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N E C A M S I D

DC/ACPureSineWave Inverter
JimDoucet DanEggleston JeremyShaw MQPTermsABC20062007 Advisor:ProfessorStephenJ.Bitar Sponsor:NECAMSID

TableofContents Introduction...................................................................... .......1 ProblemStatement......................................................... .........2 Background................................................................ .............3 InvertersandApplications......................................... ........5 PulseWidthModulation........................................ ............7 BubbaOscillator........................................... .....................9 HBridgeConfiguration............................................. ......12 MOSFETDrivers......................................................... ....14 CircuitProtectionandSnubbers............................ ..........15 Filtering.................................................................. ..........16 Methodology............................................................. ............17 SineWaveGenerator............................................ ...........18 CarrierWaveGenerator................................................ ...20 PulseWidthModulation...................................... ............24 HBridge.............................................. ............................27 Filter.................................................................. ...............30 ImplementingtheDesign..................................................... .32 Difficulties............................................... ........................33 SineWaveGenerator...................................... ............33 FilterDesign............................................................... .35 PuttingtheDesigntoWork......................... ....................37 Results.......................................................................... .........38 Recommendations............................................................... ..40 Conclusion..................................................... .......................42 References...................................................................... .......44 AppendixA:SwitchingFrequencyCharts..........................46 AppendixB:CircuitDiagram..............................................47 AppendixC:Flowchart............................ ............................49 AppendixD:PCBBoardDiagrams.....................................50 AppendixE:PartsList.................................................... ......52

IndexofFigures
Commercial200WattInverter .................................... .......................5 Square,Modified,andPureSineWave...................................... ........6 PulseWidthModulation.............................................. .......................7

BubbaOscillatorSchematic........................................................... .....9 RCFilterSchematic.......................................................... ................10 SignalatP1...................................................................................... ..11 HBridgeConfigurationusingNChannelMOSFETs.....................12 NChannelMOSFET............................................... .........................14 InductiveLoadCircuit................................................. .....................15 InductiveLoadCircuitwithSnubber...............................................15 InductiveLoadCircuitwithSnubberandZenerDiode...................15 BlockDiagram........................................................... .......................17 BubbaOscillatorCircuit............................................ .......................18 OscillatorSignalatP2..................................................................... ..19 OscillatorSignalatP5..................................................................... ..19 TriangleWaveGenerator........................................................... .......20 SquareWaveOutput...................................................... ...................21 GeneratedTriangleWave.......................................... .......................22 SquareandTriangleWaves......................................... .....................22 PWMSignal.................................................................... ..................24 SineReference,TriangleWave,andsquarewavereference...........25 Modifiedtrianglewave,overlaidwithsinereference......................25 PWMsignalandreferencesine.................................. ......................26 TrilevelPWMsignal............................................................ .............26 HBridgewithMOSFETDrivers.......................... ...........................27 TypicalConnectionforIR2110MOSFETDriver........................... .28 Frequencyplotoflosses................................................................ ....30 NewSineWaveOscillatorCircuitDiagram....................................34 TwoPoleOutputFilter.......................................... ...........................35 ProjectonPCBBoard........................................................ ...............36 ClosedLoopFlowChart ...................................................... .............37 NonInvertingAmplifierBlock.................................. ......................38 FrequencyplotofMOSFETlosses................................................ ...41 Frequencyplotofinductorlosses(resistive)......................... ...........41

Introduction
ThisreportfocusesonDCtoACpowerinverters,whichaimtoefficientlytransforma DCpower sourcetoahighvoltageACsource,similartopowerthatwouldbeavailableatanelectricalwalloutlet. Invertersareusedformanyapplications,asinsituationswherelowvoltageDCsourcessuchasbatteries, solarpanelsorfuelcellsmustbeconvertedsothatdevicescan runoffofACpower.Oneexampleof suchasituationwouldbeconvertingelectricalpowerfromacarbatterytorunalaptop,TVorcell phone. ThemethodinwhichthelowvoltageDCpowerisinverted,iscompletedintwosteps.Thefirst beingtheconversionofthe lowvoltageDCpowertoahighvoltageDCsource,andthesecondstep beingtheconversionofthe highDCsourcetoanACwaveformusingpulsewidthmodulation.Another methodtocompletethedesiredoutcomewouldbetofirstconvertthelowvoltageDCpowertoAC,and thenuseatransformertoboostthevoltageto120volts.Thisprojectfocusedonthefirstmethod describedandspecificallythetransformationofahighvoltageDCsourceintoanACoutput. OfthedifferentDCACinvertersonthemarkettodaythereareessentiallytwodifferentformsofAC outputgenerated:modifiedsinewave,andpuresinewave .Amodifiedsinewavecanbeseenasmore ofasquarewavethanasinewave;itpassesthehighDC voltageforspecifiedamountsoftimesothatthe averagepowerandrmsvoltagearethesameasifitwereasinewave.Thesetypesofinvertersaremuch cheaperthanpuresinewaveinvertersandthereforeareattractivealternatives. Puresinewaveinverters,ontheotherhand,produceasinewaveoutputidenticaltothepower comingoutofanelectricaloutlet.Thesedevicesareabletorunmoresensitivedevicesthatamodified sinewavemaycausedamagetosuchas:laserprinters,laptopcomputers,powertools,digitalclocksand medicalequipment.ThisformofACpoweralsoreducesaudiblenoiseindevicessuchasfluorescent lightsandrunsinductiveloads,likemotors,fasterandquieterduetothelowharmonicdistortion.
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1 ABSAlaskan

ProblemStatement
Inthemarketofpowerinverters,therearemanychoices.Theyrangefromtheveryexpensiveto theveryinexpensive,withvaryingdegreesofquality,efficiency,andpoweroutputcapabilityalongthe way.Highqualitycombinedwithhighefficiencyexists,thoughitisoftenatahighmonetarycost.For example,SamlexAmericamanufacturesa600W,puresinewaveinverter;thecostis$289 .Meanwhile GoPowermanufacturesa600Winverterwithamodifiedsinewaveoutput(closertoasquarewave);this modelonlyfetches$69 .Thehighendpuresinewaveinverterstendtoincorporateveryexpensive,high powercapabledigitalcomponents.Themodifiedsinewaveunitscanbeveryefficient,asthereisnot muchprocessingbeingperformedontheoutputwaveform,butthisresultsinawaveformwithahigh numberofharmonics,whichcanaffectsensitiveequipmentsuchasmedicalmonitors.Manyofthevery cheapdevicesoutputasquarewave,perhapsaslightlymodifiedsquarewave,withtheproperRMS voltage,andclosetotherightfrequency. Ourgoalistofillanichewhichseemstobelackinginthepowerinvertersmarket,oneforafairly efficient,inexpensiveinverterwithapuresinewaveoutput.UtilizingPWMandanalogcomponents,the outputwillbeacleansinusoid,withverylittleswitchingnoise,combinedwiththeinexpensive manufacturingthatcomeswithananalogapproach.
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2 600WattPureSineWaveInverter.Donrowe.com. 3 GoPower600WattModifiedWaveInverter

Background
DCandACCurrent
Intheworldtodaytherearecurrentlytwoformsofelectrical transmission,DirectCurrent(DC)and AlternatingCurrent(AC),eachwithitsownadvantagesanddisadvantages.DCpowerissimplythe applicationofasteadyconstantvoltageacrossacircuitresultinginaconstantcurrent.Abatteryisthe mostcommonsourceofDCtransmissionascurrentflowsfromoneendofacircuittotheother.Most digitalcircuitrytodayisrunoffofDCpowerasitcarriestheabilitytoprovideeitheraconstanthighor constantlowvoltage,enablingdigitallogictoprocesscodeexecutions.Historically,electricitywasfirst commerciallytransmittedbyThomasEdison,andwasaDCpowerline.However,thiselectricitywas lowvoltage,duetotheinabilitytostepupDCvoltageatthetime,andthusitwasnotcapableof transmittingpoweroverlongdistances .
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V = IR P = IV = I 2 R
Ascanbeseenintheequationsabove,powerlosscanbederivedfromtheelectricalcurrent

(1)

squaredandtheresistanceofatransmissionline.Whenthevoltageisincreased,thecurrentdecreases andconcurrentlythepowerlossdecreasesexponentially;thereforehighvoltagetransmissionreduces powerloss.Forthisreasoningelectricitywasgeneratedatpowerstationsanddeliveredtohomesand businessesthroughACpower.Alternatingcurrent,unlikeDC,oscillatesbetweentwovoltagevaluesata specifiedfrequency,anditseverchangingcurrentandvoltagemakesiteasytostepupordownthe voltage.Forhighvoltageandlongdistancetransmissionsituationsallthatisneededtostepupordown thevoltageisatransformer.Developedin1886byWilliamStanleyJr.,thetransformermadelong distanceelectricaltransmissionusingACpowerpossible .


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4 Charpentier 5 Bellis

ElectricaltransmissionhasthereforebeenmainlybaseduponACpower,supplyingmost Americanhomeswitha120voltACsource.Itshouldbenotedthatsince1954there havebeenmany highvoltageDCtransmissionsystemsimplementedaroundtheglobewi ththeadventofDC/DC converters,allowingtheeasysteppingupanddownofDCvoltages . LikeDCpower,thereexistmanydevicessuchaspowertools,radiosandTVsthatrunoffofAC power.Itisthereforecrucialthatbothformsofelectricitytransmissionexist;theworldcannotbe poweredwithonesimpleform.Itthenbecomesavitalmatterfortheretoexisteasywaystotransform DCtoACpowerandviceversainanefficientmanner.Withoutthisabilitypeoplewillberestrictedto whatelectronicdevicestheyusedependingontheelectricitysourceavailable.ElectricalAC/DC convertersandDC/ACinvertersallowpeoplethisfreedomintransferringelectrical powerbetweenthe two.
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6 Charpentier

InvertersandApplications
PowerinvertersaredeviceswhichcanconvertelectricalenergyofDCformintothatofAC.They comeinallshapesandsizes,fromlowpowerfunctionssuchaspoweringacarradiotothatofbacking upabuildingincaseofpoweroutage.Inverterscancomeinmanydifferentvarieties,differinginprice, power,efficiencyandpurpose.ThepurposeofaDC/ACpowerinverteristypicallytotakeDCpower suppliedbyabattery,suchasa12voltcarbattery,andtransformitintoa120voltACpowersource operatingat60Hz,emulatingthepoweravailableatanordinaryhouseholdelectricaloutlet.

Figure1:Commercial200Watt 7 Inverter Figure1providesaideaofwhatasmallpowerinverterlookslike.Powerinvertersareusedtoday formanytaskslikepoweringappliancesinacarsuchascellphones,radiosandtelevisions.Theyalso comeinhandyforconsumerswhoowncampingvehicles,boatsandatconstructionsiteswherean electricgridmaynotbeasaccessibletohookinto.InvertersallowtheusertoprovideACpowerin areaswhereonlybatteriescanbemadeavailable,allowingportabilityandfreeingtheuseroflongpower cords. Onthemarkettodayaretwodifferenttypesofpowerinverters,modifiedsinewaveandpuresine wavegenerators.Theseinvertersdifferintheiroutputs,providingvaryinglevelsofefficiency and distortionthatcanaffectelectronicdevicesindifferentways.
7 Walmart.com

Amodifiedsinewaveissimilartoasquarewavebutinsteadhasasteppinglooktoitthatrelates moreinshapetoasinewave.ThiscanbeseeninFigure2,whichdisplayshowamodifiedsinewave triestoemulatethesinewaveitself.Thewaveformiseasytoproducebecauseitisjusttheproductof switchingbetween3valuesatsetfrequencies,therebyleavingoutthemorecomp licatedcircuitryneeded forapuresinewave.Themodifiedsinewaveinverterprovidesacheapandeasysolutiontopowering devicesthatneedACpower.Itdoeshavesomedrawbacksasnotalldevicesworkproperlyona modifiedsinewave,productssuchascomputersandmedicalequip mentarenotresistanttothedistortion ofthesignalandmustberunoffofapuresinewavepowersource.

Figure2:Square,Modified,andPureSineWave

PuresinewaveinvertersareabletosimulatepreciselytheACpowerthatisdeliveredbyawall outlet.Usuallysinewaveinvertersaremoreexpensivethenmodifiedsinewavegeneratorsduetothe addedcircuitry.Thiscost,however,ismadeupforinitsabilitytoprovidepowertoallACelectronic devices,allowinductiveloadstorunfasterandquieter,andreducetheaudibleandelectricnoiseinaudio equipment,TVsandfluorescentlights .


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8 TraceEngineering 9 Donrowe.com

PulseWidthModulation
Inelectronicpowerconvertersandmotors,PWMisusedextensivelyasameansofpowering alternatingcurrent(AC)deviceswithanavailabledirectcurrent(DC)sourceorforadvancedDC/AC conversion.Variationofdutycycle inthePWMsignaltoprovideaDCvoltageacrosstheloadina specificpatternwillappeartotheloadasanACsignal,orcancontrolthespeedofmotorsthatwould otherwiserunonlyatfullspeedoroff.Thisisfurtherexplainedinthissection.Thepatternatwhichthe dutycycleofaPWMsignalvariescanbecreatedthroughsimpleanalogcomponents,adigital microcontroller,orspecificPWMintegratedcircuits. AnalogPWMcontrolrequiresthe generationofbothreferenceandcarriersignalsthatfeedintoa comparatorwhichcreatesoutputsignalsbasedonthedifferencebetweenthesignals .Thereference signalissinusoidalandatthefrequencyofthedesiredoutputsignal,whilethecarriersignalisoften eitherasawtoothortriangularwaveatafrequencysignificantlygreaterthanthereference.Whenthe carriersignalexceedsthereference,thecomparatoroutputsignalisatonestate,andwhenthereference isatahighervoltage,theoutputisatitssecondstate.ThisprocessisshowninFigure3withthe triangularcarrierwaveinred,sinusoidalreferencewaveinblue,andmodulatedandunmodulatedsine pulses .
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10 Hart,pg.308312 11 Ledwich

Figure3:PulseWidthModulation InordertosourceanoutputwithaPWMsignal,transistororotherswitchingtechnologiesareusedto connectthesourcetotheloadwhenthesignalishighorlow.Fullorhalfbridgeconfigurati onsare commonswitchingschemesusedinpower electronics.Fullbridgeconfigurationsrequiretheuseoffour switchingdevicesandareoftenreferredtoasHBridgesduetotheirorientationwithrespecttoaload.

BubbaOscillator
TheBubbaOscillatorisacircuitthatprovidesafilteredsinewaveofanyfrequencytheuserdesires basedupontheconfigurationofresistorsandcapacitorsinthecircuit.Thecircuitcompletesthistask withfouroperationalamplifiersthateitherbufferoramplifythesignal.Thisoscillatorisaphaseshift oscillator,butunlikeotherphaseshiftvarietiesthatrequirephaseshiftsof90degreesormore,thebubba oscillatoronlyrequiresa45degreeshiftinordertofunction.Thisisbecauseofthefouropamps,that whenplacedinseries,produceatotal180shift. Thebubbaoscillatoroffersafewfeaturesthatotheroscillatorscannot,thebiggestfactoristhatthe frequencystabilityholdswhilestillgivingalowdistortionoutput.Thereasonforthisinvolvesthefour filtersthatthesignalpassesthrough,providingaclearandstablesignalatpointP5,asshowninFigure4.

Figure4:BubbaOscillatorSchematic FouridenticalRCfiltersphaseshiftthesignal45degreeseach.Thiscausesa180degreephaseshift whichisthenreturnedtoa zerodegreephaseshiftwiththeinvertingamplifierplacedacrossthefirst operationalamplifier.ThemathbehindthephaseshiftofthefilterinFigure5isshowninequation group(2):

Figure5:RCFilter Schematic
1 jC V out =V in = 1 R jC

V in j R C 1 (2)

1 RC V 1 A = out = V in j 1 0 A= = 45 45 When =

Anothersideeffectofthefiltering,however,isthatthesignalbecomesattenuated,enoughsothatthe signalmustbeamplifiedsothattheoscillatorworks.Itonlywillworkifthesignalbeingpassedback intothesystemisthesameastheoneitstartedoutas.

A=

1 1 = j 1 2

1 1 ATotal= = 2 4

(3)

Astheequationsaboveshowthetotalattenuationofthesystemisoftheoriginalsignal,therefore theamplificationoftheinvertingamplifiermustbeofmagnitude4.Whenthisknowledgeiscoupled withthe180degreephaseshiftofthefiltersitcanbedeterminedthattheamplifierhaveavalueof4in orderforthecircuittopassbacktheoriginalsignalandtherebyoscillate.

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Aproblemthatexistsinalloscillatorsisthatitisnearlyimpossibletogetanexactamplificationof thesignal.Iftheamplificationistoosmallthentheoscillatorsignalwilldecaytonothing,howeverifit istoolargethesignalwillkeeponamplifyinguntilithitstherailsoftheopamps.Thismeansthatsome sortofnonlinearfeedbackmustbeimplementedwiththeseoscillatorssothatthesignalprovidedwill actuallybeastablesinewave. Thebubbaoscillator(aswellasotherphaseshiftoscillators)solvesthisproblembytheverynature oftheopamps,whenthesignalisamplifiedbackintothecircuitthesignalgetsclippedatthepeaksof thesinewave.Thisisbecausetheamplitudeisreachingtherailsoftheopampallowingthesignalto stabilizeandprovidingthenonlinearfeedbackneeded.

Figure6:SignalatP1 Figure6showshowthesignallookswhenitpassesthroughthispoint,whichisthepointP1in Figure4.Itisacceptableforthisincomingsignaltobeclippedatthepeaksbecausethroughthe4filters providedbythecircuitalldistortionassociatedwiththesignalforthemostpartiseliminated,providinga cleansinewave.

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HBridgeConfiguration
AnHBridgeorfullbridgeconverterisaswitchingconfigurationcomposedoffourswitchesinan arrangementthatresemblesanH.Bycontrollingdifferentswitchesinthebridge,apositive,negative,or zeropotentialvoltagecanbeplacedacrossaload.Whenthisloadisamotor,thesestatescorrespondto forward,reverse,andoff.TheuseofanHBridgeconfigurationtodriveamotorisshowninFigure7.

Figure7:HBridgeConfigurationusing NChannelMOSFETs AsshowninFigure7theHBridgecircuitconsistsoffourswitchescorrespondingtohighsideleft, highsideright,lowsideleft,andlowsideright.Therearefourpossibleswitchpositionsthatcanbeused toobtainvoltagesacrosstheload.ThesepositionsareoutlinedinTable1.Notethatallother possibilitiesareomitted,astheywouldshortcircuitpowertoground,potentiallycausingdamagetothe deviceorrapidlydepletingthepowersupply. HighSideLeft On Off On Off Table1:ValidHBridgeSwitchStates HighSideRight LowSideLeft LowSideRight Off Off On On On Off On Off Off Off On On VoltageAcrossLoad Positive Negative ZeroPotential ZeroPotential

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TheswitchesusedtoimplementanHBridgecanbemechanicalorbuiltfromsolidstatetransistors. Selectionoftheproperswitchesvariesgreatly.TheuseofPChannelMOSFETsonthehighsideandN ChannelMOSFETsonthelowsideiseasier,butusingallNChannelMOSFETsandaFETdriver,lower onresistancecanbeobtainedresultinginreducedpowerloss.TheuseofallNChannelMOSFETs requiresadriver,sinceinordertoturnonahighsideNChannelMOSFET,theremustbeavoltage higherthantheswitchingvoltage(inthecaseofapowerinverter,170V).Thisdifficultyisoften overcomebydrivercircuitscapableofcharginganexternalcapacitortocreateadditionalpotential. MOSFETdriversanddiscussionofhowtheyachievethishigherpotentialarediscussedinthefollowing section.

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MOSFETDrivers
WhenutilizingNChannelMOSFETstoswitchaDCvoltageacrossaload,thedrainterminalsofthe highsideMOSFETsareoftenconnectedtothehighestvoltageinthesystem.Thiscreatesadifficulty,as thegateterminalmustbeapproximately10VhigherthanthedrainterminalfortheMOSFETtoconduct. Often,integratedcircuitdevicesknownasMOSFETdriversareutilizedtoachievethisdifference throughchargepumpsorbootstrappingtechniques.Thesechipsarecapableofquicklychargingtheinput capacitanceoftheMOSFET(Cgiss)quicklybeforethepotentialdifferenceisreached,causingthegate tosourcevoltagetobethehighestsystemvoltageplusthecapacitorvoltage,allowingittoconduct.A diagramofanNChannelMOSFETwithgate,drain,andsourceterminalsisshowninFigure8.

Figure8:NChannel MOSFET TherearemanyMOSFETdriversavailabletopowerNChannelMOSFETsthroughleveltranslation oflowvoltagecontrolsignalsintovoltagescapableofsupplyingsufficientgatevoltage.Advanced driverscontaincircuitryfor poweringhighandlowsidedevicesaswellasNandPChannelMOSFETs. Inthisdesign,allMOSFETsareNChannelduetotheirincreasedcurrenthandlingcapabilities.To overcomethedifficultiesofdrivinghighsideNChannelMOSFETs,thedriverdevicesuseanexternal sourcetochargeabootstrappingcapacitorconnectedbetweenVccandsourceterminals .Thebootstrap capacitorprovidesgatechargetothehighsideMOSFET.Astheswitchbeginstoconduct,thecapacitor maintainsapotentialdifference,rapidlycausingtheMOSFET tofurtherconduct,untilitisfullyon.The namebootstrapcomponentreferstothisprocessandhowtheMOSFETactsasifitispullingitselfup byitsownbootstrap .
12 InternationalRectifier,AN978 13 ProfessorStephenJ.Bitar,PersonalCommunication
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CircuitProtectionandSnubbers
Oneofthemajorfactorsinanyelectronicdeviceisitsabilitytoprotectitselffromsurgesthatcould damagethecircuitry.Inthecaseoftheinverter,inductiveloadscancausespecialproblemsbecausean inductorcannotinstantlystopconductingcurrent,itmustbedampenedordivertedsothatthecurrent doesnottrytoflowthroughtheopenswitch.Ifnotdampenedthesurgescancausetroubleinthe MOSFETsusedtoproducetheoutputsinewave;whenaMOSFETisturnedofftheinductiveloadstill wantstopushcurrentthroughtheswitch,asithasnowhereelsetogo.Thisactioncancausetheswitch tobeputunderconsiderablestress,thehighdV/dt,dI/dt,VandIassociatedwiththisproblemcancause theMOSFETstomalfunctionandbreak. Tocombatthisproblemsnubbercircuitscanreduceoreliminateanyseverevoltagesandcurrents. Composedofsimplyaresistorandcapacitorplacedacrosseachswitchitallowsanycurrentorvoltage spikestobesuppressedbycriticallydampeningthesurgeandprotectingtheswitchfromdamage.The snubbercanbecomemoreeffectivebytheadditionofazenerdiodesothatanylargecurrentsurgethe resistorcapacitorsnubbercannothandlegetspassedthroug htogroundbythezenerdiode.Thediagram inFigure9showsasimplerepresentationofaninductiveload(L)overaswitchrepresentation,Figure 10andFigure11showhowsnubberscanbeimplementedsothatasurgewillbesuppressed.

Figure9:InductiveLoadCircuit

Figure10:InductiveLoadCircuitwithSnubber

Figure11:InductiveLoadCircuitwithSnubberandZenerDiode 15

Filtering
Filterscomeinmanydifferentpackages,withmanydifferentadvantagesanddisadvantages.For example,adigitalfilteriseasilyreconfigurableand canhavealmostanyfrequencyresponsedesired. If theresponseissimplylowpass/highpass/bandpassbehaviorwithasetfrequency,anactivefiltercanbe madetohaveaverysharpedgeatthecutoff,resultinginenormousreductionsinnoiseandverylittle attenuationofthesignal.These,however,requireopamps.Opampscapableoffilteringa120VRMS sinewaveexist,butareexpensiveandlossy,sincetheopampmustbeabletosourcehundredsofwatts, andmustbeverylargetodosowithoutburning.Digitalfiltershaveasimilardrawbackand,designed withTTLandCMOStechnology,canonlyworkwithsmallsignals.Lastlywecometoapassivefilter. Generallylargeinsizeandveryresistiveatlowfrequencies,thesefiltersoftenseemtohavemoreofa prototypingapplication,orperhapsuseinadevicewherelowcostisimportant,andefficiencyisnot. Giventhesechoices,anapplicationsuchasahighpowersineinverterisleftwithonlyoneviable option:thepassivefilter.Thismakesthedesignslightlymoredifficulttoaccomplish.Notingthat passivefiltersintroducehigherresistanceatlowerfrequencies(duetothelargerinductances,which requirelongerwires),theobviouschoiceistoswitchatthehighestpossiblefrequency.Theproblem withthischoice,however,isthattheswitchingMOSFETsintroducemoreswitchinglossesathigher frequencies.Thiswouldimplythatweshouldswitchslowertoimproveourswitchingefficiency,which contradictsthefilter'sneedforahigherfrequency.

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Methodology
Theconstructionofthepuresinewaveinvertercanbecomplexwhenthoughtofasawholebut whenbrokenupintosmallerprojectsanddivisionsitbecomesamucheasiertomanageproject.The followingsectionsdetaileachspecificpartoftheprojectaswellashoweachsectionisconstructedand interactswithotherblockstoresultintheproduct ionofa120voltpuresinewavepowerinverter.

BlockDiagram
Analogcircuitry,aswellasdiscretecomponents,aMOSFETdriveintegratedcircuitandalowpass filterareallthatisnecessarytogeneratea60Hz,120VACsinewaveacrossaload.Theblockdiagram showninFigure12showsthevaryingpartsoftheprojectthatwillbeaddressed.Thecontrolcircuitis comprisedofthreebasicblocks,thesixvoltreference,sinewavegeneratorandtrianglewavegenerator; whentheseblocksareimplementedwithcomparatorsandothersmallanalogcircuitrythey controlthe PWMsignalsthatthetwoMOSFETdriverswillsend.ThePWMsignalsarefedintotheseMOSFET driversthatperformleveltranslationtodrivefourNChannelMOSFETsinanHBridgeconfiguration. FromherethesignalissentthroughalowpassLCfiltersothattheoutputdeliversapuresinewave. Thespecificoperation,construction,andresultingoutputwaveformsforeachblockwillbediscussedin detailinthefollowingsections.

Figure12:BlockDiagram 17

SineWaveGenerator
Thefirststeptocreatinganaccuratepulsewidthmodulationsignalusinganalogcircuitryisto constructanaccuraterepresentationofthesignalyouwishtoduplicate.Inthecaseofapuresinewave invertertheteamwantedtoconstructa60Hzsinewaveoutput.Thereforeanoscillatorwasneededto produceastable60Hzsinewavethathadlittledistortionsothattheoutputcouldbeasaccurateas possible.ABubbaoscillatorwaschosenasthemeanstoproducethissignalbecauseofitsabilityto produceastablesinewavethatcontainsverylittledistortion.Thecircuitryandvalueschosen areshown inFigure13andtheopampchipchosentocompletethetaskwasanLM348asitisaninexpensivepart andmeetsalltherequirementsofcreatingthissinewave.

Figure13:BubbaOscillatorCircuit Thebubbaoscillatorhas4differentoutputpoints(P25)wherethesignalcanbetakenfrom.P2has thelargestamplitude,howeveritisalsothemostdistorted;P5istheleastdistorted,howeverithasthe smallestamplitude.Figure14andFigure15comparethetwosignalsbelow.

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Figure14:OscillatorSignalatP2

Figure15:OscillatorSignalatP5 TakingthesignalfromP5isthebestwaytogettheleastdistortedsignal,theamplitudeofthewave isnotafactorasmuchbecausethereisanoninvertingamplifierthatthissignalwillrunthroughbefore beingusedinanyofthecontrolcircuitry.

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CarrierWaveGenerator
Generatingasinewaveat60Hzrequiresboththereferencesinewaveandacarrierwaveatthe switchingspeedofthepowersupply.Carrierwavescanbeeithersawtoothortriangularsignals;inthis case,atriangularwavewillbeused.Thiswavewillbeat50KHzasdeterminedinoptimalpowerloss simulations.Thegenerationofthetriangularcarrierwavewillbedonewithanalogcomponents.The circuitfortheconstructionofthetrianglewavegeneratorconsistsofasquarewavegeneratorand integrator,asshowninFigure16.

Figure16:TriangleWaveGenerator

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Theabovecircuitwilloscillateatafrequencyof1/4RtC,andtheamplitudecanbecontrolledbythe amplitudeofR1andR2.Thefrequenciesthatcanbegeneratedbythiscircuitdependgreatlyontheslew rateoftheoperationalamplifiers.UsingaTL084,outputwaveswithfrequenciesofupto40KHzcanbe generated.Speedsof50KHzrequireanopampwithafasterslewrate.UsingtheTL084opamp,with Rt=1K,R1=R2=10K,andC=.1uF,thiscircuitgeneratessquareandtrianglewavesoscillatingat5Khz. Theslewrateofthisoperationalamplifieris12V/uSandwillallowswitchingspeedsupto43KHz.With anopampwithahigherslewrate,thecapacitorwillbereplacedwitha.01uFcapacitor,increasingthe frequenciesto50KHz.

14 Bigelow,pg.1

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TheoperationofthisdeviceisbasedonbasicSchmittTriggerandIntegratorcircuits.Thesquare wavegeneratorusespositivefeedback,andasthecapacitor,C,charges,theSchmitttriggersaturatesto thepositiverail.Thefeedbackeventuallycausesthetriggertochangestates,andasthecapacitor discharges,theoutputisattheoppositerail.Theamplitudeofthesquarewaveisdeterminedbytherail voltagepoweringtheMOSFET,aswellastheratioofR2/R1.The5KHzsquarewavegeneratedinthis circuitisshowninFigure17.

Figure17:SquareWaveOutput Thesecondpartofthecircuitconsistsofanintegratorcircuit.WhentheoutputoftheSchmitttrigger ispositive,thecapacitorischargingandthe outputvoltagerampsdown.Theinversionofthetriangle wavewithrespecttothesquarewaveisduetothenegativefeedbacktothesecondopamp.The generatedtrianglewaveat5KHzisshowninFigure18.

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Figure18:GeneratedTriangleWave Asstatedabove,thetrianglewavewillbeinvertedwithrespecttothesquarewaveduetothe negativefeedback.ThisisshowninFigure19.

Figure19:SquareandTriangleWaves

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Difficultieswiththiscircuitarecausedmainlybytheoperationalamplifierselectedinitsdesign.The squareandtrianglewavesmaybeskewedduetotheopampsinab ilitytoreachoutputrails.Also,ifthe frequencyistoohighfortheopamptohandle,thesquarewavewillbeskewedandthetrianglewave willbenoticeablyclippedordistorted.Currently,theopampsarepoweredbyseparatepositiveand negativesuppliesadjustedtoobtainaproportionaloutput,butinthefinaldesig n,asinglesourceand offsetwillbeused.Thiscanbeachievedbysettingthehighrailtotheavailable12Vandsettingadc offsetbyinputtingtheinvertingterminaloftheSchmitttriggeropampandthenoninvertingterminalof theintegratoropampwitha6Vreferencesignal.Thiswillresultinthesamewaveforms, withaDC offsetof6Voscillatingbetween0Vand12V.

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PulseWidthModulation
Bilevelpulsewidthmodulationisasimpleconcept,andnotdifficulttoimplement.TrilevelPWMis notafarstretchfrombilevel,butissignificantlymoredifficulttoimplement.Belowisshownasample trilevelPWMwave.

Figure20:PWMSignal Thetoppictureshowstheinputreferencewaveform,andthegeneratedPWMsignaloverlaid.The bottompictureshowsthesignalswhicharepassedintoacomparatortoachievethePWMwaveform. Thetriangularwaveissimpletocreate,utilizinganopampdriver.Itmustthenbemodifiedsuchthatit switchesbetweenamidtohightriangularwave,toamidtolowtriangularwave.Thisisaccomplished bygeneratingatriangularwaveatroughlyhalftheamplitudeofthereferencesine,centeredatthesame voltage.Thiswaveisthenpassedintoavoltagesummerwithasquarewave(madefromthesine reference,tocreateonewithidenticalfrequency),whichcreatesthemodifiedtrianglewaveshown. Thetriangularandsinereferencegeneratorsarediscussedseparatelyinthedocument,thissection willassumethosewavesalreadyexist,andwillmodifythemforthepurposesoftrilevelPWM.First,a pictureofthesinereference,theabovestatedsquarewave,andthetriangularwave:

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Figure21:SineReference,TriangleWave,andsquarewave reference Now,applyingthetriangularwaveandsquarewavetoavoltagesummer(thesquarewaveis attenuatedbyafactorof12),weobtain:

Figure22:Modifiedtrianglewave,overlaidwithsinereference Thesinereferenceisincludedtoshowtheresultofmodifyingthetrianglewave.Ifthesewaveforms arepassedintoacomparator,wewillobtain:

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Figure23:PWMcontrolsignal ThissignalwillbeusedtocontrolMOSFETs.Asyoucanseebycloseinspection,thedutycycle approaches1(orzero)atthepeaksand,thoughitmaynotbeentirelyvisible,atthezerocrossingofthe sinewave,thedutycyclefirstapproacheszero,thenswitchestoone(asthesquarereferencechanges polarity).Now,usinganHBridgeMOSFETconfiguration,andutilizingboththeabovePWMsignal andthesquarewavegenerated,wecanobtain:

Figure24:TrilevelPWMsignal Thisisthefinalsignal.Iffiltered,wewillarriveatasinewave(albeita12Vsinewave).Ifwe replacedthe12Vsourceofthesewaveformswitha170Vsource,wewouldhavea170Vpeak 26

HBridge
Generatingasinewavecenteredonzerovoltsrequiresbothapositiveandnegativevoltageacrossthe load,forthepositiveandnegativepartsofthewave,respectively.Thiscanbeachievedfromasingle sourcethroughtheuseoffourMOSFETswitchesarrangedinanHBridgeconfiguration.Tominimize powerlossandutilizehigherswitchingspeeds,NChannelMOSFETswerechosenasswitchesinthe bridge.LeveltranslationbetweenPWMsignalsandvoltagesrequiredtoforwardbiashighsideN ChannelMOSFETS,theIR2110MOSFETdriverintegratedcircuitwaschosen.AdiagramoftheH BridgecircuitwithMOSFETSanddriversisshowninFigure25.

Figure25:HBridgewithMOSFETDrivers TheIR2110HighandLowSideDrivedeviceexceedsallrequirementsfordrivingtheMOSFETsin thebridge.Itiscapableofupto500Vatacurrentratingof2Aatfastswitchingspeeds.Thisdeviceis requiredtodrivethehighsideMOSFETSinthecircuitdesignatedHO,duetothefactthatthegateto sourcevoltagemustbehigherthanthedraintosourcevoltage,whichisthehighestvoltageinthesystem. Thisdeviceutilizesabootstrappingcapacitortomaintainavoltagedifferenceofapproximately10V abovethedraintosourcevoltage.Withafullbridgeconfiguration,twoofthesedevicesareutilized,as shownintheabovefigure.AtypicalconnectionofasingleIR2110deviceisshowninFigure26.

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Figure26:TypicalConnectionforIR2110MOSFETDriver

15

OperationoftheIR2110devicewillbecontrolledthroughgeneratedPWMsignals.ThePWMsignal willbefedtotheHINandLINpinssimultaneously.Iftheinternallogicdetectsalogichigh,theHOpin willbedriven;ifalogiclowisdetected,theLOpinwillbedriven.TheSDpincontrolsshutdownofthe deviceandwillbeunusedandtiedtoground.Additionalpinsthatrequireexternalconnectionsarethe Vsspinwhichwillbetiedtoground,theVccpinwhichwillbetiedto12V,pinsrequiringconnectionsto bootstrappingcomponentsandoutputstotheMOSFETS. Bootstrappingcapacitorsanddiodeswillbeconnectedasdesignated.Thevaluesforthese componentsarecalculatedfromInternationalRectifiersAN978applicationnote,HVFloatingMOS GateDriverICs.Theformulaforminimumbootstrapcapacitorvalueobtainedfromthisdocumentis shownbelow. 2 2Qg C

I qbs max I Q Is Cbs leak f f V cc V f V LSV Min

16

(4)

Minimumcapacitorvalueswerecalculatedtobe2uFforthe60Hzsideofthebridgeand51nFforthe 50KHzsideofthebridge.Theelementsoftheequationaboveweredeterminedfromdatasheetsas follows:


15 InternationalRectifier,IR2110 16 InternationalRectifier,AN978

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Qg=GateChargeofHighSideFET=110nC Iqbs=Quiescentcurrentforhighsidedrivercircuitry=230uA Qls=Levelshiftchargerequiredpercycle=5nC(giveninapplicationnote) Icbs(leak)=Bootstrapcapacitorleakagecurrent=250uA f=Frequency=60Hzforleftsideofbridge,50Khzforrightsideofbridge Vcc=SupplyVoltage=12V Vf=Forwardvoltagedropacrossbootstrapdiode=1.3V Vls=VoltagedropacrosslowsideFET=1.5V Componentstobeusedaccordingtothecalculation sabovearethe2.2uF+/20%,50VKemet C330C225M5U5TAcapacitorandthe.056uF+/10%,200VKemetC330C563K2R5CAcapacitor.The diodetobeusedistheInternationalRectifier8ETu04ND8Amp400VUltrafastRectifier. DrivingfourMOSFETsinanHBridgeconfigurationallows+170,170,or0voltsacrosstheloadat anytime.ToutilizePWMsignalsandthistechnology,theleftandrightsidesofthebridgewillbedriven bydifferentsignals.TheMOSFETdriverontheleftsideofthebridgewillreceiveasquarewaveat 60Hz,andtherightsidewillreceivethe50KHzPWMsignal.The60Hzsquarewavewillcontrolthe polarityoftheoutputsinewave,whilethePWMsignalwillcontroltheamplitude.TheMOSFETstobe usedinthedesignaretheIRFB20N50KPbFHexfetPowerMOSFET,ratedfor500Vat20AwithaRds of.21ohm.

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Filter
Inordertooptimizetheefficiency,aswitchingfrequencymustbechosenwhichislowenoughto keeptheswitchesinline,buthighenoughtomakesurethefilterinductorisnotunnecessarilylarge. Manyengineeringtoolswillassistwiththisdecision,butherewechosetoutilizeMatLab.Usingthisit ispossibletomodeltheswitchinglossesintheMOSFETs,basedontheircapacitanceandswitchingrise times(whichdependsonthefrequency),aswellastheirresistivelosses(independentoffrequency). Alsoincludedinthissimulationshouldbetheresistivelossesinthefilterinductor(dependentonthe inductorvalue/size,therequirementforwhichisdependentonfrequency).

Figure27:Frequencyplotoflosses

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Theaboveplotshowsthefrequencylossesof3differentMOSFETsand2differentinductors.The IRFb20nisanInternationalRectifierMOSFETwithlowerresistancethanitssiblings,theIRC740and theIRC630,buthasahighercapacitance.Thisiswhythelossesforthisswitchstartoutsignificantly lower,butrisedramaticallyathigherfrequencies.Thecurvewiththe'notch'around40kHzshowsthe losscurveusingtheIRFb20n(theMOSFETofchoice),addedtotheresistivelossesinthefilter inductors.Thenotchoccursatthefrequencywheretherequiredinductancevaluedropped.Basedon thiscurve,50kHzswitchingintroduceslittleextralossover20kHz,butwillhaveadramatically improvedoutputaccuracy(lessvoltageripple).Allplotsinthischartmaybeviewedseparatelyinthe appendix.Thiscurveresultedinadecisiontoswitchat50kHz,witha2mHinductor(coupledwitha 1uFcapacitortocreatealowpassfilter).

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ImplementingtheDesign
ToactuallyimplementthedesignofthisDCACpowerinverter,certainstepshadtobetakento ensurethateveryblockoftheprojectfunctionscorrectly.Inordertodothistheentireprojectwasfirst placedonabreadboardtoensurefunctionalityandwhereanyglitchesorinaccuraciesduetosmall uncalculatedlossescouldbeaccountedfor.Theprojecthadtobeplacedonthebreadboardinaspecific ordersothateachblockcouldbetestedtoseeifthedesiredoutputoccurredbeforemovingontothenext step. Thefirstfunctionblockstobeconstructedwerethesixvoltreference,sinewaveandcarrierwave generators.Thesineandcarrierwavegeneratorsworkindependentlyofeachotherandthereforewere abletobeconstructedatthesametime.Sometimewasspentonthesetwosection softheproject becausetheirfunctionalityattheprecisefrequency,shapeandamplitudeswillaffecttheoutcomeofthe PWMsignal.Someproblemsalsoarouseoutoftheoriginaldesignofthesefunctionblocksthatwillbe discussedbelowinthedifficultiessection.Followingthesuccessfuloperationof theseblocksthePWM signalcouldthenbeconstructed,byroutingthesinesignalthroughanamplifier(forensuringthecorrect amplitude)andbyroutingboththesinewaveandcarrierwavethroughthecorrectcomparatorstotheH BridgedriversthePWMsignalwassuccessfullyimplemented. TheHBridgedriverchipswerethenexttobebreadboarded,followedbytheHBridgewhice consistedoffournchannelMOSFETs.Thefinalportionofourprojecttobeconstructedwasourfilter tobeplacedacrosstheloadoftheHBridge.Theteamhadnodifficultieswithfindingorimplementing thedesignforouroriginalfilterwithlowvoltage,lowcurrentcomponents.Howeverwhenitcameto findingpartsthatcouldhandletheamountofvoltageandcurrentthatthisdeviceneedednomatches arousewhichledtoanotherdifficultyinthetotalimplementationofourdesign.

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Difficulties
Aswasstatedtheteamranintoquiteafewproblemswhileactuallypiecingtogetherthecircuit,the twomaindifficultiesinvolvedtheconstructionofthesinewaveoscillatorandfilter.Theteamworked togethertosolvethesedifficultiesastheyarose,inbothcaseswhereitsetoffthescheduleofourproject duetothehugeparteachblcckplaysintheoverallfunctio nalityofthepowerinverter.

SineWaveGenerator
Whentheoscillatorwasfirstpiecedtogether,allthatwasbeingoutputwasa6voltsignal,allofthe calculationswerecorrectlymadeandallofthecomponentswerecorrectintheirchoosing,thereforethe teamhadtounderstandwhythecircuitwasntrunni ng.Inordertounderstandifthecircuitwas operatingatall,thepowertothecircuitwas turnedonandoffwhileattachedtoanoscilloscope.While doingthistheteamnoticedthattherewassomeoscillationpresentbutitwouldattenuatetothe6volt signalinunderasecond. Thephaseshiftoscillatorworksinsuchawaythatiftheamplitudeoftheinvertingamplifierisnot highenoughthesystemwillcontinuallyattenuatethesignaluntiltheamplitudeiszero,itwastherefore decidedtochangetheamplificationpoweroftheinvertingamplifier.Byincreasingtheamplification valuethecircuiteventuallyoscillated,inaperfecttothenakedeye,sinewave,uponmeasuringitwas seenthatthefrequencywasnotascalculatedeither,lookingfora60Hzsinewave,theoscillatorwas producinga57Hzsinewave. Thenexttaskthereforewastoreturnthisvalueto60Hz,thefrequencyoftheoscillatoriscontrolled bythe4filterscomprisedofaresistorandcapacitor.Theteamfoundthatbycontrollingthesizeofthe resistorinoneofthefourfiltersthefrequencycouldbeadjusted.Thereforetogetthecorrectsizesignal, apotentiometerwasputinplaceofoneoftheresistorsandadjustedwhilemeasuringtheoutputonan oscilloscopetodeterminewhatsizeresistorshouldbeusedtooscillateat60Hz.

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Figure28:NewSineWaveOscillatorCircuitDiagram Thereasonsfortroublewithbothoftheseaspectsofthesinewaveoscillatorcanmostlikelybe attributedtolossesinthecircuitthroughcomponents.Thechangeinresistanceneededtofixthe frequencyproblemwastoincreaseoneofthefourfilterresistorsfrom27.5kto31k , notalarge difference.Anotherspotthatcouldhavecausedproblems,specificallywherealargeramplificationwas neededcouldbeattributedtotheLM348opampchip.Theopamphaspropertieswithinitselfthat mighthavecausedthecircuitnottooscillate,suchastherailtorailoperatingvoltagesorresistances withinitself.

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FilterDesign
Theothermajorobstacleintheimplementationofthisprojectwasthedesignofthefilter,theoriginal designwasasimpleonepoleinductorcapacitorlowpassfilterdesignedforpassingallsignalsunder 50kHz.Whenfirstbreadboardingthecircuittheteamusedlowvoltage,lowpowercapacitorsand inductorsthatwereavailableintheWPIECEshop.Usingthismethodthefilterworkedasitwas designedandtheonlyhurdlewastoorderpartsdesignedforthevoltageandcurrentneeded.The problemarousewhensearchingfortheseparts,becausethefiltercomponentsneededtobecapableof handlingatleast400voltsand4amps(forreliabilityreasons)thesepartswereverylargeandbulky.The inductoralonewastoweighfivepoundsandhavealengthofsixinches,forourapplicationthiswould notdo.

Figure29:TwoPoleOutputFilter Thereforeinordertorectifythisproblemtheteamwentbacktoscratchindesigningthelowpass filter,insteadofasimplefirstorderlowpassfilter,atwopolelowpassfilterwouldbeused.Usingthis approachtherewouldbetwiceasmanycomponentsinthefilterbutthesizeofthesecomponentswould beconsiderablysmaller,lighterandcostless.Afterfirstverifyingthatthisfilterwouldworkwithlow voltage/currentpartsfromtheshop,theteamboughtcomponentsthatcouldhandlethecurrentand voltagedemandedofthefilterandtestsonthenewfilterwereconducted.Thesimulatedfrequency responseofthefilterisshownbelowinFigure30.

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Figure30:FilterFrequency Response Whenwetestedthisnewfilterwiththehighvoltage/currentcomponentswenoticedthatitwasnot actingaswethoughwhensmallloadswereappliedacrossit.Wethendecidedtodoublecheckallofthe componentvalueswithacapacitorinductoranalyzer,uponmeasuringtheinductorsitwasdetermined thattheirvaluesweremuchgreaterthenwhatwehadwanted.Inordertogetinductancesof1.2mHand 4mHwedecidedtounwindportionsofthetoroidsandthencomparethemwiththeanalyzertodetermine thecorrectnumberofwindings.Althoughthisallowedustoeffectively createaprecisefilter,which functionedproperly,theoutputstilldistortedsignificantlywhenunderload.Weinvestigatedthe distortionanddiscovereda50kHzfrequency,whichmeantthatthefilterwasnotfiltering. Theinductorsweselected,itturnsout,havelowqualitycores,whichsaturatedaround0.75A.This isobviouslyfarlessthanourrated2Aoutput,andwouldnotdoforafinishedproduct.Ifwebuybetter inductors,orifwereplacethecapacitanceswithhighervalues(inordertoallowforlowerinductances), orraisetheswitchingfrequency(alsointendingtolowertheinductances),thesaturationcurrentwill increasesignificantly,andoursystemwillagainbehaveproperly.

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PuttingtheDesigntoWork
Afterthesuccessfuldebuggingofthebreadboardedcircuitryitwasti metotransferthisworktoa PCBboard.UsingthefullschematicinAppendixBandEaglePCBprogramtheteamwasableto constructthecircuitryforaPCBboardandhaveitmadesothattheteam couldpiecetogethertheentire circuitonaneatboard.ThefullplansforthePCBboardarelocatedinAppendixD.Puttingthecircuit ontoaboardofthiskindwillgetridofalltheextrawiresandthepossibilityofanyextranoisethatcan beattributedtothelengthorcrossingofwirestypicalonabreadboard,thusallowinganeater,more presentableandlessnoisycircuit. ThefirstrevisionofourPCBboard,andtheboardourcircuitwasmountedon,isshowninthe picturebelow.Thisrevisionhadafewtracesthatwerenotdrawncorrectlyandsowireshadtobeadded andsometracescut.Theotherdetailwiththisrevisionwasthattraceswerenotmadeforthefinalfilter designandinsteadspacewasleftforthisaddition.Withthesefewchangestobemade,theteamwent backandredesignedthePCBboard,asseeninAppendixD,howevertimewasnotavailabletoconstruct thisboardagain.

Figure31:ProjectonPCBBoard

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Results
Throughcarefulhandlingofcontrolsignalsinthecircuit,theMOSFETsintheHbridgewere correctlyswitched,resultingina60Hzsinewaveoutput,asshowninFigureX.

Figure32:60HzSineoutput Theoutputshownabovewasforaninputvoltageof12Vanda300 loadafterthefilter.The amplitudeoftheoutputwavewasonly14Vpkpk,adiscrepancyeasilyexplainedbythelowratioofsine wavetotrianglewavecontrolsignals.Oncetunedforhighvoltageoperation,thegainonthe noninvertingamplifierforthereferencesinewillbeincreasedtooutputa340Vpkpksignalwhenthe inputis200V.Ifnecessary,thefrequencyofthesignalcanbeadjustedbychangingresistorvaluesinthe sinewavegenerator(Bubba)circuit. Whiletheoperationoftheinverterworksunderlightormediumloads(above50 with12V input),itsoutputwasaffectedbyhighfrequencyoscillationswhenheavierloadswereconnected.This occurrencewascausedbythecomponentsinourfilterdesign.Useofchokesasinductorsresultedin coresaturationwhenthecurrentinthecircuitwasaboveapproximately.5A.Chokesareintendedfor ACfilteringapplications,butareintendedtobeconnectedinadifferentmannertopreventhigh frequencynoisefromcorruptingacleansource.Coresaturationresultedinourfilteractingmorelikea resistanceandthusallowedoscillationsatthecarrierfrequencythroughtothesource. 38

Evenwiththefilterproblemsexperienced,thethreelevelPWMsignalsweregeneratedcorrectly andcouldbeusedtopowerresistiveloadsbeforethefilter.Althoughthisistrue,weavoidedthecore saturationproblembydoublingtheswitchingfrequencyandreducingtheinductancevaluesinthefilter. Throughpropercomponentselectioninanotherrevision,theswitchingfrequencycouldbereturnedto 50Khz.Thiswouldinvolvetheuseofahighercapacitance/voltagenonpolarizedcapacitorandasmaller inductortoavoidcoresaturation.Whilecomponentscapableofmeetingtheserequirementsexist,there wasinsufficienttimetoorderthemandtesttheiroperationinthecircuit. Withtheexceptionofthefilterproblemsmentionedabove,thecircuitisfunctioningasdesigned andcorrectlyinvertsaDCvoltagetoanACvoltage.TheefficiencyandTHDoftheinverterwasnot calculatedduetotheamountoftimespentindesignverificationandtesting,aproblemaddressedinthe Recommendationssection.

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Recommendations
Althoughallgoalsinthisprojectweremettherearemanywaysinwhichthisprojectcanbe improvedupon.Theprojectcalledforproducinga120voltRMSpuresinewaveoutput,thereinliesa problemhowever,inthewaythatthisprojectisdesigned,differingloadswillallowtheoutputofthis projecttovaryfromthe120voltRMSoutput.Onewayinwhichthisproblemcouldbecombatedwould betointroduceaclosedloopmonitoringsystem.Thissystemwouldlookattheoutputoftheinverter andchecktoensurethatthisisthecorrectoutput,ifthisoutputisnotwhatitshouldbethenthissystem hasthepowertogobackandadjustthesettingsinthecontrolcircuitsothattheoutputisthedesired120 voltRMSsinewave.Asimplediagramshownbelowdemonstratesthebasicideaofaclosedloop controlsystem.

Figure33:ClosedLoopFlowChart

Theoutputwouldbescaledandcomparedtoanidealoutputreference,perhapsthesinewave reference(BubbaOscillator)inthecontrolcircuit(itssizeandshapedonotchange),sothatthechangein voltageoutputcanbeaccountedfor.Whenthischangeisdetectedtheamplificationfactorofthenon

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invertingamplifierforthesinewavereference(showninFigure34)couldbeadjustedtherebychanging thePWMsignalandeffectivelyadjustingtheoutput.

Figure34:NonInvertingAmplifierBlock Theclosedloopcontrolsystemwouldallowthesystemtooutputthecorrectvoltageandpower nomatterwhattheload.Sometimescertainloadscancausefluctuationsandvoltagespikeswithinthe drivingportionofthecircuit,specificallyaroundtheMOSFETs.Thisprojectintendedtotakeinto accountthesevoltageandcurrentspikesandprotectthe MOSFETswiththeadditionsofRCsnubbers andzenerdiodesacrosseachoftheMOSFETs.Informationonthesetypesofdevices canbefoundin thebackgroundsectionofthi sreportunder:CircuitProtectionand Snubbers.Theteamcompletedmore researchanddiscoveredthisproblemcaneasilybesolvedwiththeintroductionofTransientVoltage Suppression(TVS)diodes. Thesediodesarezenerdiodeswithspecialcharacteristics(suchassuppressionofhightransient voltages)thatmakethemidealforthesetypesofpowerapplications.Theteamevenwentsofarasto orderthesediodes,howevertimewasnotavailabletoapplythe mtothecircuit.TVSdiodesarespecial inthattheyareabletowithstandthequickvoltageandcurrentspikesthatcanoccurintheMOSFET switchingaswellasbeingacheapalternativetoRCsnubbers.ForthisapplicationaTVSdiodeofrating 170voltswouldbeused,andtoensurethattheywouldlasta1500Wattratingwaschosen. Thisteam recommendsthatinanyfutureprojectsthatthesediodesoranyothercircuitprotectionbeappliedacross eachofthe4MOSFETsusedintheH Bridgetoprotectthemfromsurgesthatcanoccurinbasic switchingorbyinductiveloads. 41

Conclusion
ThegoalsforthisprojectweretoproduceapuresinewaveDCACinverterthatwouldoutputat60 Hz,120voltsRMSwith250wattoutput,wouldbecheaptomanufacture,andfairlyefficientinthe methodinwhichitproducesit.Takingalookatthesegoalsandtheendresultitcanbesaidthatthey weremet,thecircuitryandtotalcostofallthecomponentsusedintheconstructionofthecircuitwas around$65(AppendixE)as comparedtothe$300600puresinewaveinvertersonthemarketnow. Thiscosthowever,iswhenbuyingpartsoneatatime,ifmanufacturedthispricetagwoulddropgreatly duetothequantitiesofpartsthatwouldbebought. Thesecondgoal,toproducea120voltRMSsinewavewiththecapabilityofproviding250wattsof powerwasnotactuallytested,buttheteamisconfidentinitsabilitytoproducethiswaveform.Using partsinthedriverportionofthecircuitthatareratedforatleasttwicetheoperatingparameters, 170volts and2amps,theteamcanbeassuredthatthesedeviceswillworkwiththesamefunctionalityastheydo at12volts.At12voltspowering,theHBridgeoutputisaclean60Hzsinewavethatcaneasilybe controlledinsizebythesizeofthesinereferenceinthecontrolcircuit.Itisinthiscapabilitythatthe optionofaclosedloopcontrolcircuitcouldbeimplemented. Inlookingathowefficientthisprojectis,thereisnoharddatathatcanbereferredtoasnotenough timewasavailabletocollectit. Inlookingatthecomponentsselectedandthesimulationscreatedbefore theactualconstructionoftheinverter,everythingwasbuiltinmindforthepurposeofefficiencyand keepingpowerlossestoaminimum.Oneofthemajorfactorsinthepowersavingsistheuseofathree levelPWMsignalinsteadofatwolevel,thisallowsamuchloweraveragepoweroutputtoproducethe sinewaveneededandassistingintheefficiencyofthedevice.

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Thisprojectisasteppingstonetoacheaperandefficientpuresinewaveinverter,byusingthedata collectedinthisreportaswellastheschematicsandrecommendationstheproductproducedherecanbe improvedupon.Simpleadditionssuchascircuitprotectionandaclosedloopcontrolsystemcould greatlyimprovetheperformanceofthisproject.Theproject,initspresentcondition,doesworkinthe mannertheteamwishedandhasmeteverygoalsetatthecommencementofthisventure.

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References
600WattPureSineWaveInverter.Donrowe.com.RetrievedDecember14,2006,from http://www.donrowe.com/inverters/puresine_600.html. ABSAlaskan.(2006).DCtoACPowerInverters.RetrievedDecember4,2006,from http://www.absak.com/basic/inverters.html. Bellis,Mary.WilliamStanleyJr.RetrievedDecember16,2006,from http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blstanley.htm. Bigelow,Ken.(2006).GeneratingTriangleWaves.RetrievedNovember26,2006,from http://www.playhookey.com/analog/triangle_waveform_generator.html. Charpentier,J.P.;Rudervall,RobertoSharma,Raghuveer.TheWorldBank.HighVoltageDirect CurrentTransmissionSystemsTechnicalReviewPaper.RetrievedDecember15,2006from http://www.worldbank.org/html/fpd/em/transmission/technology_abb.pdf. Donrowe.com.(2005).FrequentlyAskedInverterQuestions.RetrievedNovember12,2006,from http://www.donrowe.com/inverters/inverter_faq.html#modified. GoPower600WattModifiedWaveInverter.4Lots.com.RetrievedDecember14,2006,from http://www.4lots.com/browseproducts/GoPower600WattInverter.html. Hart,D.(1997).IntroductiontoPowerElectronics.UpperSaddleRiver,NJ:PrenticeHall. InternationalRectifier.(2006).AN978HVFloatingMOS_GateDriverICs.RetrievedNovember10, 2006,fromhttp://www.irf.com/technicalinfo/appnotes/an978.pdf. InternationalRectifier.(2006).IR2110HighandLowSideDriver.RetrievedNovember10,2006, from http://www.irf.com/productinfo/datasheets/data/ir2110.pdf. Ledwich,G.(1998).PulseWidthModulation(PWM)Basics.RetrievedDecember.1,2006,from http://www.powerdesigners.com /InfoWeb/design_center/articles/PWM/pwm.shtm. TraceEngineering.(April9,1999).ModifiedSinewaveandSinewaveWaveforms.RetrievedDecember 6,2006fromhttp://www.wholesalesolar.com/pdf.folder/Download%20folder/sine_modsine.pdf. Walmart.com.PowerInverterListings.RetrievedDecember6,2006from http://www.walmart.com/catal og/product.do?product_id=4965458.

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45

AppendixA:SwitchingFrequencyCharts

Figure35:FrequencyplotofMOSFETlosses

Figure36:Frequencyplotofinductorlosses(resistive) 46

AppendixB:CircuitDiagram

47

48

AppendixC:Flowchart

49

AppendixD:PCBBoardDiagrams

50

51

AppendixE:PartsList
Inductors 4mHHighCurrentInductor 1.2mHHighCurrentInductor Quantity 1 1 DigikeyCatalogNumber 2371231ND M9850ND COST $4.78 $12.54

1%Resistors 10Ohm 2.2MOhm 475kOhm 27.5kOhm 31kOhm 300kOhm 1kOhm 10kOhm 7.5kOhm 510Ohm 1.5kOhm 26.7kOhm 2kOhm 200kOhm 510kOhm Capacitors .1uF 2uF 51nF 1nF .01nF .1nF 680pF Diodes 1n4148Diode IR150FDiode ChipsandSemiconductors LM348

Quantity 4 1 1 3 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Quantity 6 2 2 1 1 1 1 Quantity 2 2 Quantity 1

8ETu04ND

$0.40 $0.10 $0.10 $0.30 $0.10 $0.10 $0.90 $0.10 $0.10 $0.10 $0.10 $0.20 $0.10 $0.10 $0.10 $2.40 $0.80 $0.80 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.40 $0.10 $4.46 $0.55

52

TL084 MC3302 IR2110 IR549PMosfet

2 1 2 4

IR2110PBFND IRFB20N50KPbFND TOTAL

$1.80 $0.55 $11.70 $22.56 $67.54

53