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^ Figure 5 shows part of the circulatoiy system and the lymphati^stem in the human body. I Vein

Vessel Q

(a) (i) What is fluid X?

[1 mark] (ii) What happens to the components of fluid X when it passes through the lymph node?

[1 mark] (b) (i) Fluid X originates from the blood. Describe how fluid X is formed from the blood.

[2 marks]

(ii) State one difference between fluid X and the blood. [1 mark] (i) A part of vessel Q is blocked. Explain its effect on the system in Figure 5.

[2 marks] (ii) Vessel Q in the leg is blocked. What would happen to the leg?

[1 mark] (d) The blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system function to maintain the composition of the tissue fluid. Explain how the composition of the tissue fluid is maintained by stating the substances transported by the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system.

ro --- 1.1

2 Diagram 2 showi^A lr levels of cell organisation in humans. Rajah 2 menunjukkan empat aras organisasi sel dalam manusia.

, )

Process X 0 O Proses X Diagram 2 Rajah 2 Level Level Level 1 2 Aras 3 Aras Aras 2 3 1 (a) Complete Table 2 by naming Level 2 and Level 3. Lengkapkan Jadual 2 dengan menamakan Aras 2 dan Aras 3. LevelMras 1 2 3 4 System/Sistem marks] [2 markah]
[2

Level 4 Aras 4

Name/iVama Cells/Sel Table 2

Jadual2

I*) 15)~TKs_CS,Hs_"u'ndergo- process X to become specific cells that perform a specific function. Name process X. Sel-sel itu melalui proses X untuk menjadi sel khusus yang menjalankan fungsi yang khusus. Namakan proses X.

(ii) What is the function of the structure in level 2? Apakah fungsi struktur dalam aras 2?

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(iii) The structure in level 4 is one of the body systems. Name this system. Struktur dalam aras 4 adalah satu daripada sistem badan. Namakan sistem ini.

^ '""'f; t1

(iv) State one function of the system in 2(b)(iii). Nyatakan satu fungsi sistem di 2(b)(iii).

mark1 ^ markah.}

[1 mark] [1 markah]

(i) Name and explain the condition which can cause a bloV in blood vessel S. Namakan dan terangkan keadaan yang boleh menyebabkan berlakunya penyumbatan dalam salur darah S. Na me/Nama:

Explanation/Penerangan:

[3 marks] [3 markah] (ii) A person is suffering from the condition in 2(c)(i). State three effects on the person's health. Seorang individu mengalami keadaan di 2(c)(i). Nyatakan tiga kesan ke atas kesihatannya.

(a) Name circulations R and S. Describe each circulation. (i) E: ______________ _______________________________ Description: _______________ _______ I ____________

(ii) S: _______________ : ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Description: ______ _____________________________________________ _____ _ __ [4 marks1 (b) On Figure 3, mark the following flow of blood to illustrate the circulations R and S. Oxygenated blood with the arrow ( -----------------------------) Deoxygenated blood with the arrow ( ---------------------------- *) [1 mark) (c) The pacemaker of a patient's heart fails to function. An electronic pacemaker is used to replace the original pacemaker. Explain how the electronic pacemaker works.

[3 marks] (d) Table 1 shows the volume of blood and the blood pressure in blood vessels X and Y. Blood vessel Volume /cm3 Pressure /kPa X Y 100 300 Table 1 (i) Based on Figure 3(a) and Table 1, what conclusion can you make about the rate of blood flow in the blood vessels X and Y? 13.3 0.3

^ Figure 5 shows part of the circulator system and the lymphatic-stem in the human body. -Heart Vein, Arteiy Tissue fluid
Vessel Q Capillary Y Body tissue

- Fluid X - Lymph node

Figure 5
(a) (i) What is fluid X?

[1 mark] (ii) What happens to the components of fluid X when it passes through the lymph node?

[1 mark] (b) (i) Fluid X originates from the blood. Describe how fluid X is formed from the blood.

[2 marks]

(ii) State one difference between fluid X and the blood. [1 mark] (c) (i) A part of vessel Q is blocked. Explain its effect on the system in Figure 5.

(2 marks] (ii) Vessel Q in the leg is blocked. What would happen to the leg?

[1 mark] (d) The blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system function to maintain the composition of the tissue fluid. Explain how the composition of the tissue fluid is maintained by stating the substances transported by the blood circulatory system and the lymphatic system.

[3 marks]

2 Diagram 2 showiK ir levels of cell organisation in humans. p . Rajah 2 menunjukkan empat aras organisasi sel dalam manusia. )

(J) Process X
0 Proses X Diagram 2 Rajah 2 Level Level Level 1 2 Aras 3 Aras 2 Aras 3 1 (a) Complete Table 2 by naming Level 2 and Level 3. Lengkapkan Jadual 2 dengan menamakan Aras 2 dan Aras 3. LevelMras 1 2 3 4 System/Sistem [2 marks] [2 markah] NameiNama CeilsISel Table 2
Level 4 Aras 4

Jadual2

TR ""TK^eetl's" undergo process X to become specific cells that perform a specific function. Name process X. Sel-sel itu melalui proses X untuk menjadi sel khusus yang menjalankan fungsi yang khusus. Namakan proses X.

(ii) What is the function of the structure in level 2? Apakah fungsi struktur dalam aras 2?

[1 mark] [1 markah]
r [1 markah]

(iii)The structure in level 4 is one of the body systems. Name this system. Struktur dalam aras 4 adalah satu daripada sistem badan. Namakan sistem ini.

(iv) State one function of the system in 2(b)(iii). Nyatakan satu fungsi sistem di 2(b)(iii).

[1 mark] ^ markah]

[1 mark] [1 markah]

71 cocy (a) (i) Diagram 7.1 shows an electron micrograph of cellular b^mponents of human blood. Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan satu elektron mikrograf bagi komponen sel darah manusia. t&T) Platele t Platlet

Erythroc yte Britrosit Leucocy te Leukosit Diagram 7.1 Rajah 7.1 Based on Diagram 7.1, explain how platelets help to stop bleeding when a wound occurs. Berdasarkan Rajah 7.1, terangkan bagaimana platlet membantu dalam menghentikan pendarahan semasa luka. [4 marks] [4 markah] (iii) A blood test shows that a man's erythrocytes count is below normal. Explain the possible consequences of this condition on his health. What type of food should he include in Ms diet to improve this condition? [8 marks] Suatu ujian darah menunjukkan bahawa bilangan eritrosit darah seorang lelaki adalah kurang daripada biasa. Terangkan kesan-kesan yang mungkin berlaku. atas kesihatannya akibat daripada keadaan ini. Apakah jenis makanan yang perlu lelaki itu makan untuk pulih daripada keadaan ini? [8 markah]

f b ) Diagram 7.2 shows the blood circulatory system in organism S and organism T.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan sistem peredaran darah dalam organisma S dan organisma T.
Lungs

Pepar u

toCs Difgr^7;2 T Organisma ^ / e-m n S


O IR I N T Q

liajO-tl I ~ (~)renn.iiimn 1

Organism Organisma T

Based on Diagram / .2: Berdasarkan Rajah 7.2: (i) Give one example of organism S and organism T. Beri satu contoh organisma S dan organisma T. [2 marks] [2 rnarkah] (ii) Describe the similarities and differences between the blood circulatory system in organism S and organism T. [6 marks] Huraikan persamaan dan perbezaan antara sistem peredaran darah dalam organisma S dan organisma T. [6 markah]

The following statements are on lymphatic system and blood circulatory system. COk) The substances that come out from the blood capillaries into the body tissue will be reentered into the blood circulatory system. Lymphatic system also functions in transporting products of digestion.

Explain the above statements to justify that lymphatic system is a complementary to the blood circulatory system. [10 marks]

Multicellular organisms like humans, need specific transport systems as compared to unicellular organisms like Amoeba sp., which do not need a transport system. Give an evaluation of the above statement based on the physical features of the organisms with the following physiological processes: Respiration Nutrition Excretion [10 marks] Explain your answer.

[2

marks.] (ii) Explain how vigorous exercise increases the blood flow in the blood vessel X.

[2 marks]
Diagram 3 shows the relationship between two transport systems and the body cells of humans Rajah 3 menunjukkan hubungan anlara dua sixlem pengangkutan dan scl buclan manusia

Diagram 3 / Rajah .V

fa) Name fluid X. Y and Z Namakan cecair X. Y dan '/.


X ................. , ........................................... ............................................................. Y ..............................................................................................................................

X ................................................... ..................... .......................................... | 3 murks/ 3 markah\


(b) Explain how fluid X is formed . Ternngkun bagaimana cecair X tcrhemuk.

| 2 marks/ 3 markali J

(
(c) (i) Name a substance that can be found in both fluid Y and Z.

Numahin bahun yang botch dilumui dalam kvdm-dua cecair V dan /

| 1 mark/' I murkuh ]
(ii) State the difference between the components of fluid X and Y Nyatakan perbezaan

antara komponen cecair X dan Y.


[ 1 mark/ 1 markah ] (d) Fluid Y and Z are involved in the body's defence system. Explain the defence mechanism of the following fluid :

Cecair Y dan Z lerlibal dalam system pertahanan badart. Terangkan mekanisma yang terlibat hagi cecair berikut: Fluid Y/ Cecair Y

Fluid IS Cecair Z

[ 4 marks/ 4 markah j
(e) Define homeostasis Takrifkan homeostasis

[1 mark/1 markaliJ