of the SGR parameter specified. The output will include the
appropriate yield strength used for design.
7D.3.2 Clause 6.1(1) – General
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Finnish National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
International Design Codes Manual — 314
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.25
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the SFSNA (NA
5 is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Warning: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds
preceding this release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this
parameter is no longer required in EN 199311:2005. Hence, any legacy files that
use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to
substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 199311:2005.
7D.3.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The Finnish NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of SFS EN 199311:2005 to calculate
the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the ‘Elastic
Critical Buckling Moment’, M
cr
. The Finnish National Annex does not specify a particular
method to calculate M
cr
. Hence the calculation of M
cr
has been based on the following NCCI
documents:
1. SN003aENEU – Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional
Buckling:
This document provides a method to calculate M
cr
specifically for doubly symmetric
sections only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this
method. The equation to evaluate M
cr
is given in the NCCI as:
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z ( )
cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
s s 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
s
w
w
s
t
s
2
2
2
2
C
1
and C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of
the member. The NCCI provides values for C
1
and C
2
for the different cases as given in
the tables below:
315 — STAAD.Pro
ψ C
1
+1,00 1,00
+0,75 1,14
+0,50 1,31
+0,25 1,52
0,00 1,77
0,25 2,05
0,50 2,33
0,75 2,57
Table 7D.3Values of C
1
for end
moment loading (for k=1)
This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram
through the CMM parameter.
2. SN030aENEU – Monosymmetrical uniform members under
bending and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (M
cr
) for
uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the
elastic critical moment for ‘TeeSections’ will be worked out using the method in this
NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup
sections, STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a
monosymmetric builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this
method only for TeeSections.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as :
International Design Codes Manual — 316
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − −
¸
¸
−
_
,
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
e e
( )
( )
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
3
1
s
x
x
w
w
s
x T
x
2
2
2
2
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria.
This implementation will consider C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
as given in the tables below:
The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C
1
, C
2
,
and C
3
. The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended
member with UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the “end
moments and transverse loading” condition. You can use the C1, C2, and C3
parameters to input the required values for C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
to be used in calculating
M
cr
.
Note: If MU as well as C1, C2, and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore
MU and use the user input values of C1, C2, and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these
values from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A
value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above
317 — STAAD.Pro
methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no
warping restraints (i.e., CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or
CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV
199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of ‘zg’ is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it
acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts
towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The
use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG =
0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the
section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document “SN006aENEU” to
calculate Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific
formulae to evaluate the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in
STAAD.Pro.
7D.3.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The FinnishNA provides the values for the terms λ
LT,0
and β factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1)
as follows:
For rolled doubly symmetric sections and hollow sections, use:
λ
LT,0
=0.4 and β = 0.75
For welded doubly symmetric sections and hollow sections use:
λ
LT,0
= 0.2 and β = 1.0
The Finnish NA specifies the following limits for choosing the buckling curves:
International Design Codes Manual — 318
Crosssection
(constant crosssection)
Lim
its
Buck
ling
Curve
Rolled double symmetric I and H sections and hot
finished hollow sections.
h/b ≤
2
2 <
h/b
<3.1
b
c
Welded double symmetric I section and H sections
and coldformed hollow sections
h/b ≤
2
2 <
h/b <
3.1
c
d
Table 7D.4Selection of lateral torsional buckling curve for cross sections
using equation (6.57)
The NA says that for all other cases the rules given in Cl 6.3.2.2 should be used. Hence even
for rolled or welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b ratio ≥ 3.1, this implementation will
resort to checks as per clause 6.3.2.2.
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of SFSEN 199311 to evaluate
the Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor χ
LT
.
7D.3.5 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per Finnish NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB
reduction factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of SFS EN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the Finnish Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3
to evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl.
6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Finnish National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors
to be used for various section types (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks" on page 315 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the
equations in the Finnish NA, this implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate χ
LT
.
319 — STAAD.Pro
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
In any case, the elastic critical moment, Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs
mentioned in the sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN
parameter=1.0 (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB
checks" on page 315 ) will be considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this
implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input =
0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the section has
been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design
input).
7D.3.6 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
STAAD.Pro uses the value of the modification factor f = 1.0 as given in the Finnish NA.
7D.3.7 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The Finnish NA recommends the use of equations in Annex A or Annex B of SFSEN 199311
to calculate these interaction factors. STAAD.Pro uses the method in Annex B by default. This
implementation of the Finnish NA will also use Annex B for Cl.6.3.3 checks.
7D.3.8 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of SFS EN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the non
dimensional slenderness λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling checks.
SFS EN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SFS EN 199311:2005).
The NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the N
cr,TF
and N
cr,T
factors and therefore
these methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the Finnish NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
International Design Codes Manual — 320
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
7D.4 Polish National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Polish National Annex  titled National Annex to Standard PNEN
199311  for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small
changes to the base document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Polish National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Polish National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the PolishNA.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the Polish National Annex (hereafter referred to as PNNA) and that are relevant to
the proposed implementation are:
7D.4.1 Clause 3.2.1(1)  Material Properties
The material strengths (i.e., steel grade strengths) to be used with PNEN 199311 are given in
Table 3.1 of the code. The Polish National Annex states in Cl. 3.1(2) that the steel grades to be
used will be based on Table 3.1 of PN EN 199311. These steel grade values are specified using
the SGR parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 261).
7D.4.2 Clause 6.1(1) – General
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Polish National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= minimum of 1.1 or 0.9 x f
u
/f
y
321 — STAAD.Pro
Where:
f
u
is the ultimate steel strength
f
y
is the yield strength of steel
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the PNNA (NA 6
is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
Warning: The GB1 parameter that is being used for compression checks in builds
preceding this release (STAAD.Pro 2007 build 06) has been removed as this
parameter is no longer required in EN 199311:2005. Hence, any legacy files that
use GB1 parameter will indicate an error message and the user will need to
substitute GB1 with GM1 in line with EN 199311:2005.
7D.4.3 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The Polish NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of PN EN 199311:2005 to calculate
the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the ‘Elastic Critical
Buckling Moment’, M
cr
. The Polish National Annex does not specify a particular method to
calculate M
cr
. Hence the calculation of M
cr
has been based on the following NCCI documents:
1. SN003aENEU – Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional
Buckling:
This document provides a method to calculate M
cr
specifically for doubly symmetric
sections only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this
method. The equation to evaluate M
cr
is given in the NCCI as:
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z ( )
cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
s s 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
s
w
w
s
t
s
2
2
2
2
C
1
and C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of
the member. The NCCI provides values for C
1
and C
2
for the different cases as given in
the tables below:
International Design Codes Manual — 322
ψ C
1
+1,00 1,00
+0,75 1,14
+0,50 1,31
+0,25 1,52
0,00 1,77
0,25 2,05
0,50 2,33
0,75 2,57
Table 7D.5Values of C
1
for end
moment loading (for k=1)
This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram
through the CMM parameter.
2. SN030aENEU – Monosymmetrical uniform members under
bending and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (M
cr
) for
uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the
elastic critical moment for ‘TeeSections’ will be worked out using the method in this
NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup
sections, STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a
monosymmetric builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this
method only for TeeSections.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as :
323 — STAAD.Pro
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − −
¸
¸
−
_
,
1
]
1
1
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
e e
( )
( )
1
2
2
3
1
2
2
3
1
s
x
x
w
w
s
x T
x
2
2
2
2
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria.
This implementation will consider C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
as given in the tables below:
The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C
1
, C
2
,
and C
3
. The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended
member with UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the “end
moments and transverse loading” condition. You can use the C1, C2, and C3 parameters
to input the required values for C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
to be used in calculating M
cr
.
Note: If MU as well as C1, C2, and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU
and use the user input values of C1, C2, and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these
values from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value
of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above
methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no
International Design Codes Manual — 324
warping restraints (i.e., CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5
or CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD
ENV 199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section.
The value of ‘zg’ is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is
negative if it acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the
load acts towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear
center. The use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a
value of ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear
center of the section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document “SN006aENEU” to
calculate Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific
formulae to evaluate the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in
STAAD.Pro.
7D.4.4 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The PolishNA provides the values for the terms λ
LT,0
and β factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1)
as follows:
For all sections, use:
λ
LT,0
=0.4 and β = 0.75
The Polish NA specifies the use of uses table 6.5 to work out the buckling curves for use in Cl.
6.3.2.3. Hence table 6.5 in PNEN 199311 will be used for this.
These equations and factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of PNEN 199311 to evaluate
the Lateral Torsional Buckling reduction factor χ
LT
.
7D.4.5 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per Finnish NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB
reduction factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of PN EN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
325 — STAAD.Pro
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the Finnish Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3
to evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl.
6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Finnish National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors to
be used for various section types (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection
factors for LTB checks" on page 315 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in the
Finnish NA, this implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate χ
LT
.
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
In any case, the elastic critical moment, M
cr
, (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be evaluated as previously given. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs
mentioned in the sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN
parameter=1.0 (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB
checks" on page 315 ) will be considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this
implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input =
0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the section has
been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design
input).
7D.4.6 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
STAAD.Pro uses the value of the modification factor f as per eqn 6.58 of PNEN 199311. The
correction factor ‘kc’ will be evaluated as:
kc = √(C
mLT
)
Where:
C
mLT
is the equivalent uniform moment factor from table B.3 of PNEN 199311.
C
mLT
is evaluated based on the end conditions of the member and the shape of
the bending moment diagram. However, if the KC parameter has been used, then
the program will use the specified value.
7D.4.7 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The Polish NA recommends the equations in Annex B of PNEN 199311 to calculate these
interaction factors. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.pro uses the method in
International Design Codes Manual — 326
Annex B by default. The proposed implementation of the Polish NA will also use Annex B for
Cl.6.3.3 checks.
The Polish NA also gives two additional simplified checks. This implementation will provide
for these additional checks as well. However as they are intended as optional checks, by
default, the program will not perform these checks. However, the user can invoke these
checks by using the PLG parameter. See "Design Parameters" on page 261
If the value of the PLG parameter is set to 1, the following two checks will be performed as per
Cl. NA.20.(2) and NA.20(3) respectively:
l Cl. NA.20.(2): The following condition will be checked
n/ χ and + C
my
m
y
/ χ
LT
+ C mz m with ≤ 1 Δ
0
(I = y or z)
Where:
n = N
Ed
/N
Rd
m
y
= max M
y,Ed
(+ Δ M
y, Ed
)/M
y, Rd
; m
z
= max M
,Z Ed
(+ Δ M
, Ed
)/M
Z Rd,
χ and –buckling factor,
χ
LT
 LTB factor
C
m
 moment factor from table B 3 of PN EN 199311,
Δ
0
correction factor (estimation of maximum reduction) and will be
worked out as:
Δ
0
= 0,1 + 0,2 (w
i
– 1), przy czym w
i
= W
pl,i
/W
el,i
, or
Δ
0
= 0,1 – in case of class 3 and 4 sections.
l Cl. NA.20.(3): This condition will only be checked for circular hollow sections.
n/χ
i
+ [(k
ii
m
i
)
2
+ (C
mj
m
j
)
2
] 1/2 ≤ 1 (i,j =y,z)
Where:
k  the interaction factor from table B.1 of PNEN 199311
and n, m, Cmj are as above.
If the PLG parameter has been set to 1, the maximum among the following ratios will be
taken as being critical for Cl 6.3.3:
6.3.3: Eqn6.61
6.3.3: Eqn6.62
NA.20(2) and
NA.20(3)
If however PLG has been set to 0 (or not specified at all), the program will ignore the last two
checks in the list above.
327 — STAAD.Pro
7D.4.8 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of PN EN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the nondimensional
slenderness λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling checks. PN EN 19931
1:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer
6.3.14 of PN EN 199311:2005).
The NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional
buckling modes” provides methods to calculate the N
cr,TF
and N
cr,T
factors and therefore
these methods are used to evaluate the elastic critical loads for the Polish NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
7D.5 Singaporean National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Singaporean National Annex  titled National Annex to Standard SSEN
199311  for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes
to the base document.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the SingaporeanNA.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
The SINGAPORE NA specifies the value of λc0 for I, H channel or box section to be
used in equation 6.59 of SS EN 199311:2005 as 0.4. However, STAAD.Pro does not
use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is ignored for the
Singaporean National Annex.
International Design Codes Manual — 328
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
The value of the modification factor kfl to be used in equation 6.60 of SS EN 1993
11. However, STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore,
this clause is ignored for the Singaporean National Annex.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the Singaporean National Annex (hereafter referred to as SSNA) and that are relevant
to the proposed implementation are:
7D.5.1 Clause 6.1 – General
The partial safety factors will use the following values:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.1
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the SSNA (NA 7
is specified)..
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters have been specified by the user as ‘0’, STAAD.Pro will
ignore the specified value and use the default values as given above.
7D.5.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The Singaporean NA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of NF EN 199311:2005 to
calculate the imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor X
LT
, requires the calculation of the ‘Elastic
Critical Buckling Moment’, Mcr. The Singaporean National Annex does not specify a
particular method to calculate Mcr. Hence the calculation of Mcr has been based on the
following NCCI documents:
SN003aENEU – Elastic critical moment for Lateral torsional
Buckling
This document provides a method to calculate ‘Mcr’ specifically for doubly symmetric
sections only. Hence only doubly symmetric sections will be considered for this method. The
equation to evaluate Mcr is given in the NCCI as:
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C Z C Z
( ) cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
g g 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
w
w t
2
2
2
2
329 — STAAD.Pro
C1 and C2 are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
member. The NCCI provides values for C1 and C2 for the different cases as given in the tables
below:
ψ C
1
+1,00 1,00
+0,75 1,14
+0,50 1,31
+0,25 1,52
0,00 1,77
0,25 2,05
0,50 2,33
0,75 2,57
Table 7D.6Values of C
1
for end
moment loading (for k=1)
This NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through
the CMM parameter.
SN030aENEU – Monosymmetrical uniform members under
bending and axial compression:
This document provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment (Mcr) for uniform
mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence, the elastic critical
moment for ‘TeeSections’ will be evaluated using the method in this NCCI.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a monosymmetric
builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee
Sections.
International Design Codes Manual — 330
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as :
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − − −
_
,
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
g g
( )
( )
1
2
2 3 1
2
2 3 1
z
x
x
w
w x T
z
2
2
2
2
The factors C1, C2 and C3 are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
implementation will consider C1, C2 and C3 as given in the tables below:
The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2 and
C3. The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
UDL along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the “end moments and transverse
loading” condition. The user however can use the new ‘C1’, ‘C2’ and ‘C3’ parameters to input
the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating Mcr.
Note: If ‘MU’ as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU
and use the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values
from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A
331 — STAAD.Pro
value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above
methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no
warping restraints (i.e., CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or
CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV
199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of ‘zg’ is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it
acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts
towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The
use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG =
0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the
section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: There is a separate method specified in the NCCI document “SN006aENEU” to
calculate Mcr for cantilever beams. Again this document does not give any specific
formulae to evaluate the coefficients. Hence, this has not been implemented in
STAAD.Pro.
7D.5.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The Singaporean NA specifies different values for the λ
LT,0
and β factors to be used in equation
6.57 of SS EN 199311 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. STAAD.Pro does not
differentiate between rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in SS EN 199311
for λ
LT,0
and β. The values specified in the Singapore NA are:
l For rolled sections and hotrolled & cold formed hollow sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.4
β = 0.75
l For welded sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.2
β = 1.00
STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of SS EN 199311:2005. The
SingaporeanNA provides the values for the terms λ
LT0
and β factors given in clause 6.3.2.3(1)
as follows:
International Design Codes Manual — 332
Cross Section Limits Buckling
Curve
Rolled doubly symmetric I and H sections
and hotfinished hollow sections
h/b ≤ 2 b
2.0 < h/b ≤ 3.1 c
h/b > 3.1 d
Angles (for moments in the major principle plane) d
All other hotrolled sections d
Welded, doubly symmetric sections and
coldformed hollow sections
h/b ≤ 2 c
2.0 < h/b ≤ 3.1 d
Table 7D.7Buckling curves to use with SSEN 199311:2005
Note: This table does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of welded
doubly symmetric sections with h/b ≥ 3.1 and welded nondoubly symmetric
sections. Hence for these cases the new implementation will still use the method
specified in the base code as per clause 6.3.2.2(2).
7D.5.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per Singaporean NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005) both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of SS EN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the Singaporean Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl.
6.3.2.3 to evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will
consider Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Singaporean National Annex states that Table 6.5 in SS EN 199311:2005
should be replaced with the table given in the NA (See section 4.3 of this document). Hence
for all cases dealt with by the table in the Singaporean NA, this implementation will choose
the buckling curves from the Singaporean National Annex. For any case that is not dealt with
by the table in the Singaporean NA, the program will use the method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of SS
EN 199311:2005.
For the following cross sections, the program will use the Table in the Singaporean NA for
choosing a buckling curve for LTB checks (when the SS EN has been specified):
333 — STAAD.Pro
l Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections
l Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)
l Angle Sections
l Any other rolled section
l Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1
For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of SS EN 199311:2005 to
evaluate χ
LT
l Welded I & H Sections with h/b ≥ 3.1.
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
In any case, the elastic critical moment, M
cr
, (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be evaluated as given above. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs
mentioned in the sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN
parameter=1.0 (See section above) will be considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter
values, this implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input =
0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of BS EN 199311:2005.
Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the section has
been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in design
input).
7D.5.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
The Singaporean NA specifies the use of Equation 6.58 of SS EN 199311:2005 to evaluate the
modification factor ‘f’ for the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
. To evaluate the modification factor SS
EN 199311:2005 uses a correction factor ‘kc’ given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The SingaporeanNA however, specifies that the correction factor ‘kc’ is to be obtained as
below:
K
c
= 1 / √C
1
Where:
C
1
is to be obtained from the NCCI documents as previously described (See
"Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB checks"
on page 329). The NCCI document SN003aENEU specifies the values of C1 to be
used in table 3.1 as shown below. The current implementation does not account
for the K
c
factor and conservatively uses a reduction factor equal to 1. The
program allows for the reduction factor based on the SingaporeanNA.
International Design Codes Manual — 334
These values are for an end restraint factor of k = 1 (i.e., design parameter CMN = 1.0). Hence for
all other values of CMN (i.e., 0.7 or 0.5) this implementation will use the values of C
1
from DD
ENV 199311:1992 Annex F.
The program will use a default value of 1.0 for K
c
. However, you can also input a custom value
of K
c
by setting the design parameter KC to the desired value. If the KC parameter in the
design input is set to 0, then the program will automatically calculate its value. This will
cause the program to evaluate a value of C
1
corresponding to the end conditions and the
Bending moment of the member and in turn calculate K
c
as given in the NA. To evaluate C
1
,
the program will use the NCCI documents as previously described.
7D.5.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy,
and kzz
The Singaporean NA recommends the methods in either Annex A or Annex B of SSEN 1993
11 to calculate these interaction factors. The current implementation of EC3 BS in STAAD.pro
uses the method in Annex B by default. The proposed implementation of the Singaporean NA
will also use Annex B for Cl.6.3.3 checks.
However for nondoubly symmetric sections, the Singaporean NA gives the option of using
Annex B with some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA3.2 of the Singaporean NA).
The Singaporean NA requires additional checks to be done to check for the maximum
allowable values of λ and X to be used in equations 6.61 and 6.62 of SS EN 199311:2005.
As per the Singaporean NA, for nondoubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the
weak axis (λy in STAAD) and the corresponding reduction factor χy should be taken as the
values from the highest values of slenderness (λ) among the flexural buckling slenderness
(λy), torsional slenderness (λT) and torsionalflexural slenderness (λTF) as given in Clauses
6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of SS EN 199311:2005. Hence for nondoubly symmetric sections the
program will calculate the critical nondimensional slenderness as:
λ
y
= the maximum of either λ from Cl 6.3.1.3 or λ
T
from Cl 6.3.1.4
Where:
=
⋅
λ
T
A f
N
y
cr
N
cr
= min (N
CrT
, N
crTF
).
The Singaporean NA or EC3 does not, however, specify a method to evaluate N
CrT
or N
crTF
.
Therefore, the program uses the method specified in the NCCI document “SN001aENEU:
Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” to calculate these. See
"Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling" on page 336.
Note: The Singaporean National Annex or EC3 does not deal with angle sections in
specific and hence this implementation will use the method used in the current
EC3 implementation to deal with slenderness of angle sections. In the current
implementation this is done as per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950. This proposed
335 — STAAD.Pro
implementation will still use the same method for single and double angle sections
to evaluate the slenderness.
Clause NA 3.2 of the Singaporean NA also requires that “Where the section is not an I Section
or a hollow section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the
purposes of this clause”. Hence, for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are not I, H, SHS,
RHS or CHS sections, the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.
7D.5.7 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of SS EN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the nondimensional
slenderness parameter, λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling checks. The
SS EN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic critical loads N
cr,T,F
and
N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 199311:2005). Therefore, the NCCI document “SN001aENEU:
Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes” provides methods to
calculate the N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
factors and hence will to be included in this implementation of
the Singaporean NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee sections while working out the
critical torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.
7D.6 Belgian National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Belgian National Annex—titled National Annex to Standard NBNEN
199311—for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small changes
to the base document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
International Design Codes Manual — 336
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Belgian National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Belgian National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the NBNNA.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the Belgian National Annex (hereafter referred to as NBNNA) and that are relevant
to the proposed implementation are:
7D.6.1 Clause 6.1(1) – General
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Belgian National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.25
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the PNNA (NA
8 is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
7D.6.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The NBNNA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of EN 199311:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
Buckling Moment, M
cr
. The NBNNA gives a method to calculate M
cr
in Annex D, which is
used by STAAD.Pro. Annex D, however, only deals with the calculation of M
cr
for doubly
symmetric sections and mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the minor axis
(i.e, Tee sections). For any other type of section that is not dealt with by Annex D, STAAD.Pro
uses the method and tables given in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992:
337 — STAAD.Pro
Doubly symmetric sections
Annex D of NBNNA provides equation used to calculate M
cr
specifically for doubly symmetric
sections:
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C Z C Z
( ) cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
g g 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
w
w t
2
2
2
2
C
1
& C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions. The Annex
provides values for C
1
& C
2
for the different cases as given in Table1 and Table 2 of the Annex.
Table 1 deals with the condition of a simply supported member with end moments and the
value of C
1
is determined by the end moment ratio (Refer to the NA for details). Clause 3.2 of
the National Annex however gives a formula to calculate C
1
as:
C
1
= 1.77  1.04ψ + 0.27ψ
2
≤ 2.60
The value of C2 is determined based on the Table 2 of the Annex, based on the loading and
end conditions as specified using the CMM parameter.
This NBNNA considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through
the CMM parameter.
Monosymmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis
Annex D of NBNNA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M
cr
, for
uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this
implementation the elastic critical moment for TeeSections is evaluated using the method in
this Annex.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup sections,
STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a monosymmetric
builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only for Tee
Sections.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as:
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − − −
_
,
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
g g
( )
( )
1
2
2 3 1
2
2 3 1
z
x
x
w
w x T
z
2
2
2
2
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. This
implementation will consider C1, C2 and C3 as given in the tables below:
International Design Codes Manual — 338
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
ψ = +1 1.
0
1.0
0
1.000
Table 7D.8Critical moment coefficients for singly
symmetric sections with end moments
339 — STAAD.Pro
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
0.
5
1.0
5
1.019
International Design Codes Manual — 340
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
ψ =
+3/4
1.
0
1.1
4
1.000
341 — STAAD.Pro
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
0.
5
1.1
9
1.017
International Design Codes Manual — 342
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
ψ =
+1/2
1.
0
1.31 1.000
343 — STAAD.Pro
End Moments and
Support Conditions
Bend
ing
mome
nt
dia
gram
k
z
Value of
coefficients
C
1
C
3
ψ
f
≤ 0
ψ
f
> 0
0.
5
1.3
7
1.000
ψ =
+1/4
1.
0
1.5
2
1.000
0.
5
1.6
0
1.000
ψ = 0 1.
0
1.7
7
1.000
0.
5
1.8
6
1.000
ψ = 
1/4
1.
0
2.0
6
1.00
0
0.85
0
0.
5
2.1
5
1.00
0
0.65
0
ψ = 
1/2
1.
0
2.3
5
1.00
0
1.3 
1.2ψ
f
0.
5
2.4
2
0.95
0
0.77
 ψ
f
ψ = 
3/4
1.
0
2.6
0
1.00
0
0.55
 ψ
f
0.
5
2.4
5
0.85
0
0.35
 ψ
f
ψ = 1 1.
0
2.6
0
ψ
f
ψ
f
0.
5
2.4
5
0.12
5 
0.7
ψ
f

0.12
5 
0.7
ψ
f
International Design Codes Manual — 344
Note: According to Section 3(1): C
2
z
g
= 0
Load and
support
conditions
Bending moment
diagram
k
z
Value of
coef
ficients
C
1
C
2
C
3
1
.
0
1.
1
2
0
.
4
5
0.
52
5
0
.
5
0
.
9
7
0
.3
6
0.
47
8
1
.
0
1.
3
5
0
.5
9
0.
41
1
0
.
5
1.
0
5
0
.
4
8
0.
33
8
1
.
0
1.
0
4
0
.
4
2
0.
56
2
0
.
5
0
.
9
5
0
.3
1
0.
53
9
Table 7D.9Value of coefficients
The CMM parameter specified during design input will determine the values of C1, C2, and
C3. The default value of CMM is 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
uniformly distributed load (UDL) along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the
“end moments and transverse loading” condition. The user however can use the new ‘C1’, ‘C2’
and ‘C3’ parameters to input the required values for C1, C2 and C3 to be used in calculating
Mcr.
345 — STAAD.Pro
Note: If ‘MU’ as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU
and use the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values
from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A value
of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above
methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no
warping restraints (i.e., CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5 or
CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD ENV
199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term ‘zg’ in the equation to calculate Mcr refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section. The
value of ‘zg’ is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative if it
acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts
towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center. The
use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of ZG =
0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the
section so that the term ‘zg’ in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.
7D.6.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The NBNNA recommends the use of the values specified in EN 199311 for the LTB factors
λ
LT0
and β. However it gives two different sets of values for λ
LT0
& β based on two different
conditions as give below:
1. If M
cr
is determined by considering the properties of the gross cross section and the
lateral restraints, the following values are used:
λ
LT0
=0.2 and β = 1.0
2. If M
cr
is determined by ignoring the lateral restraints, the following values are used:
λ
LT0
=0.4 and β = 0.75
The program evaluates which factors to use based on the CMN parameter. If CMN = 1.0
(default), then the program assumes the restraints are ignored and the second set of values is
used for λ
LT0
and β. If CMN = 0.5, then the first set of λ
LT0
and β values is used.
These factors are then applied to equation 6.57 of NBNEN to evaluate the Lateral Torsional
Buckling reduction factor χ
LT
.
International Design Codes Manual — 346
7D.6.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per Belgium NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005) both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of NBNEN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the Belgian Annex) in STAAD.Pro: by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3
to evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl.
6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the Belgian National Annex gives equations to evaluate the imperfection factors
to be used for various section types. (See "Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section" on page 346 ). Hence for all cases dealt with by the equations in
the NBNNA, this implementation will use Cl 6.3.2.3 to evaluate χ
LT
.
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
In any case, the elastic critical moment,Mcr, (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be evaluated as given above. Since this implementation uses the NCCIs
mentioned in the sections above, only end restraint conditions corresponding to the CMN
parameter=1.0 (See "Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded section" on
page 346 ) will be considered. For all other cases of the CMN parameter values, this
implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 199311:1992.
You can override the default behavior and specify the clause that is to be used for LTB checks.
This can be specified using the MTH design parameter (See "Design Parameters" on page 261).
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input
= 0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of NBNEN 19931
1:2005. Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the
section has been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0
in design input).
7D.6.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
The Belgian NA specifies that the modification factor is to be obtained as per the default
method given in EC3. Hence the proposed implementation will use the existing
347 — STAAD.Pro
functionality to work out the correction factor ‘kc’ to be used in the modification factor f.
The program uses a default value of 1.0 for ‘kc’. However the user can also input a custom value
of ‘kc’ by setting the design parameter ‘KC’ to the desired value. The user can also get the
program to calculate the value of ‘kc’ automatically by setting the value of the ‘KC’ parameter
in the design input to 0. This will cause the program to work out ‘kc’ from table 6.6 of NBN
EN 199311:2005. This will correspond to the end conditions and the bending moment of the
member (i.e the value of CMM parameter specified).
l For CMM = 7 the program will choose the value of ‘kc’ to be either 0.90 or 0.91 based on
the end moment ratio.
l For CMM = 8 the program will choose the value of ‘kc’ to be either 0.77 or 0.82 based on
the end moment ratio.
An additional check will also be performed as given below:
≤ χ
LT
λ
, mod
1
LT
2
7D.6.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The NBNNA recommends the equations in Annex A of NBNEN 199311 to calculate these
interaction factors.
The NA also mentions that torsional flexural buckling needs to be taken into account in case
of mono symmetric sections. Torsional flexural buckling will need to be taken into account
based on the method given in the NCCI document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for
torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes”. See section below for details.
The NA also recommends a lower limit as given below for the term C
mi,0
in table A.2 of Annex
A:
≥ − C 1
mi
N
N
, 0
Ed
cr i ,
7D.6.7 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of NBNEN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the non
dimensional slenderness parameter, λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural
buckling checks. The NBNEN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic
critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 199311:2005). Therefore, the NCCI
document “SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling
modes” provides methods to calculate the N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
factors and hence will to be
included in this implementation of the Belgian NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
International Design Codes Manual — 348
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee sections while working out the
critical torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.
7D.7 Malaysian National Annex to EC3
Adds values from the Malaysian National Annex—titled National Annex to Standard MSEN
199311—for use with Eurocode 3, or EN 199311:2005. The NA document makes small
changes to the base document.
The following clauses are not implemented in STAAD.Pro:
Clause 6.3.2.4(1) B – Slenderness for flexural buckling
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Malaysian National Annex.
Clause 6.3.2.4(2)B – Modification factor ‘kfl’
STAAD.Pro does not use this clause for design per EC3. Therefore, this clause is
ignored for the Malaysian National Annex.
Note: Refer to the basic code (EC3) for a description of these clauses. The sections below
refer to the corresponding clauses in the MSNA.
The clauses/sections in EN 199311:2005 (hereafter referred to as EC3) that have been dealt
with in the Malaysian National Annex (hereafter referred to as MSNA) and that are relevant
to the proposed implementation are:
7D.7.1 Clause 6.1(1) – General: Partial Safety Factors for
buildings
EN 199311:2005 specifies the use of the partial safety factors to be used in for design as given
in Cl. 6.1 of the code. These factors are γ
M0
, γ
M1
, and γ
M2
. EN 1993 provides default values for
these factors. However, any National Annex is allowed to override these default values.
The partial safety factors will use the following values for the Malaysian National Annex:
l Resistance of crosssections, γ
M0
= 1.0
l Resistance of members to instability, γ
M1
= 1.0
349 — STAAD.Pro
l Resistance of cross sections to tension, γ
M2
= 1.1
The design function in STAAD.Pro sets these values as the default values for the MSNA (NA 9
is specified).
Note: You can change these values through the GM0, GM1, & GM2 design parameters. See
"Design Parameters" on page 261
Note: If any of these parameters are specified as 0, STAAD.Pro will ignore the user
specified value (i.e., 0) and use the default values as given above.
7D.7.2 Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks
The MSNA recommends the use of Table 6.3 and 6.4 of MS EN 199311:2005 to calculate the
imperfection factors for Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB) checks.
The calculation of the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
, requires the calculation of the Elastic Critical
Buckling Moment, M
cr
. The MSNA does not specify a particular method to calculate Mcr.
Hence the calculation of Mcr has been based on the following NCCI documents:
Doubly symmetric sections
SN003aENEU NCCI: Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling provides equation
used to calculate M
cr
specifically for doubly symmetric sections:
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + −
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C Z C Z
( ) cr
π EI
kL
k
k
I
I
kL GI
π EI
g g 1
( )
2
( )
2
2
2
w
w
S
t
S
2
2
2
2
C
1
and C
2
are factors that depend on the end conditions and the loading conditions of the
member. The NCCI provides values for C
1
and C
2
for the different cases as given in Table 3.1
and Table 3.2.
The NCCI considers three separate loading conditions:
l Members with end moments
l Members with transverse loading
l Members with end moments and transverse loading.
STAAD.Pro accounts for the loading condition and the bending moment diagram through
the CMM parameter. The values of C
1
and C
2
may also be directly specified using the C1 and C2
parameters, respectively (required for CMM = 7 or CMM = 8).
Monosymmetric sections with symmetry about their weak axis
Annex D of MSNA also provides a method to evaluate the elastic critical moment, M
cr
, for
uniform mono symmetric sections that are symmetric about the weak axis. Hence for this
International Design Codes Manual — 350
implementation the elastic critical moment for TeeSections is evaluated using the method
in this Annex.
Note: Though this method could also be applicable to monosymmetric builtup
sections, STAAD.Pro currently does not have a means to specify/identify a mono
symmetric builtup section. Hence this implementation will use this method only
for TeeSections.
The equation to evaluate M
cr
for mono symmetric sections is given as:
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¸
¸
_
,
+ + − − −
_
,
¹
;
¹
)
¹
M C C z C z C z C z
( ) cr
π EI
k L
k
k
I
I
k L GI
π EI
g g
( )
( )
1
2
2 3 1
2
2 3 1
z
x
x
w
w x T
z
2
2
2
2
The factors C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
are dependent on the end conditions and loading criteria. The
program considers C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
as given in the tables 4.1 and 4.2 of the NCCI, based on the
CMM parameter.
The default value of CMM = 0, which considers the member as a pin ended member with
uniformly distributed load (UDL) along its span. This NCCI does not however consider the
“end moments and transverse loading” condition. You use the C1, C2 and C3 parameters to
input the required values for C
1
, C
2
, and C
3
, respectively, to be used in calculating M
cr
.
Note: If ‘MU’ as well as C1, C2 and C3 have been specified, the program will ignore MU
and use the user input values of C1, C2 and C3. STAAD.Pro obtains these values
from Annex F of DD ENV version of 199311:1992.
Note: When CMM = 7 or CMM = 8, the values for C1, C2 and C3 parameters must be
manually specified.
Both the NCCI documents mentioned above assume that the member under consideration is
free to rotate on plan and that there are no warping restraints for the member ( k = kw = 1.0).
STAAD.Pro takes into account of the end conditions using the CMN parameter for EC3. A
value of K = kw =1 is indicated by a value of CMN = 1.0 in the design input. Hence the above
methods will be used only for members which are free to rotate on plan and which have no
warping restraints (i.e., CMN = 1.0). For members with partial or end fixities (i.e., CMN = 0.5
or CMN = 0.7), this implementation will fall back on to the method and coefficients in DD
ENV 199311:1992 – Annex F.
For all cases that are not dealt with by the National Annex (or the NCCI documents) this
implementation will use the method as per the DD ENV 199311:1992 code.
The term z
g
in the equation to calculate M
cr
refers to the distance between the point of
application of load on the cross section in relation to the shear center of the cross section.
The value of z
g
is considered positive, if the load acts towards the shear center and is negative
if it acts away from the shear center. By default, the program will assume that the load acts
towards the shear center at a distance equal to (Depth of section/2) from the shear center.
351 — STAAD.Pro
The use will be allowed to modify this value by using the ZG parameter. Specifying a value of
ZG = 0 in the design input would indicate that the load acts exactly at the shear center of the
section so that the term z
g
in the equation will have a value of zero.
Note: The program does not consider the case of cantilevers.
7D.7.3 Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or
equivalent welded section
The MSNA specifies different values for the λ
LT,0
and β factors to be used in equation 6.57 of
MS EN 199311 for rolled and equivalent welded sections. STAAD.Pro does not differentiate
between rolled and welded sections and uses the default values in MS EN 199311 for λ
LT,0
and β. The values specified in the MSNA are:
1. For rolled sections and hotrolled & cold formed hollow sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.4 and β = 0.75
2. For welded sections:
λ
LT,0
= 0.2 and β = 1.00
STAAD.Pro uses the buckling curves based on Table 6.5 of MS EN 199311:2005, based on
different limits. This table again does not specify which buckling curve is to be used in case of
welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b ≥ 3.1 and welded nondoubly symmetric sections.
Hence for these cases the new implementation will still use the method specified in the base
code as per clause 6.3.2.2(2).
7D.7.4 Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 — Calculation of LTB
Reduction factor, χ
LT
as per Malaysian NA
Clauses 6.3.2.2 and 6.3.2.3 (EN 199311:2005), both give equations to evaluate the LTB reduction
factor χ
LT
to be used in eqn. 6.55 of MS EN 199311:2005.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 uses tables 6.3 and 6.4 to choose the buckling curve and the imperfection factors to
be used for calculating χ
LT
. Table 6.4 specifies the choice of buckling curves for “Rolled I
Sections”, “Welded I Sections” and “Any other sections”. Cl 6.3.2.3 on the other hand uses
tables 6.5 and 6.3 to choose the buckling curves and imperfection factors. Table 6.5 however
only deals with “Rolled I Sections” and “Welded I Sections”.
Cl. 6.3.2.2 states “Unless otherwise specified, see 6.3.2.3, for bending members of constant cross
section the value of χ
LT
should be determined from...”. Hence in the implementation of EC3
(and the MS NA) in STAAD.Pro, by default the program will consider clause Cl. 6.3.2.3 to
evaluate χ
LT
. For any case that is not dealt with by Cl. 6.3.2.3, the program will consider Cl.
6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
Cl. 6.3.2.3 in the MS NA states that Table 6.5 in MS EN 199311:2005 should be replaced with
the table given in the NA (See "Clause 6.3.2.3(1) – LTB for rolled sections or equivalent welded
section" on page 352). Hence for all cases dealt with by the table in the MS NA, this
implementation will choose the buckling curves from the MS NA. For any case that is not
International Design Codes Manual — 352
dealt with by the table in the MS NA, the program will use the method given in Cl. 6.3.2.2 of
MS EN 199311:2005.
Hence for the following cross sections the program will use the Table in the MS NA for
choosing a buckling curve for LTB checks (when the MS NA has been specified):
l Rolled doubly symmetric I & H Sections
l Rolled doubly symmetric hollow sections (SHS, RHS, CHS)
l Angle Sections
l Any other rolled section
l Welded doubly symmetric sections with h/b < 3.1
For the following cross sections, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 of MS EN 199311:2005 to
evaluate χ
LT
l Welded I & H Sections with h/b ≥ 3.1.
For any other type of cross section that is not dealt with by the National Annex or Cl.6.3.2.3,
the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 to evaluate χ
LT
.
In any case the Elastic critical moment “Mcr” (used to evaluate the non dimensional
slenderness) will be evaluated as described in "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and
imperfection factors for LTB checks". Since the MS NA uses the NCCI documents
mentioned in the sections above, this implementation will only consider end restraint
conditions corresponding to the CMN parameter=1.0. For all other cases of the CMN parameter
values, this implementation will use the method specified in Annex F of DD ENV 19931
1:1992.
Note: If a National Annex has not been specified (i.e., NA parameter in the design input
= 0), the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.3 only in the case of Rolled or welded I & H
Sections. For all other cases, the program will use Cl. 6.3.2.2 of MS EN 199311:2005.
Also, I sections with plates will be treated as builtup sections only if the section
has been explicitly specified as a builtup section (i.e., SBLT parameter = 1.0 in
design input).
7D.7.5 Clause 6.3.2.3(2) – Modification factor, f, for LTB
checks
The MS NA specifies the use of eqn. 6.58 of MS EN 199311:2005 to evaluate the modification
factor, f, for the LTB reduction factor χ
LT
. To evaluate the modification factor MS EN 19931
1:2005 uses a correction factor, kc, given by Table 6.6 in the code.
The program does not calculate the kc factor and conservatively uses a reduction factor equal
to 1. The proposed implementation will allow for the reduction factor based on the MS NA.
These values are for an end restraint factor of k = 1 (i.e., CMN = 1.0). Hence for all other values
of CMN (i.e., 0.7 or 0.5), the program uses the values of C1 from DD ENV 199311:1992 Annex F.
353 — STAAD.Pro
You can also manually specify a value for kc by setting the design parameter, KC, to the desired
value. The user can also get the program to calculate the value of kc automatically by setting
the value of the KC parameter in the design input to 0. This will cause the program to evaluate
a value of C
1
corresponding to the end conditions and the Bending moment of the member
and in turn calculate k
c
as given in the NA. To evaluate C
1
, the program will use the NCCI
documents (See "Clause 6.3.2.2 –Elastic critical moment and imperfection factors for LTB
checks" on page 350).
Note that for the MS NA, the program will attempt to evaluate k
c
by default using the
equation in NA,
= kc C 1 /
1
where C1 will be the value used for the M
cr
calculations.
If k
c
evaluates to be greater than 1.0, the program will then evaluate kc as per Table 6.6 of EN
199311:2005.
7D.7.6 Clause 6.3.3(5) – Interaction factors kyy, kyz, kzy, and
kzz
The MS NA recommends that the method in Annex A or Annex B of MS EN 199311:2005 can
be used to calculate the interaction factors for Cl. 6.3.3 checks in the case of doubly symmetric
sections. STAAD.Pro uses the equations in Annex B of MS EN 199311:2005 to calculate these
interaction factors for doubly symmetric sections..
However, for nondoubly symmetric sections, the MS NA gives the option of using Annex B
with some modifications as given in the NA. (Cl. NA3.2 of the MS NA). The MS NA requires
additional checks to be done to check for the maximum allowable values of λ and X to be used
in equations 6.61 and 6.62 of MS EN 199311:2005.
As per the MS NA, for nondoubly symmetric sections, the slenderness about the weak axis (λ
y
in STAAD.Pro) and the corresponding reduction factor χ
y
should be taken as the values from
the highest values of slenderness (λ) among the flexural buckling slenderness (λ
y
), torsional
slenderness (λ
T
) and torsionalflexural slenderness (λ
TF
) as given in Clauses 6.3.1.3 and 6.3.1.4 of
MS EN 199311:2005. Hence for nondoubly symmetric sections the program will calculate the
critical nondimensional slenderness as:
=
λ
λ
λ
max
per Cl. 6.3.1.3
per Cl. 6.3.1.4
y
T
where
=
⋅
λ
T
A f
N
y
cr
= N N N min( , )
cr crT crTF
The MS NA or EC3 does not, however, specify a method to evaluate N
crT
or N
crTF
. Hence, the
program uses the method specified in the NCCI document SN001aENEU: Critical axial load
International Design Codes Manual — 354
for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes to calculate these. See "Clause 6.3.1.4 
Slenderness for torsional and torsionalflexural buckling" on page 355 for details.
Note: The MS NA or EC3 does not deal with angle sections specifically and therefore
STAAD.Pro uses the method described in the EC3 implementation to deal with
slenderness of angle sections. This is done as per cl 4.7.10 of BS 5950.
Clause NA 3.2 of the MS NA also requires that “Where the section is not an I Section or a
hollow section and is a class1 or class 2 section, it will be treated as a class 3 section for the
purposes of this clause”. Hence for all Class 1 or Class 2 cross sections that are not I, H, SHS,
RHS or CHS sections, the elastic properties will be used for the purposes of 6.3.3 checks.
7D.7.7 Clause 6.3.1.4  Slenderness for torsional and
torsionalflexural buckling
Equations 6.52 and 6.53 of MSEN 199311:2005 are to be used to calculate the non
dimensional slenderness parameter, λ
T
, to be used for torsional and torsionalflexural
buckling checks. The MSEN 199311:2005 does not provide equations to calculate the elastic
critical loads N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
(refer 6.3.14 of SS EN 199311:2005). Therefore, the NCCI
document SN001aENEU: Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling
modes provides methods to calculate the N
cr,T,F
and N
cr,T
factors and hence will to be
included in this implementation of the MS NA.
The critical axial load for Torsional buckling is evaluated as:
=
+
N GI
cr T
i
t
π EI
I
,
1
o
w
T
2
2
2
Where:
= + + + i i i y z
o y z
o
o
2 2 2 2 2
i
y
and i
z
are the radius of gyration about the YY (weak axis) and ZZ (strong
axis) respectively.
The critical axial load for TorsionalFlexural buckling is evaluated as:
=
+ − + −
+
+
N N N N N N N
( )
4
cr TF
i
i i
cr y cr T cr y cr T cr y cr T
i i
i
( )
,
2
, , , ,
2
, ,
o
y z
y z
o
2
2 2
2 2
2
For details on these equations, refer to the NCCI document SN001aENEU.
The program will only consider Channel Sections and Tee sections when evaluating the
critical torsional and Flexural Torsional buckling loads as per Cl 6.3.1.4.
355 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing timber design based on the European code EC5 Part 11
Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures  Part 1.1: GeneralCommon rules and rules for
buildings.
Design of members per EC5 Part 11 requires the STAAD Euro Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
7E.1 General Comments
Principles of Limit States Design of Timber Structures are used as specified in the code.
Design per EC5 is limited to the prismatic, rectangular shapes only. There is no Eurocode
specific timber section database / library consisting of predefined shapes for analysis or for
design. The feature of member selection is thus not applicable to this code.
The design philosophy of this specification is based on the concept of limit state design.
Structures are designed and proportioned taking into consideration the limit states at which
they would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limitstate are
recognized  ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability, while that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and
resistance factors are used so that a uniform reliability is achieved for all timber structures
under various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed
are acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most
economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria as augmented by the
designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other such
parameters. The code checking portion of the program checks whether code requirements for
each selected section are met and identifies the governing criteria.
The following sections describe the salient features of the STAAD implementation of EC 5. A
detailed description of the design process along with its underlying concepts and assumptions
is available in the specification document.
7E.1.1 Axes convention in STAAD and EC5
STAAD defines the major axis of the crosssection as zz and the minor axis as yy. The
longitudinal axis of the member is defined as x and joins the start joint of the member to the
end with the same positive direction.
EC5, however, defines the principal crosssection axes in reverse to that of STAAD, but the
longitudinal axis is defined in the same way. Both of these axes definitions follow the
orthogonal right hand rule.
International Design Codes Manual — 356
Figure 7E.1  Axis conventions per STAAD and Eurocode 5
STAAD EC5
7E.1.2 Determination of Factors
A. Kmod – Modification factor taking into account of Loadduration (LDC) and
Moisturecontent (Service Class  SCL). Reference Table 3.1 of EC52004.
For “Solid Timber”, the values are incorporated in the program.
B. γ
m
– Partial factor for Material Property values. Reference Table 2.3 of EC52004.
For “Solid Timber”, the value of γ
m
= 1.3 is incorporated in the program.
C. Kh – Size Factor.
For members, subjected to tension, whose maximum c/s dimension is less than the
reference width in tension the characteristic strength in tension (ft0k) is to be
increased by the factor Kh.
For members, subjected to bending, whose depth is less than reference depth in
bending, the characteristic strength in bending (fmk) is to be increased by the factor
Kh.
As per clause 3.2(3) of EC 5 2004, for rectangular solid timber with a characteristic
timber density ρ
k
≤ 700 kg/m
3
the reference depth in bending or the reference width
(maximum crosssectional dimension) is 150 mm.
The value of Kh = Minimum of {(150/h) 0.2 and 1.3) for such solid timber is
incorporated in the software. Please refer clause numbers 3.3 and 3.4 for the value of
Kh for Glued laminated timber and Laminated veneer lumber respectively.
D. KC90 – Factor taking into account the load configuration, possibility of splitting and
degree of compressive deformation.
For members, subjected to compression, perpendicular to the direction of grain
alignment, this factor should be taken into account. Default value of 1 is used in
STAAD.Pro. User may override the value. Please refer clause 6.1.5 of EC52004 in this
regard.
E. Km – Factor considering redistribution of bending stress in cross section.
357 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
For members, subjected to bending, this factor is taken into account for stress checking.
For rectangular section the value of Km is 0.7, and this value is incorporated in
STAAD.Pro. User may override the value. Please refer clause 6.1.6 of EC52004 in this
regard.
F. Kshape – Factor depending on shape of cross section.
For members, subjected to torsional force, design torsional stress should be less than
equal design shear strength multiplied by the factor Kshape. This factor is determined
by STAAD.Pro internally using the guidelines of clause 6.1.8 of EC52004.
7E.2 Analysis Methodology
Symbol Description
S
t0d
Design tensile stress parallel (at zero degree) to grain
alignment.
S
t90d
Design tensile stress perpendicular (at 90 degrees) to grain
alignment.
S
c0d
Design compressive stress parallel to grain alignment.
S
c90d
Design compressive stress perpendicular to grain alignment.
S
mzd
Design bending stress about zz axis.
S
myd
Design bending stress about yy axis.
S
vd
Design shear stress.
S
tor_d
Design torsional stress.
F
t0d
Design tensile strength  parallel to the grain alignment.
F
t90d
Design tensile strength  perpendicular to the grain alignment.
F
c0d
Design compressive strength  parallel to the grain alignment.
F
c90d
Design compressive strength  perpendicular to the grain
alignment.
F
mzd
Design bending strength  about zzaxis.
F
myd
Design bending strength  about yyaxis.
F
vd
Design shear strength about yy axis.
RATIO Permissible ratio of stresses as input using the RATIO parameter.
The default value is 1.
l
z
,l
rel,z
Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about zz axis.
l
y
,l
rel,y
Slenderness ratios corresponding to bending about yy axis.
E
0,05
Fifth percentile value of modulus of elasticity parallel to grain.
G
0,05
Fifth percentile value of shear modulus parallel to grain.
I
z
Second moment of area about the strong zaxis.
Table 7E.1EC5 Nomenclature
International Design Codes Manual — 358
Symbol Description
I
y
Second moment of area about the weak yaxis.
I
tor
Torsional moment of inertia.
f
mk
Characteristic bending strength.
b, h Width and depth of beam.
Equations for Characteristic Values of Timber Species as per AnnexA of EN 338:2003
The following equations were used to determine the characteristic values:
For a particular Timber Strength Class (TSC), the following characteristic strength values are
required to compute the other related characteristic values.
i. Bending Strength – f
m,k
ii. Mean Modulus of Elasticity in bending – E
0, mean
iii. Density  ρ
k
SI
N
o.
Property Symbol Wood Type
Soft
wood (C)
Hard
wood (D)
1. Tensile Strength parallel to
grain
f
t,0,k
0.6 * f
m,k
2. Tensile Strength perpendicular
to grain
f
t,90,k
Minimum of {0.6 and
(0.0015*r
k
)}
3. Compressive Strength parallel
to grain
f
c,0,k
5 * (f
m,k
)
0.45
4. Compressive Strength
perpendicular to grain
f
c,90,k
0.007*r
k
0.0015*r
k
5. Shear Strength f
v,k
Minimum of {3.8 and
(0.2*f
m,k
0.8
)}
6. Modulus of Elasticity parallel
to grain
E
0,05
0.67* E
0,
mean
0.84* E
0,
mean
7. Mean Modulus of Elasticity
perpendicular to grain
E
90,mean
E
0,mean
/30 E
0,mean
/15
8. Mean Shear Modulus G
mean
E
0,mean
/16
9. Shear Modulus G
0,05
E
0,05
/16
The values of the characteristic strengths computed using the above equations, may differ
with the tabulated values in Table1 of EN 338:2003. However, in all such cases, the values
obtained from the provided equations are treated as actual and is used by the program, as the
values of Table1 are based on these equations.
359 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
7E.2.1 Design values of Characteristic Strength
As per clause 2.4.1, Design values of a strength property shall be calculated as:
X
d
= K mod·(X
k
/γ
m
)
Where:
X
d
is design value of strength property
X
k
characteristic value of strength property
γ
m
is partial factor for material properties.
The member resistance in timber structure is calculated in STAAD according to the
procedures outlined in EC5. This depends on several factors such as cross sectional properties,
different load and material factors, timber strength class, load duration class, service class and
so on. The methodology adopted in STAAD for calculating the member resistance is explained
here.
7E.2.2 Check for Tension stresses
If the direction of applied axial tension is parallel to the direction of timber grain alignment,
the following formula should be checked per Equation 6.1 of EC5 2004:
S
t0d
/F
t0d
≤ RATIO
If the direction of applied axial tension is perpendicular to the direction of timber grain
alignment, the following formula should be checked:
S
t90d
/F
t90d
≤ RATIO
7E.2.3 Check for Compression stresses
If the direction of applied axial compression is parallel to the direction of timber grain
alignment, the following formula should be checked per Equation 6.2 of EC5 2004:
S
c0d
/F
c0d
≤ RATIO
If the direction of applied axial compression is perpendicular to the direction of timber grain
alignment, the following formula should be checked per Equation 6.3 of EC5 2004:
S
t0d
/(F
t0d
·Kc90) ≤ RATIO
7E.2.4 Check for Bending stresses
If members are under bending stresses, the following conditions should be satisfied per
Equations 6.11 and 6.12 of EC5 2004.
Note: In STAAD zz axis is the strong axis.
(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
International Design Codes Manual — 360
7E.2.5 Check for Shear stresses
Horizontal stresses are calculated and checked against allowable values per Equation 6.13 of
EC5 2004:
S
vd
/F
vd
≤ RATIO
7E.2.6 Check for Torsional stresses
Members subjected to torsional stress should satisfy Equation 6.14 of EC5 2004:
S
tor_d
/(Kshape·F
tor_d
) ≤ RATIO
7E.2.7 Check for combined Bending and Axial tension
Members subjected to combined action of bending and axial tension stress should satisfy
Equations 6.17 and 6.18 of EC5 2004:
Note: In STAAD zz axis is the strong axis.
(S
t0d
/F
t0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
(S
t0d
/F
t0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
7E.2.8 Check for combined Bending and axial Compression
If members are subjected to bending and axial compression stress, Equations 6.19 and 6.20 of
EC5 2004 should be satisfied:
Note: In STAAD zz axis is the strong axis.
(S
c0d
/F
c0d
)
2
+ (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
(S
c0d
/F
c0d
)
2
+ Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
7E.2.9 Stability check
A. Column Stability check
The relative slenderness ratios should be calculated per Equations 6.21 and 6.22 of EC5
2004.
Note: In STAAD zz axis is the strong axis.
λ
rel,z
= λ
z
/π·(S
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
λ
rel,y
= λ
y
/π·(S
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
361 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
If both λ
rel,z
and λ
rel,y
are less than or equal to 0.3 the following conditions should be
satisfied:
(S
c0d
/F
c0d
)
2
+ (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
(S
c0d
/F
c0d
)
2
+ Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
In other cases, the conditions in Equations 6.23 and 6.24 of EC5 2004 should be
satisfied.
Note: In STAAD zz axis is the strong axis.
S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
S
c0d
/(Kcy·F
c0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
Where (Equations 6.25 through 6.28 of EC5 2004):
Kcz = 1/{K
z
+ [(K
z
)
2
 (λ
rel,z
)
2
]
1/2
}
Kcy = 1/{K
y
+ [(K
zy
)
2
 (λ
rel,y
)
2
]
1/2
}
Kz = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,z
 0.3) + (λ
rel,z
)
2
]
Ky = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,y
 0.3) + (λ
rel,y
)
2
]
The value of β
c
incorporated in the software is the one for solid timber (i.e., 0.2).
B. Beam Stability check
If members are subjected to only a moment about the strong axis z, the stresses should
satisfy Equation 6.33 of EC5 2004:
S
mzd
/(Kcrit·F
mzd
) ≤ RATIO
Where a combination of moment about the strong zaxis and compressive force exists,
the stresses should satisfy Equation 6.35 of EC5 2004 (ref. to Equations 6.32 and 6.34 of
the same):
[S
mzd
/(Kcrit·F
mzd
)]
2
+ S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) ≤ RATIO
Where:
Kcrit = 1.0 when λ
rel,m
≤ 0.75
Kcrit = 1.56  0.75·λ
rel,m
when 0.75 < λ
rel,m
≤ 1.4
Kcrit = 1/( λ
rel,m
)
2
when 1.4 < λ
rel,m
λ
rel,m
= (f
mk
/S
m,crit
)
1/2
For hardwood, use Equation 6.30 of EC5 2004:
S
m,crit
= π·(E
0,05
·I
y
·G
0,05
·I
tor
)
1/2
/(l
ef
·W
z
)
For softwood, use Equation 6.31 of EC5 2004:
S
m,crit
= 0.78·b
2
·E
0,05
/(h·l
ef
)
International Design Codes Manual — 362
7E.3 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to
default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
Depending on the model being designed, the user may have to change some or all of the
parameter default values. Some parameters are unit dependent and when altered, the new
setting must be compatible with the active “unit” specification.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as TIMBER
EC5
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.51.1 of the
Technical Reference Manual.
ALPHA 0.0 Angle of inclination of load
to the grain alignment. (Ref.
Cl.6.1.1, Cl.6.1.2, Cl.6.1.3,
Cl.6.1.4)
0.0 = Load parallel to grain
90.0 = Load Perpendicular
to grain
DFF None “Deflection Length” / Max.
Allowable Net Final Local
Deflection.
In this case, deflection check
will be performed, if both the
parameters SERV and DFF are
present with specific values.
For appropriate range of
values, please refer Cl.7.2
(Table 7.2)
Table 7E.2Timber Design EC 5: Part 11 Parameters
363 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
Parameter Name Default Value Description
DJ1 Start node number for a
physical member under
consideration for Deflection
Check.
DJ2 End node number for a
physical member under
consideration for Deflection
Check.
KC90 1.0 Factor taking into account
the load configuration,
possibility of splitting and
degree of compressive
deformation. (Ref. Cl.6.1.5(2))
l Range: 1.0 ≤ KC90 ≤ 4.0
l Other than the default
value, user may specify
any value within the
range, depending on
loadposition, load
dispersion, contact
length at support
locations etc.
KLEF 1.0
(Member Length)
Effective Length Factor to
check Lateral Torsional
Buckling (Ref. Table 6.1).
Factor multiplied by the span
of the beam and depends on
the support conditions and
load configurations. The user
will put the appropriate value
from the Table 6.1.
Required only for MTYP value
of 1 (Beam).
KY 1.0
(Member Length)
Effective Length Factor for
Localyaxis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for
the computation of the
relative slenderness ratios.
International Design Codes Manual — 364
Parameter Name Default Value Description
KZ 1.0
(Member Length)
Effective Length Factor for
Localzaxis. (Ref. Cl.6.3.2), for
the computation of the
relative slenderness ratios.
LDC 1 Load Duration Class (Ref.
Cl.2.3.1.2), required to get the
KMOD value from Table –
3.1.
1.0 = Permanent action
2.0 = Long term action
3.0 = Medium term action
4.0 = Short term action
5.0 = Instantaneous action
MTYP 0 Member Type: Beam/Column.
(Ref. Cl.6.3.2, Cl.6.3.3)
0.0 = Not defined; both
clauses are checked
(Default)
1.0 = Beam Member
2.0 = Column Member
This information is required
to find which stability check
will be performed as per the
Cl 6.3 according to the
Member Type.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual to
allowable value.
SCL 3 Service Class (Ref. Cl.2.3.1.3)
1.0 = Class 1, Moisture
content ≤ 12%
2.0 = Class 2, Moisture
content ≤ 20%
3.0 = Class 3, Moisture
content > 20%
365 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
Parameter Name Default Value Description
TRACK 0 Degree/Level of Details of
design output results.
1.0 = Print the design
output at the minimal
detail level
2.0 = Print the design
output at the
intermediate detail level
3.0 = Print the design
output that the maximum
detail level
TSC 6 (C24) Timber Strength Class (Ref.
Reference EN338 – 2003)
l Softwood: 1 = C14, 2 =
C16, 3 = C18, 4 = C20, 5
= C22, 6 = C24, 7 = C27,
8 = C30, 9 = C35, 10 =
C40, 11 = C45, 12 = C50.
l Hardwood: 13 = D30, 14
= D35, 15 = D40, 16 =
D50, 17 = D60, 18 =
D70.
This TSC definition will
calculate the corresponding
characteristic strength values
using the equations as given
in BSEN338, Annex  A.
7E.4 Verification Problems
7E.4.1 Verification Problem No. 1  Timber Column
A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is subjected
to an axial compressive force of 50.0 kN. Design the member for the ultimate limit state.
Material properties:
Timber class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content ≤ 20%
International Design Codes Manual — 366
Load duration classes: Mediumterm
Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14,454 mm²,
Radius of gyration of cross section about yaxis r
y
= 21 mm,
Radius of gyration of cross section about zaxis r
z
= 57 mm,
Section modulus of cross section about zaxis: W
z
= 4.770x10
5
mm³
Section modulus of cross section about yaxis: W
y
= 1.759x10
5
mm³
Solution
Characteristic material properties for timber:
Modification factor Kmod = 0.80 …from table 3.1
Material factors γ
m
= 1.30 … from table 2.3
f
c0k
= 21.00 N/mm²
F
c0d
= (Kmod·f
c0k
)/γ
m
= (0.80·21.00)/1.30 = 12.92 N/mm² [Cl 2.4.1(1)P]
Cross section loads:
F
x
= 50.000 kN
Compression parallel to the grain:
S
c0d
= (1000xF
x
)/A = (1000x50.000)/14454 = 3.46N/mm² < 12.92N/mm² (F
c0d
)
The ratio of actual compressive stress to allowable compressive strength:
S
c0d
/F
c0d
= 3.46 / 12.92 = 0.268 < 1.0 [Cl. 6.1.4.(1)P]
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios:
λ
z
= (1000/57) = 17.54
λ
y
= (1000/21) = 47.62
E
0,mean =
1.1031 kN/m
2
As timber grade is C24 (i.e., Soft Wood)
E
0,05
= 0.67·E
0,mean
= 0.739 kN/m
2
[Annex A,EN 338:2003]
λ
rel,z
= λ
z
/π·(f
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
= 17.54/π(21.00/0.739)
1/2
= 0.298
367 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
λ
rel,y
= λ
y
/π·(f
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
= 47.62/π(21.00/0.739)
1/2
= 0.809
Since, λ
rel,y
is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied:
S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
S
c0d
/(Kcy·F
c0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
Where:
Kz = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,z
 0.3) + (λ
rel,z
)
2
] = 0.50·[1 + 0.2(0.298  0.3) + (0.298)
2
] = 0.541
Ky = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,y
 0.3) + (λ
rel,y
)
2
] = 0.50·[1 + 0.2(0.809  0.3) + (0.809)
2
] = 0.878
Kcz = 1/{K
z
+ [(K
z
)
2
 (λ
rel,z
)
2
]
1/2
} = 1/{0.541 + [(0.541)
2
 (0.298)
2
]
1/2
}= 1.008
Kcy = 1/{K
y
+ [(K
zy
)
2
 (λ
rel,y
)
2
]
1/2
} = 1/{0.878 + [(0.878)
2
 (0.809)
2
]
1/2
} = 0.820
For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.70. The member is subjected to Compression only, so
actual bending stress is zero.
S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) = 3.46/(1.008·12.92) + 0.0 + 0.0 = 0.268
+ 0.0 + 0.0 = 0.266
S
c0d
/(Kcy·F
c0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) = 3.46 /(0.820·12.92) + 0.0 + 0.0 = 0.326
+ + 0.0 + 0.0 = 0.326
Hence the critical ratio is 0.326 < 1.0 and the section is safe.
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Critical Ratio
(Cl. 6.3.2)
0.326 0.327 none
Table 7E.3EC 5: Part 11 Verification Problem 1
Input File
The following file is included AS C:\SProV8i\STAAD\Examp\Eur\EC5 ver 1.std.
STAAD SPACE
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 1.0 0 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC WOOD
E 1.10316E+007
International Design Codes Manual — 368
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 0.00231749
ALPHA 5.5E006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 PRIS YD 0.198 ZD 0.073
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
2 FX 50
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER EC5
ALPHA 0 ALL
LDC 3 ALL
SCL 2 ALL
TSC 6 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
Output
The member checking part of the output file:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (EC5 )
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/
LOADING/
FX MY MZ
LOCATION
==================================================================
=====
1 PRIS ZD = 0.073 YD = 0.198
PASS CL.6.3.2 0.327
1
50.00 C 0.00 0.00
0.0000
369 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11


 AX = 0.01 IY = 0.00 IZ = 0.00

 LEZ = 1.00 LEY = 1.00



 ALLOWABLE STRESSES: (NEW MMS)

 FBY = 14.769 FBZ = 14.769

 FC = 12.859

 ACTUAL STRESSES : (NEW MMS)

 fby = 0.000 fbz = 0.000

 fc = 3.459



7E.4.2 Verification Problem No. 2
A Timber Column of length 1.0 meter, having c/s dimension of 73 mm X 198 mm, is subjected
to an axial compressive force of 5.0 kN and moments of 2.0 kN.m and 1.0 kN.m about its major
and minor axes respectively. Design the member for the ultimate limit state.
Material properties:
Timber Strength Class: C24
Service classes: Class 2, moisture content <=20%
Load duration: Mediumterm
Cross section properties:
Length of the member is 1 m.
Rectangular cross section, b = 73 mm, h = 198 mm,
Effective cross sectional area A = 14454 mm²,
Radius of gyration of cross section about yaxis r
y
= 21 mm,
Radius of gyration of cross section about zaxis r
z
= 57 mm,
Section modulus of cross section about zaxis: W
z
= 4.770x10
5
mm³
Section modulus of cross section about yaxis: W
y
= 1.759x10
5
mm³
Solution
Characteristic material properties for timber:
International Design Codes Manual — 370
Modification factor Kmod = 0.80 …from table 3.1
Material factors γ
m
= 1.30 … from table 2.3
f
c0k
= 21.00 N/mm²
E
0,05
= 7370 N/mm
2
F
c0d
= (Kmod·f
c0k
)/γ
m
= (0.80·21.00)/1.30 = 12.92 N/mm² [Cl 2.4.1(1)P]
f
myk
= 24.00 N/mm²
F
myd
= Kmod·f
myk
/γ
m
= (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm²
f
mzk
= 24.00 N/mm²
F
mzd
= Kmod·f
mzk
/γ
m
= (0.80x24.00)/1.30 = 14.77N/mm²
Cross section loads:
F
x
= 5.000 kN
M
z
= 2.000 kN·m
M
y
= 1.000 kN·m
Check for Slenderness:
Slenderness ratios:
λ
z
= (1000/57) = 17.54
λ
y
= (1000/21) = 47.62
λ
rel,z
= λ
z
/π·(f
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
= 17.54/π(21.00/7370)
1/2
= 0.298
λ
rel,y
= λ
y
/π·(f
c0k
/E
0,05
)
1/2
= 47.62/π(21.00/7370)
1/2
= 0.809
Since, λ
rel,y
is greater than 0.3, following conditions should be satisfied [Cl 6.3.2.3]:
S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
S
c0d
/(Kcy·F
c0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) ≤ RATIO
Where:
Kz = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,z
 0.3) + (λ
rel,z
)
2
] = 0.50·[1 + 0.2(0.298  0.3) + (0.298)
2
] = 0.541
Ky = 0.5·[1 + β
c
·(λ
rel,y
 0.3) + (λ
rel,y
)
2
] = 0.50·[1 + 0.2(0.809  0.3) + (0.809)
2
] = 0.878
Kcz = 1/{K
z
+ [(K
z
)
2
 (λ
rel,z
)
2
]
1/2
} = 1/{0.541 + [(0.541)
2
 (0.298)
2
]
1/2
}= 1.008
Kcy = 1/{K
y
+ [(K
zy
)
2
 (λ
rel,y
)
2
]
1/2
} = 1/{0.878 + [(0.878)
2
 (0.809)
2
]
1/2
} = 0.820
For Rectangular cross section Km = 0.70.
S
c0d
= (1000·F
x
/A) = (1000·5.000)/14454 = 0.35 N/mm²
S
mzd
= (10
6
·M
z
)/W
z
= (10
6
·2.000)/(4.770x10
5
) = 4.19 N/mm²
S
myd
= (10
6
·M
y
)/W
y
= (10
6
·1.000)/(1.759x10
5
) = 5.69 N/mm²
371 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
Combined stress ratio:
S
c0d
/(Kcz·F
c0d
) + (S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + Km·(S
myd
/F
myd
) = 0.35/(1.008·12.92) + 4.19/14.77 + 0.70
(5.69/14.77) = 0.027 + 0.283 + 0.269 = 0.266
S
c0d
/(Kcy·F
c0d
) + Km·(S
mzd
/F
mzd
) + (S
myd
/F
myd
) = 0.35 /(0.820·12.92) + 0.70(4.19/14.77)
+ 5.69/14.77 = 0.033 + 0.385 + 0.198 = 0.616
Hence the critical ratio is 0.616 < 1.0 and the section is safe.
Comparison
Criteria Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Critical Ratio
(Cl. 6.3.2)
0.616 0.616 none
Table 7E.4EC 5: Part 11 Verification Problem 2
Input File
The following file is included AS C:\SProV8i\STAAD\Examp\Eur\EC5 ver 2.std.
STAAD SPACE
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 1 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC WOOD
E 1.10316E+007
POISSON 0.15
DENSITY 0.00231749
ALPHA 5.5E006
END DEFINE MATERIAL
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL WOOD MEMB 1
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 PRIS YD 0.198 ZD 0.073
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
International Design Codes Manual — 372
2 FY 5.0 MX 1.0 MZ 2.0
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PARAMETER
CODE TIMBER EC5
ALPHA 0 ALL
LDC 3 ALL
SCL 2 ALL
TSC 6 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
Output
The member checking part of the output file:
STAAD.Pro CODE CHECKING  (EC5 )
***********************
ALL UNITS ARE  KN METE (UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED)
MEMBER TABLE RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/
LOADING/
FX MY MZ
LOCATION
==================================================================
=====
1 PRIS ZD = 0.073 YD = 0.198
PASS CL.6.3.2 0.616
1
5.00 C 1.00 2.00
0.0000


 AX = 0.01 IY = 0.00 IZ = 0.00

 LEZ = 1.00 LEY = 1.00



 ALLOWABLE STRESSES: (NEW MMS)

 FBY = 14.769 FBZ = 14.769

 FC = 12.859

 ACTUAL STRESSES : (NEW MMS)

373 — STAAD.Pro
7E. Timber Design Per EC 5: Part 11
 fby = 5.686 fbz = 4.193

 fc = 0.346



International Design Codes Manual — 374
375 — STAAD.Pro
Section 8
Finnish Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 376
377 — STAAD.Pro
8A. Finnish Codes  Concrete Design per B4
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Finnish code B4 Suomen
rakentamismääräyskokoelma, B4 Betonirakenteet (National Building Code of Finland, B4
Concrete structures).
Design of members per B4 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
International Design Codes Manual — 378
379 — STAAD.Pro
8A.1 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform and control the
design to the B4 code. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for
code calculations but give the Engineer control over the actual design process. Default values
of commonly used parameters for conventional design practice have been chosen as the basis.
The following table contains a complete list of available parameters with their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE  Must be specified as FINNISH.
Design Code to follow. See section 5.52.2 of
the Technical Reference Manual.
ACTAGE 70 Actual age of concrete, in years.
BRACE 0.0 Bracing parameter for design:
0. Beam or column braced in both
directions
1. Oneway plate or column braced in
only the local Z direction.
2. Column braced in only the local Y
direction.
3. Column unbraced in either direction.
CLEAR 25 mm Clearance of reinforcement measured from
concrete surface to closest bar perimeter, in
current units.
DRYCIR 100 Drying exposure, in percent.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of beam, in
current units.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
Table 8A.1Finnish Concrete Design per B4 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 380
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local Y direction
for column design.
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z direction
for column design.
ENVIR 2 Environment class
1. LA — Least aggressive
2. NA — Aggressive
3. MA — Very aggressive
FC 35 N/mm
2
Compressive strength of concrete.
FYMAIN 500 N/mm
2
Yield strength of main reinforcing steel.
LAGE 7 days Age when loaded, in days.
MAX
MAIN
32 Maximum size permitted for main
reinforcement bar.
MINMAIN 10 Minimum size permitted for main
reinforcement bar.
MOY moy factor
MOZ moz factor
NMAG nmag factor
REIANG 0 Reinforcement angle, in degrees.
RELHUM 40 Relative humidity, in percent.
RFACE 1 Column bar arrangement
1. Four longitudinal bars.
2. Two faced distribution about minor
axis.
3. Two faced distribution about major
axis.
4. Faced symmetric distribution
381 — STAAD.Pro
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
SFACE 0 Distance from the start node of the beam to
face of support for shear design.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must be
positive numbers.
STIRANG 90 Stirrup angle, in degrees.
STIRDIA 10 mm Stirrup diameter
TORANG 45 Torsion angle, in degrees.
TRACK 10 Track parameter to control output detail
10. Beam — Ultimate limit state and
Service limit state design & Slab —
Twoway plate design
11. Beam — Ultimate limit state and
Service limit state design with tension
stiffening.
12. Beam — Ultimate limit state design
only
20. Slab — Plane stress design.
30. Slab — Simplified membrane design.
8A. Finnish Codes  Steel Design per B7
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Finnish code B7 Suomen
rakentamismääräyskokoelma, B4 Betonirakenteet, Liite 3: Kansallinen liite standardiin SFSEN
2061 (The National Building Code of Finland  B Strength of Structures, B7 Steel Structures
Guidelines).
Design of members per B7 requires the STAAD N. Eurozone Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
8A.2 Design Parameters
Design parameters communicate specific design decisions to the program. They are set to
default values to begin with and may be altered to suite the particular structure.
International Design Codes Manual — 382
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE none Must be specified as B7.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
BEAM 0.0 Parameter BEAM 1.0 ALL tells the program to
calculate von Mises at 13 sections along each
member, and up to 8 points at each section.
(Depending on what kind of shape is used.)
Note: Must be set to 1.0
BY 1.0 Buckling length coefficient, β for weak axis
buckling (yy) (NOTE: BY > 0.0)
BZ 1.0 Buckling length coefficient, β, for strong axis
buckling (zz) (NOTE: BZ > 0.0)
CB 1.0 Lateral buckling coefficient, Y. Used to calculate
the ideal buckling moments, M
vi
CMZ 1.5 n for built up section in connection with lateral
buckling
CY
CZ
Default
see NS
3472
Buckling curve coefficient, a about local zaxis
(strong axis). Represent the a, a0, b, c, d curve.
DMAX 100.0
[cm]
Maximum allowable depth of steel section.
DMIN 0.0
[cm]
Minimum allowable depth of steel section.
FYLD 235 Yield strength of steel, fy [N/mm2 ]
MF 1.0 Ratio of material factor / resistance factor
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to allowable
stresses.
SSY 0.0 0.0 = No sidesway. β calculated. > 0.0 = Sidesway
in local yaxis weak axis β
M
=SSY
Table 8A.2Design Parameters for Finnish B7 Steel design code
383 — STAAD.Pro
8A. Finnish Codes  Steel Design per B7
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
SSZ 0.0 0.0 = No sidesway. β calculated. > 0.0 = Sidesway
in local yaxis weak axis β
M
TRACK 0.0 Specifies the level of detail in the output.
0.0 = Suppress critical member
stresses
1.0 = Print all critical member
stresses, i.e., design values
2.0 = Print von Mises stresses
3.0 = Member results, printed by
member number
9.0 = Print detailed report each
member.
UNL Member
length
Effective length for lateral buckling calculations
(specify buckling length). Distance between fork
supports or between effective side supports for
the beam
The parameter CMY will, when given with negative value, define an inside pressure in pipe
members. The pressure corresponds to given water depth in meters.
The parameter CB defines the φ value with respect to calculation of the ideal lateral buckling
moment for single symmetric wide flange profiles, ref. NS app. 5.2.2.
International Design Codes Manual — 384
385 — STAAD.Pro
Section 9
French Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 386
387 — STAAD.Pro
9A. French Codes  Concrete Design per B.A.E.L
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the French code BAEL 1991 E
Béton Armé aux États Limites: Regles techniques de conception et de calcul des ouvrages et
constructions en beton arme, suivant la methode des etats limites (Reinforced Concrete Limit
States: Technical rules for design and costing and reinforced concrete, according to the
method of limit states). Given the width and depth (or diameter for circular columns) of a
section, STAAD will calculate the required reinforcing to resist the various input loads.
Design of members per BAEL 1991 E requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes
SELECT Code Pack.
9A.1 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design per
B.A.E.L. These parameters not only act as a method to input required data for code
calculations but give the engineer control over the actual design process. Default values, of
commonly used numbers in conventional design practice, have been used for simplicity. Table
7A.1 contains a complete list of available parameters and their default values.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
CODE BAEL Must be specified as BAEL.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
CLEAR * 20
mm
Clearance of reinforcing bar. Value is
automatically set to 20 mm for C35 and higher.
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member. This value defaults to
YD as provided under MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE *0.0 Face of Support Location at end of beam.
Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are input as
positive numbers.
FC * 30 N/
mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
Table 9A.1French Concrete Design B.A.E.L. Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 388
Parameter
Name
Default
Value
Description
FYMAIN * 300
N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
FYSEC * 300
N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing steel.
MAX
MAIN
50 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size. (8mm 
60mm).
MINMAIN 8 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size. (8mm 
60mm).
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar size.
(8mm  60mm).
MMAG 1.0 A factor by which the design moments will be
magnified.
SFACE *0.0 Face of support location at start of beam. Only
considers shear  use MEMBER OFFSET for
bending.
NSE
CTION
10 Number of equallyspaced sections to be
considered in finding critical moments for beam
design.
TRACK 0.0 Critical Moment will not be printed out with
beam design report. A value of 1.0 will mean a
print out.
WIDTH ZD Width of the concrete member. This value
defaults to ZD as provided under MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
* These values must be provided in the units currently being used for input.
9A.2 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration
STAAD provides the user two methods of accounting for the slenderness effect in the analysis
and design of concrete members. The first method is a procedure which takes into account
second order effects. Here, STAAD accounts for the secondary moments, due to axial loads
and deflections, when the PDELTA ANALYSIS command is used. STAAD, after solving for
the joint displacements of the structure, calculates the additional moments induced in the
structure. Therefore, by using PDELTA ANALYSIS, member forces are calculated which will
require no user modification before beginning member design.
The second method by which STAAD allows the user to account for the slenderness effect is
through user supplied moment magnification factors. Here the user approximates the
389 — STAAD.Pro
9A. French Codes  Concrete Design per B.A.E.L
additional moment by supplying a factor by which moments will be multiplied before
beginning member design.
9A.3 Member Dimensions
Concrete members that are to be designed by STAAD must have certain section properties
input under the MEMBER PROPERTIES command. The following example demonstrates the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTIES
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450 ZD 300.
11 13 PR YD 300.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 300 mm
width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be
assumed to be circular with a 300 mm diameter. Note that area (AX) is not provided for these
members. If shear areas (AY & AZ) are to be considered in analysis, the user may provide them
along with YD and ZD. Also note that moments of inertia may be provided, but if not
provided, the program will calculate values from YD and ZD.
9A.4 Beam Design
Beam design includes both flexure and shear. For both types of beam action, all active beam
loadings are scanned to create moment and shear envelopes, and locate critical sections. The
total number of sections considered is twelve, unless that number is redefined with the
NSECTION parameter. From the critical moment values, the required positive and negative bar
pattern is developed, with cutoff lengths calculated to include required development length.
Shear design includes critical shear values plus torsional moments. From these values, stirrup
sizes are calculated with proper spacing. The stirrups are assumed to be Ushaped for beams
with no torsion, and closed hoops for beams subject to torsion.
Example of Input Data for Beam Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
SFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9
EFACE 100 MEMB 7 TO 9
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 6
International Design Codes Manual — 390
TRACK 2.0 MEMB 7 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN
9A.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial force and biaxial moments at the ends. All active loadings are
tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which produces maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular, and circular sections.
For rectangular and square sections, the reinforcement is always assumed to be equally
distributed on each side. That means the total number of bars will always be a multiple of
four (4). This may cause slightly conservative results in some cases.
Example of Input Data for Column Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MMAG 1.5 MEMB 4 5
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN
9A.6 Slab/Wall Design
Slab and walls are designed per BAEL 1983 specifications. To design a slab or wall, it must be
modeled using finite elements. The command specifications are in accordance with Chapter
II, section 6.40.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Section 3.8 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the
reinforcement required to resist My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The
parameters FYMAIN, FC, and CLEAR listed in Table 7A.1 are relevant to slab design. Other
parameters mentioned in Table 7A.1 are not applicable to slab design.
391 — STAAD.Pro
9A. French Codes  Concrete Design per B.A.E.L
Figure 9A.1  Element moments: Longitudinal (L) and Transverse (T)
Example of Input Data for Slab/Wall Design:
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE BAEL
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 25 ALL
CLEAR 40 ALL
DESIGN ELEMENT 15 TO 20
END CONCRETE DESIGN
International Design Codes Manual — 392
393 — STAAD.Pro
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the French code CM66, 1977 edition
Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Metallique (Industrial Technical Center of
Metal Construction) publication entitled Design Rules for Structural Steelwork .
Design of members per CM66 requires the STAAD NEurozone Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
9B.1 General Comments
The design philosophy embodied in this specification is based on the concept of limit state
design. Structures are designed and proportioned according to the limit states of which they
would become unfit for their intended use. Two major categories of limitstates are
recognized: ultimate and serviceability. The primary considerations in ultimate limit state
design are strength and stability; that in serviceability is deflection. Appropriate load and
resistance factors are used so that uniform reliability is achieved for all steel structures under
various loading conditions and at the same time the chances of limits being surpassed are
acceptably remote.
In the STAAD implementation, members are proportioned to resist the design loads without
exceeding the limit states of strength, stability and serviceability. Accordingly, the most
economic section is selected on the basis of the least weight criteria, as augmented by the
designer in specification of allowable member depths, desired section type, or other related
parameters. The code checking portion of the program verifies that code requirements for each
selected section are met and also identifies the governing criteria.
The next few sections describe the salient features of STAAD implementation of "Design Rules
for Structural Steelwork." A detailed description of the design process, along with its
underlying concepts and assumptions, is available in the specification document.
9B.2 Basis of Methodology
The "Design Rules for Structural Steelwork (Revision 80)" permits the usage of elastic analysis.
Thus, in STAAD, linear elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments in
the members. However, strength and stability considerations are based on the principles of
plastic behavior. Axial compression buckling and lateral torsional buckling are taken into
consideration for calculation of axial compression resistance and flexural resistance of
members. Slenderness calculations are made and overall geometric stability is checked for all
members.
9B.3 Member Capacities
The member strengths are calculated in STAAD according to the procedures outlined in
section 4 of this specification. Note that the program automatically considers coexistence of
axial force, shear and bending in calculating section capacities.
For axial tension capacity, procedures of section 4.2 are followed. For axial compression
capacity, formulas of section 5.3 are used.
International Design Codes Manual — 394
Moment capacities about both axes are calculated using the procedures of sections 4.5 and
4.6. Lateral torsional buckling is considered in calculating ultimate twisting moment per
section 5.22 of the specification. The parameter UNL (see Table 7B.1) must be used to specify
the unsupported length of the compression flange for a laterally unsupported member. Note
that this length is also referred to as twisting length.
9B.4 Combined Axial Force and Bending
The procedures of sections 4.55 and 5.32 are implemented for interaction of axial forces and
bending. Appropriate interaction equations are used and the governing criterion is
determined.
9B.5 Design Parameters
The design parameters outlined in Table 7B.1 may be used to control the design procedure.
These parameters communicate design decisions from the engineer to the program, thus
allowing the engineer to control the design process to suit an application's specific needs.
The default parameter values have been selected as frequently used numbers for conventional
design. Depending on the particular design requirements, some or all of these parameter
values may be changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE FRENCH Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
BEAM 0.0 0.0 = design only for end moments
and those at locations specified by
SECTION command.
1.0 = calculate moments at tenth
points long the beam, and use
maximum Mz for design.
C1 1.0 Parameter used in clause 5.21 in the
calculation of M(D), the critical
twisting moment and as shown in
CM 66 Addendum 80, table 5, usual
range from 0.71 to 4.10
Table 9B.1French Steel Design Parameters
395 — STAAD.Pro
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
C2 1.0 Parameter used in clause 5.21 in the
calculation of M(D), the critical
twisting moment and as shown in
CM 66 Addendum 80, table 5, usual
range from 0.0 to 1.56
DFF None
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check)
"Deflection Length" divided by the
Maximum allowable local deflection
DJ1 Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length"
(See Note 1)
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length"
(See Note 1)
DMAX 100.0 cm. Maximum allowable depth (used in
member selection).
DMIN 0.0 cm. Minimum allowable depth (used in
member selection).
FYLD 250.0 MPa Yield strength of steel.
KY 1.0 K value for axial compression
buckling about local Yaxis. Usually,
this is the minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value for axial compression
buckling about local Zaxis. Usually,
this is the major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio
about Yaxis for axial compression.
LZ Member
Length
Length to calculate slenderness ratio
about Zaxis for axial compression.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual load effect
and design strength.
International Design Codes Manual — 396
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SAME* 0.0 Controls the sections to try during a
SELECT process.
0.0 = Try every section
of the same type as
original
1.0 = Try only those
sections with a similar
name as original, e.g., if
the original is an HEA
100, then only HEA
sections will be selected,
even if there are HEM’s
in the same table.
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Suppress printing of all design
strengths.
1.0 = Print all design strengths.
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as a fraction
of member length.
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length of compression
flange for calculating moment
resistance.
*For angles, if the original section is an equal angle, then the selected section will be an equal
angle and vice versa for unequal angles.
9B.6 Code Checking and Member Selection
Both code checking and member selection options are available in the STAAD.Pro
implementation of CM 66 (Revn. 80).
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Member Selection command.
9B.7 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
Results of code checking and member selection are presented in the output file in a tabular
format.
397 — STAAD.Pro
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code
Note: COND CRITIQUE refers to the section of the CM 66 (Revn. 80) specification which
governed the design.
If the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0, calculated member capacities will be printed. The
following is a detailed description of printed items:
PC = Member Compression Capacity
TR = Member Tension Capacity
MUZ = Member Moment Capacity (about zaxis)
MUY = Member Moment Capacity (about yaxis)
VPZ = Member Shear Capacity (zaxis)
VPY = Member Shear Capacity (yaxis)
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural members as individual
components of an analyzed structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the
ability to carry out a number of different design operations. These facilities may be used
selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem. The operations to
perform a design are:
l Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the design.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.
l Specify design parameter values, if different from the default values.
These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design
requirements.
Currently STAAD supports steel design of wide flange, S, M, HP shapes, angle, double angle,
channel, double channel, beams with cover plate, composite beams and code checking of
prismatic properties.
Sample Input data for Steel Design:
UNIT METER
PARAMETER
CODE FRENCH
NSF 0.85 ALL
UNL 10.0 MEMBER 7
KY 1.2 MEMBER 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
International Design Codes Manual — 398
9B.8 Builtin French Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, the properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into
these tables, shear deformation is always considered for these members.
An example of the member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of
this section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the builtin steel section library may be
obtained by using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.
9B.8.1 IPE Shapes
These shapes are designated in the following way.
10 15 TA ST IPE140
20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120
33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER180
9B.8.2 HE shapes
HE shapes are specified as follows.
3 5 TA ST HEA120A
7 10 TA ST HEM140
13 14 TA ST HEB100
9B.8.3 IPN Shapes
The designation for the IPN shapes is similar to that for the IPE shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST IPN200
23 56 TA ST IPN380
9B.8.4 T Shapes
Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the I beam
shapes from which they are cut. For example,
1 5 TA T IPE140
2 8 TA T HEM120
9B.8.5 U Channels
Shown below is the syntax for assigning 4 different names of channel sections.
399 — STAAD.Pro
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code
1 TO 5 TA ST UAP100
6 TO 10 TA ST UPN220
11 TO 15 TA ST UPN240A
16 TO 20 TA ST UAP250A
9B.8.6 Double U Channels
Back to back double channels, with or without a spacing between them, are available. The
letter D in front of the section name will specify a double channel.
11 TA D UAP150
17 TA D UAP250A SP 0.5
In the above set of commands, member 11 is a backtoback double channel UAP150 with no
spacing in between. Member 17 is a double channel UAP250A with a spacing of 0.5 length
units between the channels.
9B.8.7 Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is
specified as follows:
16 20 TA ST L30X30X2.7
The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 30mm and a leg thickness of 2.7mm.
This specification may be used when the local Z axis corresponds to the zz axis specified in
Chapter 2. If the local Y axis corresponds to the zz axis, type specification "RA" (reverse angle)
should be used instead of ST.
17 21 TA RA L25X25X4
22 24 TA RA L100X100X6.5
Note that if the leg thickness is a round number such as 4.0, only the number 4 appears in the
section name, the decimal part is not part of the section name.
9B.8.8 Double Angles
Short leg backtoback or long leg backtoback double angles can be specified by means of
input of the words SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle,
either SD or LD will serve the purpose.
33 35 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.6
37 39 TA LD L80X40X6
43 TO 47 TA LD L80X80X6.5 SP 0.75
International Design Codes Manual — 400
9B.8.9 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)
Section names of tubes, just like angles, consist of the depth, width and wall thickness as
shown below.
64 78 TA ST TUB50252.7
66 73 TA ST TUB2001008.0
Members 64 and 78 are tubes with a depth of 50mm, width of 25mm and a wall thickness of
2.7mm. Members 66 and 73 are tubes with a depth of 200mm, width of 100mm and a wall
thickness of 8.0mm. Unlike angles, the ".0" in the thickness is part of the section name.
Tubes can also be input by their dimensions instead of by their table designations. For
example,
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
is a tube that has a depth of 8 length units, width of 6 length units, and a wall thickness of
0.5 length units. Only code checking, no member selection, will be performed for TUBE
sections specified in this way.
9B.8.10 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)
To designate circular hollow sections, use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter
and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal portion of the value provided for
the diameter. The following example illustrates the designation.
8 TO 28 TA ST PIP422.6
3 64 78 TA ST PIP21912.5
Members 8 to 28 are pipes 42.4mm in dia, having a wall thickness of 2.6mm. Members 3, 64
and 78 are pipes 219.1mm in dia, having a wall thickness of 12.5mm.
Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters
of the section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 length units and inside dia. of 20 length units. Only
code checking, no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.
9B.8.11 Example
SAMPLE FILE CONTAINING FRENCH SHAPES
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORD
401 — STAAD.Pro
9B. French Codes  Steel Design per the French Code
1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0
MEMB INCI
1 1 2 14
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES FRENCH
* IPE SHAPES
1 TA ST IPEA120
* IPN SHAPES
2 TA ST IPN380
*HE SHAPES
3 TA ST HEA200
* T SHAPES
4 TA T HEM120
* U CHANNELS
5 TA ST UAP100
* DOUBLE U CHANNELS
6 TA D UAP150 SP 0.5
* ANGLES
7 TA ST L30X30X2.7
* REVERSE ANGLES
8 TA RA L25X25X4
* DOUBLE ANGLES  SHORT LEGS BACK
* TO BACK
9 TA SD L30X20X4 SP 0.25
* DOUBLE ANGLES  LONG LEGS BACK
* TO BACK
10 TA LD L80X40X6 SP 0.75
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE
* HOLLOW SECTIONS)
11 TA ST TUB50252.7
* TUBES (RECTANGULAR OR SQUARE
* HOLLOW SECTIONS)
12 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
13 TA ST PIP422.6
* PIPES (CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS)
14 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
PRINT MEMB PROP
FINI
International Design Codes Manual — 402
403 — STAAD.Pro
Section 10
German Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 404
405 — STAAD.Pro
10A. German Codes  Concrete Design Per DIN 1045
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the German code DIN 1045
1:200107 Plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Part 1: Design and construction.
Design for a member involves calculation of the amount of reinforcement required for the
member. Calculations are based on the user specified properties and the member forces
obtained from the analysis. In addition, the details regarding placement of the reinforcement
on the cross section are also reported in the output. Slab design is also available and this
follows the requirements of Baumann, Munich, which is the basis for Eurocode 2.
Design of members per DIN 1045 requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
10A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l For Beams — Prismatic (Rectangular & Square)
l For Columns — Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)
10A.2 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section
properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250 mm
width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be
assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. It is absolutely imperative that the user not
provide the cross section area (AX) as an input.
10A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. There are two
options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated.
The first method is equivalent to the procedure presented in DIN 1045 17.4.3/17.4.4 which is
used as the basis for commonly used design charts considering e/d and sk/d for conditions
where the slenderness moment exceeds 70. This method has been adopted in the column
design in STAAD per the DIN code.
The second option is to compute the secondary moments through an analysis. Secondary
moments are caused by the interaction of the axial loads and the relative end displacements of
a member. The axial loads and joint displacements are first determined from an elastic
stiffness analysis and the secondary moments are then evaluated. To perform this type of
International Design Codes Manual — 406
analysis, use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS in the input file.
The user must note that to take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading
must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the fact
that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments, whereas a
primary load case is revised during the Pdelta analysis based on the deflections. Also, note
that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc.) should be provided by the user.
STAAD does not factor the loads automatically. The column is designed for the total
moment which is the sum of the primary and secondary forces. The secondary moments can
be compared to those calculated using the charts of DIN 1045.
10A.4 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. For all these forces, all active beam loadings
are prescanned to identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total
number of sections considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9 and 1). All of
these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes.
10A.4.1 Design for Flexure
Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging
(creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each
of the above mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist these critical
sagging and hogging moments. Currently, design of singly reinforced sections only is
permitted. If the section dimensions are inadequate as a singly reinforced section, such a
message will be printed in the output. Flexural design of beams is performed in two passes. In
the first pass, effective depths of the sections are determined with the assumption of single
layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement requirements are calculated. After the
preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen from the internal database in single or
multiple layers. The entire flexural design is performed again in a second pass taking into
account the changed effective depths of sections calculated on the basis of reinforcement
provided after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural reinforcements are made
then. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the curtailment of reinforcements as
per the DIN code. Although exact curtailment lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the
design output (finally which will be more or less guided by the detailer taking into account
of other practical considerations), the user has the choice of printing reinforcements provided
by STAAD at 13 equally spaced sections from which the final detailed drawing can be
prepared.
10A.4.2 Design for Shear and Torsion
Shear design in STAAD conforms to the specifications of section 17.5 of DIN 1045. Shear
reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear and
torsional design is performed at the start and end sections of the member at a distance "d"
away from the node of the member where "d" is the effective depth calculated from flexural
design. The maximum shear forces from amongst the active load cases and the associated
torsional moments are used in the design. The capacity of the concrete in shear and torsion is
determined at the location of design and the balance, if any, is carried by reinforcement. It is
assumed that no bentup bars are available from the flexural reinforcement to carry and
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10A. German Codes  Concrete Design Per DIN 1045
"balance" shear. Twolegged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting
on these sections. Stirrups are assumed to be Ushaped for beams with no torsion, and closed
hoops for beams subject to torsion.
10A.4.3 Example of Input Data for Beam Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE GERMAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FYSEC 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEM 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN
10A.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases
are tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yields maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load. The requirements of DIN 1045figure 13, for calculating the equilibrium
equations for rectangular and circular sections from first principles, is implemented in the
design. The user has control of the effective length (sk) in each direction by using the ELZ and
ELY parameters as described on Table 8A.1. This means that the slenderness will be evaluated
along with e/d to meet the requirements of DIN 1045 section 17.4.3 and 17.4.4.
Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. Square and rectangular
columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on all four sides equally. That means the
total number of bars will always be a multiple of four (4). This may cause slightly conservative
results in some cases. The TRACK parameter may be used to obtain the design details in various
levels of detail.
Example of Input Data for Column Design
UNIT NEWTON MMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE GERMAN
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 35 ALL
CLEAR 25 MEMB 2 TO 6
MAXMAIN 40 MEMB 2 TO 6
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN
International Design Codes Manual — 408
10A.6 Slab Design
To design a slab, it must first be modeled using finite elements and analyzed. The command
specifications are in accordance with Section 5.52 of the Technical Reference Manual. Slabs are
designed to specifications as described by BAUMANN of MUNICH which is the basis for
Eurocode 2.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the
reinforcement required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement. The
following parameters are those applicable to slab design:
FYMAIN
Yield stress for all reinforcing steel
FC
Concrete grade
CLEAR
Distance from the outer surface of the element to the edge of the bar. This is
considered the same on both top and bottom surfaces of the element.
SRA
Parameter which denotes the angle of direction of the required transverse
reinforcement relative to the direction of the longitudinal reinforcement for the
calculation of BAUMANN design forces.
The other parameters shown in Table 10A.1 are not applicable to slab design.
10A.6.1 BAUMANN equations
If the default value of zero is used, the design will be based on Mx and My forces which are
obtained from the STAAD analysis. The SRA parameter (Set Reinforcement Angle) can be
manipulated to introduce resolved BAUMANN forces into the design replacing the pure Mx
and My moments. These new design moments allow the Mxy moment to be considered when
designing the section, resolved as an axial force. Orthogonal or skew reinforcement may be
considered. If SRA is set to 500, an orthogonal layout will be assumed. If however a skew is
to be considered, an angle is given in degrees measured from the local element X axis
anticlockwise (positive). The resulting Mx* and My* moments are calculated and shown in
the design format.
The design of the slab considers a fixed bar size of 10 mm in the longitudinal direction and 8
mm in the transverse. The longitudinal bar is the layer closest to the slab exterior face.
10A.7 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design.
Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design
being performed. Table 8A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the available
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10A. German Codes  Concrete Design Per DIN 1045
parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as
Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as DIN1045.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
CLEAR 25 mm Clear cover for reinforcement
measured from concrete surface to
closest bar perimeter.
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member. The
default value is provided as YD in
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam, measured from the end joint.
Note: Both SFACE & EFACE must
be positive numbers.
ELY 1.0 Member length factor about local Y
direction for column design.
ELZ 1.0 Member length factor about local Z
direction for column design.
FC 25 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress / cube strength
FYMAIN 420 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcement
(For slabs, it is 500 N/mm
2
for both
directions)
FYSEC 420 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary
reinforcement a. Applicable to shear
and torsion reinforcement in beams
Table 10A.1German Concrete Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 410
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
MAXMAIN 50 mm Maximum required reinforcement bar
size. Acceptable bars are per MINMAIN
above.
MINMAIN 16 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size
Acceptable bar sizes: 6 8 10 12 14 16 20
25 32 40 50
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar
size. Applicable to shear and torsion
reinforcement in beams.
MMAG 1.0 Factor by which column design
moments are magnified for column
design
NSECTION 10 Number of equallyspaced sections to
be considered in finding critical
moment for beam design. The upper
limit is 20.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam, measured from the start joint.
(Only applicable for shear  use
MEMBER OFFSET for bending)
SRA 0.0 0.0 = Orthogonal reinforcement layout
without considering torsional moment
Mxy slabs only
500 = Orthogonal reinforcement
layout considering Mxy
A = Skew angle considered in
BAUMANN equations. A is the angle
in degrees.
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10A. German Codes  Concrete Design Per DIN 1045
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TRACK 0.0 Level of detail in output
0. Critical Moment will not be
printed with beam design
report.
1. For beam gives min/max steel %
and spacing. For columns gives
a detailed table of output with
additional moments calculated.
2. For beams gives area of steel
required at intermediate
sections. (see NSECTION)
WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member. This value
default is as provided as ZD in MEMBER
PROPERTIES.
International Design Codes Manual — 412
413 — STAAD.Pro
10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the German code DIN 18800,
Parts 1 & 2: Stahlbauten  Teil 1: Bemessung und Konstruktion (Steel structures  Part 1: Design
and construction) and Stahlbauten  Teil 2: Stabilitätsfälle  Knicken von Stäben und
Stabwerken (Steel structures  Part 2: Analysis of safety against buckling of linear members
and frames)
Design of members per DIN 18800 requires the STAAD Eurozone Design Codes SELECT Code
Pack.
10B.1 General
This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the DIN code.
The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis
and allowable stress design. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code
checking. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by
stability considerations. The following sections describe the salient features of the design
approach.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable
stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least
weight criteria. The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness
requirements and the stability criteria. It is recommended that you use the following steps in
performing the steel design:
1. Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.
2. Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.
3. Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.
10B.2 AnalysisMethodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and in using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular
stiffness analysis or PDelta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed
and the results combined with static analysis results.
10B.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties of standard German steel sections, the steel section
library available in STAAD may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands
used to assign properties from the builtin steel table. Member properties may also be specified
using the User Table facility. For more information on these facilities, refer to Section 1.7 the
STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
International Design Codes Manual — 414
10B.4 Builtin German Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, these properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built
into these tables, shear deformation is always considered for these members during the
analysis. An example of member property specification in an input file is provided at the end
of this section.
A complete listing of the sections available in the builtin steel section library may be
obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Refer to Section 1.7.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional information.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.
10B.4.1 IPE Shapes
These shapes are designated in the following way:
20 TO 30 TA ST IPEA120
33 36 TO 46 BY 2 TA ST IPER140
10B.4.2 HE Shapes
The designation for HE shapes is similar to that for IPE shapes.
25 TO 35 TA ST HEB300
23 56 TA ST HEA160
10B.4.3 I Shapes
I shapes are identified by the depth of the section. The following example illustrates the
designation.
14 15 TA ST I200 (INDICATES AN ISECTION WITH 200MM DEPTH)
10B.4.4 T Shapes
Tee sections are not input by their actual designations, but instead by referring to the I beam
shapes from which they are cut. For example,
1 5 TA T HEA220
2 8 TA T IPE120
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10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
10B.4.5 U Channels
The example below provides the command for identifying two channel sections. The former
(U70X40) has a depth of 70mm and a flange width of 40mm. The latter (U260) has a depth of
260mm.
11 TA D U70X40
27 TA D U260
10B.4.6 Double Channels
Backtoback double channels, with or without spacing between them, are available. The letter
“D” in front of the section name will specify a double channel, e.g., D U180. The spacing
between the double channels is provided following the expression “SP”.
11 TA D U180
27 TA D U280 SP 0.5 (INDICATES 2 CHANNELS BACKTOBACK SPACED AT
0.5 LENGTH UNITS)
10B.4.7 Angles
Two types of specifications may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle section is
specified as follows:
16 20 TA ST L20X20X2.5
The above section signifies an angle with legs of length 20mm and a leg thickness of 2.5mm.
The above specification may be used when the local zaxis corresponds to the ZZ axis specified
in Chapter 2. If the local yaxis corresponds to the ZZ axis, type specification "RA" (reverse
angle) may be used.
17 21 TA RA L40X20X5
10B.4.8 Double Angles
Short leg backtoback or long leg backtoback double angles can be specified by using the
word SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle, either SD or
LD will serve the purpose. Spacing between the angles is provided by using the word SP and
the spacing value following the section name.
14 TO 20 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
21 TO 27 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
International Design Codes Manual — 416
10B.4.9 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)
To designate circular hollow sections, use PIP followed by numerical value of the diameter
and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value provided for
diameter. The following example will illustrate the designation.
8 TO 28 TA ST PIP602.9 (60.3MM DIA, 2.9MM WALL THICKNESS)
3 64 67 TA ST PIP40612.5 (406.4MM DIA, 12.5MM WALL THICKNESS)
Circular hollow sections may also be provided by specifying the outside and inside diameters
of the section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20 in current length units. Only code
checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is used.
10B.4.10 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)
Tube names are input by their dimensions. For example,
15 TO 25 TA ST TUB100603.6
is the specification for a tube having sides of 100mm x 60mm and the wall thickness of
3.6mm.
Tubes, like pipes can also be input by their dimensions (Height, Width and Thickness)
instead of by their table designations.
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
is a tube that has a height of 8, a width of 6, and a wall thickness of 0.5 in current length
units. Only code checking and no member selection will be performed for TUBE sections
specified this way.
10B.4.11 Example
SAMPLE INPUT FILE CONTAINING GERMAN SHAPES
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0 15 140 0 0
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2 14
UNIT CM
MEMBER PROPERTIES GERMAN
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10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
* IPE SHAPES
1 TA ST IPEA120
* HE SHAPES
2 TA ST HEB300
* I SHAPES
3 TA ST I200
* T SHAPES
4 TA T HEA220
* U CHANNELS
5 TA ST U70X40
* DOUBLE U CHANNELS
6 TA D U260
* ANGLES
7 TA ST L20X20X2.5
* REVERSE ANGLES
8 TA RA L40X20X5
* DOUBLE ANGLES  LONG LEGS BACK TO BACK
9 TA LD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
* DOUBLE ANGLES  SHORT LEGS BACK TO BACK
10 TA SD L40X20X4 SP 0.5
* PIPES
11 TA ST PIP602.9
* PIPES
12 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0 ID 20.0
* TUBES
13 TA ST TUB100603.6
* TUBES
14 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 WT 0.5
*
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH
10B.5 Member Capacities
The allowable stresses used in the implementation are based on DIN 18800 (Part 1)  Section 7.
The procedures of DIN 18800 Part 2 are used for stability analysis. The basic measure of
member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under various conditions of
applied loading such as allowable tensile stress, allowable compressive stress etc. These depend
on several factors such as cross sectional properties, slenderness factors, unsupported width to
thickness ratios and so on. Explained here is the procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating
such capacities.
International Design Codes Manual — 418
10B.5.1 Checks for Axial Tension
In members with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the
member. The tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the member area.
STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on a user supplied net
section factor (NSF a default value of 1.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input
value, see Table 8B.1) and proceeds with member selection or code checking.
10B.5.2 Checks for Axial Compression
The compression capacity for members in compression is determined according to the
procedure of DIN 18800 Part 2. Compressive resistance is a function of the slenderness of the
crosssection (Kl/r ratio) and the user may control the slenderness value by modifying
parameters such as KY, LY, KZ and LZ.
10B.5.3 Checks for Bending and Shear
The bending compressive and tensile capacities are dependent on such factors as length of
outstanding legs, thickness of flanges, unsupported length of the compression flange (UNL,
defaults to member length) etc. Shear capacities are a function of web depth, web thickness
etc. Users may use a value of 1.0 or 2.0 for the TRACK parameter to obtain a listing of the
bending and shear capacities.
10B.6 Combined Loading
For members experiencing combined loading (axial force, bending, and shear), applicable
interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading
situations. Members subjected to axial force and bending are checked using the criteria of
DIN 18800 (Part 1)  Section 6.1.6. In addition, for members with axial loads and bending, the
criteria of DIN 18800(Part 2)  Sections 3.4 and 3.5 are used.
10B.7 Design Parameters
You are allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters
described in the following table. These parameters communicate design decisions from the
engineer to the program. The default parameter values have been selected such that they are
frequently used numbers for conventional design. Depending on the particular design
requirements of the situation, some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed
to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
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10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as DIN18800.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
BEAM 0.0 Number of sections to be checked per
member:
0. Design only for end sections.
1. Check at location of maximum
MZ along member.
2. Check ends plus location of
beam 1.0 check.
3. Check at every 1/13
th
of the
member length and report the
maximum.
CB 0 Beam coefficient n, defined in Table 9:
If Cb = 0, program will use n = 2.5 for
rolled sections and 2.0 for welded
sections.
CMM 1.0 Moment factor, Zeta, defined in Table
10:
1. fixed ended member with
constant moment, Zeta = 1.0
2. pin ended member with UDL,
Zeta = 1.12
3. pin ended member with central
point load, Zeta = 1.35
4. fixed ended member, Zeta
calculated from end moments.
DMAX 1.0 m Maximum allowable depth during
member selection
DMIN 0.0 m Minimum required depth during
member selection
KY 1.0 K value in local yaxis. Usually, this is
the minor axis.
Table 10B.1German Steel Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 420
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
KZ 1.0 K value in local zaxis. Usually, this is
the major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length in local yaxis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
LZ Member
Length
Length in local zaxis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
PY 240 N/sq.mm Strength of steel.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual to allowable
stresses
SAME 0.0 Control of sections to try during a
SELECT process:
0. Try every section of the same
type as the original.
1. Try only those with a similar
name.
SBLT 0 Specify section as either rolled or built
up:
0. Rolled
1. Builtup
SGR 0.0 Grade of steel:
0. St 372
1. St 523
2. St E 355
TRACK 0.0 Level of detail in output file:
0. Output summary of results
1. Output summary of results plus
member capacities
2. Output detailed results
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as a factor of
actual member length.
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10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
UNL Member
Length
Unrestrained member length in lateral
torsional buckling checks.
10B.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to check whether the provided section properties of the
members are adequate to carry the forces transmitted to it by the loads on the structure. The
adequacy is checked per the DIN requirements.
Code checking is done using forces and moments at specified sections of the members. If the
BEAM parameter for a member is set to 1, moments are calculated at every twelfth point along
the beam, and the maximum moment about the major axis is used. When no sections are
specified and the BEAM parameter is set to zero (default), design will be based on member
start and end forces. The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In
addition, the critical condition, governing load case, location (distance from start joint) and
magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
10B.9 Member Selection
The member selection process basically involves determination of the least weight member
that PASSes the code checking procedure based on the forces and moments of the most recent
analysis. The section selected will be of the same type as that specified initially. For example, a
member specified initially as a channel will have a channel selected for it. Selection of
members whose properties are originally provided from a user table will be limited to sections
in the user table. Member selection cannot be performed on TUBES, PIPES, or members listed
as PRISMATIC.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
Sample Input data for Steel Design
UNIT METER
PARAMETER
CODE GERMAN
NSF 0.85 ALL
UNL 10.0 MEMBER 7
KY 1.2 MEMBER 3 4
RATIO 0.9 ALL
TRACK 1.0 ALL
International Design Codes Manual — 422
CHECK CODE ALL
423 — STAAD.Pro
10B. German Codes  Steel Design Per the DIN Code
Section 11
Indian Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 424
425 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Indian code IS 456 2000
Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
Design of members per IS 456 requires the STAAD India Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
11A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l For Beams — Prismatic (Rectangular & Square), TBeams, and Lshapes
l For Columns — Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)
11A.2 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section
properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. The following example shows the
required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
14 TO 16 PRIS YD 400. ZD 750. YB 300. ZB 200.
will be done accordingly. In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm
depth and 250mm width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width
provided, will be assumed to be circular with 350 mm diameter. The third set numbers in the
above example represents a Tshape with 750 mm flange width, 200 width, 400 mm overall
depth and 100 mm flange depth (See section 6.20.2). The program will determine whether the
section is rectangular, flanged or circular and the beam or column design.
11A.3 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform design as per
IS:456(2000). Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used
numbers for conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the
particular design being performed. Table 9A.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the
available parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units
as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
International Design Codes Manual — 426
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as INDIAN.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
BRACING 0.0 Beam Design:
A value of 1.0 means the
effect of axial force will
be taken into account
for beam design.
Column Design:
correspond to the terms
"Braced" and "Unbraced"
described in Notes 1, 2,
and 3 of Clause 39.7.1 of
IS456:2000.
1. The column is unbraced about
major axis.
2. The column is unbraced about
minor axis.
3. The column is unbraced about
both axis.
CLEAR 25 mm
40 mm
For beam members.
For column members
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. This
value defaults to YD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam. The parameter can also be used
to check against shear at any point
from the end of the member.
Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are
input as positive numbers.
Table 11A.1Indian Concrete Design IS456 Parameters
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11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about major axis.
See Note b below.
ELY 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
See Note b below.
ENSH 0.0 Perform shear check against enhanced
shear strength as per Cl. 40.5 of
IS456:2000.
l ENSH = 1.0 means ordinary
shear check to be performed (
no enhancement of shear
strength at sections close to
support)
l For ENSH = a positive value(say
x ), shear strength will be
enhanced up to a distance x
from the start of the member.
This is used only when a span
of a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts. (Refer note )
l For ENSH = a negative value
(say –y), shear strength will be
enhanced up to a distance y
from the end of the member.
This is used only when a span
of a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts.(Refer note)
If default value (0.0) is used the
program will calculate Length to
Overall Depth ratio. If this ratio is
greater than 2.5, shear strength will be
enhanced at sections (<2d) close to
support otherwise ordinary shear
check will be performed.
FC 30 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
FYMAIN 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
International Design Codes Manual — 428
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
FYSEC 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing
steel.
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar
size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.
REINF 0.0 Tied column. A value of 1.0 will mean
spiral reinforcement.
RENSH 0.0 Distance of the start or end point of
the member from its nearest support.
This parameter is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into two
or more parts. (Refer note)
RFACE 4.0 2. Two faced distribution about
major axis.
3. Two faced distribution about
minor axis.
4. Longitudinal reinforcement in
column is arranged equally
along 4 faces.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam. It is used to check against shear
at the face of the support in beam
design. The parameter can also be
used to check against shear at any
point from the start of the member.
SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between
main reinforcing bars in beam and
column. For column center to center
distance between main bars cannot
exceed 300 mm.
429 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TORSION 0.0 0. torsion to be considered in
beam design.
1. torsion to be neglected in beam
design.
TRACK 0.0 Beam Design:
0. output consists of
reinforcement details at START,
MIDDLE, and END.
1. critical moments are printed in
addition to TRACK 0.0 output.
2. required steel for intermediate
sections defined by NSECTION
are printed in addition to
TRACK 1.0 output.
Column Design:
0. reinforcement details are
printed.
1. column interaction analysis
results are printed in addition
to TRACK 0.0 output.
2. a schematic interaction
diagram and intermediate
interaction values are printed
in addition to TRACK 1.0
output.
ULY 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
See Note c below.
ULZ 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about major axis.
See Note c below.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This
value defaults to ZD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
International Design Codes Manual — 430
11A.3.1 Notes
a. You may specify reinforcing bar combinations through the
BAR COMBINATION command. Refer to Section 9A.8 for details.
b. ELY and ELZ parameters are used to calculate effective length of column to find
whether it is a short or long column. Please refer CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000.
In CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, you will find two term, l
ex
and l
ey
, which STAAD calculates
as:
l l
ex
= ELZ multiplied by the member length (distance between the two nodes of
the member)
l l
ey
= ELY multiplied by the member length (distance between the two nodes of
the member)
For the term "D" in CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, STAAD uses the YD dimension of the
column.
For the term "b" in CL 25.1.2 of IS456:2000, STAAD uses the ZD dimension of the
column.
c. ULY and ULZ parameters are used to calculate unsupported length of column to find
minimum eccentricity. Please refer CL 25.4 of IS456:2000.
In CL 25.4 of IS456:2000, you will find an expression "unsupported length of column".
This term is calculated as
l ULZ multiplied by the member length for the Z axis
l ULY multiplied by the member length for the Y axis
d. The value of the ENSH parameter (other than 0.0 and 1.0) is used only when the span of
a beam is subdivided into two or more parts. When this condition occurs, the RENSH
parameter is also to be used.
The span of the beam is subdivided four parts, each of length L meter. The shear
strength will be enhanced up to X meter from both supports. The input should be the
following:
Steps:
1. ENSH L MEMB 1 => Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length
of the member 1, positive sign indicates length measured from start of the
431 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
member
2. ENSH (XL) MEMB 2 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (XL) of
the member 2, length measured from the start of the member
3. ENSH –L MEMB 4 => Shear strength will be enhanced throughout the length
of the member 4, negative sign indicates length measured from end of the
member
4. ENSH –(XL) MEMB 3 => Shear strength will be enhanced up to a length (XL) of
the member 3, length measured from the end of the member
5. RENSH L MEMB 2 3 => Nearest support lies at a distance L from both the
members 2 and 3.
6. DESIGN BEAM 1 TO 4=> This will enhance the shear strength up to length X
from both ends of the beam consisting of members 1 to 4 and gives spacing
accordingly.
At section = y1 from start of member 1 av = y1
At section = y2 from the start of member 2 av = y2+L
At section = y3 from the end of member 3 av = y3+L
At section = y4 from end of member 4 av = y4
where τc, enhanced = 2dτc/av
At section 0.0, av becomes zero. Thus enhanced shear strength will become infinity.
However for any section shear stress cannot exceed τc, max. Hence enhanced shear
strength is limited to a maximum value of τc, max.
11A.4 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Consideration
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. The IS:456
code specifies two options by which the slenderness effect can be accommodated (Clause 39.7).
One option is to perform an exact analysis which will take into account the influence of axial
loads and variable moment of inertia on member stiffness and fixed end moments, the effect
of deflections on moment and forces and the effect of the duration of loads. Another option is
to approximately magnify design moments.
STAAD has been written to allow the use of the first option. To perform this type of analysis,
use the command PDELTA ANALYSIS instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS. The PDelta analysis will
accommodate all requirements of the second order analysis described by IS:456, except for the
effects of the duration of the loads. It is felt that this effect may be safely ignored because
experts believe that the effects of the duration of loads are negligible in a normal structural
configuration.
Although ignoring load duration effects is somewhat of an approximation, it must be realized
that the approximate evaluation of slenderness effects is also an approximate method. In this
method, additional moments are calculated based on empirical formula and assumptions on
International Design Codes Manual — 432
sidesway (Clause 39.7.1 and 39.7.1.1,IS: 456  2000). The rules of Clause 39.7.1 have been
implemented in STAAD.Pro. They will be checked if the ELY and ELZ parameters are
specified.
Considering all these information, a PDelta analysis, as performed by STAAD may be used for
the design of concrete members.
Note: To take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations of loading must be
provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due to the
fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments
(i.e., analysis results), whereas a primary load case is revised during the Pdelta
analysis based on the deflections. Loads can be combined prior to analysis using
the REPEAT LOAD command.
Note: You must specify the appropriate load factors (e.g., 1.5 for dead load, etc.) as STAAD
does not factor the loads automatically.
11A.5 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. If required the effect the axial force may be
taken into consideration. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to
identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of sections
considered is 13 (e.g., 0., .1, .2, .25, .3, .4, .5, .6, .7, .75, .8, .9, and 1). All of these sections are
scanned to determine the design force envelopes.
11A.5.1 Design for Flexure
Maximum sagging (creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging
(creating tensile stress at the top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each
of the above mentioned sections. Each of these sections is designed to resist both of these
critical sagging and hogging moments. Where ever the rectangular section is inadequate as
singly reinforced section, doubly reinforced section is tried. However, presently the flanged
section is designed only as singly reinforced section under sagging moment. It may also be
noted all flanged sections are automatically designed as rectangular section under hogging
moment as the flange of the beam is ineffective under hogging moment. Flexural design of
beams is performed in two passes. In the first pass, effective depths of the sections are
determined with the assumption of single layer of assumed reinforcement and reinforcement
requirements are calculated. After the preliminary design, reinforcing bars are chosen from
the internal database in single or multiple layers. The entire flexure design is performed again
in a second pass taking into account of the changed effective depths of sections calculated on
the basis of reinforcement provide after the preliminary design. Final provisions of flexural
reinforcements are made then. Efforts have been made to meet the guideline for the
curtailment of reinforcements as per IS:4562000 (Clause 26.2.3). Although exact curtailment
lengths are not mentioned explicitly in the design output (finally which will be more or less
guided by the detailer taking into account of other practical consideration), user has the
433 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
choice of printing reinforcements provided by STAAD at 11 equally spaced sections from which
the final detail drawing can be prepared.
11A.5.2 Design for Shear
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments. Shear
design are performed at 11 equally spaced sections (0.0 to 1.0) for the maximum shear forces
amongst the active load cases and the associated torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation
at different sections without the shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile
reinforcement provided by STAAD program. Twolegged stirrups are provided to take care of
the balance shear forces acting on these sections.
As per Clause 40.5 of IS:4562000 shear strength of sections (< 2d where d is the effective
depth) close to support has been enhanced, subjected to a maximum value of τ
cmax
.
11A.5.3 Beam Design Output
The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at
5 equally spaced (0, .25, .5, .75 and 1.) sections along the length of the beam. User has option to
get a more detail output. All beam design outputs are given in IS units. An example of
rectangular beam design output with TRACK 2.0 output is presented below:
B E A M N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T
S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe250
(Sec.)
LENGTH: 6400.0 mm SIZE: 300.0 mm X 400.0 mm
COVER: 25.0 mm
DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)


SECTION FLEXURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)
SHEAR
(in mm)  P MZ MX Load Case  VY
MX Load Case


0.0  0.00 0.00 0.00 1  60.61
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
533.3  0.00 29.63 0.00 1  50.51
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
1066.7  0.00 53.88 0.00 1  40.41
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
1600.0  0.00 72.73 0.00 1  30.31
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
2133.3  0.00 86.20 0.00 1  20.20
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
International Design Codes Manual — 434
2666.7  0.00 94.28 0.00 1  10.10
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
3200.0  0.00 96.98 0.00 1  0.00
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
3733.3  0.00 94.28 0.00 1  10.10
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
4266.7  0.00 86.20 0.00 1  20.20
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
4800.0  0.00 72.73 0.00 1  30.31
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
5333.3  0.00 53.88 0.00 1  40.41
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
5866.7  0.00 29.63 0.00 1  50.51
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
6400.0  0.00 0.00 0.00 1  60.61
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 


SUMMARY OF REINF. AREA (Sq.mm)


SECTION  TOP  BOTTOM 
STIRRUPS
(in mm)  Reqd./Provided reinf.  Reqd./Provided reinf. 
(2 legged)


0.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 0.00/ 981.75( 225í )
8í @ 180 mm
533.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 237.32/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
1066.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 450.84/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
1600.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 632.82/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
2133.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 773.83/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
2666.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 863.91/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
3200.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 894.99/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
3733.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 863.91/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
4266.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 773.83/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
435 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
4800.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 632.82/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
5333.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 450.84/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
5866.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 237.32/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
6400.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 0.00/ 981.75( 225í )
8í @ 180 mm


11A.6 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All active load cases
are tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yield maximum reinforcement is
called the critical load. Column design is done for square, rectangular and circular sections. By
default, square and rectangular columns and designed with reinforcement distributed on each
side equally for the sections under biaxial moments and with reinforcement distributed
equally in two faces for sections under uniaxial moment. User may change the default
arrangement of the reinforcement with the help of the parameter RFACE (see Table 8A.1).
Depending upon the member lengths, section dimensions and effective length coefficients
specified by the user STAAD automatically determine the criterion (short or long) of the
column design. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as
stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD. Default clear
spacing between main reinforcing bars is taken to be 25 mm while arrangement of
longitudinal bars.
11A.6.1 Column Design Output
Default column design output (TRACK 0.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD
and the capacity of the section. With the option TRACK 1.0, the output contains intermediate
results such as the design forces, effective length coefficients, additional moments etc. All
design output is given in SI units. An example of a TRACK 2.0 output follows:
C O L U M N N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe250
(Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION: 400.0 mm X 600.0 mm
COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 1 END JOINT: 1 SHORT COLUMN
DESIGN FORCES (KNSMET)

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu) : 2000.00
About Z
About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS : 160.00
120.00
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC. : 52.00
40.00
SLENDERNESS RATIOS :  
MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT :  
International Design Codes Manual — 436
MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS :  
ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May) :  
TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS : 160.00
120.00
REQD. STEEL AREA : 3587.44 Sq.mm.
REQD. CONCRETE AREA: 236412.56 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 32  12 dia. (1.51%, 3619.11
Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 190
mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED (KNSMET)

Puz : 3244.31 Muz1 : 269.59 Muy1 : 168.42
INTERACTION RATIO: 0.98 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
SECTION CAPACITY BASED ON REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED (KNSMET)

WORST LOAD CASE: 1
END JOINT: 1 Puz : 3253.88 Muz : 271.48 Muy :
170.09 IR: 0.96
==================================================================
==========
11A.7 Bar Combination
Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number of bars required and area of
steel provided at each section along the length of the beam. You may use the
BAR COMBINATION command to specify two bar diameters to calculate a combination of each
bar to be provided at each section. The syntax for bar combination is given below.
START BAR COMBINATION
MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
END BAR COMBINATION
Note: The bar sizes should be specified in the order of increasing size (i.e., MD2 bar
diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter).
The beam length is divided into three parts, two at its ends and one at span. Ld gives the
development length to be provided at the two ends of each section.
The typical output for bar combination is shown below:
OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION


 M A I N R E I N F O R C E M E N T

437 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456


SECTION  0.0 1600.0  1600.0 4800.0  4800.0
6400.0 
 mm  mm 
mm 


TOP  216í  216í  2
16í 
 in 1 layer(s)  in 1 layer(s)  in 1
layer(s) 
Ast Reqd 0.00  0.00 
0.00 
Prov 402.29  402.29 
402.29 
Ld (mm)  752.2  1175.3 
752.2 


BOTTOM  416í  216í + 225í  4
16í 
 in 1 layer(s)  in 1 layer(s)  in 1
layer(s) 
Ast Reqd 632.82  894.99 
632.82 
Prov 804.57  1384.43 
804.57 
Ld (mm)  752.2  1175.3 
752.2 


===================================================================
=========
11A.8 Wall Design in accordance with IS 4562000
The design of walls in accordance with IS 4562000 is available in STAAD.Pro.
The design is performed for inplane shear, inplane & outofplane bending, and outofplane
shear. The wall has to be modeled using STAAD’s Surface elements (Refer to Section 5.13.3 of
the Technical Reference Manual). The use of the Surface element enables the designer to treat
the entire wall as one entity. It greatly simplifies the modeling of the wall and adds clarity to
the analysis and design output. The results are presented in the context of the entire wall
rather than individual finite elements thereby allowing users to quickly locate required
information.
The program reports shear wall design results for each load case/combination for the specified
number of sections given in the SURFACE DIVISION command (default value is 10) command.
The shear wall is designed at these horizontal sections. The output includes the required
horizontal and vertical distributed reinforcing, the concentrated (inplane bending) edge
reinforcing and the link required for outofplane shear.
International Design Codes Manual — 438
Refer to Section 5.55 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional details on shear wall
design.
11A.8.1 Design Parameters
START SHEARWALL DESIGN
CODE INDIAN
shearwallparameters
DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST shearwalllist
END
The following table explains the parameters used in the shear wall design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CLEAR 25 mm Clear concrete cover, in
current units.
EMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical
reinforcing bars located
in edge zones (range
6mm – 36mm). If input
is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
EMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical
reinforcing bars located
in edge zones (range
6mm – 36mm). If input
is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
FYMAIN 415 Mpa Yield strength of steel, in
current units.
FC 30 Mpa Compressive strength of
concrete, in current
units.
Table 11A.2Shear Wall Design Parameters
439 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
HMIN 8 Minimum size of
horizontal reinforcing
bars (range 6 mm – 36
mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
HMAX 36 Maximum size of
horizontal reinforcing
bars (range 6 mm – 36
mm). If input is 6
(integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
KSLENDER 1.0 Slenderness factor for
finding effective height.
LMAX 16 Maximum size of links
(range 6mm – 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer
number) the program
will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
LMIN 6 Minimum size of links
(range 6mm – 16mm). If
input is 6 (integer
number) the program
will assume 6 mm
diameter bar.
TWOLAYERED 0 Reinforcement placement
mode:
0. single layer, each
direction
1. two layers, each
direction
International Design Codes Manual — 440
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
VMAX 36 Maximum size of vertical
reinforcing bars (range
6mm – 36mm). If input
is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
VMIN 8 Minimum size of vertical
reinforcing bars (range
6mm – 36mm). If input
is 6 (integer number) the
program will assume 6
mm diameter bar.
1. Command SET DIVISION 12 indicates that the surface boundary nodetonode
segments will be subdivided into 12 fragments prior to finite element mesh generation.
2. Four surfaces are defined by the SURFACE INCIDENCES command.
3. The SUPPORTS command includes the new support generation routine. For instance,
the line 2 to 5 gen pin assigns pinned supports to all nodes between nodes 2 and 5.
As the nodetonode distances were previously subdivided by the SET DIVISION 12
command, there will be an additional 11 nodes between nodes 2 and 5. As a result, all
13 nodes will be assigned pinned supports. Please note that the additional 11 nodes are
not individually accessible to the user. They are created by the program to enable the
finite element mesh generation and to allow application of boundary constraints.
4. Surface thickness and material constants are specified by the SURFACE PROPERTY and
SURFACE CONSTANTS, respectively.
5. The shear wall design commands are listed between lines START SHEARWALL DES and
END. The CODE command selects the design code that will be the basis for the design.
For Indian code the parameter is INDIAN. The DESIGN SHEARWALL LIST command is
followed by a list of previously defined Surface elements intended as shear walls and/or
shear wall components.
11A.8.2 Technical Overview
The program implements provisions of section 32 of IS 4562000 and relevant provisions as
referenced therein, for all active load cases. The following steps are performed for each of the
horizontal sections of the wall.
Checking of slenderness limit
The slenderness checking is done as per clause no. 32.2.3. The default effective height is the
height of the wall. User can change the effective height. The limit for slenderness is taken as
441 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
30.
Design for inplane bending and vertical load
(denoted by Mz & Fy in the shear wall force output)
Walls when subjected to combined inplane horizontal and vertical forces produce inplane
bending in conjunction with vertical load. According to clause no. 32.3.1, inplane bending
may be neglected in case a horizontal cross section of the wall is always under compression
due combined effect of horizontal and vertical loads. Otherwise, the section is checked for
combined vertical load and inplane moment as column with axial load and uniaxial
bending. For this purpose, the depth is taken as 0.8 x horizontal length of wall and breadth is
the thickness of the wall. The reinforcement is concentrated at both ends (edges) of the wall.
The edge reinforcement is assumed to be distributed over a length of 0.2 times horizontal
length on each side. Minimum reinforcements are according to clause no. 32.5.(a). Maximum
4% reinforcement is allowed.
Design for inplane shear
(denoted by Fxy in the shear wall force output)
By default, the program does not design only at the critical section but at all the horizontal
sections. By suitable use of the surface division command, design at critical section as per
clause no. 32.4.1 can be performed.
The design for inplane shear is done as per clause no. 32.4. The nominal shear stress is
calculated as per clause no. 32.4.2 and it is checked with the maximum allowable shear stress
as per clause no. 32.4.2.1. The design shear strength of concrete is calculated as per clause no.
32.4.3. Design of shear reinforcement is done as per clause no. 32.4.4. Minimum reinforcements
are as per clause no. 32.5.
Design for vertical load and outofplane vertical bending
(denoted by Fy and My respectively in the shear wall force output)
Apart from the inplane bending and horizontal shear force, the wall is also subjected to out
ofplane bending in the vertical and horizontal directions. The part of the wall which is not
having edge reinforcements (i.e., a zone of depth 0.6 x Length of the wall), is designed again as
column under axial load (i.e., vertical load) and outofplane vertical bending. The minimum
reinforcements and maximum allowable spacings of reinforcements are as per clause no. 32.5
Design for outofplane horizontal bending
(denoted by Mx in the shear wall force output)
The horizontal reinforcement which is already provided for inplane shear is checked against
outofplane horizontal bending. The wall is assumed as a slab for this purpose.
Design for outofplane shears
(denoted by Qx and Qy in the shear wall force output)
International Design Codes Manual — 442
The outofplane shear arises from outofplane loading. The nominal shear stresses are
calculated as per clause no. 40.1. Maximum allowable shear stresses are as per table 20. For
shear force in the vertical direction, shear strength of concrete section is calculated as per
section 4.1 of SP 16 : 1980 considering vertical reinforcement as tension reinforcement.
Similarly, for shear force in the horizontal direction, shear strength of concrete section is
calculated considering horizontal reinforcement as tension reinforcement. Shear
reinforcements in the form of links are computed as per the provisions of clause no. 40.4.
11A.8.3 Example
The following example illustrates the input for the definition of shear wall and design of the
wall.
…
SET DIVISION 12
SURFACE INCIDENCES
2 5 37 34 SUR 1
19 16 65 68 SUR 2
11 15 186 165 SUR 3
10 6 138 159 SUR 4
…
SURFACE PROPERTY
1 TO 4 THI 18
SUPPORTS
1 7 14 20 PINNED
2 TO 5 GEN PIN
6 TO 10 GEN PIN
11 TO 15 GEN PIN
19 TO 16 GEN PIN
…
SURFACE CONSTANTS
E 2.17185E+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1E005
…
START SHEARWALL DES
CODE INDIAN
UNIT NEW MMS
FC 25
FYMAIN 415
TWO 1
443 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
VMIN 12
HMIN 12
EMIN 12
DESIGN SHEA LIST 1 TO 4
END
11A.8.4 Shear Wall Design With Opening
The Surface element has been enhanced to allow design of shear walls with rectangular
openings. The automatic meshing algorithm has been improved to allow variable divisions
along wall and opening(s) edges. Design and output are available for user selected locations.
Shear walls modeled in STAAD.Pro may include an unlimited number of openings. Due to the
presence of openings, the wall may be comprise of different wall panels of varying types.
1. Shear wall setup
Definition of a shear wall starts with a specification of the surface element perimeter
nodes, meshing divisions along nodetonode segments, opening(s) corner coordinates,
and meshing divisions of four edges of the opening(s).
SURFACE INCIDENCE n1, ..., ni SURFACE s DIVISION sd1, ..., sdj 
RECOPENING x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4 DIVISION od1, ..., odk
Where:
n1, … , ni — node numbers on the perimeter of the shear wall,
s — surface ordinal number,
sd1, … , sdj — number of divisions for each of the nodetonode distance
on the surface perimeter,
x1 y1 z1 (…) — coordinates of the corners of the opening,
od1, … , odk — divisions along edges of the opening.
Note: If the sd1, … , sdj or the od1, … , odk list does not include all nodetonode
segments, or if any of the numbers listed equals zero, then the corresponding
division number is set to the default value (=10, or as previously input by the
SET DIVISION command).
Default locations for stress/force output, design, and design output are set as follows:
SURFACE DIVISION X xd
SURFACE DIVISION Y yd
Where:
International Design Codes Manual — 444
xd — number of divisions along X axis,
yd — number of divisions along Y axis.
Note: xd and yd represent default numbers of divisions for each edge of the
surface where output is requested. The output is provided for sections
located between division segments. For example, if the number of divisions
= 2, then the output will be produced for only one section (at the center of
the edge).
2. Stress/force output printing
Values of internal forces may be printed out for any userdefined section of the wall.
The general format of the command is as follows:
PRINT SURFACE FORCE (ALONG ξ) (AT a) (BETWEEN d1, d2) LIST s1, … ,si
Where:
ξ — local axis of the surface element (X or Y),
a — distance along the ξ axis from start of the member to the full
crosssection of the wall,
d1, d2 — coordinates in the direction orthogonal to ξ , delineating a
fragment of the full crosssection for which the output is desired. **
s1, … ,si — list of surfaces for output generation
** The range currently is taken in terms of local axis. If the local axis is directed away
from the surface, the negative range is to be entered.
Note: If command ALONG is omitted, direction Y (default) is assumed. If
command AT is omitted, output is provided for all sections along the
specified (or default) edge. Number of sections will be determined from the
SURFACE DIVISION X or SURFACE DIVISION Y input values. If the BETWEEN
command is omitted, the output is generated based on full crosssection
width.
3. Definition of wall panels
Input syntax for panel definition is as follows:
START PANEL DEFINITION
SURFACE i PANEL j WALL x1 y1 z1 x2 y2 z2 x3 y3 z3 x4 y4 z4
END PANEL DEFINITION
Where:
i = ordinal surface number,
445 — STAAD.Pro
11A. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456
j = ordinal panel number,
x1 y1 z1 (…) = coordinates of the corners of the panel,
4. Shear wall design
The program implements different provisions of design of walls as per code IS 456.
General syntax of the design command is as follows:
START SHEARWALL DESIGN
(…)
DESIGN SHEARWALL (AT f
2
) LIST s
ENDSHEARWALL DESIGN
Note: If the command AT is omitted, the design proceeds for all cross sections of
the wall or panels, as applicable, defined by the SURFACE DIVISION X or
SURFACE DIVISION Y input values.
a. No panel definition.
Design is performed for the specified horizontal full crosssection, located at a
distance c from the origin of the local coordinates system. If opening is found
then reinforcement is provided along sides of openings. The area of horizontal
and vertical bars provided along edges of openings is equal to that of the
respective interrupted bars.
b. Panels have been defined.
Only wall panel design is supported in Indian code.
International Design Codes Manual — 446
447 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Indian code IS 13920 Code of
Practice for Ductile Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces.
Designs per IS 13920 satisfy all provisions of IS 456 – 2000 and IS 13920 for beams and columns
(See "Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 456" on page 426).
Design of members per IS 1320 requires the STAAD India Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
11B.1 Design Operations
Earthquake motion often induces force large enough to cause inelastic deformations in the
structure. If the structure is brittle, sudden failure could occur. But if the structure is made to
behave ductile, it will be able to sustain the earthquake effects better with some deflection
larger than the yield deflection by absorption of energy. Therefore ductility is also required as
an essential element for safety from sudden collapse during severe shocks.
11B.2 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed.
l For Beams: Prismatic (Rectangular & Square) and Tshape
l For Columns : Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)
11B.3 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters that are needed to perform design as per IS
13920. It accepts all parameters that are needed to perform design as per IS:456. Over and above
it has some other parameters that are required only when designed is performed as per
IS:13920. Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used
numbers for conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the
particular design being performed. Table 8A1.1 of this manual contains a complete list of the
available parameters and their default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units
as Millimeter and Newton before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as IS13920
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.52.2 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
Table 11B.1Indian Concrete Design IS 13920 Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 448
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BRACING 0.0 Beam Design
1.0 = the effect of axial force will be
taken into account for beam design.
Column Design: Correspond to the
terms "Braced" and "Unbraced"
described in Notes 1, 2, and 3 of Clause
39.7.1 of IS456:2000.
1.0 = the column is unbraced about
major axis.
2.0 = the column is unbraced about
minor axis.
3.0 = the column is unbraced about
both axis.
DEPTH YD Total depth to be used for design. This
value defaults to YD (depth of section
in Y direction) as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
CLEAR 25 mm
40 mm
For beam members.
For column members
Note: This is the clear cover to the
outermost main reinforcing
bar. It is not the clear cover
for the stirrups or the tie
bars.
449 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
COMBINE 0.0 Default value means there will be no
member combination.
1.0 = no printout of
sectional force and
critical load for
combined member in the
output.
2.0 = printout of sectional
force for combined
member in the output.
3.0 = printout of both
sectional force and
critical load for
combined member in the
output. ***
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam. The parameter can also be used
to check against shear at any point
from the end of the member.
Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are
input as positive numbers.*
ELZ 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about major axis.
ELY 1.0 Ratio of effective length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
International Design Codes Manual — 450
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
ENSH 0.0 Perform shear check against enhanced
shear strength as per Cl. 40.5 of
IS456:2000.
1.0 = ordinary shear check
to be performed ( no
enhancement of shear
strength at sections close
to support)
a positive value(say x ) =
shear strength will be
enhanced up to a
distance x from the start
of the member. This is
used only when a span of
a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts. (Refer
note after Table 8A.1 )
a negative value(say –y) =
shear strength will be
enhanced up to a
distance y from the end
of the member. This is
used only when a span of
a beam is subdivided into
two or more parts.(Refer
note after Table 8A.1)
0.0 = the program will
calculate Length to
Overall Depth ratio. If
this ratio is greater than
2.5, shear strength will be
enhanced at sections
(<2d) close to support
otherwise ordinary shear
check will be performed.
451 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
EUDL None Equivalent u.d.l on span of the beam.
This load value must be the unfactored
load on span. During design the load
value is multiplied by a factor 1.2. If no
u.d.l is defined factored shear force due
to gravity load on span will be taken as
zero. No elastic or plastic moment will
be calculated. Shear design will be
performed based on analysis result.
(Refer note)
FYMAIN 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for main reinforcing steel.
FYSEC 415 N/mm
2
Yield Stress for secondary reinforcing
steel.
FC 30 N/mm
2
Concrete Yield Stress.
International Design Codes Manual — 452
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
GLD None Gravity load number to be considered
for calculating equivalent u.d.l on span
of the beam, in case no EUDL is
mentioned in the input. This loadcase
can be any static loadcase containing
MEMBER LOAD on the beam which
includes UNI, CON, LIN and TRAP
member loading. CMOM member
loading is considered only when it is
specified in local direction. FLOOR
LOAD is also considered.
The load can be primary or
combination load. For combination
load only load numbers included in
load combination is considered. The
load factors are ignored. Internally the
unfactored load is multiplied by a
factor 1.2 during design.
If both EUDL and GLD parameters are
mentioned in the input mentioned
EUDL will be considered in design
Note: No dynamic (Response
spectrum, 1893, Time
History) and moving load
cases are considered.
CMOM member loading in global
direction is not considered.
UMOM member loading is not
considered.
HLINK Spacing of
longitudinal
bars measured
to the outer
face
Longer dimension of the rectangular
confining hoop measured to its outer
face. It shall not exceed 300 mm as per
Cl. 7.4.8. If the HLINK value as provided
in the input file does not satisfy the
clause the value will be internally
assumed as the default one. This
parameter is valid for rectangular
column.
453 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
IPLM 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of
resistance of beam at its ends.
1.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
ignored at start node of
beam. This implies no
support exists at start
node.
1.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
considered at start node
of beam. . This implies
support exists at start
node.
2.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
ignored at end node of
beam. This implies no
support exists at end
node.
2.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
considered at end node
of beam. . This implies
support exists at end
node. **
International Design Codes Manual — 454
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
IMB 0.0 Default value calculates elastic/plastic
hogging and sagging moments of
resistance of beam at its ends.
1.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
ignored at both ends of
beam. This implies no
support exist at either
end of the member.
1.0 = calculation of
elastic/plastic hogging
and sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
considered at both ends
of beam. This implies
support exist at both
ends of the member.**
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar size.
MAXMAIN 60 mm Maximum main reinforcement bar size.
MINSEC 8 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement bar
size.
MAXSEC 12 mm Maximum secondary reinforcement bar
size.
PLASTIC 0.0 Default value calculates elastic hogging
and sagging moments of resistance of
beam at its ends.
1.0 = plastic hogging and
sagging moments of
resistance of beam to be
calculated at its ends.
RATIO 4.0 Maximum percentage of longitudinal
reinforcement in columns.
REINF 0.0 0.0 = Tied column (default)
1.0 = spiral reinforcement
455 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
RENSH 0.0 Distance of the start or end point of
the member from its nearest support.
This parameter is used only when a
span of a beam is subdivided into two
or more parts.
Refer note after Table 9A.1
RFACE 4.0 4.0 = longitudinal reinforcement in
column is arranged equally along four
faces.
2.0 invokes two faced distribution
about major axis.
3.0 invokes two faced distribution
about minor axis.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam. It is used to check against shear
at the face of the support in beam
design. The parameter can also be used
to check against shear at any point
from the start of the member.*
Note: Both SFACE and EFACE are
input as positive numbers.*
SPSMAIN 25 mm Minimum clear distance between main
reinforcing bars in beam and column.
For column center to center distance
between main bars cannot exceed 300
mm.
TORISION 0.0 0.0 = torsion to be considered in beam
design.
1.0 = torsion to be neglected in beam
design.
International Design Codes Manual — 456
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TRACK 0.0 Beam Design:
0.0 = output consists of
reinforcement details at
START, MIDDLE and
END.
1.0 = critical moments are
printed in addition to
TRACK 0.0 output.
2.0 = required steel for
intermediate sections
defined by NSECTION
are printed in addition to
TRACK 1.0 output.
Column Design:
0.0 = reinforcement
details are printed.
1.0 = column interaction
analysis results are
printed in addition to
TRACK 0.0 output.
2.0 = a schematic
interaction diagram and
intermediate interaction
values are printed in
addition to TRACK 1.0
output.
ULY 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about minor axis.
ULZ 1.0 Ratio of unsupported length to actual
length of column about major axis.
WIDTH ZD Width to be used for design. This
value defaults to ZD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
Bar combination has been introduced for detailing. Please refer section 9A1.6 for details.
* EFACE and SFACE command is not valid for member combination.
457 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
** IPLM and IMB commands are not valid for member combination. These commands are
ignored for members forming physical member.
*** The purpose of COMBINE command is the following:
1. If a beam spanning between two supports is subdivided into many subbeams this
parameter will combine them into one member. It can also be used to combine
members to form one continuous beam spanning over more than two supports.
2. When two or more members are combined during design plastic or elastic moments
will be calculated at the column supports. At all the intermediate nodes (if any) this
calculation will be ignored.
Note: Please note that the program only recognizes column at right angle to the
beam. Inclined column support is ignored.
3. It will calculate sectional forces at 13 sections along the length of the combined
member.
4. It will calculate critical loads (similar to that of Design Load Summary) for all active
load cases during design.
Beams will be combined only when DESIGN BEAM command is issued.
The following lines should be satisfied during combination of members:
1. Members to be combined should have same sectional properties if any single span
between two column supports of a continuous beam is subdivided into several
members.
2. Members to be combined should have same constants (E, Poi ratio, alpha, density, and
beta angle)
3. Members to be combined should lie in one straight line.
4. Members to be combined should be continuous.
5. Vertical members (i.e., columns) cannot be combined.
6. Same member cannot be used more than once to form two different combined
members.
7. The maximum number of members that can be combined into one member is 299.
Note: Sectional forces and critical load for combined member output will only be available
when all the members combined are successfully designed in both flexure and
shear.
ENSH and RENSH parameters will have to be provided (as and when necessary) even if physical
member has been formed.
International Design Codes Manual — 458
11B.3.1 Example
The following lines show a standard example for design to be performed in IS 13920.
STAAD SPACE
UNIT METER MTON
JOINT COORDINATES
…
MEMBER INCIDENCES
…
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
…
CONSTANTS
…
SUPPORTS
…
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.05 I 1 K 1 B 1
SELFWEIGHT
JOINT WEIGHT
…
LOAD 1 SEISMIC LOAD IN X DIR
1893 LOAD X 1
LOAD 2 SEISMIC LOAD IN Z DIR
1893 LOAD Z 1
LOAD 3 DL
MEMBER LOAD
…… UNI GY 5
LOAD 4 LL
MEMBER LOAD
……. UNI GY 3
LOAD COMB 5 1.5(DL+LL)
3 1.5 4 1.5
LOAD COMB 6 1.2(DL+LL+SLX)
1 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 7 1.2(DL+LLSLX)
1 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 8 1.2(DL+LL+SLZ)
2 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 9 1.2(DL+LLSLZ)
459 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
2 1.2 3 1.2 4 1.2
PDELTA ANALYSIS
LOAD LIST 5 TO 9
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE IS13920
UNIT MMS NEWTON
FYMAIN 415 ALL
FC 20 ALL
MINMAIN 12 ALL
MAXMAIN 25 ALL
TRACK 2.0 ALL
*** UNFACTORED GRAVITY LOAD ON MEMBERS 110 TO 112 IS 8 T/M (DL+LL)
I.E., 78.46 NEW/MM
EUDL 78.46 MEMB 110 TO 112
** MEMBERS TO BE COMBINED INTO ONE PHYSICAL MEMBER
COMBINE 3.0 MEMB 110 TO 112
*** PLASTIC MOMENT CONSIDERED
PLASTIC 1.0 MEMB 110 TO 112
DESIGN BEAM 110 TO 112
DESIGN COLUMN …
END CONCRETE DESIGN
FINISH
11B.4 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. If required the effect of the axial force may
be taken into consideration. For all these forces, all active beam loadings are prescanned to
identify the critical load cases at different sections of the beams. The total number of sections
considered is 13. All of these sections are scanned to determine the design force envelopes.
For design to be performed as per IS:13920 the width of the member shall not be less than 200
mm(Clause 6.1.3). Also the member shall preferably have a widthto depth ratio of more than
0.3 (Clause 6.1.2).
The factored axial stress on the member should not exceed 0.1fck (Clause 6.1.1) for all active
load cases. If it exceeds allowable axial stress no design will be performed.
11B.4.1 Design for Flexure
Design procedure is same as that for IS 456. However while designing following criteria are
satisfied as per IS13920:
1. The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20. (Clause 5.2)
2. Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used. (Clause 5.3)
International Design Codes Manual — 460
3. The minimum tension steel ratio on any face, at any section, is given by (Clause 6.2.1b)
ρ
min
= 0.24√fck/fy
The maximum steel ratio on any face, at any section, is given by (Clause 6.2.2)
ρ
max
= 0.025
4. The positive steel ratio at a joint face must be at least equal to half the negative steel at
that face. (Clause 6.2.3)
5. The steel provided at each of the top and bottom face, at any section, shall at least be
equal to onefourth of the maximum negative moment steel provided at the face of
either joint. (Clause 6.2.4)
11B.4.2 Design for Shear
The shear force to be resisted by vertical hoops is guided by the Clause 6.3.3 of IS 13920:1993
revision. Elastic sagging and hogging moments of resistance of the beam section at ends are
considered while calculating shear force. Plastic sagging and hogging moments of resistance
can also be considered for shear design if PLASTIC parameter is mentioned in the input file.
(Refer Table 8A1.1)
Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both shear forces and torsional moments.
Procedure is same as that of IS 456.
The following criteria are satisfied while performing design for shear as per Cl. 6.3.5 of IS
13920:
The spacing of vertical hoops over a length of 2d at either end of the beam shall not exceed
a. d/4
b. 8 times the diameter of the longitudinal bars
In no case this spacing is less than 100 mm.
The spacing calculated from above, if less than that calculated from IS 456 consideration is
provided.
11B.4.3 Beam Design Output
The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear reinforcement provided at
5 equally spaced sections along the length of the beam. User has option to get a more detail
output. All beam design outputs are given in IS units. An example of rectangular beam
design output with the TRACK 2.0 is presented below:
B E A M N O. 1 D E S I G N R E S U L T
S
M20 Fe415 (Main) Fe250
(Sec.)
LENGTH: 6400.0 mm SIZE: 300.0 mm X 400.0 mm
COVER: 25.0 mm
461 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
DESIGN LOAD SUMMARY (KN MET)


SECTION FLEXURE (Maxm. Sagging/Hogging moments)
SHEAR
(in mm)  P MZ MX Load Case  VY
MX Load Case


0.0  0.00 0.00 0.00 1  60.61
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
533.3  0.00 29.63 0.00 1  50.51
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
1066.7  0.00 53.88 0.00 1  40.41
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
1600.0  0.00 72.73 0.00 1  30.31
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
2133.3  0.00 86.20 0.00 1  20.20
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
2666.7  0.00 94.28 0.00 1  10.10
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
3200.0  0.00 96.98 0.00 1  0.00
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
3733.3  0.00 94.28 0.00 1  10.10
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
4266.7  0.00 86.20 0.00 1  20.20
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
4800.0  0.00 72.73 0.00 1  30.31
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
5333.3  0.00 53.88 0.00 1  40.41
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
5866.7  0.00 29.63 0.00 1  50.51
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
6400.0  0.00 0.00 0.00 1  60.61
0.00 1
 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 
*** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 0.0 IS 60.61 KN.
 CLAUSE 6.3.3 OF
IS13920
*** DESIGN SHEAR FORCE AT SECTION 6400.0 IS 60.61 KN.
International Design Codes Manual — 462
 CLAUSE 6.3.3 OF
IS13920
NOTE :
MOMENT OF RESISTANCE IS CALCULATED BASED ON THE AREA OF STEEL
PROVIDED.
IF AREA OF STEEL PROVIDED IS MUCH HIGHER COMPARED TO AREA OF
STEEL
REQUIRED MOMENT OF RESISTANCE WILL INCREASE WHICH MAY INCREASE
DESIGN
SHEAR FORCE.


STAAD SPACE 
PAGE NO. 7
0.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 0.00/ 981.75( 225í )
8í @ 100 mm
533.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 281.26/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
1066.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 450.84/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
1600.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 632.82/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
2133.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 773.83/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
2666.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 863.91/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
3200.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 894.99/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
3733.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 863.91/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
4266.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 773.83/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
4800.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 632.82/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
5333.3  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 450.84/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
5866.7  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 281.26/1472.62( 325í )
8í @ 180 mm
6400.0  0.00/ 402.12( 216í ) 0.00/ 981.75( 225í )
8í @ 100 mm


11B.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments per IS 456:2000. Columns are also
designed for shear forces as per Clause 7.3.4. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and
transverse reinforcement as stipulated by IS:456 have been taken care of in the column design
of STAAD. However following clauses have been satisfied to incorporate provisions of IS 13920:
l The minimum grade of concrete shall preferably be M20. (Clause 5.2)
l Steel reinforcements of grade Fe415 or less only shall be used. (Clause 5.3)
463 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
l The minimum dimension of column member shall not be less than 200 mm. For
columns having unsupported length exceeding 4m, the shortest dimension of column
shall not be less than 300 mm. (Clause 7.1.2)
l The ratio of the shortest crosssectional dimension to the perpendicular dimension
shall preferably be not less than 0.4. (Clause 7.1.3)
l The spacing of hoops shall not exceed half the least lateral dimension of the column,
except where special confining reinforcement is provided. (Clause 7.3.3)
l Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a length l
o
from each joint face,
towards mid span, and on either side of any section, where flexural yielding may occur.
The length l
o
shall not be less than a) larger lateral dimension of the member at the
section where yielding occurs, b) 1/6 of clear span of the member, and c) 450 mm.
(Clause 7.4.1)
l The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed ¼ of
minimum member dimension but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100
mm. (Clause 7.4.6)
l The area of crosssection of hoops provided are checked against the provisions for
minimum area of crosssection of the bar forming rectangular, circular or spiral hoops,
to be used as special confining reinforcement. (Clause 7.4.7 and 7.4.8)
11B.5.1 Column Design Output
Default column design output (TRACK 0.0) contains the reinforcement provided by STAAD
and the capacity of the section. With the option TRACK 1.0, the output contains intermediate
results such as the design forces, effective length coefficients, additional moments etc. A
special output TRACK 9.0 is introduced to obtain the details of section capacity calculations.
All design output is given in SI units. An example of a column design output (with option
TRACK 1.0) is given below.
===================================================================
=========
C O L U M N N O. 3 D E S I G N R E S U L T S
M20
Fe415 (Main)
Fe415 (Sec.)
LENGTH: 3000.0 mm CROSS SECTION:
350.0 mm X 400.0 mm COVER: 40.0 mm
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5 END JOINT:
2 SHORT COLUMN
DESIGN FORCES (KNSMET)

DESIGN AXIAL FORCE (Pu)
: 226.7
About Z
About Y
INITIAL MOMENTS
: 0.64
146.28
International Design Codes Manual — 464
MOMENTS DUE TO MINIMUM ECC.
: 4.53 4.53
SLENDERNESS RATIOS
: 

MOMENTS DUE TO SLENDERNESS EFFECT :


MOMENT REDUCTION FACTORS
: 

ADDITION MOMENTS (Maz and May)
: 

TOTAL DESIGN MOMENTS
: 4.53
146.28
** GUIDING LOAD CASE: 5
Along Z Along Y
DESIGN SHEAR FORCES
: 43.31
76.08
REQD. STEEL AREA : 3313.56 Sq.mm.
MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 12  20 dia.
(2.69%, 3769.91 Sq.mm.)
(Equally distributed)
CONFINING REINFORCEMENT : Provide 10 mm dia.
rectangular ties @ 85 mm c/c
over a length 500.0 mm from each joint face towards
midspan as per Cl. 7.4.6 of IS13920.
TIE REINFORCEMENT
: Provide 10 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 175 mm c/c
SECTION CAPACITY (KNSMET)

Puz : 2261.52 Muz1 :
178.71 Muy1 : 150.75
INTERACTION RATIO: 1.00 (as per Cl. 39.6, IS456:2000)
==================================================================
==========
********************END OF COLUMN DESIGN
RESULTS********************
11B.6 Bar Combination
Initially the program selects only one bar to calculate the number of bars required and area of
steel provided at each section along the length of the beam. You may use the
BAR COMBINATION command to specify two bar diameters to calculate a combination of each
bar to be provided at each section. The syntax for bar combination is given below.
START BAR COMBINATION
MD1 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
MD2 <bar diameter> MEMB <member list>
465 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
ENDBAR COMBINATION
Note: The bar sizes should be specified in the order of increasing size (i.e., MD2 bar
diameter should be greater than MD1 bar diameter).
The beam length is divided into three parts, two at its ends and one at span. Ld gives the
development length to be provided at the two ends of each section.
The typical output for bar combination is shown below:
OUTPUT FOR BAR COMBINATION


 M A I N R E I N F O R C E M E N T



SECTION  0.0 1600.0  1600.0 4800.0  4800.0
6400.0 
 mm  mm 
mm 


TOP  216í  216í  2
16í 
 in 1 layer(s)  in 1 layer(s)  in 1
layer(s) 
Ast Reqd 0.00  0.00 
0.00 
Prov 402.29  402.29 
402.29 
Ld (mm)  752.2  1175.3 
752.2 


BOTTOM  416í  216í + 225í  4
16í 
 in 1 layer(s)  in 1 layer(s)  in 1
layer(s) 
Ast Reqd 632.82  894.99 
632.82 
Prov 804.57  1384.43 
804.57 
Ld (mm)  752.2  1175.3 
752.2 


===================================================================
=========
11B.7 Verification Example
Sample example showing calculation of design shear force as per Clause 6.3.3
International Design Codes Manual — 466
Figure 11B.1  Example problem
11B.7.1 For Beam No. 1 and 2
Section width, b = 250 mm and depth, D = 500 mm
Characteristic strength of steel, fy = 415 N/mm
2
Characteristic strength of concrete, fck = 20 N/mm
2
Clear cover to the main reinforcing bar = 25 mm
Bar diameter = 12 mm
Effective depth, d = 469 mm
Eudl, w = 6.5 N/mm
2
Length, L = 4,000 mm
A
st_Top_A
= 339.29 mm
2
A
st_Bot_A
= 226.19 mm
2
A
st_Top_B
= 226.19 mm
2
A
st_Bot_B
= 339.29 mm
2
Steps
Calculation of Simple Shear
Simple shear from
gravity load on span =
Va = Vb = 1.2 * w * L / 2 = 15600N
Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided
Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A Mu,
as =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d *
( 1  Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 36768130.05 N
Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A
Micah =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d *
( 1  Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 54003057.45 N
467 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Sagging Moment Of
Resistance of End A Mu,
bs =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d *
( 1  Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck)
= 54003057.45 N
Hogging Moment Of
Resistance of End A Mob
=
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1  Ast_
Top_B* fy / b * d * fck)
= 36768130.05 N
Calculation of shear force due to the formation of a plastic hinge at both ends of the beam
plus the factored gravity load on the span.
Figure 11B.2  Sway to right
FIG1: SWAY TO RIGHT
Vur,a = Va  1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 10137.69104 N
Vur,b = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 41337.69104 N
Figure 11B.3  Sway to left
Vul,a = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ]
=
53402.14022 N
Vul,b = Va  1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] =  22202.14022 N
Design Shear Force
Shear Force From Analysis At End A , Va,anl = 11.56 N
Design Shear Force At End A, Vu,a = Max ( Va,anl, Vur,a, Vul,a) = 53402.14022 N
Shear Force From Analysis At End B , Vb,anl = 6.44 N
Design Shear Force At End B, Vu,b = Max ( Vb,anl, Vur,b, Vul,b) = 41337.69104 N
11B.7.2 For Beam No. 3
Section width, b 300 mm
International Design Codes Manual — 468
Section depth, D 450 mm
Characteristic Strength of Steel fy 415 N/sq. mm
Characteristic Strength of Concrete fck 20 N/sq. mm
Clear cover to the main reinforcing bar 25 mm
Bar Diameter 12 mm
Effective Depth, d = 450 mm  25 mm  12 mm/2 =
419 mm
Eudl w 6.5 N/sq. mm
Length L 3000 mm
Ast_Top_A 226.19 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_A 339.29 sq. mm
Ast_Top_B 452.39 sq. mm
Ast_Bot_B 226.19 sq. mm
Calculation of Simple Shear
Simple shear
from gravity
load on span =
Va = Vb = 1.2 * w * L / 2 = 11700N
Calculation of Moment Of Resistances Based On Area Of Steel Provided
Sagging
Moment Of
Resistance of
End A Mu,as =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_A * d *
( 1  Ast_Bot_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 48452983 N
469 — STAAD.Pro
11B. Indian Codes  Concrete Design per IS 13920
Hogging
Moment Of
Resistance of
End A Mu,ah =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_A * d *
( 1  Ast_Top_A * fy / b * d * fck)
= 32940364.5 N
Sagging
Moment Of
Resistance of
End A Mu,bs =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Bot_B * d *
( 1  Ast_Bot_B * fy / b * d * fck)
= 32940364.5 N
Hogging
Moment Of
Resistance of
End A Mu,bh =
0.87 * fy * Ast_Top_B * d * ( 1  Ast_Top_B* fy / b *
d * fck)
= 63326721.3 N
Calculation of shear force due to the formation of a plastic hinge at both ends of the beam
plus the factored gravity load on the span.
Figure 11B.4  Sway to right
Vur,a = Va  1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 40463.862 N
Vur,b = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,as + Mu,bh ) / L ] = 63863.862 N
Sway to left
Vul,a = Va + 1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = 42444.3402 N
Vul,b = Va  1.4 [ ( Mu,ah + Mu,bs ) / L ] = 15144.34 N
Design Shear Force
Shear Force From Analysis At End A , Va,anl = 10.31 N
Design Shear Force At End A, Vu,a = Max ( Va,
anl, Vur,a, Vul,a) =
42444.3402 N
Shear Force From Analysis At End B , Vb,anl = 23.81 N
Design Shear Force At End B, Vu,b = Max ( Vb,
anl, Vur,b, Vul,b) =
63863.862 N
International Design Codes Manual — 470
471 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Indian code IS 800  1984
General construction in steel  Code of practice.
Design of members per IS 800 requires the STAAD Indian Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
Note: Steel design per the limit state method in IS 800 is also available in the Steel
Design mode in the Graphical User Interface.
11C.1 Design Operations
STAAD contains a broad set of facilities for designing structural members as individual
components of an analyzed structure. The member design facilities provide the user with the
ability to carry out a number of different design operations. These facilities may be used
selectively in accordance with the requirements of the design problem. The operations to
perform a design are:
l Specify the members and the load cases to be considered in the design.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.
l Specify design parameter values, if different from the default values.
l Specify whether to perform member selection by optimization.
These operations may be repeated by the user any number of times depending upon the design
requirements. The entire ISI steel section table is supported. Section 11C.13 describes the
specification of steel sections.
11C.2 General Comments
This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of Indian
Standard code of practice (IS:8001984) for structural steel design in STAAD. The design
philosophy and procedural logistics for member selection and code checking are based upon
the principles of allowable stress design. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by
overstressing, and failure by stability considerations. The flowing sections describe the salient
features of the allowable stresses being calculated and the stability criteria being used.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceeding the allowable stresses
and the most economic section is selected on the basis of least weight criteria. The code
checking part of the program checks stability and strength requirements and reports the
critical loading condition and the governing code criteria. It is generally assumed that the
user will take care of the detailing requirements like provision of stiffeners and check the local
effects such as flange buckling and web crippling.
11C.3 Allowable Stresses
The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon the allowable stress design
method as per IS:800 (1984). It is a method for proportioning structural members using design
loads and forces, allowable stresses, and design limitations for the appropriate material under
service conditions. It would not be possible to describe every aspect of IS:800 in this manual.
International Design Codes Manual — 472
This section, however, will discuss the salient features of the allowable stresses specified by
IS:800 and implemented in STAAD. Appropriate sections of IS:800 will be referenced during
the discussion of various types of allowable stresses.
11C.3.1 Axial Stress
Tensile Stress
The allowable tensile stress, as calculated in STAAD as per IS:800 is described below.
The permissible stress in axial tension, σ
at
in MPa on the net effective area of the sections
shall not exceed
σ
at
= 0.6·f
y
Where:
f
y
= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa
Compressive Stress
Allowable compressive stress on the gross section of axially loaded compression members shall
not exceed 0.6·f
y
nor the permissible stress σ
ac
calculated based on the following equation (per
Clause: 5.1.1):
σ
ac
= 0.6{( f
cc
· f
y
)/[( f
cc
)
n
+ (f
y
)
n
]
1/n
}
Where:
σ
ac
= Permissible stress in axial compression, in Mpa
f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in Mpa
f
cc
= Elastic critical stress in compression = π
2
E/λ
2
E = Modulus of elasticity of steel, 2 X 10
5
Mpa
λ=l/r = Slenderness ratio of the member, ratio of the effective length to
appropriate radius of gyration
n = A factor assumed as 1.4.
11C.3.2 Bending Stress
The allowable bending stress in a member subjected to bending is calculated based on the
following formula: (Clause: 6.2.1)
σ
bt
or σ
bc
= 0.66 f
y
Where:
σ
bt
= Bending stress in tension
σ
bc
= Bending stress in compression
f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in MPa
473 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
For an Ibeam or channel with equal flanges bent about the axis of maximum strength (zz
axis), the maximum bending compressive stress on the extreme fibre calculated on the effective
section shall not exceed the values of maximum permissible bending compressive stress. The
maximum permissible bending compressive stress shall be obtained by the following formula:
(Clause: 6.2.2)
=
+
σ 0.66
bc
f f
f f
( ) ( )
cb y
cb
n
y
n
n 1/
Clause 6.2.3
Where:
f
y
= Yield stress of steel, in Mpa
n = A factor assumed as 1.4.
f
cb
= Elastic critical stress in bending, calculated by the following formula:
=
+
f k X k Y
cb
c
c
1 2
2
1
Where:
= + X Y 1
π
r D
1
20
y
2
in MPa
= Y
r
( )
26.5(10)
1 /
y
5
2
k
1
= a coefficient to allow for reduction in thickness or breadth of flanges
between points of effective lateral restraint and depends on ψ, the ratio of the
total area of both flanges at the point of least bending moment to the
corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment between such
points of restraint.
k
2
= a coefficient to allow for the inequality of flanges, and depends on ω,
the ratio of the moment of inertia of the compression flange alone to that of the
sum of the moment of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to
the yyaxis of the girder, at the point of maximum bending moment.
1 = effective length of compression flange
r
y
= radius of gyration of the section about its axis of minimum
strength (yy axis)
T = mean thickness of the compression flange, is equal to the area of
horizontal portion of flange divided by width.
D = overall depth of beam
c
1
,c
2
= respectively the lesser and greater distances from the section neutral
axis to the extreme fibres.
International Design Codes Manual — 474
11C.3.3 Shear Stress
Allowable shear stress calculations are based on Section 6.4 of IS:800. For shear on the web,
the gross section taken into consideration consist of the product of the total depth and the
web thickness. For shear parallel to the flanges, the gross section is taken as 2/3 times the
total flange area.
11C.3.4 Combined Stress
Members subjected to both axial and bending stresses are proportioned accordingly to section
7 of IS:800. All members subject to bending and axial compression are required to satisfy the
equation of Section 7.1.1.(a) for intermediate points, and equation of Section 7.1.1.(b) for
support points.
For combined axial tension and bending the equation of Section 7.1.2. is required to be
satisfied.
Cm coefficients are calculated according to the specifications of Section 7.1.3. information
regarding occurrence of sidesway can be provided through the use of parameters SSY and SSZ.
In the absence of any user provided information, sidesway will be assumed.
11C.4 Design Parameters
In STAAD implementation of IS:800, the user is allowed complete control of the design
process through the use of design parameters. Available design parameters to be used in
conjunction with IS:800 are listed in Table 7B.1 of this section along with their default values
and applicable restrictions. Users should note that when the TRACK parameter is set to 1.0
and use in conjunction with this code, allowable bending stresses in compression (FCY &
FCZ), tension (FTY & FTZ), and allowable shear stress (FV) will be printed out in Member
Selection and Code Check output in Mpa. When TRACK is set to 2.0, detailed design output
will be provided.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter Name Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as
INDIAN
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference
Manual.
Table 11C.1Indian Steel Design IS 800:1984 Parameters
475 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
Parameter Name Default Value Description
BEAM 3.0 0.0 = design only for end
moments and those at
locations specified by the
SECTION command.
1.0 = calculate section
forces at twelfth points
along the beam, design at
each intermediate location
and report the critical
location where ratio is
maximum.
CMY
CMZ
0.85 for sidesway
and
calculated for no
sidesway
Cm value in local y & z
axes
DFF None
(Mandatory for
deflection check)
"Deflection Length" /
Maxm. allowable local
deflection
DJ1 Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting
point for calculation of
"Deflection Length" (See
Note 1)
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end
point for calculation of
"Deflection Length" (See
Note 1)
DMAX 100.0 cm. Maximum allowable depth.
DMIN 0.0 cm. Minimum allowable depth.
FYLD 250 MPA
(36.25 KSI)
Yield strength of steel.
KY 1.0 K value in local yaxis.
Usually, this is minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local zaxis.
Usually, this is major axis.
LY Member Length Length in local yaxis to
calculate slenderness ratio.
International Design Codes Manual — 476
Parameter Name Default Value Description
LZ Member Length Same as above except in
local zaxis (major).
MAIN 180 (Comp. Memb.) Allowable Kl/r for
slenderness calculations for
compression members.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for
tension members.
PROFILE  Used to search for the
lightest section for the
profile(s) specified for
member selection. See
Section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference
Manual for details.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the
actual to allowable stresses.
SSY 0.0 0.0 = Sidesway in local y
axis.
1.0 = No sidesway
SSZ 0.0 Same as above except in
local zaxis.
TMAIN 400 (Tension
Memb)
Allowable Kl/r for
slenderness calculations for
tension members.
TRACK 0.0 0.0 = Suppress critical
member stresses
1.0 = Print all critical
member stresses
2.0 = Print expanded
output. If there is
deflection check it will also
print the governing load
case number for deflection
check whenever critical
condition for design is not
DEFLECTION.
(see fig.8B.1)
477 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
Parameter Name Default Value Description
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as
a fraction of actual
member length.
UNL Member Length Unsupported length for
calculating allowable
bending stress.
11C.4.1 Notes
a. "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation of local
deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the "Deflection
Length" will be equal to the length of the member. However, in some situations, the
"Deflection Length" may be different. A straight line joining DJ1 and DJ2 is used as the
reference line from which local deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four joints
and three members. The “Deflection Length” for all three members will be equal to the
total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be used to
model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1 and DJ2 should
be 4.
D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.
PARAMETERS
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL
b. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and
local deflections will be measured from original member line.
International Design Codes Manual — 478
c. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for
steel design.
11C.5 Stability Requirements
Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate
maximum values. Section 3.7 of IS:800 summarizes the maximum slenderness ratios for
different types of members. In STAAD implementation of IS:800, appropriate maximum
slenderness ratio can be provided for each member. If no maximum slenderness ratio is
provided, compression members will be checked against a maximum value of 180 and tension
members will be checked against a maximum value of 400.
11C.6 Truss Members
As mentioned earlier, a truss member is capable of carrying only axial forces. So in design no
time is wasted in calculating bending or shear stresses, thus reducing design time
considerably. Therefore, if there is any truss member in an analysis (like bracing or strut, etc.),
it is wise to declare it as a truss member rather than as a regular frame member with both
ends pinned.
11C.7 Deflection Check
This facility allows the user to consider deflection as a criteria in the CODE CHECK and MEMBER
SELECTION processes. The deflection check may be controlled using three parameters which
are described in Table 11C.1. Note that deflection is used in addition to other strength and
stability related criteria. The local deflection calculation is based on the latest analysis results.
11C.8 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying
applicable design code requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:800 (1984)
requirements. Forces and moments at specified sections of the members are utilized for the
code checking calculations. Sections may be specified using the BEAM parameter or the
SECTION command. If no sections are specified, the code checking is based on forces and
moments at the member ends.
The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical
condition (applicable IS:800 clause no.), governing load case, location (distance from the
start) and magnitudes of the governing forces and moments are also printed out.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
11C.9 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis
has been performed, the program can select the most economical section, that is, the lightest
section, which satisfies the applicable code requirements. The section selected will be of the
same type (ISection, Channel etc.) as originally specified by the user. Member selection may
be performed with all types of steel sections listed in Section 11C.12 and user provided tables.
479 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
Selection of members, whose properties are originally provided from user specified table, will
be limited to sections in the user provided table. Member selection can not be performed on
members whose cross sectional properties are specified as PRISMATIC.
The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using the parameters listed in Table
11C.1. It may be noted that the parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member
depth constraints for selection. If PROFILE parameter is provided, the search for the lightest
section is restricted to that profile. Up to three (3) profiles may be provided for any member
with a section being selected from each one.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
11C.10 Member Selection By Optimization
Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized. The optimization method
utilizes a stateofthe art numerical technique which requires automatic multiple analysis.
The user may start without a specifically designated section. However, the section profile type
(BEAM, COLUMN, CHANNEL, ANGLE etc.) must be specified using the ASSIGN command
(see Chapter 6). The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and
corresponding force distributions. An optimum member size is determined through successive
analysis/design iterations. This method requires substantial computer time and hence should
be used with caution.
Refer to Section 5.48.4 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional details.
11C.11 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
For code checking or member selection, the program produces the result in a tabulated
fashion. The items in the output table are explained as follows:
MEMBER
the member number for which the design is performed
TABLE
the INDIAN steel section name which has been checked against the steel code or
has been selected.
RESULT
prints whether the member has PASSED or FAILed. If the RESULT is FAIL, there
will be an asterisk (*) mark in front of the member number.
CRITICAL COND
the section of the IS:800 code which governs the design.
RATIO
prints the ratio of the actual stresses to allowable stresses for the critical condition.
Normally a value of 1.0 or less will mean the member has passed.
LOADING
provides the load case number which governs the design.
International Design Codes Manual — 480
FX, MY, and MZ
provide the axial force, moment in local yaxis and moment in local zaxis
respectively. Although STAAD does consider all the member forces and moments
(except torsion) to perform design, only FX,MY and MZ are printed since they are
the ones which are of interest, in most cases.
LOCATION
specifies the actual distance from the start of the member to the section where
design forces govern.
Note: If the parameter TRACK is set to 1.0, the program will block out part of the table
and will print allowable bending stresses in compression (FCY & FCZ) and tension
(FTY & FTZ), allowable axial stress in compression (FA), and allowable shear stress
(FV). When the parameter TRACK is set to 2.0 for all members parameter code
values are as shown in the following example.
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  ( IS
800) v1.0
********************************************


 Y
PROPERTIES 
*************  IN
CM UNIT 
 * ============================= ====== 
 
MEMBER 7 *  INDIAN SECTIONS   AX
= 85.0 
 *  ST ISWB400   Z AY
= 34.4 
DESIGN CODE *    AZ
= 34.7 
 IS800 * =============================== ====== SY
= 138.8 
 * SZ
= 1171.3 
 * <LENGTH (ME= 3.00 > RY
= 4.0 
************* RZ
= 16.6 


 112.1( KNMETR)

PARAMETER L1
STRESSES 
IN NEWT MM  IN
NEWT MM
 + 

481 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
 KL/RY= 74.2  FA
= 150.0 
 KL/RZ= 18.1 + fa
= 1.0 
 UNL = 3000.0  FCZ
= 139.9 
 C = 400.0 + FTZ
= 165.0 
 CMY = 0.60  FCY
= 165.0 
 CMZ = 0.40 + FTY
= 165.0 
 FYLD = 249.9  L3 fbz
= 95.7 
 NSF = 0.9 ++++++++++ fby
= 0.0 
 DFF = 0.0 90.5 FV
= 100.0 
 dff = 0.0 ABSOLUTE MZ ENVELOPE fv
= 17.1 
 (WITH LOAD NO.)



 MAX FORCE/ MOMENT SUMMARY ( KNMETR)

 



 AXIAL SHEARY SHEARZ MOMENTY
MOMENTZ 


 VALUE 23.9 60.6 0.0 0.0
112.1 
 LOCATION 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0
0.0 
 LOADING 3 1 0 0
1 


******************************************************************
********
*
*
* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KNMETR)
*
* 
*
*
*
International Design Codes Manual — 482
* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
*
 FX MY MZ LOCATION

 ======================================================

 PASS 7.1.2 BEND C 0.684 1

 7.39 T 0.0 112.1 0.00

*
*
*****************************************************************
*********
11C.12 Indian Steel Table
This is an important feature of the program since the program will read section properties of
a steel member directly from the latest ISI steel tables (as published in ISI800). These
properties are stored in memory corresponding to the section designation (e.g., ISMB250,
etc.). If called for, the properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are
built in to these tables, shear deformation is always considered for these members.
Almost all ISI steel tables are available for input. A complete listing of the sections available
in the builtin steel section library may be obtained using the tools of the graphical user
interface.
Following are the descriptions of all the types of sections available:
11C.12.1 Rolled Steel Beams (ISJB, ISLB, ISMB and ISHB)
All rolled steel beam sections are available the way they are designated in the ISI handbook
(e.g., ISJB225, ISWB400, etc.)
20 TO 30 TA ST ISLB325
Note: In case of two identical beams, the heavier beam is designated with an ‘A” on the
end (e.g., ISHB400 A, etc.).
1 TO 5 TA ST ISHB400A
11C.12.2 Rolled Steel Channels (ISJC, ISLC and ISMC)
All these shapes are available as listed in ISI section handbook. Designation of the channels
are per the scheme used by ISI.
10 TO 20 BY 2 TA ST ISMC125
12 TA ST ISLC300
483 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
11C.12.3 Double Channels
Back to back double channels, with or without spacing between them, are available. The letter
D in front of the section name will specify a double channel (e.g., D ISJC125, D ISMC75, etc.).
21 22 24 TA D ISLC225
11C.12.4 Rolled Steel Angles
Both rolled steel equal angles and unequal angles are available for use in the STAAD
implementation of ISI steel tables. The following example with explanations will be helpful in
understanding the input procedure:
At present there is no standard way to define the local y and z axes for an angle section. The
standard section has local axis system as illustrated in Fig.2.4 of this manual. The standard
angle is specified as:
51 52 53 TA ST ISA60X60X6
This specification has the local zaxis (i.e., the minor axis corresponding to the VV axis
specified in the steel tables. Many engineers are familiar with a convention used by some other
programs in which the local yaxis is the minor axis. STAAD provides for this convention by
accepting the command:
54 55 56 TA RA ISA50X30X6
Hint: RA denotes reverse angle
11C.12.5 Double Angles
Short leg backtoback or long leg backtoback double angles can be specified by inputting
the word SD or LD, respectively, in front of the angle size. In case of an equal angle either LD
or SD will serve the purpose. For example,
14 TO 20 TA LD ISA50X30X5 SP 1.5
23 27 TA SD ISA75X50X6
International Design Codes Manual — 484
11C.12.6 Rolled Tees (ISHT, ISST, ISLT and ISJT)
All the rolled tee sections are available for input as they are specified in the ISI handbook.
The following example illustrates the designated method.
1 2 5 8 TA ST ISNT100
67 68 TA ST ISST250
11C.12.7 Pipes (Circular Hollow Sections)
To designate circular hollow sections from ISI tables, use PIP followed by the numerical value
of diameter and thickness of the section in mm omitting the decimal section of the value
provided for diameter. The following example will illustrate the designation.
10 15 TA ST PIP 213.2
specifies a 213 mm dia. pipe with 3.2 mm wall thickness
Circular pipe sections can also be specified by providing the outside and inside diameters of
the section. For example,
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE OD 25.0ID 20.0
specifies a pipe with outside dia. of 25 and inside dia. of 20 in current length units
Only code checking and no member selection will be performed if this type of specification is
used.
11C.12.8 Tubes (Rectangular or Square Hollow Sections)
Designation of tubes from the ISI steel table is illustrated below.
For example,
15 TO 25 TA ST TUB 160808
Tubes, like pipes, can also be input by their dimensions (Height, Width and Thickness) and
not by any table designations.
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
is a tube that has a height of 8, a width of 6, and a wall thickness of 0.5.
485 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
Note: Only code checking and no member selection is performed for TUBE sections
specified this way.
11C.12.9 Plate And Angle Girders (With Flange Plates)
All plate and angle grinders (with flange plates) are available as listed in ISI section handbook.
The following example with explanations will be helpful in understanding the input
procedure.
A. Plate and angle girder symbol.
B. Web plate width in mm.
C. Web plate thickness in mm.
D. Flange angle, A X B X t, all in mm.
Symbol Angle
A 150X150X18
B 200X100X15
C 200X150X18
E 200X200X18
Table 11C.2Flange angle key
E. Flange plate width in mm.
F. Flange plate thickness in mm.
11C.12.10 Single Joist with Channels and Plates on the
Flanges to be Used as Girders
All single joist with channel and plates on the flanges to be used as girders are available as
listed in ISI section handbook. The following example with explanations will be helpful in
understanding the input procedure.
International Design Codes Manual — 486
A. Joist Designation
IW450 = ISWB450
B. Top flange channel designation:
350 = ISMC350
C. Constant (always X).
D. Top flange plate thickness in mm.
Note: D = 0 for no plate.
E. Bottom flange plate thickness in mm.
Note: The heavier ISWB600 has been omitted, since the lighter ISWB600 is more
efficient.
11C.13 Column With Lacings And Battens
For columns with large loads it is desirable to build rolled sections at a distance and inter
connect them. The joining of element sections is done by two ways:
a. Lacing
b. Batten
Double channel sections (backtoback and facetoface) can be joined either by lacing or by
batten plates having riveted or welded connection.
Table 11C.3 gives the parameters that are required for Lacing or batten design. These
parameters will have to be provided in unit NEW MMS along with parameters defined in
Table 11C.1.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
487 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CTYPE 1 Type of joining
1. implies single lacing with
riveted connection
2. implies double lacing with
riveted connection
3. implies single lacing with
welded connection
4. implies double lacing with
welded connection
5. implies batten with riveted
connection
6. implies batten with welded
connection
COG 0.0 mm Center of gravity of the channel. This
parameter is used when member
properties are defined through user
provided table using GENERAL option.
DBL 20 mm Nominal diameter of rivet
DCFR 0.0 Used when member properties are
defined through user provided table
using GENERAL option.
0. double channel backtoback.
1. double channel facetoface.
EDIST 32 mm
(Rivetted
Connection)
25 mm
(Welded
Connection)
Edge Distance.
FVB 100 N/mm
2
Allowable shear stress in rivet
FYB 300 N/mm
2
Allowable bearing stress in rivet
Table 11C.3Parameters used in Indian Lacing or Batten steel member
design.
International Design Codes Manual — 488
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
SPA 0.0 mm Spacing between double channels.
This parameter is used when member
properties are defined through user
provided table using GENERAL option.
THETA 50 degree Angle of inclination of lacing bars. It
should lie between 40 degree and 70
degree.
WMIN 6 mm Minimum thickness of weld
WSTR 108 N/mm
2
Allowable welding stress
489 — STAAD.Pro
11C. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800  1984
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Indian code IS 802 1995 Use of
Structural Steel in Overhead Transmission Line Towers  Code of Practice.
Design of members per IS 802 requires the STAAD Indian Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
11D.1 General Comments
This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of Indian
Standard code of practice (IS:8021995 – Part 1) for structural steel design for overhead
transmission line towers in STAAD. The design philosophy and procedural logistics for
member selection and code checking are based upon the principles of allowable stress design.
Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing, and failure by stability
considerations. The flowing sections describe the salient features of the allowable stresses being
calculated and the stability criteria being used. Members are proportioned to resist the design
loads without exceeding the allowable stresses and the most economic section is selected on
the basis of least weight criteria. The code checking part of the program checks stability and
strength requirements and reports the critical loading condition and the governing code
criteria.
11D.2 Allowable Stresses
The member design and code checking in STAAD are based upon the allowable stress design
method as per IS:802 (1995). It is a method for proportioning structural members using design
loads and forces, allowable stresses, and design limitations for the appropriate material under
service conditions.
This section discusses the salient features of the allowable stresses specified by IS:802 and
implemented in STAAD.
11D.2.1 Axial Stress
Tensile Stress
The allowable tensile stress, as calculated in STAAD as per IS:802 is described below.
The estimated tensile stresses on the net effective sectional area in various members,
multiplied by the appropriate factor of safety shall not exceed minimum guaranteed yield
stress of the material.
Thus, the permissible stress in axial tension, σ
at
in MPa on the net effective area of the sections
shall not exceed
σ
at
= F
y
Where:
F
y
= minimum yield stress of steel in Mpa
International Design Codes Manual — 490
Compressive Stress
The estimated compressive stresses in various members multiplied by the appropriate factor of
safety shall not exceed the value given by the formulae described below.
I. Condition: when (b/t) ≤ [ (b/t)
lim
= 210/√F
y
]:
i. When KL/r ≤ C
c
, the allowable compressive stress is (in N/mm
2
)
F
a
= F
y
{1  0.5[(KL/r)/C
c
]
2
}
ii. When KL/r > C
c
, the allowable compressive stress is (in N/mm
2
)
F
a
= π
2
E/(KL/r)
2
II. Condition: when (b/t)
lim
< (b/t) ≤ 378/√F
y
:
The equations in condition 1 shall be used, substituting for F
y
the value F
cr
given by:
F
cr
= F
y
[1.677  0.677·(b/t)/(b/t)
lim
]
III. Condition: when (b/t) > 378/√F
y
The equations in condition 1 shall be used, substituting for F
y
the value F
cr
given by:
F
cr
= 65,550/(b/t)
Where:
F
a
= allowable unit stress in compression, Mpa
F
y
= minimum guaranteed yield stress of the material, Mpa
K = restraint factor,
L = unbraced length of the compression member in cm, and
R = appropriate radius of gyration in cm.
E = modulus of elasticity of steel in N/mm
2
KL/r = largest effective slenderness ratio of any unbraced segment of the
member,
b = distance from edge of the fillet to the extreme fibre in mm, and
t = thickness of flange in mm.
Note: The maximum permissible value of b/t for any type of steel shall not exceed 25.
11D.3 Stability Requirements
Slenderness ratios are calculated for all members and checked against the appropriate
maximum values. Following are the default values used in STAAD:
491 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
11D.3.1 Compression Member
Type of Member Slenderness
Limit
Leg Members, ground wire peak
member and lower members of cross
arms in compression
120
Other members carrying computed
stress
200
Redundant members and those
carrying nominal stresses
250
Table 11D.1Slenderness ratio limits of compression
members
Slenderness ratios of compression members are determined as follows:
ELA
Value
Type of Member Calculation
of KL/r
1 Leg sections or joint members bolted at
connections in both faces
L/r
2 Members with concentric loading at both ends of
the unsupported panel with values of L/r up to and
including 120
L/r
3 Member with concentric loading at one end and
normal eccentricities at the other end of the
unsupported panel for value of L/r up to and
including 120
30 + 0.75L/r
4 Members with normal framing eccentricities at
both ends of the unsupported panel for values of
L/r up to and including 120
60 + 0.5L/r
5 Member unrestrained against rotation at both ends
of the unsupported panel for value of L/r from 120
to 200
L/r
6 Members partially restrained against rotation at
one end of the unsupported panel for values of L/r
over 120 and up to and including 225
28.6 +
0.762L/r
Table 11D.2Compression slenderness ratio calculation depending on ELA
parameter
International Design Codes Manual — 492
ELA
Value
Type of Member Calculation
of KL/r
7 Members partially restrained against rotation at
both ends of the unsupported panel for values of
L/r over 120 and up to and including 250
46.2 +
0.615L/r
If the value for ELA is given in the input for any particular member is such that condition for
L/r ratio to fall within the specified range is not satisfied, STAAD goes on by the usual way of
finding slenderness ratio using KL/r formula.
11D.3.2 Tension Members
Slenderness ratio KL/r of a member carrying axial tension only, shall not exceed 400.
11D.4 Minimum Thickness Requirement
As per Clause7.1 of IS: 8021995 minimum thickness of different tower members shall be as
follows:
Members Minimum Thickness (mm)
Galvanized Painted
Leg Members, ground wire peak member and lower
members of cross arms in compression
5 6
Other members 4 5
11D.5 Code Checking
The purpose of code checking is to verify whether the specified section is capable of satisfying
applicable design code requirements. The code checking is based on the IS:802 (1995)
requirements. Axial forces at two ends of the members are utilized for the code checking
calculations.
The code checking output labels the members as PASSed or FAILed. In addition, the critical
condition, governing load case, location (distance from the start) and magnitudes of the
governing forces are also printed out. Using TRACK 9 option calculation steps are also printed.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
11D.5.1 Design Steps
The following are the steps used by the program in member design:
1. Thickness of the member (maximum of web and flange thicknesses) is checked against
minimum allowable thickness, depending upon whether the member is painted or
galvanized.
493 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
2. If the minimum thickness criterion is fulfilled, the program determines whether the
member is under compression or tension for the load case under consideration.
Depending upon whether the member is under tension or compression the slenderness
ratio of the member is calculated. This calculated ratio is checked against allowable
slenderness ratio.
3. If the slenderness criterion is fulfilled check against allowable stress is performed.
Allowable axial and tensile stresses are calculated. If the member is under tension and
there is no user defined net section factor (NSF), the net section factor is calculated by
the program itself (See "Calculation of Net Section Factor" on page 500). Actual axial
stress in the member is calculated. The ratio for actual stress to allowable stress, if less
than 1.0 or user defined value, the member has passed the check.
4. Number of bolts required for the critical load case is calculated.
11D.6 Member Selection
STAAD is capable of performing design operations on specified members. Once an analysis has
been performed, the program can select the most economical section, that is, the lightest
section, which satisfies the applicable code requirements. The section selected will be of the
same type (either angle or channel) as originally specified by the user. Member selection may
be performed with all angle or channel sections and user provided tables. Selection of
members, whose properties are originally provided from user specified table, will be limited to
sections in the user provided table.
The process of MEMBER SELECTION may be controlled using the parameters listed in Table
9C.3. It may be noted that the parameters DMAX and DMIN may be used to specify member
depth constraints for selection. If PROFILE parameter is provided, the search for the lightest
section is restricted to that profile. Up to three (3) profiles may be provided for any member
with a section being selected from each one.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
11D.7 Member Selection by Optimization
Steel section selection of the entire structure may be optimized. The optimization method
utilizes a stateofthe art numerical technique which requires automatic multiple analysis.
The optimization is based on member stiffness contributions and corresponding force
distributions.
An optimum member size is determined through successive analysis/design iterations. This
method requires substantial computer time and hence should be used with caution.
Refer to Section 5.48.4 of the Technical Reference Manual for additional details.
11D.8 Tabulated Results of Steel Design
An example of a TRACK 2.0 output for a compression member is shown here:
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  ( IS802)
International Design Codes Manual — 494
v1.0
********************************************


 Y
PROPERTIES 
*************  IN
CM UNIT 
 * ============================= == == 
 
MEMBER 8 *  INDIAN SECTIONS    AX
= 17.0 
 *  ST ISA125x95x8    Z AY
= 6.7 
DESIGN CODE *     AZ
= 5.1 
 IS802 * =============================== == == SY
= 38.8 
 * SZ
= 16.6 
 * <LENGTH (ME= 1.80 > RY
= 4.4 
************* RZ
= 2.0 




PARAMETER BOLTING
STRESSES 
IN NEWT MM IN
NEWT MM
  

 L/RY = 40.5 BOLT DIA = 12 MM FA
= 188.4 
 L/RZ = 87.9 BOLT CAP = 24.66 KN fa
= 80.7 
 KL/R = 87.9 # BOLT = 6
FYB = 436.0 
 FYLD = 250.0
FVB = 218.0 
 GALVA = 0.0

 C = 1.0

 LEG = 1.0

 ELA = 1.0

 NSF = 1.0

495 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802


******************************************************************
********
*
*
* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KNMETR)
*
* 
*
*
*
* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
*
 FX MY MZ LOCATION

 ======================================================

 PASS COMPRESSION 0.428 1

 137.13 C 0.0 0.0 0.00

*
*
******************************************************************
********




Using TRACK 9.0 also adds the following set of calculation details:
DETAILS OF CALCULATION

CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS

TYPE : PAINTED
MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.0 MM
ACTUAL THICKNESS : 8.0 MM
RESULT : PASS
CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO

VALUE OF L/r : 87.94
EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : L/r
ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 87.94
ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120.00
RESULT : PASS
CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS

CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION
International Design Codes Manual — 496
Cc : sqrt(2*3.14159265*3.14159265*E : 127.53
b : LENGTH OF LEG  WEB THICKNESS  ROOT RADIUS
: 125.0  8.0  9.0 : 108.0 MM
(b/t)lim : 210/sqrt(fy) : 13.28
(b/t)cal : 13.50
(b/t)cal > (b/t)lim
(b/t)lim (modified) : 378/sqrt(fy) : 23.91
(b/t)cal <= (b/t)lim (modified) AND KL/r <= Cc
Fcr : (1.677  (0.677*(b/t)cal/(b/t)lim))*fy : 247.18 MPA
ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP. STRESS : (10.5*(KL/r/Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*Fcr
: 188.41 MPA
CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS

LOAD NO. : 1
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 137131.16 N
ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. STRESS : 137131.16 / 1700.0 : 80.67 MPA
RESULT : PASS
EXAMPLE PROBLEM NO.1 
PAGE NO. 24
BOLTING

BOLT DIA : 12 MM
SHEARING CAP : 24.66 KN
BEARING CAP : 41.86 KN
BOLT CAP : 24.66 KN
NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 6
************** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN **************
11D.9 Design Parameters
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CNSF 0.0 This parameter indicates whether user
has defined the net section factor or
the program will calculate it.
0. Use specified NSF value
1. Net section factor will be
calculated.
Table 11D.3Indian Steel Design IS 802 Parameters
497 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
DANGLE 0.0 This parameter indicates how the pair
of angles are connected to each other.
This is required to find whether the
angle is in single or double shear and
the net section factor.
0. Double angle placed backto
back and connected to each
side of a gusset plate
1. Pair of angle placed backto
back connected by only one leg
of each angle to the same side
of a gusset plate
DBL 12 mm Diameter of bolt for calculation of
number of bolts and net section
factor.
DMAX 100.0 cm. Maximum allowable depth.
DMIN 0.0 cm. Minimum allowable depth.
ELA 1.0 This parameter indicates what type of
end conditions is to be used. Refer
Section 9C.3.
FVB 218 MPA Allowable shear stress in bolt
FYB 436 MPA Allowable bearing stress in bolt
FYLD 250 MPA Yield Strength of steel
GUSSET 5 mm Thickness of gusset plate.
Minimum of the thicknesses of the
gusset plate and the leg is used for
calculation of the capacity of bolt in
bearing
KY 1.0 K value in local yaxis. Usually, this is
minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local zaxis. Usually, this is
major axis.
International Design Codes Manual — 498
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LEG 1.0 This parameter is meant for plain
angles.
0. The angle is connected by
shorter leg
1. The angle is connected by
longer leg
LY Member
Length
Unbraced length in local zaxis to
calculate slenderness ratio.
LZ Member
Length
Unbraced length in local zaxis to
calculate slenderness ratio.
MAIN 1.0 Type of member to find allowable Kl/r
for slenderness calculations for
members.
1. Leg, Ground wire peak and
lower members of cross arms in
compression (KL/r = 120)
2. Members carrying computed
stress (KL/r = 200)
3. Redundant members and
members carrying nominal
stresses (KL/r = 250)
4. Tension members (KL/r = 400)
10. Do not perform KL/r check
Any value greater than 10.0 indicates
user defined allowable KL/r ratio. For
this case KY and KZ values are must
to find actual KL/r ratio of the
member.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members
499 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
NHL 0.0 mm Deduction for holes.
Default value is one bolt width plus
1.5 mm. If the area of holes cut by any
straight, diagonal or zigzag line across
the member is different from the
default value, this parameter is to be
defined.
TRACK 0.0 Level of output detail:
0. Suppress critical member
stresses
1. Print all critical member
stresses
2. Print expanded output.
9. Print design calculations along
with expanded output (not
available in GUI input).
11D.10 Calculation of Net Section Factor
The procedure for calculating the net section factor for an angle section is as follows:
l For a channel section, net section factor is taken to be 1.0.
l For an angle section, it is the ratio of the net effective area, A
net
, to the gross area,
where:
a. Single angle connected by only one leg
A
net
= A
1
+ A
2
· K
1
Where:
A
1
= net crosssectional area of the connected leg
A
2
= gross crosssectional area of the unconnected leg
K
1
= 3·A
1
/(3·A
1
+ A
2
)
The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg – 0.5x thickness
of leg)
b. Pair of angles placed backtoback connected by only one leg of each angle to the
same side of a gusset plate
A
net
= A
1
+ A
2
· K
1
International Design Codes Manual — 500
Where:
A
1
= net crosssectional area of the connected leg
A
2
= gross crosssectional area of the unconnected leg
K
1
= 5·A
1
/(5·A
1
+ A
2
)
The area of a leg of an angle = Thickness of angle x (length of leg – 0.5x
thickness of leg)
c. Double angles placed backtoback and connected to each side of a gusset plate
A
net
= gross area minus the deduction for holes
11D.11 Example Problem No. 28
A transmission line tower is subjected to different loading conditions. Design some members
as per IS802 and show detailed calculation steps for the critical loading condition.
501 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
11D.11.1 Given
End Condition = Members with normal framing eccentricities at both ends of the
unsupported panel for values of L/r up to and including 120
Diameter of the bolt = 16 mm
Thickness of the gusset plate = 8 mm
Net Section Factor is to be calculated.
11D.11.2 STAAD Input File
This input file is included with the program as C:\SProV8i\STAAD\Examp\Ind\Examp28.std.
STAAD TRUSS
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 3 0 3; 2 1.2 27 1.2; 3 2.8 3 2.8; 4 2.6 6 2.6; 5 2.4 9 2.4;
6 2.2 12 2.2; 7 2 15 2; 8 1.8 18 1.8; 9 1.6 21 1.6; 10 1.4 24 1.4;
11 3 0 3; 12 1.2 27 1.2; 13 2.8 3 2.8; 14 2.6 6 2.6; 15 2.4 9
2.4;
16 2.2 12 2.2; 17 2 15 2; 18 1.8 18 1.8; 19 1.6 21 1.6; 20 
1.4 24 1.4;
21 3 0 3; 22 1.2 27 1.2; 23 2.8 3 2.8; 24 2.6 6 2.6; 25 2.4 9
2.4;
26 2.2 12 2.2; 27 2 15 2; 28 1.8 18 1.8; 29 1.6 21 1.6; 30 1.4
24 1.4;
31 3 0 3; 32 1.2 27 1.2; 33 2.8 3 2.8; 34 2.6 6 2.6; 35 
2.4 9 2.4;
36 2.2 12 2.2; 37 2 15 2; 38 1.8 18 1.8; 39 1.6 21 1.6;
40 1.4 24 1.4; 41 1.2 30 1.2; 42 1.2 30 1.2; 43 1.2 30 1.2;
44 1.2 30 1.2; 45 4.2 27 1.2; 46 7.2 27 1.2; 47 4.2 30 1.2; 48
4.2 27 1.2;
49 7.2 27 1.2; 50 4.2 30 1.2; 51 4.2 27 1.2; 52 7.2 27 1.2;
53 4.2 30 1.2; 54 4.2 27 1.2; 55 7.2 27 1.2; 56 4.2 30 1.2;
57 1.2 33 1.2; 58 1.2 33 1.2; 59 1.2 33 1.2; 60 1.2 33 1.2; 61
0 35 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 3; 2 3 4; 3 4 5; 4 5 6; 5 6 7; 6 7 8; 7 8 9; 8 9 10; 9 10 2;
10 11 13;
11 13 14; 12 14 15; 13 15 16; 14 16 17; 15 17 18; 16 18 19; 17 19
20; 18 20 12;
19 13 3; 20 14 4; 21 15 5; 22 16 6; 23 17 7; 24 18 8; 25 19 9; 26
20 10;
International Design Codes Manual — 502
27 12 2; 28 11 3; 29 1 13; 30 13 4; 31 3 14; 32 14 5; 33 15 4; 34
15 6;
35 16 5; 36 16 7; 37 17 6; 38 17 8; 39 18 7; 40 18 9; 41 19 8; 42
19 10;
43 20 9; 44 20 2; 45 12 10; 46 21 23; 47 23 24; 48 24 25; 49 25
26; 50 26 27;
51 27 28; 52 28 29; 53 29 30; 54 30 22; 55 3 23; 56 4 24; 57 5
25; 58 6 26;
59 7 27; 60 8 28; 61 9 29; 62 10 30; 63 2 22; 64 1 23; 65 21 3;
66 3 24;
67 23 4; 68 4 25; 69 5 24; 70 5 26; 71 6 25; 72 6 27; 73 7 26; 74
7 28;
75 8 27; 76 8 29; 77 9 28; 78 9 30; 79 10 29; 80 10 22; 81 2 30;
82 31 33;
83 33 34; 84 34 35; 85 35 36; 86 36 37; 87 37 38; 88 38 39; 89 39
40; 90 40 32;
91 23 33; 92 24 34; 93 25 35; 94 26 36; 95 27 37; 96 28 38; 97 29
39; 98 30 40;
99 22 32; 100 21 33; 101 31 23; 102 23 34; 103 33 24; 104 24 35;
105 25 34;
106 25 36; 107 26 35; 108 26 37; 109 27 36; 110 27 38; 111 28 37;
112 28 39;
113 29 38; 114 29 40; 115 30 39; 116 30 32; 117 22 40; 118 33 13;
119 34 14;
120 35 15; 121 36 16; 122 37 17; 123 38 18; 124 39 19; 125 40 20;
126 32 12;
127 31 13; 128 11 33; 129 33 14; 130 13 34; 131 34 15; 132 35 14;
133 35 16;
134 36 15; 135 36 17; 136 37 16; 137 37 18; 138 38 17; 139 38 19;
140 39 18;
141 39 20; 142 40 19; 143 40 12; 144 32 20; 145 32 44; 146 12 42;
147 2 41;
148 22 43; 149 42 41; 150 41 43; 151 43 44; 152 44 42; 153 12 41;
154 42 2;
155 22 41; 156 43 2; 157 43 32; 158 44 22; 159 12 44; 160 32 42;
161 41 47;
162 47 45; 163 45 2; 164 47 46; 165 46 45; 166 41 45; 167 43 50;
168 50 48;
169 48 22; 170 50 49; 171 49 48; 172 43 48; 173 47 50; 174 46 49;
175 45 48;
176 41 50; 177 50 46; 178 43 47; 179 47 49; 180 22 50; 181 2 47;
182 22 45;
183 2 48; 184 47 48; 185 50 45; 186 45 49; 187 48 46; 188 42 53;
189 53 51;
190 51 12; 191 53 52; 192 52 51; 193 42 51; 194 44 56; 195 56 54;
196 54 32;
197 56 55; 198 55 54; 199 44 54; 200 53 56; 201 52 55; 202 51 54;
203 42 56;
503 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
204 56 52; 205 44 53; 206 53 55; 207 32 56; 208 12 53; 209 32 51;
210 12 54;
211 53 54; 212 56 51; 213 51 55; 214 54 52; 215 44 60; 216 42 58;
217 41 57;
218 43 59; 219 60 59; 220 59 57; 221 57 58; 222 58 60; 223 44 58;
224 42 60;
225 42 57; 226 41 58; 227 44 59; 228 43 60; 229 43 57; 230 41 59;
231 60 57;
232 59 58; 235 33 3; 236 13 23; 237 34 4; 238 14 24; 239 35 5; 240
15 25;
241 36 6; 242 16 26; 243 37 7; 244 17 27; 245 38 8; 246 18 28; 247
39 9;
248 19 29; 249 40 10; 250 20 30; 251 32 2; 252 22 12; 253 44 41;
254 43 42;
255 60 61; 256 58 61; 257 57 61; 258 59 61;
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
1 TO 18 46 TO 54 82 TO 90 145 TO 148 215 TO 218 TA LD
ISA200X150X18 SP 0.01
19 TO 26 28 TO 45 55 TO 62 64 TO 81 91 TO 98 100 TO 125 127 TO 144
155 156 
159 160 223 224 229 230 235 TO 250 TA ST ISA150X150X10
27 63 99 126 149 TO 154 157 158 161 TO 214 219 TO 222 225 TO 228
231 232 251 
252 TO 258 TA ST ISA80X50X6
CONSTANTS
E 2.05E+008 ALL
POISSON 0.3 ALL
DENSITY 76.8195 ALL
ALPHA 6.5E006 ALL
SUPPORTS
1 11 21 31 FIXED
UNIT METER KG
LOAD 1 VERT
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 732
46 49 52 55 FX 153
61 FX 1280 FY 1016 FZ 160
46 49 52 55 FX 9006 FY 7844 FZ 1968
2 12 22 32 FX 4503 FY 3937 FZ 1968
LOAD 2 GWBC
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
International Design Codes Manual — 504
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 515 FY 762 FZ 2342
46 49 52 55 FX 6755 FY 5906
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY 2953
LOAD 3 LEFT PCBC
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 960 FY 762
46 49 FX 6755 FY 5906
52 55 FX 4211 FY 4551 FZ 13293
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY 2953
LOAD 4 RIGHT PCBC
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
JOINT LOAD
61 FX 549
46 49 52 55 FX 1148
61 FX 960 FY 762
52 55 FX 6755 FY 5906
46 49 FX 4211 FY 4551 FZ 13293
2 12 22 32 FX 3378 FY 2953
PERFORM ANALYSIS
UNIT NEW MMS
PARAMETER
CODE IS802
LY 2800 MEMB 28
LZ 2800 MEMB 28
MAIN 1.0 MEMB 1
ELA 4 MEMB 1
CNSF 1.0 MEMB 28
DBL 16 ALL
GUSSET 8 ALL
TRACK 9 ALL
CHECK CODE MEMB 1 28
FINISH
11D.11.3 Output
A portion of the output for the TRACK 9.0 member code check follows:
505 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  ( IS802)
v1.0
********************************************


 Y
PROPERTIES 
*************  IN
CM UNIT 
 * ============================= ==== 
 
MEMBER 1 *  INDIAN SECTIONS   AX
= 120.0 
 *  LD ISA200X150X18   Z AY
= 48.0 
DESIGN CODE *    AZ
= 36.0 
 IS802 *   SY
= 297.3 
 * SZ
= 350.6 
 * <LENGTH (ME= 3.01 > RY
= 6.2 
************* RZ
= 6.3 




PARAMETER BOLTING
STRESSES 
IN NEWT MM IN
NEWT MM
  

 L/RY = 48.6 BOLT DIA = 16 MM FA
= 195.1 
 L/RZ = 47.7 BOLT CAP = 55.81 KN fa
= 145.2 
 KL/R = 84.3 # BOLT = 32 FYB
= 436.0 
 FYLD = 250.0 FVB
= 218.0 
 GALVA = 0.0

 C = 1.0

 LEG = 1.0

 ELA = 4.0

 NSF = 1.0

International Design Codes Manual — 506


*****************************************************************
*********
*
*
* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KNMETR)
*
* 
*
*
*
* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
*
 FX MY MZ LOCATION

 ======================================================

 PASS COMPRESSION 0.744 1

 1742.26 C 0.0 0.0 0.00

*
*
*****************************************************************
*********




STAAD TRUSS 
PAGE NO. 5
DETAILS OF CALCULATION

CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS

TYPE : PAINTED
MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.0 MM
ACTUAL THICKNESS : 18.0 MM
RESULT : PASS
CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO

VALUE OF L/r : 48.63
EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : 60.0 + 0.5*L/r
ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 84.31
ALLOWABLE KL/r : 120.00
RESULT : PASS
CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS

CRITICAL CONDITION : COMPRESSION
507 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
Cc : sqrt(2*3.14159265*3.14159265*E : 127.24
b : LENGTH OF LEG  WEB THICKNESS  ROOT RADIUS
: 200.0  18.0  15.0 : 167.0 MM
(b/t)lim : 210/sqrt(fy) : 13.28
(b/t)cal : 9.28
(b/t)cal <= (b/t)lim AND KL/r <= Cc
ALLOWABLE AXIAL COMP. STRESS : (10.5*(KL/r/Cc)*(KL/r/Cc))*fy
: 195.07 MPA
CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS

LOAD NO. : 1
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 1742259.75 N
ACTUAL AXIAL COMP. STRESS :1742259.75 / 12000.0 : 145.19 MPA
RESULT : PASS
STAAD TRUSS 
PAGE NO. 6
BOLTING

BOLT DIA : 16 MM
SHEARING CAP : 87.66 KN
BEARING CAP : 55.81 KN
BOLT CAP : 55.81 KN
NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 32
STAAD TRUSS 
PAGE NO. 7
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  ( IS802)
v1.0
********************************************


 Y
PROPERTIES 
*************  IN
CM UNIT 
 * ============================= == == 
 
MEMBER 28 *  INDIAN SECTIONS    AX
= 29.2 
 *  ST ISA150X150X10    Z AY
= 10.0 
DESIGN CODE *     AZ
= 10.0 
 IS802 * =============================== == == SY
= 95.7 
 * SZ
= 44.8 
 * <LENGTH (ME= 6.53 > RY
= 5.9 
************* RZ
= 3.0 
International Design Codes Manual — 508




PARAMETER BOLTING
STRESSES 
IN NEWT MM IN
NEWT MM
  

 L/RY = 47.5 BOLT DIA = 16 MM FA
= 249.9 
 L/RZ = 94.0 BOLT CAP = 43.83 KN fa
= 48.5 
 KL/R = 94.0 # BOLT = 3
FYB = 436.0 
 FYLD = 250.0
FVB = 218.0 
 GALVA = 0.0

 C = 1.0

 LEG = 1.0

 ELA = 1.0

 NSF = 0.8



*****************************************************************
*********
*
*
* DESIGN SUMMARY ( KNMETR)
*
* 
*
*
*
* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/
*
 FX MY MZ LOCATION

 ======================================================

 PASS TENSION 0.194 3

 112.86 T 0.0 0.0 6.53

*
*
509 — STAAD.Pro
11D. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 802
******************************************************************
********




STAAD TRUSS 
PAGE NO. 8
DETAILS OF CALCULATION

CHECK FOR MINIMUM THICKNESS

TYPE : PAINTED
MIN. ALLOWABLE THICKNESS : 6.0 MM
ACTUAL THICKNESS : 10.0 MM
RESULT : PASS
CHECK FOR SLENDERNESS RATIO

VALUE OF L/r : 93.96
EQN. USED TO FIND KL/r : K*L/r
ACTUAL VALUE OF KL/r : 93.96
ALLOWABLE KL/r : 400.00
RESULT : PASS
CALCULATION OF ALLOWABLE STRESS

CRITICAL CONDITION : TENSION
ALLOWABLE AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 249.94 MPA
CHECK AGAINST PERMISSIBLE STRESS

LOAD NO. : 3
DESIGN AXIAL FORCE : 112855.91 N
ACTUAL AXIAL TENSILE STRESS : 112855.91 / ( 2920.0*0.797 ) :
48.51 MPA
RESULT : PASS
BOLTING

BOLT DIA : 16 MM
SHEARING CAP : 43.83 KN
BEARING CAP : 55.81 KN
BOLT CAP : 43.83 KN
NO. OF BOLTS REQD. : 3
STAAD TRUSS 
PAGE NO. 9
************** END OF TABULATED RESULT OF DESIGN **************
International Design Codes Manual — 510
511 — STAAD.Pro
11E. Indian Codes  Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel
Code
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Indian code IS 801 1975 Code of
practice for use of cold formed light gauge steel structural members in general building
construction, including revisions dated May, 1988. The program allows design of single (non
composite) members in tension, compression, bending, shear, as well as their combinations.
Cold work of forming strengthening effects has been included as an option.
Design of members per IS 801 requires the STAAD Indian Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
11E.1 CrossSectional Properties
The user specifies the geometry of the crosssection by selecting one of the section shape
designations from the Gross Section Property Tables from IS:8111987 (Specification for cold
formed light gauge structural steel sections).
The Tables are currently available for the following shapes:
l Channel with Lips
l Channel without Lips
l Angle without Lips
l Z with Lips
l Hat
Shape selection may be done using the member property pages of the graphical user interface
(GUI) or by specifying the section designation symbol in the input file.
The properties listed in the tables are gross section properties. STAAD.Pro uses unreduced
section properties in the structure analysis stage. Both unreduced and effective section
properties are used in the design stage, as applicable.
11E.2 Design Procedure
The program calculates effective section properties in accordance with Clause 5.2.1.1. Cross
sectional properties and overall slenderness of members are checked for compliance with
l Clause 6.6.3, Maximum Effective Slenderness Ratio for members in Compression
l Clause 5.2.3, Maximum Flat Width Ratios for Elements in Compression
l Clause 5.2.4, Maximum Section Depths.
The program will check member strength in accordance with Clause 6 of the Standard as
follows:
11E.2.1 Members in tension
Resistance is calculated in accordance with Clauses 6.1
International Design Codes Manual — 512
11E.2.2 Members in bending and shear
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:
l Clause 6.4.1 Shear stress in webs,
l Clause 6.4.2 Bending stress in webs
l Clause 6.4.3 Combined Bending and Shear in Webs.
11E.2.3 Members in compression
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:
l Clause 6.2 Compression on flat unstiffened element,
l Clause 6.6.1.1 Shapes not subject to torsionalflexural buckling,
l Clause 6.6.1.2 Singlysymmetric sections and nonsymmetrical shapes of open cross
section or intermittently fastened singlysymmetrical components of builtup shapes
having Q = 1.0 which may be subject to torsionalflexural buckling,
l Clause 6.6.1.3 Singlysymmetric sections and nonsymmetrical shapes or intermittently
fastened singlysymmetrical components of builtup shapes having Q < 1.0 which may
be subject to torsionalflexural buckling,
l Clause 6.8 Cylindrical Tubular Sections.
11E.2.4 Members in compression and bending
Resistance calculations are based on Clauses:
l All clauses for members in compression
l Clause 6.3 Laterally Unsupported Members,
l Clause 6.7.1 Doublysymmetric shapes or Shapes not subjected to torsional or torsional
flexural buckling
l Clause 6.7.2. Singlysymmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened singlysymmetric
components of builtup shapes having Q=1.0 which may be subjected to torsional
flexural buckling
l Clause 6.7.3. Singlysymmetric shapes or Intermittently fastened singlysymmetric
components of builtup shapes having Q<1.0 which may be subjected to torsional
flexural buckling.
11E.3 Code Checking and Member Selection
The following two design modes are available:
11E.3.1 Code Checking
The program compares the resistance of members with the applied load effects, in accordance
with IS:8011975. Code checking is carried out for locations specified by the user via the
SECTION command or the BEAM parameter. The results are presented in a form of a
513 — STAAD.Pro
11E. Indian Codes  Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
PASS/FAIL identifier and a RATIO of load effect to resistance for each member checked. The
user may choose the degree of detail in the output data by setting the TRACK parameter.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
11E.3.2 Member Selection
The user may request that the program search the cold formed steel shapes database (IS
standard sections) for alternative members that pass the code check and meet the least weight
criterion. In addition, a minimum and/or maximum acceptable depth of the member may be
specified. The program will then evaluate all database sections of the type initially specified
(i.e., channel, angle, etc.) and, if a suitable replacement is found, presents design results for
that section. If no section satisfying the depth restrictions or lighter than the initial one can
be found, the program leaves the member unchanged, regardless of whether it passes the code
check or not.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the specification
of the Member Selection command.
11E.4 Design Parameters
Input for the coefficients of uniform bending must be specified.
The following table contains the input parameters for specifying values of design variables and
selection of design options.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as IS801
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
Table 11E.1Indian cold formed steel design parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 514
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BEAM
1.0 When this parameter is set to
0. the 13 location check is not
conducted, and instead,
checking is done only at the
locations specified by the
SECTION command (See
STAAD manual for details. For
TRUSS members only start and
end locations are designed.
1. the adequacy of the member is
determined by checking a total
of 13 equally spaced locations
along the length of the
member.
CMY 0.85 Coefficient of equivalent uniform
bending Ω
y
. See IS:8011975, 6.7. Used
for Combined axial load and bending
design. Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CMZ 1.0 Coefficient of equivalent uniform
bending Ω
z
. See IS:8011975, 6.7. Used
for Combined axial load and bending
design. Values range from 0.4 to 1.0.
CWY 0.85 Specifies whether the cold work of
forming strengthening effect should be
included in resistance computation.
See IS:8011975, 6.1.1
0. effect should not be included
1. effect should be included
FLX 1 Specifies whether torsionalflexural
buckling restraint is provided or is not
necessary for the member. See IS:801
1975, 6.6.1
0. Section not subject to torsional
flexural buckling
1. Section subject to torsional
flexural buckling
515 — STAAD.Pro
11E. Indian Codes  Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
FU 450 MPa
(4588.72
kg/cm
2
)
Ultimate tensile strength of steel in
current units.
FYLD
353.04 MPa
(3600.0
kg/cm
2
)
Yield strength of steel in current units.
KX 1.0 Effective length factor for torsional
buckling. It is a fraction and is unit
less. Values can range from 0.01 (for a
column completely prevented from
buckling) to any user specified large
value. It is used to compute the KL/R
ratio for twisting for determining the
capacity in axial compression.
KY 1.0 Effective length factor for overall
buckling about the local Yaxis. It is a
fraction and is unitless. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a column
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
KZ 1.0 Effective length factor for overall
buckling in the local Zaxis. It is a
fraction and is unitless. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a member
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
International Design Codes Manual — 516
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LX Member
length
Unbraced length for twisting. It is
input in the current units of length.
Values can range from 0.01 (for a
member completely prevented from
torsional buckling) to any user
specified large value. It is used to
compute the KL/R ratio for twisting
for determining the capacity in axial
compression.
LY Member
length
Effective length for overall buckling in
the local Yaxis. It is input in the
current units of length. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a member
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
LZ Member
length
Effective length for overall buckling in
the local Zaxis. It is input in the
current units of length. Values can
range from 0.01 (for a member
completely prevented from buckling)
to any user specified large value. It is
used to compute the KL/R ratio for
determining the capacity in axial
compression.
MAIN 0 0 – Check slenderness ratio
0 – Do not check slenderness ratio
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension members
DMAX 2540.0
cm.
Maximum allowable depth, in the
current units.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of actual to allowable
stresses
STIFF Member
Length
Spacing of shear stiffeners for stiffened
flat webs, in current units.
517 — STAAD.Pro
11E. Indian Codes  Design per Indian Cold Formed Steel Code
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TRACK 0 This parameter is used to control the
level of detail in which the design
output is reported in the output file.
The allowable values are:
0. Prints only the member
number, section name, ratio,
and PASS/FAIL status.
1. Prints the design summary in
addition to that printed by
TRACK 0
2. Prints member and material
properties in addition to that
printed by TRACK 1.
TSA 1 Specifies whether webs of flexural
members are adequately stiffened to
satisfy the requirements of IS:8011975,
5.2.4.
0. Do not comply with 5.2.4
1. Comply with 5.2.4
International Design Codes Manual — 518
519 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Indian code IS 800  2007
General construction in steel  Code of practice.
Design of members per IS 800 requires the STAAD Indian Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
11F.1 General Comments
For steel design, STAAD compares the actual design forces with the capacities as defined by
the Indian Standard Code. The IS 800: 2007 Code is used as the basis of this design.
A brief description of some of the major capacities is described herein.
The following commands should be used to initiate design per Limit State Method of this
code:
PARAMETER n
CODE IS800 LSD
The following commands should be used to initiate design per Working Stress Method of this
code:
PARAMETER n
CODE IS800 WSD
Note: STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 3) (release 20.07.08) or higher are required for design
per WSD.
Where:
n = optional integer (i.e.,  1, 2) which signifies the numerical order of parameter
command block (if multiple blocks are specified).
11F.2 Design Process
The design process follows the following design checks.
1. Slenderness
2. Section Classification
3. Tension
4. Compression
5. Shear
6. Bending
7. Combined Interaction Check
All of the design check criteria are described in the following sections.
International Design Codes Manual — 520
When a design is performed, the output file reports the maximum utilization ratio from all
the above mentioned checks.
11F.2.1 Slenderness
As per Section 3.8 Table 3, the slenderness ratio (KL/r) of compression members shall not
exceed 180, and the slenderness ratio (L/r) of tension members shall not exceed 400.
You can edit the default values through MAIN and TMAIN parameters, as defined in Table
11F.1.
11F.2.2 Section Classification
The IS 800: 2007 specification allows inelastic deformation of section elements. Thus local
buckling becomes an important criterion.
Steel sections are classified as Plastic, Compact, SemiCompact, or Slender element sections
depending upon their local buckling characteristics.
This classification is a function of the geometric properties of the section as well as nature of
the load applied to the member. The design procedures are different depending on the
section class.
STAAD is capable of determining the section classification for the standard shapes and design
the section for the critical load case accordingly. The Section Classification is done as per
section 3.7 of IS 800:2007 and Table B2, for Outstanding and Internal Elements of a section.
For the criteria for being included in those classes, refer to section 3.7.2(a) – (d) of the code.
Slender Sections
STAAD.Pro is capable of designing ISections with slender webs for IS 800:2007.
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 3) (release 20.07.08) or higher.
The IS:8002007 code does not provide any clear guidelines about what method should be
adopted for the design of slender section. The "Flange Only" methodology is used where it is
assumed that flexure is taken by the flanges alone and the web will resist shear with adequate
shear buckling resistance. This method requires that the flanges be nonslender elements (i.e.,
on the web is a slender element) to qualify for a valid section for design. If any of the flange
elements become slender, the design will not be performed and a warning message is
displayed in the output.
11F.2.3 Tension
Limit State Method
The criteria governing the capacity of Tension members are based on:
521 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
l Design Strength due to Yielding in Gross Section
l Design Strength due to Rupture of Critical Section
l Design Strength due to Block Shear
STAAD calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on these three limit states.
The limit state of yielding in the gross section is intended to prevent excessive elongation of
the member, and the corresponding check is done as per section 6.2 of the code.
The Design strength, involving rupture at the section with the net effective area, is evaluated
as per section 6.3 of the code. Here, the number of bolts in the connection may be specified
through the use of the design parameter ALPHA.
The Design strength, involving block shear at an end connection, is evaluated as per section
6.4 of the code. This criteria is made optional by the parameter DBS. If the value of DBS is
specified as 1, additional design parameters AVG, AVN, ATG, and ATN must be supplied to the
program for that member.
The Net Section Area may be specified through the use of the parameter NSF.
Working Stress Method
The criteria governing the allowable stress from tension in members are based on Section 11.2.1
of the code:
l Yielding of Gross Section  to prevent excessive elongation of the member due to
material yielding.
l Rupture of Net Section  to prevent rupture of the net effective section area. The
number of bolts in the connection may be specified through the use of the design
parameter ALPHA. The code parameter, γ
M1
, is taken as 1.25 per Table 5, Clause 5.4.1 of the
code.
l Block Shear — to prevent block shearing at the end connection. This check is made
option through use of the DBS parameter. Additional design parameters AVG, AVN, ATG,
and ATN must be supplied to the program for any member which is to be checked for
block shear. The code parameters,, γ
M0
and γ
M1
, are taken as 1.10 and 1.25, respectively,
per Table 5, Clause 5.4.1 of the code.
Note: Block shear is not checked by default.
These criteria are dependant on the steel material yield stress parameter, FYLD, and ultimate
tensile strength parameter, FU.
11F.2.4 Compression
The design capacity of the section against Compressive Force, the guiding phenomenon is the
flexural buckling.
International Design Codes Manual — 522
Limit State Method
The buckling strength of the member is affected by residual stress, initial bow and accidental
eccentricities of load.
To account for all these factors, the strength of the members subjected to axial compression is
defined by buckling class a, b, c or d as per clause 7.1.2.2 and Table 7 of IS 800:2007.
Imperfection factor, obtained from buckling class, and Euler’s Buckling Stress ultimately
govern compressive force capacity of the section as per clause 7.1.2 of IS 800:2007.
Working Stress Method
The actual compressive stress is given by:
f
c
= FX/A
e
Where:
A
e
= The effective section area as per Clause 7.3.2 of the code. This is equal to
the gross cross sectional area, AX, for any nonslender (plastic, compact, or
semicompact) section class. In the case of slender sections, this is limited to
value of Ae as described below.
The permissive compressive stress is calculated by first determining the Buckling Class of the
section per Table 10 of the code and α
YY
& α
ZZ
based on Table 7.
F
ac
= 0.6·F
cd
Where:
F
cd
= the minimum of the values of Fcd calculated for the local Y and Z axis.
F
cd
= (FYLD/γ
mo
)/ [φ + (φ
2
+ λ
2
]
λ = the nondimensional slenderness factor is evaluated for each local Y and Z
axis.
λ = (FYLD/F
cc
)
1/2
φ = 0.5[ 1 + a(λ  0.2) + λ
2
]
F
cc
= the Euler Buckling Stress.
F
cc
= π
2
·E/(Kl/r)
2
K = the effective length factor for bending about either the local Y or Z axis, as
provided in the KY and KZ parameters, respectively.
r = radius of gyration about the local Y or Z axis for the section.
FYLD = The yield strength of steel specified in the FYLD parameter.
523 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Slender Sections
For member with slender section under axial compression, design compressive strength should
be calculated on area ignoring depth thickness ratio of web in excess of the class 3 (semi
compact) limit.
Refer to clause 7.3.2 and Table 2 of IS 800:2007, (corresponding to “Internal Element of
Compression Flange”)
A
e
= A
g
 (d/t
w
 42ε) · t
w
2
Where:
A
e
= Effective area of section.
A
g
= Gross area of section.
d = Depth of web.
t
w
= thickness of web.
11F.2.5 Shear
The design capacities of the section against Shear Force in major and minoraxis directions
are evaluated as per section 8.4 of the code, taking care of the following phenomena:
l Nominal Plastic Shear Resistance
l Resistance to Shear Buckling
Shear area of the sections are calculated as per sec. 8.4.1.1.
Nominal plastic shear resistance is calculated as per sec. 8.4.1.
Among shear buckling design methods, Simple postcritical method is adopted as per sec.
8.4.2.2(a).
Working Stress Design
The actual shear stress is determined about the major and minor axes, respectively:
τ
bY
= F
Y
/ A
Y
τ
bZ
= F
Z
/ A
Z
The permissible shear stress is determined as:
a. When subjected to pure shear:
τ
ab
= 0.40 · FYLD
b. When subjected to shear buckling:
τ
ab
= 0.70 · V
n
· A
v
Where:
International Design Codes Manual — 524
V
n
= Nominal Shear Strength as per Clause 8.4.2.2.(a)
V
n
= V
cr
= τ
b
· A
v
A
v
= AY or AZ, whichever is appropriate, with reference to Clause 8.4.1.1.
Shear buckling must be checked when (d/ t
w
) > 67 · ϵ
w
for webs without
stiffener or (d/t
w
) > 67 · ϵ
w
· √(K
v
/5.35) for webs with stiffeners.
d = Clear Depth of Web between Flanges.
t
w
= Thickness of Web.
FYLD = Yield Strength of Web.
w
= √ ( 250 / FYLD )
K
v
= Shear Buckling Coefficient:
= 5.35, when transverse stiffeners are provided only at
supports.
= 4.0 + 5.35 / (c/d)
2
for (c/d) < 1.0
= 5.35 + 4.0 / (c/d)
2
for (c/d) ≥ 1.0
c = Spacing of Transverse Stiffeners
μ = Poisson’s Ratio
τ
b
= Shear Stress corresponding to Webbuckling:
= FYLD / √3, when, λ
w
≤ 0.8
= ( 1 – 0.8 · (λ
w
 0.8) ) · (FYLD / √3) when, 0.8 < λ
w
< 1.2
= FYLD / (√3 · λ
w
2
) when, λ
w
≥ 1.2
τ
cr,e
= The Elastic Critical Shear Stress of the Web
τ
cr,e
= (K
v
· π
2
· E) / (12 · (1 – μ
2
) · (d/t
w
)
2
)
λ
w
= Nondimensional Web Slenderness Ratio for Shear Buckling Stress.
λ
w
= [FYLD / (√3 · τ
cr,e
)]
1/2
Slender Sections
Slender sections should be verified against shear buckling resistance if d/t
w
> 67 · ε for web
without stiffeners or if it exceeds 67 · ε · √(K
v
⁄5.35) for a web with stiffeners.
Design methods for resistance to shear buckling are described in clause 8.4.2.2 of IS:8002007
code.
V
n
= V
cr
Where:
525 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
V
cr
= shear force corresponding to web buckling
= A
v
· τ
b
τ
b
= shear stress corresponding to web buckling, determined as follows:
i. When λ
w
≤ 0.8
τ
b
= f
yw
⁄√3
ii. When 0.8 < λ
w
< 1.2
τ
b
= [1  0.8(λ
w
 0.8) ](f
yw
⁄√3)
iii. When λ
w
≥ 1.2
τ
b
= f
yw
⁄((√3 λ
w
2
) )
λw = nondimensional web slenderness ratio or shear buckling stress, given by:
λ
w
= [ f
yw
⁄(√3 τ
cr,e
)]
1/2
τ
cr,e
= elastic critical shear stress of the web
= (k
v
·π
2
·E)/[12·(1  μ
2
) (d⁄t
w
)
2
]
μ = Poisson’s ratio and
K
v
=
l 5.35 when transverse stiffeners are provided only at supports
l 4.0 + 5.35/(c/d)
2
for c/d < 1.0
l 5.35 + 4.0/(c/d)
2
for c/d ≥ 1.0
c = spacing of transverse stiffeners
d = depth of the web
11F.2.6 Bending
The design bending moment capacity of a section is primarily dependent on whether the
member is laterally supported or unsupported.
You can control the lateral support condition of the member by the use of LAT parameter.
If the member is laterally supported, then the design strength is calculated as per the
provisions of the section 8.2.1 of IS 800:2007, based on the following factors:
l Whether section with webs susceptible to shear buckling before yielding
l Shear Force to Design Shear Strength Ratio
l Section Classification
If the member is laterally unsupported, then the design strength is calculated as per the
provisions of the section 8.2.2 of IS 800:2007, based on the following factors:
International Design Codes Manual — 526
l Lateral Torsional Buckling
l Section Classification
Working Stress Design
Actual bending stress values are given by, about major (Z) and minor (Y) axes, respectively:
f
bcz
= M
z
/Z
ecz
f
btz
= M
z
/Z
etz
f
bcy
= M
y
/Z
ecy
f
bty
= M
y
/Z
ety
The permissible bending stress is given as follows:
a. For laterally supported beams:
F
abc
= F
abt
= 0.66·FYLD for Plastic or Compact sections
F
abc
= F
abt
= 0.60·FYLD for Semicompact sections
b. For laterally unsupported beams:
i. About the major axis:
f
abcz
= 0.60·M
d
/Z
ecz
f
abtz
= 0.60·M
d
/Z
etz
Where:
M
d
= Design Bending Strength as per Clause 8.2.2
M
d
= β
b
· Z
pz
· f
bd
f
bd
= χ
LT
· FYLD / γ
mo
Z
ez
= Elastic Section Modulus of the Section.
Z
pz
= Plastic Section Modulus of the Section.
α
LT
= 0.21 for Rolled Steel Section and 0.49 for Welded Steel
Section
β
b
= 1.0 for Plastic and Compact Section or Z
ez
/Z
pz
for Semi
Compact Section.
λ
LT
= Nondimensional slenderness ratio
λ
LT
= (β
b
· Z
pz
· FYLD / M
cr
)
1/2
≤ (1.2 · Z
ez
· FYLD / M
cr
)
1/2
ϕ
LT
= 0.5 · ( 1 + α
LT
· ( λ
LT
– 0.2 ) + λ
LT
2
)
χ
LT
= The Bending Stress Reduction Factor to account for Lateral
527 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Torsional Buckling.
=
+ −
χ
LTZ
ϕ ϕ λ
1
LTZ LTZ LTZ
2 2
Z
ecz
= Elastic Section Modulus of the section about Major Axis for
the compression side.
Z
etz
= Elastic Section Modulus of the section about Major Axis for
the tension side.
=
+
M GI
cr
π EI
L
t
π EI
L
y
LT
w
LT
2
2
2
2
I
y
= Moment of inertia about the minor axis.
L
LT
= Effective length for lateral torsional buckling as determined
using either the KX or LX parameters.
I
t
= Torsional constant of the section.
I
t
= Warping constant of the section.
G = Shear modulus of the material.
ii. About the minor axis, the permissible bending stress is calculated as for a
laterally supported section.
Slender Sections
For member with slender section subjected to bending, moment is taken by flanges alone.
Design bending strength should be calculated with effective elastic modulus disregarding the
contribution of web of the section.
Z
ez
= 2·[B
f
· t
f
3
/12 + (B
f
· t
f
) · (D/2  t
f
/2)
2
)] ⁄ (0.5 · D)
Z
ey
= 2·(B
f
· t
f
3
/12) ⁄ (0.5 · B
f
)
Where:
Z
ez
= Elastic Section modulus about major principal axis.
Z
ey
= Elastic Section modulus about minor principal axis.
B
f
= Width of flange.
T
f
= thickness of flange.
D = Overall depth of section.
The Moment Capacity will be M
d
= Z
e
· f
y
/γ
m0
for “Laterally Supported” condition.
The Moment Capacity will be M
d
= Z
e
· f
bd
/γ
m0
for “Laterally UnSupported” condition.
International Design Codes Manual — 528
Where, f
bd
is defined in clause 8.2.2 of IS:8002007 (described in previous Working Stress
Design section).
Note: Slender section can only attain elastic moment capacity and cannot reach to plastic
moment capacity.
11F.2.7 Combined Interaction Check
Members subjected to various forces – axial, shear, moment, torsion  are checked against
combined interaction check.
Limit State Method
This interaction check is done taking care of two aspects:
l Section Strength
l Overall Member Strength
Section Strength interaction ratio is calculated as per sec. 9.3.1 of the code.
Overall Member Strength interaction ratio is calculated as per sec. 9.3.2, taking care of the
design parameters PSI, CMX, CMY and CMZ.
Working Stress Method
The following interactions are considered:
a. Combined Bending and Shear — No reduction in allowable stresses for the interaction
of bending and shear is considered.
b. Combined Axial Compression and Bending — The following formulas are intended to
require member stability:
f
c
/f
acy
+ 0.6·K
y
(C
my
f
bcy
/f
abcy
) + K
LT
f
bcz
/f
abcz
≤ 1.0
f
c
/f
acz
+ 0.6·K
y
(C
my
f
bcy
/f
abcy
) + K
z
f
bcz
/f
abcz
≤ 1.0
f
c
/(0.6f
y
) + f
bcy
/f
abcy
+ f
bcz
/f
abcz
≤ 1.0
Where:
f
c
= Actual axial compressive stress.
f
acy
, f
acz
= Allowable compressive stress, governed by buckling, about the
local Y and Z axis, respectively.
f
bcy
, f
bcz
= Actual bending compressive stress about minor and major
axes, respectively.
529 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
f
abcy
, f
abcz
= Allowable bending compressive stress about minor and major
axes, respectively.
K
y
= 1 + (λ
y
 0.2)·n
y
≤ 1 + 0.8·n
y
K
z
= 1 + (λ
z
 0.2)·n
z
≤ 1 + 0.8·n
z
K
LT
= 1  0.1·λ
LT
·n
y
/(C
mLT
 0.25) ≥ 0.1·n
y
/(C
mLT
 0.25)
c. Combined Axial Tension and Bending — The following formulas are intended to
require member stability:
f
t
/f
at
+ f
bty
/f
abty
+ f
btz
/f
abtz
≤ 1.0
Where:
f
t
= Actual axial tensile stress.
f
at
= Allowable axial tensile stress.
f
bty
, f
btz
= Actual bending tensile stress about minor and major axes,
respectively.
f
abty
, f
abtz
= Allowable bending tensile stress about minor and major axes,
respectively.
11F.3 Member Property Specification
For specification of member properties, the specified steel section available in Steel Section
Library of STAAD may be used (namely: Ishaped section, Channel, Tee, HSS Tube, HSS Pipe,
Angle, Double Angle, or Double Channel section).
Member properties may also be specified using the User Table facility except for the General
and Prismatic member types.
For more information on these facilities, refer to Section 1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference
Manual.
11F.3.1 Star Angle Arrangements
STAAD.Pro can design "star angle" sections (double angles, toe to toe) per IS 800:2007.
Members using this section must be axial only (i.e., use TRUSS specification). It is assumed that
the star angle arrangement is a welded shape. Plated shapes are not accounted for in the
program
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 4) or higher.
The internal cross section properties are calculated for the principal axes and are checked for
Tension and Compression limit states as described in this section.
International Design Codes Manual — 530
11F.4 Design Parameters
The program contains a large number of parameter names which are required to perform
design and code checks. These parameter names, with their default values, are listed in the
following table.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as IS800 LSD
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
ALPHA 0.8 A Factor, based on the end
connection type, controlling the
Rupture Strength of the Net Section,
as per Section 6.3.3:
0.6 = For one or two bolts
0.7 = For three bolts
0.8 = For four or more bolts
ATG None
(Mandatory
for Block
Shear check)
Minimum Gross Area in Tension from
the bolt hole to the toe of the angle,
end bolt line, perpendicular to the
line of the force.
This parameter is applicable only
when DBS = 1.0 (as per Section 6.4.1).
ATN None
(Mandatory
for Block
Shear check)
Minimum Net Area in Tension from
the bolt hole to the toe of the angle,
end bolt line, perpendicular to the
line of the force.
This parameter is applicable only
when DBS = 1.0 (as per Section 6.4.1).
AVG None
(Mandatory
for Block
Shear check)
Minimum Gross Area in shear along
bolt line parallel to external force.
This parameter is applicable only
when DBS = 1.0 (as per Section 6.4.1).
Table 11F.1Indian Steel Design IS 800:2007 Parameters
531 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
AVN None
(Mandatory
for Block
Shear check)
Minimum Net Area in shear along
bolt line parallel to external force.
This parameter is applicable only
when DBS = 1.0 (as per Section 6.4.1).
BEAM 1.0 0.0 = design at ends and those
locations specified by the
SECTION command.
1.0 = design at ends and at every 1/12
th
point along member length (default).
0 = Minimum detail
1 = Intermediate detail level
2 = Maximum detail
CAN 0.0 Beam Type, as per section 8.2.1.2:
0 = noncantilever beams for
bending check and deflection
check
1 = cantilever beam
CMX 0.9 Equivalent uniform moment factor
for Lateral Torsional Buckling(as per
Table 18, section 9.3.2.2)
CMY
CMZ
0.9 Cm value in local Y & Z axes, as per
Section 9.3.2.2.
DBS 0.0 Check for Design against Block Shear:
0 = Design against Block Shear
will not be performed
1 = Design against Block Shear will
be performed
If DBS = 1.0, NonZero Positive values
of AVG, AVN, ATG, and ATN must be
supplied to calculate Block Shear
Strength, Tdb.
DFF None
(Mandatory
for deflection
check)
"Deflection Length" / Maximum
allowable local deflection.
International Design Codes Manual — 532
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
DJ1 Start Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length".
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length".
DMAX 1000 in. Maximum allowable depth.
DMIN 0.0 in. Minimum allowable depth.
FU 420 MPA Ultimate Tensile Strength of Steel in
current units.
FYLD 250 MPA Yield Strength of Steel in current
units.
KX 1.0 Effective Length Factor for Lateral
Torsional Buckling (as per Table15,
Section 8.3.1)
KY 1.0 K value in local Yaxis. Usually, the
Minor Axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local Zaxis. Usually, the
Major Axis.
LAT 0.0 Specifies lateral support of beam, as
per Section 8.2.1 and 8.2.2, respectively:
0 = Beam is laterally unsupported
1 = Beam is laterally supported
LST 0 Defines the number of longitudinal
stiffeners used:
0 = No longitudinal stiffener
1 = Longitudinal stiffener is
provided at 0.2D of web from the
compression flange
2 = Longitudinal stiffeners are
provided at 0.2D and 0.5D of the
web from the compression flange
LX Member
Length
Effective Length for Lateral Torsional
Buckling (as per Table15, Section
8.3.1)
533 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
LY Member
Length
Length to calculate Slenderness Ratio
for buckling about local Y axis.
LZ Member
Length
Same as above except in Zaxis
(Major).
MAIN 180 Allowable Slenderness Limit for
Compression Member (as per Section
3.8)
NSF 1.0 Net Section Factor for Tension
Member.
TMAIN 400 Allowable Slenderness Limit for
Tension Member (as per Section 3.8)
PROFILE None Used to search for the lightest section
for the profile(s) specified for member
selection. See Section 5.48.1 of the
Technical Reference Manual for
details.
PSI 1.0 Ratio of the Moments at the ends of
the laterally unsupported length of
the beam, as per Section 9.3.2.1:
0.8 = where Factored Applied
Moment and Tension can vary
independently
1.0 = For any other case
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to
allowable stresses.
STP 1 Specifies the section type per Table 2
and Table 10:
1 = Hot rolled section
2 = Welded section
TRACK 0 Controls the levels of detail to which
results are reported.
0 = Minimum detail
1 = Intermediate detail level
2 = Maximum detail
TSP 0 Spacing of transverse stiffeners.
International Design Codes Manual — 534
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
TST 0 Used to control transverse stiffeners in
design:
0 = No Transverse Stiffener is
provided
1 = Transverse Stiffener is provided
11F.5 Code Checking and Member Selection
Both Code Checking and Member Selection options are available for the IS 800: 2007 code.
Refer to Section 2.5 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Code
Checking. Refer to Section 5.48.2 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Code Checking command.
Refer to Section 2.6 of the Technical Reference Manual for general information on Member
Selection. Refer to Section 5.48.3 of the Technical Reference Manual for details the
specification of the Member Selection command.
11F.5.1 Example 1
Commands for code checking
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER 1
CODE IS800 LSD
ALPHA 0.7 ALL
DBS 1 ALL
CAN 1 MEMB 2
PSI 0.8 MEMB 2
TMAIN 350 MEMB 2
TRACK 2 MEMB 2
CHECK CODE MEMB 2
11F.5.2 Example 2
Commands for member selection
UNIT NEWTON METER
PARAMETER 1
CODE IS800 LSD
MAIN 160 MEMB 7
KY 0.8 MEMB 7
KZ 0.9 MEMB 7
535 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
FYLD 350 ALL
SELECT ALL
11F.6 Verification Example
Calculate compressive strength, bending strength, and shear strength of laterally supported
plate girder 800620010 given F
y
= 250 MPa and F
u
= 420 MPa. Check per the IS800: 2007
Limit State Design methodology.
11F.6.1 Solution
Material properties:
E = 2.05(10)
5
MPa
Note: This is the default value of the modulus of elasticity for steel used by STAAD.Pro. IS
800:2007 specifies that a modulus of 2.0(10)
5
MPa should be used.
μ = 0.3
G = E/2.0(1 + μ) = 78,846 MPa
Cross sectional properties:
A
g
= 800·6 + 2·(200·10) = 8,800 mm
2
I
zz
= 912.1(10)
6
mm
4
I
yy
=13.35(10)
6
mm
4
R
yy
= √(I
yy
⁄Area) = 38.95 mm
R
zz
= √(I
zz
⁄Area) = 321.95 mm
Force:
F
x
= 19.644 kN (Compression)
F
y
= 1.2 kN
F
z
= 2.0 kN
M
x
= 0.0 kN·m
M
y
= 10.0 kN·m
M
z
= 51.659 kN·m
Section Classification
Flange:
b = (b
f
 t
w
)/2 = (200  6)/2 = 97 mm
ε
f
= √(250/f
y
) = √(250/250) = 1.0
International Design Codes Manual — 536
b/t
f
= 97/10 = 9.7 > 9.4·ε, < 13.6·ε
Thus, the flange is considered semicompact.
Web:
r
2
= (F
x
/Area)/f
y
= (19,644 / 8,800)/250 = 0.0089
= =
+ +
123.8
r
126ϵ
1 2
126(1.0)
1 2(0.0089)
2
> 42·ε = 42(1.0) = 42
d/t
w
= 800/6 = 133.33 > 123.8
Thus, the web is considered slender.
The overall section is classified as slender.
Calculation of compressive strength
Net area of section:
A
e
= A
g
 (d/t
w
 42.0·ε) · t
w
2
= 8,800  [133.33  42.0(1.0)]·(6)
2
= 5,512. mm
2
Slenderness ratio:
(k
y
L/R
y
) = 0.33·(5,000) / 38.95 = 42.36
(k
z
L/R
z
) = 1.0·(5,000) / 321.95 = 15.53
Euler buckling stress (per Cl.7.1.2.1 of IS 800:2007):
= = = F MPa 1, 127
cc
π E
KL R
π
( / )
2.05(10)
(42.36)
2
2
2 5
2
Nondimensional effective slenderness ratio:
= = = 0.471
F
F
250
1, 127
y
cc
Imperfection factor, α, is equal to 0.49 and buckling class is c as T
f
< 40.0 mm and buckling is
about YY axis (per Table 7 and Table 10 in IS 800:2007).
Partial factor of safety γ
mo
= 1.10
Per Cl.7.1.2.1 of IS 800:2007:
ϕ = 0.5[1 + α(λ  0.2) + λ
2
] = 0.5[1 + 0.49(0.471  0.2) + (0.471)
2
] = 0.677
Stress reduction factor, χ
= ≤
+ −
χ 1.0
ϕ ϕ λ
1
2 2
= = <
+ −
χ 0.86 1.0
1
0.677 0.677 0.471
2 2
f
cd
= χ·(f
y
/γ
mo
) = 0.86·(250 / 1.1) = 195.5 MPa
537 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Design compressive strength (per Cl.7.1.2 of IS 800:2007):
P
d
= A
e
·f
cd
= 5,512.·(195.5) = 1,077 kN
Calculation of bending strength
The web is slender and hence it is disregarded in bending strength calculation.
·
¸
+
¸
¸
×
_
,
+
1
]
1
· I mm
( )
2 200 10 656.1(10)
z
200(10)
12
800
2
10
2
2
6 4
3
Z
ez
= I
z
/(820/2) =656.1(10)
6
/410 = 1.60(10)
6
mm
3
I
y
=2(10)(200)
3
⁄12 = 13.33(10)
6
mm
4
Z
ey
= I
y
⁄(0.5×B
f
) = 13.33(10)
6
/(0.5×200) = 133,333 mm
3
I
xx
= 2(B
f
· T
f
3
/3.0) = 2.0[(200)(10)
3
/3.0] = 133.333(10)
3
mm
4
For laterally supported beam:
M
dz
= Z
ez
· F
y
/γ
mo
= 1.60(10)
6
(250)/1.10 = 364 kN·m
M
dy
= Z
ey
· F
y
/γ
mo
=133,333(250)/1.1 = 30.3 kN·m
For laterally unsupported beam:
Warping constant:
I
w
= (d + T
f
)
2
· B
f
3
· T
f
/24.0 = (800 + 10)
2
· 200
3
· 10/24.0 = 2.187(10)
12
mm
6
Elastic lateral torsional buckling moment (per Cl.8.2.2.1 of IS 800:2007):
L
LT
= 5,000 mm
=
+
M GI
cr
π EI
L
xx
π EI
L
y
LT
w
LT
2
2
2
2
·
¸
¸
¸
_
,
+
1
]
1
· ⋅ kN m 78, 846 133, 333 449.8
π π 2.05(10) 13.33(10)
5, 000
2.05(10) 2.187(10)
5, 000
2 5 6
2
2 5 12
2
= = = λ 0.943
LTZ
Z F
M
( )
1.60(10) 250
449.8(10)
ez y
cr
6
6
α
LT
= 0.49 for welded steel section per Cl.8.2.2 of IS 800:2007
ϕ
LTZ
= 0.5×[1 + α
LT
(λ
LTZ
 0.2) + λ
LTZ
2
] = 1.13
= = =
+ − + −
χ 0.574
LTZ
ϕ ϕ λ
1 1
1.13 1.13 0.943
LTZ LTZ LTZ
2 2 2 2
f
bdz
= (χ
LTZ
· F
y
) ⁄ γ
mo
= 0.574(250)/1.1 = 130.4 MPa
M
dz
= Z
ez
· f
bdz
= 1.6(10)
6
(130.4) = 208.6 kN·m
M
dY
= (Z
ey
· F
y
) / γ
mo
= 133,333(250)/1.1 = 30.30 kN·m
International Design Codes Manual — 538
Calculation of shear strength
c = spacing of stiffener = 1000 mm
d = depth of web = 800 mm
c/d = 1000/800 = 1.25 > 1.0
Hence, per Cl.8.4.2.2.(a):
k
v
= 5.35 + 4.0/(c/d)
2
= 7.91
d/T
w
= 800/6 = 133.33
= k 67 / 5.35 81.47
v
Since, d/T
w
> 67√(k
v
⁄5.35), shear strength is governed by shear buckling.
Elastic critical stress of the web
=
−
t
cr e
k π E
µ d T
( )
,
12 1 /
v
w
2
2
2
= =
⋅
−
82.44
π
( )
7.91 2.05(10)
12 1 0.3 133.33
2 5
2
2
Nondimensional web slenderness ratio for shear buckling stress:
= = = >
⋅
λ 1.323 1.2
w
f
t 3
410
3 82.44
yw
cr e ,
Hence
= = = τ 82.46
b
f
λ 3
250
3 (1.323)
yw
w
2 2
Shear force corresponding to shear buckling = A
v
· τ
b
= = =
⋅
V kN 359.5
crY
A τ
γ
800(6)(82.46)
1.1
WY b
m0
= = =
⋅
V kN 300.0
crY
A τ
γ
200(10)(82.46)
1.1
WZ b
m0
11F.6.2 Comparison
Item Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Compressive
Strength, P
d
(kN)
1,077 1.076(10)
3
Negligible
Table 11F.2IS 800:2007 Verification Problem 1
539 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Item Reference STAAD.Pro Difference
Major Axis
Bending
Strength, M
dz
(kN·m)
(Laterally
unsupported)
208.6 208.681 Negligible
Minor Axis
Bending
Strength, M
dy
(kN·m)
(Laterally
unsupported)
30.30 30.303 Negligible
Major Axis
Shear
Strength, V
crY
(kN)
359.5 359.732 Negligible
MInor Axis
Shear
Strength, V
crZ
(kN)
300.0 299.776 Negligible
11F.6.3 STAAD Input File
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 22OCT08
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 5 0; 3 5 5 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05E+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2E005
International Design Codes Manual — 540
DAMP 0.03
END DEFINE MATERIAL
START USER TABLE
TABLE 1
UNIT METER KN
WIDE FLANGE
SLEND
0.0088 0.82 0.006 0.2 0.01 0.000912133 1.33477E005 1.90933E007
0.00492 0.004
END
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 UPTABLE 1 SLEND
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
2 TABLE ST ISMB500
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL STEEL ALL
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE NONE TITLE LOAD CASE 1
JOINT LOAD
3 FY 2
MEMBER LOAD
2 UNI GY 2
JOINT LOAD
2 FX 1.2
2 FZ 2
SELFWEIGHT Y 1 ALL
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT SUPPORT REACTION
PRINT MEMBER FORCES
PARAMETER 1
CODE IS800 LSD
CAN 0 MEMB 1
KY 0.33 ALL
STP 2 ALL
TST 1 MEMB 1
TSP 1 MEMB 1
***LATERALLY UNSUPPORTED****
*LAT 1 ALL
TRACK 2 MEMB 1
CHECK CODE MEMB 1
541 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
PARAMETER 2
CODE IS800 LSD
CAN 0 MEMB 1
KY 0.33 ALL
STP 2 ALL
TST 1 MEMB 1
TSP 1 MEMB 1
***LATERALLY SUPPORTED****
LAT 1 ALL
TRACK 2 MEMB 1
CHECK CODE MEMB 1
FINISH
11F.6.4 Output
TRACK 2.0 output for the Laterally unsupported check
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  IS800 2007 (V2.0)
************************************************


 Member Number: 1

 Member Section: ST SLEND (UPT)

 Status: PASS Ratio: 0.401 Critical Load Case: 1
Location: 0.00 
 Critical Condition: Sec. 9.3.1.1

 Critical Design Forces: (Unit: KN METE)

 FX: 19.644E+00 C FY: 1.200E+00 FZ:
2.000E+00 
 MX: 0.000E+00 MY: 10.000E+00 MZ:
51.659E+00 


 Section Properties: (Unit: CM )

 AXX: 88.000E+00 IZZ: 91.213E+03
RZZ: 32.195E+00
 AYY: 48.000E+00 IYY: 1.335E+03
RYY: 3.895E+00
 AZZ: 40.000E+00 IXX: 19.093E+00
CW: 2.187E+06
 ZEZ: 2.225E+03 ZPZ: 2.580E+03

International Design Codes Manual — 542
 ZEY: 133.477E+00 ZPY: 207.200E+00



 Slenderness Check: (Unit: METE)

 Actual Length: 5.000E+00

 Parameters: LZ: 5.000E+00 LY: 5.000E+00

 KZ: 1.000 KY: 0.330

 Actual Ratio: 42.37 Allowable Ratio: 180.00 LOAD: 1 FX:
19.644E+00 C 


 Section Class: Slender; Flange Class: SemiCompact; Web
Class: Slender 


STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  IS800 2007
(V2.0)
************************************************


 Member Number: 1

 Member Section: ST SLEND (UPT)



 Tension: (Unit:KN METE)

 Parameters: FYLD: 250.000E+03 FU:
420.000E+03 
 NSF: 1.000 ALPHA:
0.800 DBS: 0 
 Capacity: 2.000E+03 As per sec. No.:Cl. 6.2

 Actual Design Force: 0.000E+00 LC: 0



 Compression: (Unit:KN METE)

 Buckling Class: Major: b Minor: c As per Sec. No.:Cl.
7.1.2.2 
 Capacity: 1.076E+03 As per sec. No.:Cl. 7.1.2

 Actual Design Force: 19.644E+00 LC: 1



543 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
 Shear: (Unit:KN )

 Major Axis: Actual Design Force: 1.200E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 359.732E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.4.2 
 Minor Axis: Actual Design Force: 2.000E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 299.776E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.4.2 


 Bending: (Unit:KN METE)

 Parameters: Laterally Unsupported KX: 1.00 LX:
5.000E+00 General 
 Major Axis: Actual Design Force: 51.659E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 208.681E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.2.2 
 Minor Axis: Actual Design Force: 10.000E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 30.303E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.2.1.1 


 Combined Interaction:

 Parameters: PSI: 1.00 CMX: 0.900 CMY: 0.900 CMZ:
0.900 
 Interaction Ratio: 0.401 As per sec. No.:Sec. 9.3.1.1

 LC: 1 Loc: 0.000E+00



 Checks Ratio Load Case No. Location from
Start 


 Tension 0.000 0
0.000E+00 
 Compression 0.018 1
0.000E+00 
 Shear Major 0.003 1
0.000E+00 
 Shear Minor 0.007 1
0.000E+00 
 Bend Major 0.248 1
0.000E+00 
 Bend Minor 0.340 1
0.000E+00 
International Design Codes Manual — 544
 Sec. 9.3.1.1 0.401 1
0.000E+00 
 Sec. 9.3.2.2 (Z) 0.210 1
5.000E+00 
 Sec. 9.3.2.2 (Y) 0.233 1
5.000E+00 


TRACK 2.0 output for the laterally supported check
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  IS800 2007
(V2.0)
************************************************


 Member Number: 1

 Member Section: ST SLEND (UPT)

 Status: PASS Ratio: 0.360 Critical Load Case: 1
Location: 0.00 
 Critical Condition: Sec. 9.3.1.1

 Critical Design Forces: (Unit: KN METE)

 FX: 19.644E+00 C FY: 1.200E+00 FZ:
2.000E+00 
 MX: 0.000E+00 MY: 10.000E+00 MZ:
51.659E+00 


 Section Properties: (Unit: CM )

 AXX: 88.000E+00 IZZ: 91.213E+03
RZZ: 32.195E+00
 AYY: 48.000E+00 IYY: 1.335E+03
RYY: 3.895E+00
 AZZ: 40.000E+00 IXX: 19.093E+00
CW: 2.187E+06
 ZEZ: 2.225E+03 ZPZ: 2.580E+03

 ZEY: 133.477E+00 ZPY: 207.200E+00



 Slenderness Check: (Unit: METE)

 Actual Length: 5.000E+00

 Parameters: LZ: 5.000E+00 LY: 5.000E+00

545 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
 KZ: 1.000 KY: 0.330

 Actual Ratio: 42.37 Allowable Ratio: 180.00 LOAD: 1 FX:
19.644E+00 C 


 Section Class: Slender; Flange Class: SemiCompact; Web
Class: Slender 


STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  IS800 2007 (V2.0)
************************************************


 Member Number: 1

 Member Section: ST SLEND (UPT)



 Tension: (Unit:KN METE)

 Parameters: FYLD: 250.000E+03 FU:
420.000E+03 
 NSF: 1.000 ALPHA:
0.800 DBS: 0 
 Capacity: 2.000E+03 As per sec. No.:Cl. 6.2

 Actual Design Force: 0.000E+00 LC: 0



 Compression: (Unit:KN METE)

 Buckling Class: Major: b Minor: c As per Sec. No.:Cl.
7.1.2.2 
 Capacity: 1.076E+03 As per sec. No.:Cl. 7.1.2

 Actual Design Force: 19.644E+00 LC: 1



 Shear: (Unit:KN )

 Major Axis: Actual Design Force: 1.200E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 359.732E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.4.2 
 Minor Axis: Actual Design Force: 2.000E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 299.776E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.4.2 
International Design Codes Manual — 546


 Bending: (Unit:KN METE)

 Parameters: Laterally Supported KX: 1.00 LX:
5.000E+00 General 
 Major Axis: Actual Design Force: 51.659E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 363.710E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.2.1.1 
 Minor Axis: Actual Design Force: 10.000E+00 LC: 1
Loc: 0.000E+00
 Capacity: 30.303E+00 As per sec. No.:Cl.
8.2.1.1 


 Combined Interaction:

 Parameters: PSI: 1.00 CMX: 0.900 CMY: 0.900 CMZ:
0.900 
 Interaction Ratio: 0.360 As per sec. No.:Sec. 9.3.1.1

 LC: 1 Loc: 0.000E+00



 Checks Ratio Load Case No. Location from
Start 


 Tension 0.000 0
0.000E+00 
 Compression 0.018 1
0.000E+00 
 Shear Major 0.003 1
0.000E+00 
 Shear Minor 0.007 1
0.000E+00 
 Bend Major 0.142 1
0.000E+00 
 Bend Minor 0.340 1
0.000E+00 
 Sec. 9.3.1.1 0.360 1
0.000E+00 
 Sec. 9.3.2.2 (Z) 0.126 1
5.000E+00 
 Sec. 9.3.2.2 (Y) 0.141 1
5.000E+00 


547 — STAAD.Pro
11F. Indian Codes  Steel Design per IS 800:2007
Section 12
Japanese Codes
International Design Codes Manual — 548
549 — STAAD.Pro
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing concrete design based on the Japan code AIJ 2002
Architectural Institute of Japan Standards for Structural Calculation of Steel Reinforced
Concrete Structures. Design for a member involves calculation of the amount of reinforcement
required for the member. Calculations are based on the user specified properties and the
member forces obtained from the analysis. In addition, the details regarding placement of the
reinforcement on the cross section are also reported in the output.
Design of members per AIJ requires the STAAD Japan Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
12A.1 Section Types for Concrete Design
The following types of cross sections for concrete members can be designed:
l For Beams — Prismatic (Rectangular and Square)
l For Columns — Prismatic (Rectangular, Square, and Circular)
12A.2 Member Dimensions
Concrete members which will be designed by the program must have certain section
properties input under the MEMBER PROPERTY command. These are the D (YD) and b (ZD)
dimensions for rectangular or square cross sections and the D (YD) for circular cross sections.
The following is an example the required input:
UNIT MM
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 3 TO 7 9 PRISM YD 450. ZD 250.
11 13 PR YD 350.
In the above input, the first set of members are rectangular (450 mm depth and 250 mm
width) and the second set of members, with only depth and no width provided, will be
assumed to be circular with a 350 mm diameter.
Warning: It is absolutely imperative that you do not provide the cross section area (AX) as
an input.
12A.3 Slenderness Effects and Analysis Considerations
Slenderness effects are extremely important in designing compression members. Slenderness
effects result in additional forces being exerted on the column over and above those obtained
from the elastic analysis. There are two options by which the slenderness effects can be
accommodated.
The first option is to compute the secondary moments through an exact analysis. Secondary
moments are caused by the interaction of the axial loads and the relative end displacements of
a member. The axial loads and joint displacements are first determined from an elastic
stiffness analysis and the secondary moments are then evaluated.
International Design Codes Manual — 550
The second option is to approximately magnify the moments from the elastic analysis and
design the column for the magnified moment. It is assumed that the magnified moment is
equivalent to the total moment comprised of the sum of primary and secondary moments.
STAAD provides facilities to design according to both of the above methods. To utilize the
first method, the command PDELTA ANALYSIS must be used instead of PERFORM ANALYSIS in
the input file. The user must note that to take advantage of this analysis, all the combinations
of loading must be provided as primary load cases and not as load combinations. This is due
to the fact that load combinations are just algebraic combinations of forces and moments,
whereas a primary load case is revised during the Pdelta analysis based on the deflections.
Also, note that the proper factored loads (like 1.5 for dead load etc.) should be provided by the
user. STAAD does not factor the loads automatically. The second method mentioned above is
utilized by providing the magnification factor as a concrete design parameter (See the
parameter MMAG in Table 10A.1). The column is designed for the axial load and total of
primary and secondary biaxial moments if the first method is used and for the axial load and
magnified biaxial moments if the second method is used.
12A.4 Beam Design
Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. The program considers 12 equally spaced
divisions of the beam member. However this number can be redefined by NSECTION
parameter. All these sections are designed for flexure, shear and torsion for all load cases. The
results include design results for most critical load case.
Example
UNIT KG CM
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE JAPAN
FYMAIN SRR295 ALL
FYSEC SRR295 ALL
FC 350 ALL
CLEAR 2.5 MEM 2 TO 6
TRACK 1.0 MEMB 2 TO 9
DESIGN BEAM 2 TO 9
END CONCRETE DESIGN
12A.4.1 Design for Flexure
Reinforcement for positive and negative moments are calculated on the basis of section
properties provided by the user. Program first try to design the section for g = 0 and pt =
balanced reinforcement ratio. If allowable moment is lower than the actual moment program
increases g value for same pt and checks the satisfactory conditions. If conditions are not
satisfied this procedure continues until g reaches to 1.0 and then pt value is increased keeping
g = 1.0. This procedure continues until pt reaches to its maximum value( 2 % ). But if the
allowable moment for pt = maximum value and g = 1.0 is lower than the actual moment the
program gives message that the section fails.
551 — STAAD.Pro
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ
This program automatically calculates the Bar size and no. of bars needed to design the
section. It arranges the bar in layers as per the requirements and recalculate the effective depth
and redesign the sections for this effective depth.
Notes:
a. Beams are designed for MZ only. The moment MY is not considered in flexure design
b. MMAG parameter can be used to increase design moment
c. 1.4 cm. is added to the clear cover to take stirrup size into consideration for flexure
design.
d. STAAD beam design procedure is based on the local practice and considering the fact
that Japan is a high seismic zone area.
12A.4.2 Design for Shear
The Design Shear value, Q
D
, is evaluated for the beam. The update effective depth is used to
then calculate the allowable shear stress. The allowable shear stress of concrete, f
s
, is
automatically calculated from design load type (permanent or temporary) and given density of
concrete. The program then calculates the required bar size, aw, and spacing of stirrups. The
reinforcement ratio for the stirrup, p
w
, is calculated for design Bar size and stirrup pitch and
all the necessary checking is done.
For seismic loading it is needed to increase shear force ≥ 1.5 times the actual value and this can
be done utilizing the Design Shear Modification factor, k (SMAG parameter) without changing
the Design Moment.
Notes:
a. Stirrups are always assumed to be 2legged
b. Governing density to determine Light weight or Normal Weight Concrete is 2.3 kg/sq.
cm
12A.4.3 Design for Torsion
Torsion design for beam is optional. If the TORSION parameter value is 1.0, the program will
design the assigned beam(s) for torsion. The program first checks whether extra reinforcement
is needed for torsion or not. If additional reinforcement is needed, this additional pt is added
to flexure pt and additional Pw is added to shear design Pw.
12A.5 Column Design
Columns are designed for axial force, MZ moment, MY moment, and shear force. Both the
ends of the members are designed for all the load cases and the loading which produces
largest amount of reinforcement is called as critical load. If Track 0 or Track 1 is used, design
results will be printed for critical load only. But if Track 2 is used, you can get detailed design
results of that member. The value of Pt needed for minimum axial force, maximum axial force,
maximum MZ, maximum MY among all the load cases for both the ends will be printed. If
International Design Codes Manual — 552
the MMAG parameter is used, the column moments will be multiplied by that value. If the
SMAG parameter is used, column shear force will be multiplied by that value.
Column design is done for Rectangular, Square and Circular sections. For rectangular and
square sections Pt value is calculated separately for MZ and MY, while for circular sections Pg
value is calculated for MZ and MY separately.
Column design for biaxial moments is optional. If the BIAXIAL parameter value is 1.0, the
program will design the column for biaxial moments. Otherwise column design is always
uniaxial.
Steps involved:
1. Depending on the axial force zone is determined for Pt = 0.0 .
2. If the column is in "zone A", design is performed by increasing Pt and checking
allowable load for that known Pt and known actual eccentricity of the column.
3. If the column is in "zone B" or in "zone C", xn is calculated for given P and Pt and
checking is done for allowable moment, if allowable moment is less than the actual
moment, program increases Pt and this procedure continues until the column design
conditions are satisfied or the column fails as the required Pt is higher than Pt
maximum value.
4. If the column is in tension, design is done by considering allowable tensile stress of
steel only.
5. If biaxial design is requested program solve the following interaction equation
6. where, a = 1.0+1.66666666 ´ (ratio0.2), ratio = P/Pcap & 1.0 £ a £ 2.0, Mycap, Mzcap &
Pcap represents section capacity
7. If the interaction equation is not satisfied program increases Pt and calculates Pcap,
Mycap and Mzcap and solve the interaction equation again and this process continues
until the eqn. is satisfied or the column fails as Pt exceeds its maximum limit.
8. If biaxial design is not requested program assumes that interaction equation is satisfied
(if uniaxial design is performed successfully).
9. If the interaction equation is satisfied program determines bar size and calculates no.
of bars and details output is written.
12A.5.1 Example
UNIT KGS CMS
START CONCRETE DESIGN
CODE JAPAN
FYMAIN SRR295 ALL
FC 210 ALL
CLEAR 2.5 MEMB 2 TO 6
553 — STAAD.Pro
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ
DESIGN COLUMN 2 TO 6
END CONCRETE DESIGN
12A.6 Slab/Wall Design
To design a slab or a wall, it must first be modeled using finite elements and analyzed. The
command specifications are in accordance with Chapter 2 and Chapter 6 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
Elements are designed for the moments Mx and My. These moments are obtained from the
element force output (see Chapter 2 of the Technical Reference Manual). The reinforcement
required to resist the Mx moment is denoted as longitudinal reinforcement and the
reinforcement required to resist the My moment is denoted as transverse reinforcement.
The longitudinal bar is the layer closest to the exterior face of the slab or wall. The following
parameters are those applicable to slab and wall design:
1. FYMAIN — Yield stress for reinforcing steel  transverse and longitudinal.
2. FC— Concrete grade
3. CLEAR — Distance from the outer surface of the element to the edge of the bar. This is
considered the same on both top and bottom surfaces of the element.
4. MINMAIN — Minimum required size of longitudinal/transverse reinforcing bar
The other parameters shown in Table 12A.1 are not applicable to slab or wall design.
12A.7 Design Parameters
The program contains a number of parameters which are needed to perform the design.
Default parameter values have been selected such that they are frequently used numbers for
conventional design requirements. These values may be changed to suit the particular design
being performed. Table 10A.1 contains a complete list of the available parameters and their
default values. It is necessary to declare length and force units as centimeters and Kilograms
before performing the concrete design.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as JAPAN.
Design Code to follow. See section
5.52.2 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
Table 12A.1Japanese Concrete Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 554
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BIAXIAL 0.0 Value to define biaxial or uniaxial
design type for Column
0. uniaxial design only
1. design for biaxial moments
CLEAR 3.0 cm (beam)
4.0 cm
(Column)
Clear cover for Beam or clear side
cover for column.
DEPTH YD Depth of concrete member. This value
defaults to YD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
EFACE 0.0 Face of support location at end of
beam. (Note: Both SFACE & EFACE
are input as positive numbers).
FC 210 Kg/cm2 Compressive Strength of Concrete.
FYMAIN SR235 Steel grade. Acceptable values for steel
grade and their associated yield stress
values are shown in the following
table. Program automatically
calculates yield stress value depending
on design load type (permanent or
temporary).
FYSEC SR235 Same as FYMAIN except this is for
secondary steel.
LONG 0.0 Value to define design load type
0. Permanent Loading
1. Temporary Loading
MAXMAIN 41.0 cm Maximum main reinforcement bar size
MAXSEC 41.0 cm Maximum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
MINMAIN 10 mm Minimum main reinforcement bar
size.
MINSEC 10 mm Minimum secondary reinforcement
bar size.
555 — STAAD.Pro
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
MMAG 1.0 Design moment magnification factor
NSECTION 12 Number of equallyspaced sections to
be considered in finding critical
moments for beam design.
REINF 0.0 Tied Column. A value of 1.0 will mean
spiral.
SFACE 0.0 Face of support location at start of
beam.
SMAG 1.0 Design shear magnification factor
TORSION 0.0 Value to request for torsion design for
beam
0. torsion design not needed
1. torsion design needed
TRACK 0.0 Beam Design:
0. Critical section design results.
1. Five section design results &
design forces.
2. 12 section design results &
design forces.
Column Design:
1. Detail design results for critical
load case only.
2. Design results for minimum P,
maximum P, maximum MZ
and maximum MY among all
load cases for both ends.
WIDTH ZD Width of concrete member. This value
defaults to ZD as provided under
MEMBER PROPERTIES.
International Design Codes Manual — 556
Steel
Grade
Long Term Loading Short Term Loading
Tension
& Compressi
on
Shear
Rein
forcement
Tension
& Compressi
on
Shear
Rein
forcement
SR235
SRR235
SDR235
1600 1600 2400 2400
SR295
SRR295
1600 2000 3000 3000
SD295A
SD295B
SDR295
2000 2000 3000 3000
SDR345
SD345
2200 (2000) 2000 3500 3500
SD390 2200 (2000) 2000 4000 4000
Table 12A.2Table of permissible Steel Grades and associated Yield Stresses
for FYMAIN and FYSEC parameters
557 — STAAD.Pro
12A. Japanese Codes  Concrete Design Per 1991 AIJ
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Japanese code AIJ 2005
Specifications for structural steel design.
Design of members per AIJ 2005 requires the STAAD Japan Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
12B.1 General
This section presents some general statements regarding the implementation of the
“Architectural Institute of Japan” (AIJ) specifications for structural steel design (2005 edition)
in STAAD. The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic
analysis and allowable stress design. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code
checking. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by
stability considerations. The following sections describe the salient features of the design
approach.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable
stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least
weight criteria. The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness
requirements and the stability criteria. Users are recommended to adopt the following steps in
performing the steel design:
l Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.
l Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.
The method for calculating allowable bending stress was updated for the AIJ 2005 from the AIJ
2002 code. All other allowable limit states, analysis and design methods, etc., remain
unchanged. Refer to the AIJ 2002 documentation for additional details.
12B.2 Member Capacities
Member design and code checking per AIJ 2005 are based upon the allowable stress design
method. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces,
allowable stresses, and design limitations for the appropriate material under service conditions.
The basic measure of member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member under
various conditions of applied loading such as allowable tensile stress, allowable compressive
stress etc. These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties, slenderness factors,
unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. Explained here is the procedure adopted in
STAAD for calculating such capacities.
12B.2.1 Design Capabilities
All types of available shapes like HShape, IShape, LShapes, CHANNEL, PIPE, TUBE,
Prismatic section etc. can be used as member property and STAAD will automatically adopt
the design procedure for that particular shape if Steel Design is requested. STEEL TABLE
available within STAAD or UPTABLE facility can be used for member property.
International Design Codes Manual — 558
12B.2.2 Methodology
For steel design, STAAD compares the actual stresses with the allowable stresses as required
by AIJ specifications. The design procedure consist of following three steps.
1. Calculation of sectional properties
The program extract sectional properties like sectional area ( A ), Moment of Inertia
about Y axis and Z axis ( I
yy
, I
zz
) from inbuilt Japanese Steel Table and calculates Z
z
,
Z
y
, i
y
, i
z
using appropriate formula. For calculation of i ( radius of gyration needed for
bending ), program calculates moment of inertia ( I
i
)and sectional area ( A
i
) for 1/6th
section and then uses following formula:
i = √(I
i
/A
i
)
Note: The above mentioned procedure for calculation of i is applicable for I shape,
H shape and Channel sections.
2. Calculation of actual and allowable stresses
Program calculates actual and allowable stresses by following methods:
i. Axial Stress:
Actual tensile stresses ( F
T
) = Force / ( A x NSF ),
NSF = Net Section Factor for tension
Actual compressive stress ( F
C
) = Force / A
Allowable tensile stress ( f
t
)
= F / 1.5 (For Permanent Case)
= F ( For Temporary Case )
Allowable compressive stress
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
≤
>
¸
−
1
]
1
f
λ
λ
when Λ
when Λ
c
F
ν
F
( )
( )
1 0.4
0.227
λ
λ
Λ
2
Λ
2
= f
c
x 1.5 (for Temporary case)
Where:
= Λ
π E
F 0.6
2
= + ν
( )
λ 3
2
2
3 Λ
2
559 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
ii. Bending Stress:
Actual bending stress for My for compression:
( F
bcy
) = M
y
/ Z
cy
Actual bending stress for Mz for compression
( F
bcz
) = M
z
/ Z
cz
Actual bending stress for My for tension
( F
bty
) = M
y
/ Z
ty
Actual bending stress for Mz for tension
( F
btz
) = M
z
/ Z
tz
Where:
Z
cy
, Z
cz
are section modulus for compression
Z
ty
, Z
tz
are section modulus for tension
Allowable bending stress for M
y
(f
bcy
) = f
t
Allowable bending stress for M
z
When λ
b
≤
p
λ
b
, f
b
= F/ν
When
p
λ
b
< λ
b
≤
e
λ
b
,
=
−
−
−
f
b
F
ν
1 0.4
λ
b
λ
p
b
λ
b
e
λ
p
b
When
e
λ
b
< λ
b
,
= f
b
λ
F 1
2.17
b
2
Where:
= λ M M /
b y e
= λ 1 / 0.6
e
b
For Temporary case, f
bcz
= 1.5 x (f
bcz
for Permanent case)
Where:
C = 1.75  1.05 (M2 / M1) + 0.3 (M2 / M1)
2
Allowable bending stress for M
y
, f
bty
= f
t
Allowable bending stress for M
z
, f
btz
= f
bcz
International Design Codes Manual — 560
Note: The parameter CB can be used to specify a value for C directly.
iii. Shear Stress
Actual shear stresses are calculated by the following formula:
q
y
= Q
y
/ A
ww
Where:
A
ww
= web shear area = product of depth and web thickness
q
z
= Q
z
/ A
ff
Where:
A
ff
= flange shear area = 2/3 times total flange area
Allowable shear stress, f
s
= F
s
/ 1.5, F
s
= F / √(3)
3. Checking design requirements:
User provided RATIO value (default 1.0) is used for checking design requirements:
The following conditions are checked to meet the AIJ specifications. For all the
conditions calculated value should not be more than the value of RATIO. If for any
condition value exceeds RATIO, program gives the message that the section fails.
Conditions:
i. Axial tensile stress ratio = F
T
/ f
t
ii. Axial compressive stress ratio = F
C
/ f
c
iii. Combined compression & bending ratio = F
C
/ f
c
+F
bcz
/f
bcz
+F
bcy
/f
bcy
iv. Combined compression & bending ratio = (F
btz
+F
bty
F
C
) / f
t
v. Combined tension & bending ratio = (F
T
+F
btz
+F
bty
) / f
t
vi. Combined tension & bending ratio = F
bcz
/f
bcz
+F
bcy
/f
bcy
 F
T
/f
t
vii. Shear stress ratio for q
y
= q
y
/ f
s
viii. Shear stress ratio for q
z
= q
z
/ f
s
ix. von Mises stress ratio (if the von Mises stresses were set to be checked) = f
m
/
(k⋅f
t
)
Note: All other member capacities (axial tension, axial compression, and shear) are
calculated as for AIJ 2002. See "Member Capacities" on page 577
12B.3 Design Parameters
You are allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters
mentioned in Table 12B.1 of this chapter. These parameters communicate design decisions
561 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
from the engineer to the program. The default parameter values have been selected such that
they are frequently used numbers for conventional design. Depending on the particular design
requirements of the situation, some or all of these parameter values may have to be changed to
exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as JAPANESE 2005 to
invoke the AIJ 2005.
Design Code to follow.
See section 5.48.1 of the Technical
Reference Manual.
BEAM 0.0 0.0 = design only for end moments or
those at locations specified by the
SECTION command.
1.0 = calculate moments at twelfth
points along the beam, and use the
maximum Mz location for design.
CAN 0 Specifies the method used for
deflection checks
0. deflection check based on the
principle that maximum
deflection occurs within the
span between DJ1 and DJ2.
1. deflection check based on the
principle that maximum
deflection is of the cantilever
type (see note a)
Table 12B.1Japanese Steel Design Parameters
International Design Codes Manual — 562
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CB 0 C value from the AIJ code. See
"Member Capacities" on page 577
Bending Stress for how C is calculated
and applied.
Use 0.0 to direct the program to
calculated Cb.
Any other value be used in lieu of the
program calculated value.
DFF None
(Mandatory
for
deflection
check)
"Deflection Length" / Maxm. allowable
local deflection
DJ1 Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length" (See
Note b)
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length" (See
Note b)
DMAX 100 cm Maximum allowable depth for
member.
DMIN 0.0 cm Minimum allowable depth for
member.
FYLD 235 MPA Yield strength of steel in Megapascal.
KY 1.0 K value in local yaxis. Usually, this is
the minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local zaxis. Usually, this is
the major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length in local yaxis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
LZ Member
Length
Same as above except in zaxis
MAIN 0.0 0.0 = check for slenderness
1.0 = suppress slenderness check
563 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
MISES 0 Option to include check for von
Mises stresses
0 = Do not include check.
1 = Perform Von Mises stress check.
NSF 1.0 Net section factor for tension
members.
RATIO 1.0 Permissible ratio of the actual to
allowable stresses.
SSY 0.0 0.0 = Sidesway in local yaxis.
1.0 = No sidesway
SSZ 0.0 Same as above except in local zaxis.
TMAIN 400 Allowable Slenderness Limit for
Tension Member
1.0 = suppress slenderness check .
Any value greater than 1 = Allowable
KL/r in tension.
TMP 0 0 = Permanent Loading
1 = Temporary Loading
TRACK 0.0 Level of output detail:
0. = Suppress critical member
stresses
1. = Print all critical member
stresses
2. = Print expanded output
3. = Print maximum details.
Note: Only produces results
when BEAM 0 is used.
4. = Perform and print deflection
check.
UNF 1.0 Same as above provided as a fraction of
actual member length.
International Design Codes Manual — 564
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
UNL Member
Length
Unsupported length for calculating
allowable bending stress.
12B.3.1 Notes
a. When performing the deflection check, you can choose between two methods. The
first method, defined by a value 0 for the CAN parameter, is based on the local
displacement. See Section 5.44 of the Technical Reference Manual for details on local
displacement.
If the CAN parameter is set to 1, the check will be based on cantilever style deflection.
Let (DX1, DY1,DZ1) represent the nodal displacements (in global axes) at the node
defined by DJ1 (or in the absence of DJ1, the start node of the member). Similarly,
(DX2, DY2, DZ2) represent the deflection values at DJ2 or the end node of the
member.
Compute Delta =
− + − + − (DX2 DX1) (DY2 DY1) (DZ2 DZ1)
2 2 2
Compute Length = distance between DJ1 and DJ2 or, between start node and end
node, as the case may be.
Then, if CAN is specified a value 1, dff = L/Delta
Ratio due to deflection = DFF/dff
b. If CAN = 0, the "Deflection Length" is defined as the length that is used for calculation
of local deflections within a member. It may be noted that for most cases the
"Deflection Length" will be equal to the length of the member. However, in some
situations, the "Deflection Length" may be different. A straight line joining DJ1 and
DJ2 is used as the reference line from which local deflections are measured.
For example, refer to the figure below where a beam has been modeled using four
joints and three members. The “Deflection Length” for all three members will be equal
to the total length of the beam in this case. The parameters DJ1 and DJ2 should be
used to model this situation. Thus, for all three members here, DJ1 should be 1 and
DJ2 should be 4.
D = Maximum local deflection for members 1, 2, and 3.
PARAMETERS
565 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
DFF 300. ALL
DJ1 1 ALL
DJ2 4 ALL
c. If DJ1 and DJ2 are not used, "Deflection Length" will default to the member length and
local deflections will be measured from original member line.
d. The above parameters may be used in conjunction with other available parameters for
steel design.
12B.4 Von Mises Stresses Check
Note: This feature requires STAAD.Pro V8i (SELECTseries 2) build 2007.07 or higher.
The von Mises stress equation shown below, which is modified for beam elements based on
the corresponding equation in AIJ steel design code (both 2002 and 2005 editions of AIJ),
indicates that the lefthand side in the equation should be less than unity. These checks are
performed at locations indicated by the BEAM parameter. The default is set that this check is
not performed. The MISES parameter must be set to 1 to initiate the checks.
Note: As with other design checks, the unity check value can be modified by use of the
RATIO parameter.
The von Misers stresses are evaluated and checked as follows:
<
+
1.0
σ τ
f
3
x xy
2 2
Where:
Longitudinal stress in beam element:
= + + σ
x
F
A
M
Z
M
Z
x
x
y
y
z
z
F
x
= Axial force
M
y
= Bending moment about yaxis
M
z
= Bending moment about zaxis
A
x
= Crosssectional area,
Z
y
= Section modulus about yaxis
Z
z
= Section modulus about zaxis
= + + τ
xy
M
Z
F
A
F
A
2
2
x
x
y
y
z
z
International Design Codes Manual — 566
M
x
= Torsional moment
F
y
= shear stress in y direction
F
z
= shear stress in z direction
Z
x
= Torsional section modulus
D
x
= Depth of the member
I
x
= Torsional constant
A
y
= Effective shear area in the y direction
A
z
= Effective shear area in the z direction
f
t
= Allowable tensile stress
In the STRESSES output category, stress value of (numerator of the von Mises stress equation)
is output as the value of fm. Along with slenderness ratios, stresses, and deflections, von Mises
stress equation is checked. When its lefthand side yields the maximum ratio value, it is
printed as RATIO and “VON MISES” is printed as CRITICAL COND.
12B.5 Verification Problems
In the next few pages are included verification examples for reference purposes.
12B.5.1 Verification Problem No. 1
A slender, cantilever beam subjected to a load at the end. Static analysis, 3D beam element.
Problem
A cantilever beam of length 0.3 meters is subjected to a permanent joint load of 3 kN in the Y
direction and 2 kN in the Z direction as well as a 0.008 kN·m torque applied at the end. Axial
tension of 10 kN is also applied to the member. An H100x50x5 section is used from the
Japanese steel tables.
Given
Section properties
D = 100 mm, B = 50 mm, t
f
= 7 mm, t
w
= 5 mm
I
x
= 15,000 mm
4
A
x
= 1185 mm
2
, A
y
= 500 mm
2
, A
z
= 467 mm
2
Z
x
= I
x
/t
max
= 15,000/7 = 2,143 mm
3
, Z
y
= 5,920 mm
3
, Z
z
= 37,400 mm
3
The maximum of the left hand side of the von Mises stress equation apparently occurs at the
fixed end of the beam. Section forces at the fixed end are ass follow:
10.0 kN (Tension)
567 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
0.6 kN·m (BendingY)
0.9 kN·m (BendingZ)
3.0 kN (ShearY)
2.0 kN (ShearZ)
0.008 kN·m (Torsion
Material
FYLD = 300 MPa
E = 2.05E+05 MPa
G = E/2.6 MPa
Solution
From these section forces, σ
x
and τ
xy
at the section of the fixed end are calculated as follows:
= + + σ
x
F
A
M
Z
M
Z
x
x
y
y
z
z
= + +
− − 10, 000
1, 185
600, 000
5, 920
900, 000
37, 400
= 8.44 + 101.35 + 24.06 = 133.85
N/mm
2
= + + τ
xy
M
Z
F
A
F
A
2
2
x
x
y
y
z
z
= + +
− − − 8, 000
2, 143
3, 000
500
2
2, 000
467
2
= + + 3.73 6 4.28
2 2
= 11.10
N/mm
2
From σ
x
and τ
xy
, f
m
is calculated:
= + = + = f σ τ 3 (133.85) 3(11.10) 135.22
m
x xy
2 2 2 2
N/ mm
2
Since f
t
= FYLD/1.5 = 300.0 MPa/15 = 200.0 N/mm
2
and k = 1 for permanent loading,
Ratio = 135.22/(200.0 · 1) = 0.676 < 1, So OK.
Comparison
Hand
Calculation
STAAD.Pro
Result
Comments
von Mises Stress, f
m
(N/mm
2
)
135.22 135.2 None
Table 12B.2Comparison of results for a AIJ 2005 verification problem
STAAD Input File
STAAD SPACE VERIFICATION EXAMPLE NO.1
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 18AUG10
International Design Codes Manual — 568
END JOB INFORMATION
* VERIFICATION FOR VON MISES STRESSES IN AIJ 2005
UNIT MMS KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 300 0 0
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2
UNIT METER KN
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05E+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2E005
DAMP 0.03
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY JAPANESE
1 TABLE ST H100X50X5
UNIT MMS KN
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL STEEL ALL
SUPPORTS
1 FIXED
UNIT METER KN
LOAD 1 LC1
JOINT LOAD
2 FX 10 FY 3 FZ 2 MX 0.008
PERFORM ANALYSIS
LOAD LIST 1
PRINT MEMBER FORCES LIST 1
PARAMETER 1
CODE JAPANESE 2005
TMP 0 ALL
UNL 0.002 ALL
MISES 1 ALL
TRACK 2 ALL
FYLD 300000 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
Output
The TRACK 2.0 output portion is as follows:
STAAD.PRO CODE CHECKING  ( AIJ 2005) v1.0
********************************************

 Y PROPERTIES 
*************  IN CM UNIT 
 * ============================= ======  
MEMBER 1 *  JAPANESE SECTIONS   AX = 11.85 
 *  ST H100X50X5   Z AY = 5.00 
DESIGN CODE *    AZ = 4.67 
 AIJ2005 * =============================== ====== ZY = 5.92 
 * ZZ = 37.40 
569 — STAAD.Pro
12B. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2005 AIJ
 * <LENGTH (ME= 0.30 > iY = 1.12 
************* iZ = 3.97 
 ZX = 2.14 
 0.90(KNMET) 
PARAMETER L1 STRESSES 
IN N MM  L1 L1 IN N MM
 + L1 L1 
 KL/RY= 26.8  L1 FA = 189.5 
 KL/RZ= 7.6 + L1 fa = 8.4 
 UNL = 2.5  L1 L1 FCZ = 200.0 
 CB = 1.75 + FTZ = 200.0 
 CMY = 0.85  L1 L1 FCY = 200.0 
 CMZ = 0.85 + L1 L1 FTY = 200.0 
 FYLD = 300.0  L0 fbz = 24.1 
 NSF = 1.00 ++++++++++ fby = 101.4 
 DFF = 0.0 0.05 FV = 115.5 
 dff = 0.0 ABSOLUTE MZ ENVELOPE fv = 6.0 
 (WITH LOAD NO.) FT = 200.0 
 fm = 135.2 
 MAX FORCE/ MOMENT SUMMARY (KNMET) Sx = 133.9 
  Tou = 11.1 
 
 AXIAL SHEARY SHEARZ MOMENTY MOMENTZ 
 
 VALUE 10.00 3.00 2.00 0.60 0.90 
 LOCATION 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 
 LOADING 1 1 1 1 1 
 
**************************************************************************
* *
* DESIGN SUMMARY (KNMET) *
*  *
* *
* RESULT/ CRITICAL COND/ RATIO/ LOADING/ *
 FX MY MZ LOCATION 
 ====================================================== 
 PASS VON MISES 0.676 1 
 10.00 T 0.60 0.90 0.000 
* *
**************************************************************************
 

International Design Codes Manual — 570
571 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
STAAD.Pro is capable of performing steel design based on the Japanese code AIJ 2002
Specifications for structural steel design.
Design of members per AIJ 2002 requires the STAAD Japan Design Codes SELECT Code Pack.
12C.1 General
The design philosophy and procedural logistics are based on the principles of elastic analysis
and allowable stress design. Facilities are available for member selection as well as code
checking. Two major failure modes are recognized: failure by overstressing and failure by
stability considerations. The following sections describe the salient features of the design
approach.
Members are proportioned to resist the design loads without exceedance of the allowable
stresses or capacities and the most economical section is selected on the basis of the least
weight criteria. The code checking part of the program also checks the slenderness
requirements and the stability criteria. Users are recommended to adopt the following steps in
performing the steel design:
l Specify the geometry and loads and perform the analysis.
l Specify the design parameter values if different from the default values.
l Specify whether to perform code checking or member selection.
12C.2 Analysis Methodology
Elastic analysis method is used to obtain the forces and moments for design. Analysis is done
for the primary and combination loading conditions provided by the user. The user is allowed
complete flexibility in providing loading specifications and in using appropriate load factors to
create necessary loading situations. Depending upon the analysis requirements, regular
stiffness analysis or PDelta analysis may be specified. Dynamic analysis may also be performed
and the results combined with static analysis results.
12C.3 Member Property Specifications
For specification of member properties of standard Japanese steel shapes, the steel section
library available in STAAD may be used. The next section describes the syntax of commands
used to assign properties from the builtin steel table. Members properties may also be
specified using the User Table facility. For more information on these facilities, refer to Section
1.7 the STAAD Technical Reference Manual.
12C.4 Builtin Japanese Steel Section Library
The following information is provided for use when the builtin steel tables are to be
referenced for member property specification. These properties are stored in a database file. If
called for, these properties are also used for member design. Since the shear areas are built into
these tables, shear deformation is always considered for these members during the analysis. An
example of member property specification in an input file is provided at the end of this
section.
International Design Codes Manual — 572
A complete listing of the sections available in the builtin steel section library may be
obtained using the tools of the graphical user interface.
Following are the descriptions of different types of sections.
12C.4.1 I shapes
I shapes are specified in the following way:
Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point should be
excluded.
1 TO 9 TA ST I300X150X11
12 TO 15 TA ST I350X150X9
12C.4.2 H shapes
H shapes are specified as follows:
Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point should be
excluded.
1 TO 8 TA ST H200X100X4
13 TO 17 TA ST H350X350X12
12C.4.3 T shapes
T shapes are specified as follows:
573 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
Note: While specifying the web thickness, the portion after the decimal point should be
excluded.
20 TO 25 TA ST T250X19
12C.4.4 Channels
Channel sections are specified as follows.
25 TO 34 TA ST C125X65X6
46 TO 49 TA ST C200X90X8
12C.4.5 Double Channels
Back to back double channels, with or without a spacing in between them, are available. The
letter D in front of the section name is used to specify a double channel. Fronttofront double
channels are similarly added by adding FR in front of the section name.
17 TO 27 TA D C300X90X10
45 TO 76 TA D C250X90X11 SP 2.0
28 TO 30 TA FR C200X90X8 SP 2.5
In the above commands, members 17 to 27 are a backtoback double channels C300X90X10
with no spacing in between. Members 45 to 76 are a double channels C250X90X11 with a
spacing of 2 length units. Members 28 to 30 are fronttofront double channels C200X90X8
with a spacing of 2.5 length units.
International Design Codes Manual — 574
12C.4.6 Angles
Two types of specification may be used to describe an angle. The standard angle specification
is as follows.
The letter L (signifying that the section is an angle) is followed by the length of the legs and
then the thickness of the leg, all in millimeters. The word ST signifies that the section is a
standard angle meaning that the major principal axis coincides with the local YY axis
specified in Chapter 1 of Section 1.5.2 of the Technical Reference Manual.
1 4 TA ST L150X90X9
If the minor principal axis coincides with the local YY axis specified in Chapter 2 of the User's
Manual, the word RA (Reverse Angle) should be used instead of ST as shown below.
7 TO 23 TA RA L90X75X9
12C.4.7 Double angles
Short leg backtoback and long leg backtoback double angles may be specified by using the
words SD or LD in front of the angle size. In the case of an equal angle, either SD or LD will
serve the purpose. The spacing between the angles may be specified by using the word SP after
the angle size followed by the value of the spacing.
8 TO 25 TA SD L100X65X7 SP 2.0
36 TO 45 TA LD L300X90X11 SP 3.0
The first example indicates a short legs backtoback double angle comprised of 100X65X7
angles separated by 2 length units. The latter is a long legs backtoback double angle
comprised of 300X90X11 angles separated by 3 length units.
12C.4.8 Tubes
Tube names are input by their dimensions. For example,
6 TA ST TUBE DT 8.0 WT 6.0 TH 0.5
is a tube that has a height of 8 length units, width of 6 length units and a wall thickness of
0.5 length units. Only code checking, no member selection can be performed on TUBE
sections.
575 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
12C.4.9 Pipes (General Pipe sections)
Circular hollow sections defined by JIS G3444:2005 Design Standard for Steel Structures 
Based on Allowable Stress Concept as general pipe sections are specified as shown in the
following example.
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE PIP267.4X7.0
specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 267.0 mm and a thickness of 7.0 mm. Only code
checking, no member selection, can be performed on PIPE sections.
12C.4.10 Circular Hollow sections
Circular hollow sections defined by JIS G3475:2005 Design Standard for Steel Structures 
Based on Allowable Stress Concept as Architectural pipe sections are specified as shown in the
following example.
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE CHS660.4X16
specifies a pipe with outside diameter of 660.4 mm and a thickness of 16.0 mm. Only code
checking, no member selection, can be performed on CHS sections.
12C.4.11 Rectangular Hollow sections
Rectangular hollow sections defined by JIS G3466:2005 Design Standard for Steel Structures 
Based on Allowable Stress Concept are specified as shown in the following example.
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE RHS200X100X12
specifies a tube with a depth of 200 mm, a width of 100 mm, and a thickness of 12 mm. Only
code checking, no member selection, can be performed on CHS sections.
12C.4.12 Square Hollow sections
Square hollow sections defined by JIS G3466:2005 Design Standard for Steel Structures  Based
on Allowable Stress Concept are specified as shown in the following example.
1 TO 9 TA ST PIPE SHS200XS00X12
specifies a square tube with a width of 200 mm and a thickness of 12 mm. Only code checking,
no member selection, can be performed on CHS sections.
Sample Input file containing Japanese shapes
STAAD SPACE
UNIT KIP FEET
International Design Codes Manual — 576
JOINT COORD
1 0 0 0 12 11 0 0
MEMB INCIDENCE
1 1 2 11
UNIT INCH
MEMBER PROPERTY JAPANESE
* HSHAPE
1 TA ST H200X100X4
* I SHAPE
2 TA ST I250X125X10
* T SHAPE
3 TA ST T200X19
* CHANNEL
4 TA ST C125X65X6
* DOUBLE CHANNEL
5 TA D C200X90X8
* REGULAR ANGLE
6 TA ST L100X75X7
* REVERSE ANGLE
7 TA RA L90X75X9
* DOUBLE ANGLE  LONG LEG BACK TO BACK
8 TA LD L125X75X7 SP 2.0
* DOUBLE ANGLE  SHORT LEG BACK TO BACK
9 TA SD L300X90X11 SP 1.5
* TUBE
10 TA ST TUBE DT 3.0 WT 2.5 TH 0.25
* PIPE
11 TA ST PIPE OD 3.0 ID 2.5
PRINT MEMBER PROPERTIES
FINISH
12C.5 Member Capacities
Member design and code checking per AIJ 2002 are based upon the allowable stress design
method. It is a method for proportioning structural members using design loads and forces,
allowable stresses, and design limitations for the appropriate material under service
conditions. The basic measure of member capacities are the allowable stresses on the member
under various conditions of applied loading such as allowable tensile stress, allowable
compressive stress etc. These depend on several factors such as cross sectional properties,
slenderness factors, unsupported width to thickness ratios and so on. Explained here is the
procedure adopted in STAAD for calculating such capacities.
577 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
12C.5.1 Design Capabilities
All types of available shapes like HShape, IShape, LShapes, CHANNEL, PIPE, TUBE,
Prismatic section etc. can be used as member property and STAAD will automatically adopt
the design procedure for that particular shape if Steel Design is requested. STEEL TABLE
available within STAAD or UPTABLE facility can be used for member property.
12C.5.2 Methodology
For steel design, STAAD compares the actual stresses with the allowable stresses as required by
AIJ specifications. The design procedure consist of following three steps.
1. Calculation of sectional properties
The program extract sectional properties like sectional area ( A ), Moment of Inertia
about Y axis and Z axis ( Iyy, Izz) from inbuilt Japanese Steel Table and calculates Zz,
Zy, iy, iz using appropriate formula. For calculation of i ( radius of gyration needed for
bending ), program calculates moment of inertia ( I
i
)and sectional area ( A
i
) for 1/6th
section and then uses following formula:
= i I A /
i i
Note: The above mentioned procedure for calculation of i is applicable for I shape,
H shape and Channel sections.
2. Calculation of actual and allowable stresses
Allowable stresses for structural steel under permanent loading shall be determined on
the basis of the values of F given in the following table.
International Design Codes Manual — 578
Steel for
Construction
Structures
Steel for General
Structures
Steel for Welded Structures
Thick
ness
SN400
SNR4
00
STKN
400
SN490
SNR4
90
STKN
490
SS400
STK400
STKR400
SSC400
SWH400
SS4
90
SS5
40
SM40
0
SMA4
00
SM49
0
SM49
0 Y
SMA4
90
STKR
490
STK49
0
SM5
20
SM5
70
t≤ 40 235 325 235 275 375 235 325 355 400
40< t ≤
100
215 295 215 255  215 295* 335 400
Table 12C.1Table: Values of F (N/mm
2
)
* F = 325 N/mm
2
when t > 75mm
Note: In checking members for temporary loading be the combination of stresses
described in Chap.3, allowable stresses specified in this chapter may be
increases by 50%
Program calculates actual and allowable stresses by following methods:
i. Axial Stress:
Actual tensile stresses ( F
T
) = Force / ( A x NSF ),
NSF = Net Section Factor for tension
Actual compressive stress ( F
C
) = Force / A
Allowable tensile stress ( f
t
)
= F / 1.5 (For Permanent Case)
= F ( For Temporary Case )
Allowable compressive stress
579 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
·
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
≤
>
¸
−
1
]
1
f
λ
λ
when Λ
when Λ
c
F
ν
F
( )
( )
1 0.4
0.227
λ
λ
Λ
2
Λ
2
= f
c
x 1.5 (for Temporary case)
where:
= Λ
π E
F 0.6
2
= + ν
( )
λ 3
2
2
3 Λ
2
ii. Bending Stress:
Actual bending stress for My for compression
( F
bcy
) = M
y
/ Z
cy
Actual bending stress for Mz for compression
( F
bcz
) = M
z
/ Z
cz
Actual bending stress for My for tension
( F
bty
) = M
y
/ Z
ty
Actual bending stress for Mz for tension
( F
btz
) = M
z
/ Z
tz
Where:
Z
cy
, Z
cz
are section modulus for compression
Z
ty
, Z
tz
are section modulus for tension
Allowable bending stress for M
y
(f
bcy
) = f
t
Allowable bending stress for Mz
(f
bcz
) = { 1  .4 x (lb / i)
2
/ (C λ
2
)} ft max
= 900/ (lb x h / A
f
)
For Temporary case, f
bcz
= 1.5 x (f
bcz
for Permanent case)
Where:
C = 1.75  1.05 (M2 / M1) + 0.3 (M2 / M1)
2
Allowable bending stress for M
y
, f
bty
= f
t
International Design Codes Manual — 580
Allowable bending stress for M
z
, f
btz
= f
bcz
Note: The parameter CB can be used to specify a value for C directly.
iii. Shear Stress
Actual shear stresses are calculated by the following formula:
q
y
= Q
y
/ A
ww
Where:
A
ww
= web shear area = product of depth and web thickness
q
z
= Q
z
/ A
ff
Where:
A
ff
= flange shear area = 2/3 times total flange area
Allowable shear stress, f
s
= F
s
/ 1.5, F
s
= F / √(3)
3. Checking design requirements:
User provided RATIO value (default 1.0) is used for checking design requirements
The following conditions are checked to meet the AIJ specifications. For all the
conditions calculated value should not be more than the value of RATIO. If for any
condition value exceeds RATIO , program gives the message that the section fails.
1. Checking design requirements:
User provided RATIO value (default 1.0) is used for checking design
requirements
The following conditions are checked to meet the AIJ specifications. For all the
conditions calculated value should not be more than the value of RATIO. If for
any condition value exceeds RATIO, program gives the message that the section
fails.
Conditions:
i. Axial tensile stress ratio = F
T
/ f
t
ii. Axial compressive stress ratio = F
C
/ f
c
iii. Combined compression & bending ratio = F
C
/ f
c
+F
bcz
/f
bcz
+F
bcy
/f
bcy
iv. Combined compression & bending ratio = (F
btz
+F
bty
F
C
) / f
t
v. Combined tension & bending ratio = (F
T
+F
btz
+F
bty
) / f
t
vi. Combined tension & bending ratio = F
bcz
/f
bcz
+F
bcy
/f
bcy
 F
T
/f
t
vii. Shear stress ratio for q
y
= q
y
/ f
s
viii. Shear stress ratio for q
z
= q
z
/ f
s
581 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
ix. von Mises stress ratio (if the von Mises stresses were set to be checked) =
f
m
/(k⋅f
t
)
12C.5.3 Output Format ( TRACK 3 )
One new output format has been introduced which provides details step by step information
of Steel Design for guiding load case only. If Section command is used before Parameter
command this output will provide details information for all the sections specified by Section
Command.
Note: This output format is available only when the BEAM parameter value is 0 and the
TRACK parameter value is 3. If section command is not used design information will
be printed for two ends only. If Member Truss option is used no Shear Design
information will be printed.
Example:
SECTION 0.0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0 ALL
PARAMETER
CODE JAPANESE 2002
BEAM 0.0 ALL
TMP 0.0 MEMB 1 TO 4
TMP 1.0 MEMB 5 TO 8
TRACK 3 ALL
CHECK CODE ALL
FINISH
12C.5.4 Allowable stress for Axial Tension
Allowable axial stress in tension is calculated per section 5.1 (1) of the AIJ code. In members
with axial tension, the tensile load must not exceed the tension capacity of the member. The
tension capacity of the member is calculated on the basis of the member area. STAAD
calculates the tension capacity of a given member based on a user supplied net section factor
(NSFa default value of 1.0 is present but may be altered by changing the input value, see Table
8B.1) and proceeds with member selection or code checking.
12C.5.5 Allowable stress for Axial Compression
The allowable stress for members in compression is determined according to the procedure of
section 5.1 (3). Compressive resistance is a function of the slenderness of the crosssection (Kl/r
ratio) and the user may control the slenderness value by modifying parameters such as KY, LY,
KZ and LZ. In the absence of user provided values for effective length, the actual member
length will be used. The slenderness ratios are checked against the permissible values specified
in Chapter 11 of the AIJ code.
International Design Codes Manual — 582
12C.5.6 Allowable stress for Bending
The permissible bending compressive and tensile stresses are dependent on such factors as
length of outstanding legs, thickness of flanges, unsupported length of the compression
flange (UNL, defaults to member length) etc. The allowable stresses in bending (compressive
and tensile) are calculated as per the criteria of Clause 5.1 (4) of the code.
12C.5.7 Allowable stress for Shear
Shear capacities are a function of web depth, web thickness etc. The allowable stresses in shear
are computed according to Clause 5.1 (2) of the code.
12C.6 Combined Loading
For members experiencing combined loading (axial force, bending and shear), applicable
interaction formulas are checked at different locations of the member for all modeled loading
situations. Members subjected to axial tension and bending are checked using the criteria of
clause 6.2. For members with axial compression and bending, the criteria of clause 6.1 is used.
12C.7 Design Parameters
The user is allowed complete control over the design process through the use of parameters
mentioned in Table 12C.2 of this chapter. These parameters communicate design decisions
from the engineer to the program. The default parameter values have been selected such that
they are frequently used numbers for conventional design. Depending on the particular
design requirements of the situation, some or all of these parameter values may have to be
changed to exactly model the physical structure.
Note: Once a parameter is specified, its value stays at that specified number until it is
specified again. This is the way STAAD works for all codes.
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
CODE  Must be specified as JAPANESE 2002
to invoke the AIJ 2002.
Design Code to follow. See section
5.48.1 of the Technical Reference
Manual.
Table 12C.2Japanese Steel Design Parameters
583 — STAAD.Pro
12C. Japanese Codes  Steel Design Per 2002 AIJ
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
BEAM 0.0 Locations of design:
0. Design only for end moments
or those at locations specified
by the SECTION command.
1. Calculate moments at twelfth
points along the beam, and use
the maximum Mz location for
design.
CAN 0 Specifies the method used for
deflection checks
0. deflection check based on the
principle that maximum
deflection occurs within the
span between DJ1 and DJ2.
1. deflection check based on the
principle that maximum
deflection is of the cantilever
type (see note a)
CB 0 C value from the AIJ code. See
"Member Capacities" on page 577
Bending Stress for how C is
calculated and applied.
Use 0.0 to direct the program to
calculated Cb.
Any other value be used in lieu of the
program calculated value.
DFF None
(Mandatory for
deflection
check)
"Deflection Length" / Maximum
allowable local deflection
DJ1 Start Joint
of member
Joint No. denoting starting point for
calculation of "Deflection Length"
(See Note b)
DJ2 End Joint of
member
Joint No. denoting end point for
calculation of "Deflection Length"
(See Note b)
International Design Codes Manual — 584
Parameter
Name
Default Value Description
DMAX 100 cm Maximum allowable depth for
member.
DMIN 0.0 cm Minimum allowable depth for
member.
KY 1.0 K value in local yaxis. Usually, this is
the minor axis.
KZ 1.0 K value in local zaxis. Usually, this is
the major axis.
LY Member
Length
Length in local yaxis to calculate
slenderness ratio.
LZ Member
Length
Same as above