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Implementation of Eurocodes in Malaysia A view point from Consulting Engineer

Ir. Tu Yong Eng The Institution of Engineers Malaysia


MOH Engineering Conference 2011

Scope of talk

Introduction Background information Malaysians effort in updating the structural Eurocodes Issues on implementation of Eurocodes Notes from Eurocodes

Scope of talk 2

Problems encountered in Malaysian Construction Industry Roles of Malaysian Standard in improving the quality of construction Global competitiveness Conclusion

1 Introduction
The main objective of the construction is to build reliable structures within the budget. The reliability is measured by the chances of failure to meet the objectives within a certain time frame Structural failure rate in Malaysia is alarmingly high.

1 Introduction 2
Malaysia construction industry has adopted many BS as MS At the same time, adopted ISO standards, ASTM, ACI, JIS, AS/NZ as MS MS 1195 BS 8110 MS 416 BS 5950 MS 523 BS 5328 MS 544 Timber code of practice

1 Introduction 3
In March 2010, BSI has published 58 documents of structural Eurocodes (BS EN) Withdraw 57 related/ conflicting structural codes.

1 Introduction 4
Prior to the publication of the structural Eurocodes, many other BS on the specification of materials, testing and workmanship have been withdrawn and replaced by relevant Eurocodes. BS 5328 part 1 to 4 replaced by EN 206-1 BS 4360 replaced by EN 10025 BS 6089: 1981 partially withdrawn and replaced by EN 13791

2. Back ground info


MS are published by Department of Standards, Malaysia, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. a member of ISO, the standards adopted based on ISO standards are published MS ISO. With the arrangement with CEN, the structural Eurocodes will be published as MS EN.

2. Back ground info 2


58 documents of Structural Eurocodes EN 1990 (Basis of Action) (1 part) EN 1991 (Loading) (10 parts) EN 1992 (concrete structures) (4 parts) EN 1993 (Steel structures) (20 parts) EN 1994 (Composite structures) (3 parts)

2. Back ground info 3


EN 1995 (Timber) (3 parts) En 1996 (Masonry) (4 parts) EN 1997 (Geotechnical) (2 parts) EN 1998 (Seismic action) (6 parts) EN 1999 (Aluminum) (5 parts)

2. Back ground info 4


MS EN consists of : Main body No change is allowed; National Annex National annex published based on the main texts requirement to suit the local condition. This include the nationally determined parameters, decision on the application of informative annexes and references to NCCI. NCCI Documents to further explain and provide further guidance on the structural Eurocodes.

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NCCI can be published as a guide or as a standard itself. BS 8500-1 & BS 8500 -2 are NCCI document for EN 206-1; BS 6089: 2010 is a NCCI for EN 13791.

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Up to date on structural Eurocodes: Published 4 documents (MS EN 1990, 1991-1-1, 1992-1-1 and 1993-1-1) 1 document pending publication (EN 1997) 3 documents in drafting stage (EN 1991-14, wind load, EN 1998 Seismic action, EN 1993-1-8 connection)

2. Back ground info 7


Currently, wind load was specified by MS 1553, modeled after AS/NZ. Based on 3 seconds gust speed. Currently, research jointly done by Meteorological Department, UTAR and IEM. EN 1991-1-4 based on 10 minutes wind

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Related updating works EN 10025 (part 1 & 2 pending public comment) specification of structural steel (SIRIM) EN 206-1 completed together with BS 8500-1 and 8500 2. EN 1504 (concrete repair) drafting stage

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Other Codes needed: Specification for material, (EN 10025 part 1 to part 6; EN 206-1, EN 10080: Steel for the reinforcement of concrete .etc) Specification for workmanship (EN 13670: Execution of concrete structures)

2. Back ground info 10

Specification for material testing (EN 12350: fresh concrete, EN 12390: hardened concrete) Specification for structural evaluation (EN 13791 for concrete structure evaluation) Other specifications, including specification for temporary work, scaffolding, construction machinery and equipment etc. (EN 39: Loose steel tubes for tube and coupler scaffolds technical delivery conditions; EN 74: Couplers, spigot pins and baseplates for use in falsework and scaffolds)

3 Malaysians effort in updating the structural Eurocodes


Department of Standards Malaysia has entrusted SIRIM to carry out the publication of the Malaysian Standards. SIRIM has appointment IEM, CIDB, JKR and others as Standard Writing organization (SWO) in charge of Standards writing

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ISCD/ ISC P to approve the new proposal on the code drafting TC formed by SWO TC must be a balance committee, representatives from all stake holders (i.e. suppliers & manufacturers, contractors, consultants, regulators and government representatives)

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WG will be formed for solving/ resolve particular problem, if any. in order to effectively introduce Eurocodes as Malaysian Standard, TC must understand fully the detail of the code as well as impact to the local industry. Research and promotion are part of the duty of the TC;

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IEM has published series papers on Eurocodes in his monthly bulletins. These include EN 1990, EN 1991, EN 1992, EN 1993 and EN 13791 (and BS 6089: 2010). IEM has also carried out the road show together with Department of Standards and SIRIM on EN 1990, 1991, 1992 and 1993.

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TC on EN 1992 has prepared two NCCI, Small Size elements and Band beam design.

4 Issues on implementation of Eurocodes

To implement Eurocodes effectively, there are several issues to be resolved: The philosophy and basic assumption of the codes is essential to ensure proper implementation of the standards in Malaysia. National Annexes shall be published to suit the local condition. Normally, Annex from UK will be adopted. However, careful consideration shall be taken before the adoption.

4 Issues on implementation of Eurocodes 2


Publication of NCCI document to enhance the usage of the code of practice. Eurocodes used different terminologies compare to British Standards. The user needed further practice and effort to gain the familiarity. Research needed to ensure proper updating of the standards.

5 Highlights from Eurocodes


Few highlights from Eurocodes which may not be familiar to local practitioners. Eurocodes spelt out clearly the scope, limitation and assumptions. Eurocodes also specifically differentiate the principle and application rules. The principles are general statements and definitions for which there is no alternative, as well as requirements and analytical models for which no alternative is permitted unless specifically stated.

5 Highlights from Eurocodes 2


The Application Rules are generally recognised rules which comply with the Principles and satisfy their requirements. It is permissible to use alternative design rules different from the Application Rules for works, provided that it is shown that the alternative rules accord with the relevant Principles and are at least equivalent with regard to the structural safety, serviceability and durability which would be expected when using the Eurocodes.

5 Highlights from Eurocodes 3


The general assumptions of EN 1990 are forming an integral part of the code and basis to the construction industry. In order to achieve the desired reliability, the conditions of our construction industry must comply with the relevant assumptions. The assumptions are as follows: the choice of the structural system and the design of the structure is made by appropriately qualified and experienced personnel; execution is carried out by personnel having the appropriate skill and experience;

5 Highlights from Eurocodes 4


adequate supervision and quality control is provided during execution of the work, i.e. in design offices, factories, plants, and on site; the construction materials and products are used as specified in EN 1990 or in EN 1991 to EN 1999 or in the relevant execution standards, or reference material or product specifications; the structure will be adequately maintained; the structure will be used in accordance with the design assumptions.

5 Highlights from Eurocodes 5


Reliability management a new concept, which was not addressed in previous British Standard Pf = (-) Where Pf is the probability of failure and (-) is the cumulative distribution function of the standardised Normal distribution

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Pf 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 1.28 2.32 3.09 3.72 4.27 4.75 5.20

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For the purpose of reliability differentiation, consequences classes (CC) may be established by considering the consequences of failure or malfunction of the structure. CC1 Low consequence CC2 medium consequence CC3 High consequence

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for normal structure (RC 2) corresponding to CC2 is 3.8 in 50 years. This means the expected failure in 50 years less than 1: 14,958 For important structure such as hospital, higher reliability needed, where it became shelter during disaster.

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Important structure should be designed and constructed as RC 3 structure (or higher reliability) by multiplication of important factor. For RC 3 structure, is 4.3 in 50 years. (failure rate of 1: 116,025 in 50 years).

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Eurocodes uses cylinder strength compare to cube strength (even though cube strength can still be used). Concept of Limit states are used in EN 1997, Geotechnical consideration. EN 13791 specifically exclude the interpretation of single core test result. Product certification is compulsory in Eurocodes.

6 Problems encountered in Malaysian


Construction Industry
Academicians In University, syllabus has to be revised and new teaching material will be provided. More research work will be carried out. Manufacturers New specification of the product needed and hence more machinery, testing equipment and training of human resources needed.

6 Problems encountered in
Malaysian Construction Industry 2
Consultants Training forming a major part of the capital expenses for the consulting firm due to new codes of practice. Furthermore, new software needed. Contractor Human resources training based on new construction specification needed.

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Our legal framework has not been changed to adopt the application of Eurocodes in Malaysia construction industry. Currently, we relied on Uniform Building By Law to determine the requirement of the building condition. Hence, UBBL has to be amended to provide a legal status of the Eurocodes.

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Many other aspects shall also be specified, for example, the reliability of the building industry, accidental load, the responsibility of all professional and industry player involved in the construction industry (Eurocodes allowed for the third party supervision, product certification etc).

7. Global competitiveness
In order to stay global competitiveness, the construction industry shall be competitive in terms of: Familiar with the latest state of art for the construction through the practice of up to date code of practice (e.g. Eurocodes). Research work;

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Practice sufficient and up to date quality assurance and control plan; Training and development for human resources. Develop new construction techniques complying with the latest code of practice. Global mobility.

8. Conclusion
We would conclude that our industry are not ready to adopt the Structural Eurocodes. More efforts have to put in to enjoy the benefit of the Eurocodes. To further facilitate the industry players, existing Malaysian Standards should be remained even though it will not be updated. The co-existence period should be sufficiently long to cover the codes drafting and training period.

8. Conclusion 2
More effort needed to ensure our construction are reliable, in line with the presumption of the codes. Legal framework has to be amended. More research needed to ensure local condition being taken into consideration.

Thank You
Ir. Tu Yong Eng The Institution of Engineers Malaysia

MOH Engineering Conference 2011