Hindawi Publishing Corporation Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume 2008, Article ID 869614, 7 pages doi:10.

1155/2008/869614

Research Article Applying He’s Variational Iteration Method for Solving Differential-Difference Equation
Ahmet Yıldırım
˙zmir, Turkey Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100 Bornova-I Correspondence should be addressed to Ahmet Yıldırım, ahmety@mail.ege.edu.tr Received 31 January 2008; Revised 1 April 2008; Accepted 14 May 2008 Recommended by Oleg Gendelman We extend He’s variational iteration method VIM to find the approximate solutions for nonlinear differential-difference equation. Simple but typical examples are applied to illustrate the validity and great potential of the generalized variational iteration method in solving nonlinear differentialdifference equation. The results reveal that the method is very effective and simple. We find the extended method for nonlinear differential-difference equation is of good accuracy. Copyright q 2008 Ahmet Yıldırım. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction In recent years, some promising approximate analytical solutions are proposed, such as expfunction method 1 , homotopy perturbation method 2–11 , and variational iteration method VIM 12–25 . The variational iteration method is the most effective and convenient one for both weakly and strongly nonlinear equations. This method has been shown to effectively, easily, and accurately solve a large class of nonlinear problems with component converging rapidly to accurate solutions. Differential-difference equations DDEs have been the focus of many nonlinear studies. DDEs describe many important phenomena and dynamical processes in many different fields, such as particle vibrations in lattices, currents in electrical networks, pulses in biological chains, and so on. DDEs play important role in the study of modern physics and also play a crucial role in numerical simulations of nonlinear partial differential equations NLPDEs , queueing problems, and discretization in solid state and quantum physics. At the same time, finding exact solutions of DDEs is extremely important in mathematical physics. On the other hand, in order to find directly exact solutions to DDEs, some methods 16– 26 for solving nonlinear differential equations are applied to DDEs. For example, Dehghan

Darboux transformation 33 . to illustrate the basic concept of He’s variational iteration method. the correction functional can be written in the form t un.1 n. we consider the following general nonlinear differential equation given in the form Lu t Nu t g t. 27 have applied homotopy analysis method HAM to DDEs. 30 .m s ds un 1.2 where λ is a general Lagrange multiplier. the subscript n denotes the nth approximation. and un is considered as a restricted variation. 3.2 . 26 . and Adomian decomposition method 34 .m s − un−1. Hirota method 31. There also have been some methods for nonlinear DDEs. we will illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed technique. 2. Dai and Zhang 28 have given a Jacobian elliptic function expansion method to solve the doubly periodic traveling wave solutions and kink-type tanh solitary solutions to some DDEs. Baldwin et al. 3b un un 1 − un−1 . 2. 32 .2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering and Shakeri 16 have extended successfully multilinear variable separation approach to special DDEs.m s ds. N is a nonlinear operator. We can construct a correction functional according to the variational method as t un 1 t un t 0 λ Lun ξ N un ξ − g ξ dξ.m s − un. such as Backlund transformation 29.m t 0 λs dun. which can be identified optimally via variational theory. 2. Wang et al.1 where L is a linear operator. 1 − 2t 3. Using He’s variational iteration method. Application to Volterra equation Consider the following Volterra equation: dun dt with the initial condition un 0 whose exact solution can be written as un t n . In the following example. and g t is a known analytical function. 3a We apply variational iteration method to the discussed problem. 3. He’s variational iteration method Now. namely δ un 0.m 1 t un.

8 is un t n/ 1 − 2t which gives exact solution of problem. 3.m 1 t un.m s ds un 1. 16a We apply variational iteration method to the discussed problem.2 t un.m s − un−1. .0 n.m s ds. Using He’s variational iteration method.2 gives the Substituting this value of the Lagrange multiplier λ iteration formula un.Ahmet Yıldırım The stationary conditions 1 λ follow immediately.1 t un.m s − un−1. .7 3. 3.m s − 1 − u2 n. 4. the correction functional can be written in the form t un. 3. This in turn gives λ −1. .3 t un.6 4nt2 4nt2 8nt3 Hence.4 −1 into the functional 3. 4. the solution series in general gives un t un t n 2nt 2t 4nt2 4 t2 8nt3 8t3 16nt4 .m s − un. Application to mKDV lattice equation Consider the following discretized mKDV lattice equation: dun dt with the initial condition un 0 tanh k tanh kn .5 We can start with un.3 3.m 1 t un.m t 0 λs dun.m s ds un 1. 3 3. 16nt4 .4 t n n 2nt n 2nt n 2nt n. .8 n 1 The closed form of the series 3.0 t un. . and we obtain the following successive approximations: un. 2nt. 8nt3 . 16t4 .m s ds. λ 0 0. 16b 1 − u2 n un 1 − un−1 . 4nt2 .m t − t 0 dun. .1 .

and we obtain the following successive tanh k n 1 − tanh k n − 1 tanh k n 1 − tanh k n − 1 t.2 t tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh k n tanh k 1 − tanh k n − 1 tanh k n 1 − tanh k n − 1 t − tanh2 k tanh2 kn tanh k tanh k n − tanh2 k tanh2 k n tanh k 2 1 − 2 tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh k n 2 − tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh kn 1 tanh k tanh k n − 2 − tanh k tanh k n − 2 − tanh k tanh k n − 1 tanh2 k tanh2 k n − 1 − 2 tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh k n tanh k tanh k n 1 2 1 − tanh k tanh k n − 1 − tanh2 k tanh2 kn tanh k tanh k n − tanh2 k tanh2 kn tanh k tanh k n − tanh k tanh k n − 1 − 2 tanh k tanh kn 1 tanh k tanh k n − 2 0.0 approximations: un. 4. − tanh2 k tanh2 kn un. λ 0 0.m 1 t un.1 gives the Substituting this value of the Lagrange multiplier λ iteration formula un.5t2 .1 t tanh k tanh kn . it is possible to calculate more components via some calculation software such as Maple to improve the accuracy of the approximate solutions. 4.2 4.m s ds.m s ds un 1.4 We can start with un. .5 − tanh2 k tanh2 k n × tanh k tanh k n tanh k tanh k n − 1 2 2 2 − tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh kn − tanh k tanh k n − 2 The other components of un.m s − un−1. tanh k tanh kn tanh k tanh k tanh kn . This in turn gives λ −1.3 −1 into the functional 4.m t − t 0 dun.4 The stationary conditions 1 λ follow immediately.m s − 1 − u2 n.0 t un.m t can be generated in a similar way. Generally speaking. Mathematical Problems in Engineering 4.

05351081023 0. it achieves a high level of accuracy.06613063122 0. Also.09857365542 0. As we know.09804197166 −0.09730760788 −0.00025263259 0.09893218337 0.01938285277 0.09184745591 0. Secondly.08825728153 −0. Absolute error 0.Ahmet Yıldırım Table 1: For constant k n −25 −15 −5 0 5 15 25 ADM-u6 −0.03789706610 0.00000813142 0. the more accurate it will be. easy to use.01977150813 0.009933709149 0.00000770741 0. Acknowledgment ¨ I ˙ TAK The author thanks The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey TUB for their financial support. This variational iteration method will become a much more interesting method to solve nonlinear DDEs in science and engineering. .02890112744 0. Tables 1 and 2 show that the numerical approximate solution has a high degree of accuracy.00004365274 0.5.02894478018 0.09857205219 Table 2: For constant k n −25 −15 −5 0 5 15 25 ADM-u6 −0. by the variational iteration method.00003961884 In order to verify numerically whether the proposed methodology leads to high accuracy. Tables 1 and 2 show the absolute errors between ADM-u6 and numerical solution VIM-u2 of 16a with initial condition 16b .08824837298 −0. the method is a powerful tool to search for solutions of various linear/nonlinear problems.03788612415 0.08337156677 −0. we obtain the approximate solution of mKDV lattice equation.09889256453 1. firstly.091855587327 0. and time t 0. The method is extremely simple.1. and time t VIM-u2 −0.00000160323 5 VIM-u2 −0.06625691101 0. Although we only considered second-order approximation.09725516662 −0.00021344912 0. the more terms added to the approximate solution.00001094195 0.00005244126 0.000032762157 0. Conclusion In this paper.09414208992 0.009900946992 0.00038865536 0. Absolute error 0.5. and is very accurate for solving nonlinear differential-difference equation.09804373331 −0.09435553904 0.05350310282 0.1.00000176165 0. we obtain the exact solution of Volterra equation. we evaluate the numerical solutions using only second-order approximation and compared it with Adomian decomposition solution ADM using six-term approximation 34 .00012627979 0.00000890855 0.083118934180 −0. 5.

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