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Introduction Transformer power levels range from low-power applications, such as consumer electronics power supplies to very high power applications, such as power distribution systems. For higherpower applications, three-phase transforms are commonly used. The typical construction of a three-phase transformer is shown in Figure 1. The detailed analysis of this circuit is not straightforward since there are numerous combinations of flux paths linking various windings. For this reason, the three-phase transformer will be modeled as three independent single-phase transformers herein.
it is reasonable to model the three-phase transformer as three ideal transformers as shown in Figure 2.Three-Phase Transformers 2 For practical calculations. Since these transformers are ideal. the secondary voltages are related to the primary voltages by the turns ratio according to ˆ = N2 V ˆ V 1a 2a N1 ˆ = N2 V ˆ V 2b 1b N1 ˆ = N2 V ˆ V 2c 1c N1 (1) (2) (3) .
Therefore. the following relationship holds for both connections. the lineto-line voltages on the secondary side are directly proportional to those on the primary side through the turns ratio. In these cases. The voltage labels on the individual coils correspond to the labels in Figure 2. the ideal transforms are schematically rotated by 120o from each other to represent a 120o electrical displacement in the voltages. there are four possible combinations of transformer connections. ˆ = N2 V ˆ V ab AB N1 (4) In Figures 3 and 4. The most straightforward combinations are the wye-to-wye connection and the delta-to-delta connections shown in Figures 3 and 4 respectively. . An equation similar to (4) can be derived to relate the primary and secondary currents if desired. and that both delta and wye connections are possible for the primary and secondary windings.Three-Phase Transformers 3 Considering the individual transformers of Figure 2.
the turns ratio is divided by 3 and the secondary phase lags by 30o. With this arrangement. (6) 3 is The wye-to-delta connection is shown in Figure 6. A factor of also inserted in the magnitude calculation as well.Three-Phase Transformers 4 The delta-to-wye connection is shown in Figure 5. the secondary line-to-line voltage leads the primary by 30o. (5) is equivalent to ˆ = N2 3V ˆ ∠ 30o V ab AB N1 As can be seen. From the ideal transformer equations. . With this sequence. it can be determined that ˆ = N2 V ˆ −V ˆ = N2 V ˆ +V ˆ V 1a 1b ab BC AB N1 N1 ( ) ( ) (5) In this analysis A-B-C sequence is assumed. it can be shown that ˆ = N2 1 V ˆ ∠ − 30o V ab AB N1 3 (7) In this case. If a source does not have this sequence the input lines can be relabeled so that it does.
many 240-V laboratory transformers have tap settings at 120-V and at 208-V (which is nearly 3 /2). there is a 90o phase relationship between the two secondary voltages which is necessary in a two-phase system. As it turns out. two-phase transmission was used as well as three-phase. In this case.Three-Phase Transformers 5 In early power systems. the secondary voltages are In terms of the primary voltage V AB (8) (9) ˆ = N2 V ˆ ∠ − 30o V a AB N1 ˆ = N2 V ˆ ∠ − 120o V b AB N1 (10) (11) As can be seen. Considering the connection diagram of Figure 7 and the ideal transformer relationships. To supply a two-phase system from a three-phase source. . the primary windings must have tap locations at 1/2 and 3 /2. 1 ˆ ˆ = N2 2 ˆ V a V AB + VBC 2 N1 3 ˆ = N2 V ˆ V b BC N1 ˆ . two transformers were connected in the Scott-T connection shown in Figure 7.
Data can be logged by selecting the type of connection and clicking Add. . a three-phase set of line-to-line voltages will be plotted. current. or wye-to-delta). When the Connection Type is set to the two-phase type (Scott-T). This program displays the voltage. and power for the primary side (designated with 1) and secondary side (designated with 2).Three-Phase Transformers Laboratory Software 6 Figure 8 shows a screen-shot of the program used for the three-phase transformer experiments. The secondary voltage waveforms are shown in the scope display. When the Connection Type is set to a three-phase type (such as delta-to-delta. only two-phase waveforms will be displayed. wye-to-wye. delta-to-wye.
From the voltage ratings. .17 A I 1 ˆ = 8. Laboratory transformer ratings. Alternatively. it can be seen that the turns ratio is As can be seen. In commercial applications. For these reasons. ˆ = 240 V ˆ = 120 V V V 1 2 ˆ = 4. 120-V is a common voltage level. The connection diagram N2 also shows the primary taps which are accessible through the connectors. Internally. 120-V and 208-V tap settings are commonly available on many 240-V transformers.33 A I 2 N1 = 2 . the primary windings have been connected in series and the secondary has been connected in parallel yielding the ratings show in the table below. primary taps at 120-V and 208-V are available using terminals H2-H3 and H4 respectively. 120-V can be obtained from the line-toneutral voltage of a 208-V three-phase system. This is typically obtained by splitting a 240-V winding.Three-Phase Transformers Laboratory Transformers 7 Figure 9 shows the laboratory transformer and a corresponding electrical connection diagram. The transformer has multiple primary and secondary windings which may be connected in series or parallel for different voltage ratings.
Re-configure the transformer to the delta-to-wye configuration as shown in Figure 12. Reduce the voltage to zero and switch off the source power switch. Repeat the above test for the wye-to-wye and then the wye-to-delta configurations as shown in Figures 13 and 14 respectively. . Select Delta-Delta as a Connection Type and add the data to the log. Repeat the above test with this configuration.Three-Phase Transformers Laboratory Work 8 Connect the transformers in the delta-to-delta connection as shown in Figure 10. Note: it will be simpler to connect the source and load cables to the transformer first and place the interconnecting wires on top since these wires will be changed to make the other types of connections. Switch on the source circuit breaker and increase the voltage to 100%. Energize the circuit and increase the primary voltage to 100% (approximately 208-V line-to-line). change the Connection Type to Scott-T so that the waveforms display properly. Note that this is very similar to the delta-to-delta configuration and only the interconnecting wires between the transformers need be changed. Be sure to change the Connection Type to Delta-Wye and log the data. Note the voltage ratio corresponds to the turns ratio according to (4). Switch on the load box fans. Print the waveforms on the screen. Connect the transformers in the Scott-T connection as shown in Figure 15. Log the data for each case. Notice the 90o phase relationship between the secondary voltages as predicted by (10-11) verifying two-phase output. Before energizing the circuit. The load box should be set to use two resistors in series in each phase by setting the switches as shown in Figure 11. labeling appropriate connection type. lower the source voltage to zero and switch off the source circuit breaker.
Three-Phase Transformers 9 .
Three-Phase Transformers 10 .
Three-Phase Transformers 11 .
Three-Phase Transformers 12 .
Three-Phase Transformers 13 .
Three-Phase Transformers 14 .
verify equation (4).Three-Phase Transformers 15 Calculations and Questions 1. Verify equations (6) and (7) using the delta-to-wye and wye-to-delta measurements respectively. . Derive the wye-to-delta transformer equation (7) from the connection diagram of Figure 6 and the ideal transformer relationships of equations (1-3). Sketch the three-phase primary line-toline voltages ˆ = 3 V ∠ 30 o V AB rms ˆ = 3 V ∠ − 90 o V BC rms ˆ = 3 V ∠150 o V CA rms ˆ and V ˆ according to (8-9). Note that with A-B-C sequence. Include phasors for both terms on the as well as the voltages V a b right-hand side of (8) as well. 3. the transformer primary voltages can be expressed as ˆ = V ∠0 V 1a rms ˆ = V ∠ − 120 o V 1b rms ˆ = V ∠120 o V 1c rms 2. Using the lab measurements from the delta-to-delta and wye-to-wye configurations. Sketch the phasor diagram for the Scott-T connection.
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