This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Heat of combustion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Heat of combustion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search The heat of combustion ( ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be expressed with the quantities: energy/mole of fuel (kJ/mol) energy/mass of fuel energy/volume of fuel The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation of the products and reactants.
[hide] 1 Heating value 1.1 Higher heating value 1.2 Lower heating value 1.3 Gross heating value 1.4 Measuring heating values 1.5 Relation between heating values 1.6 Usage of terms 1.7 Accounting for moisture 2 Heat of combustion tables 3 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.4°C)[citation needed ] 4 Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources 5 See also 6 References
It is measured in units of energy per unit of the substance. kcal/kg. The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not released as heat. Lower heating value The quantity known as lower heating value (LHV) (net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV)) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value.. such as: kJ/kg. In other words. The higher heating value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products. Btu/lb. en. Heating value is commonly determined by use of a bomb calorimeter. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion since the enthalpy change for the reaction assumes a common temperature of the compounds before and after combustion. the free encyclopedia 7 External links Heating value The heating value (or energy value or calorific value ) of a substance. in which case the water produced by combustion is liquid. is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.8 The heat of combustion for fuels is expressed as the HHV. The energy value is a characteristic for each substance. and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical (e. HHV assumes all the water component is in liquid state at the end of combustion (in product of combustion) and that heat above 150°C can be put to use. or GHV. This treats any H2O formed as a vapor. Such measurements often use a standard temperature of 25°C.Wikipedia.g.923 Btu/lb = kcals * 1.wikipedia. usually mass. kJ/mol. usually a fuel or food (see food energy). Heating value unit conversions (for more visit Wolfram Alpha): kcal/kg = MJ/kg * 238.846 Btu/lb = MJ/kg * 429.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 2/15 . in a gas-fired boiler used for space heat).7/10/13 Heat of combustion . Higher heating value The quantity known as higher heating value (HHV) (or gross energy or upper heating value or gross calorific value (GCV) or higher calorific value (HCV)) is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature. and in particular condensing any vapor produced. LHV.
is the enthalpy of all combustion products minus the enthalpy of the fuel at the reference temperature (API research project 44 used 25°C. minus the enthalpy of the stoichiometric oxygen (O2) at the reference temperature.so probably with no liquid water present). minus the heat of vaporization of the vapor content of the combustion products.k. en. which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning. as opposed to the higher heating value (HHV) (a. This value is important for fuels like wood or coal. GPSA is consistent with this.56°C). and the Net Heating Value to the lower heating value. The above is but one definition of lower heating value adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and uses a reference temperature of 60°F (15. water vapor is produced. Measuring heating values The higher heating value is experimentally determined in a bomb calorimeter.wikipedia. Note that GPSA 12th Edition states that the Gross Heating Value of a gas is equivalent to Higher Heating Value. GPSA currently uses 60°F). and includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion. The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered. gross calorific value or gross CV) which assumes that all of the water in a combustion process is in a liquid state after a combustion process.Wikipedia. When hydrogen and oxygen react during combustion. This is more easily calculated from the higher heating value than when using the preceding definition and will in fact give a slightly different answer..g. Another definition. two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen) in a steel container at 25° is initiated by an ignition device and the reactions allowed to complete. The combustion of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer (e. used by Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) and originally used by API (data collected for API research project 44). This suggests that there may be different standards in play. It is useful in comparing fuels where condensation of the combustion products is impractical. which usually describes a smaller value.a. the free encyclopedia LHV calculations assume that the water component of a combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 3/15 . The use of the term Gross normally describes a larger value than the Net. or heat at a temperature below 150°C cannot be put to use. The distinction between the two is that this second definition assumes that the combustion products are all returned to the reference temperature and the heat content from the condensing vapor is considered not to be useful. The vessel and its contents are then cooled to the original 25°C and the higher heating value is determined as the heat released between identical initial and final temperatures.7/10/13 Heat of combustion . Gross heating value Gross heating value (see AR) accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor. and equates the Gross Heating Value to the higher heating value (for a gas .
nH2O. A common method of relating HHV to LHV is: HHV = LHV + hv x (nH2O.out/nfuel.in is the number of moles of fuel combusted. the higher heating value of hydrogen is 18. 120 MJ/kg). although any initial investigation may reveal that the US is still tending to en. the latent heat of condensation at 100°C. While in the US.2% above its lower heating value (142 MJ/kg vs. which is unused and thus wastes its heat content. In such applications. Examples: heat of vaporization or heat of fusion). The limit of 150°C is an arbitrary choice. In the case of pure carbon or carbon monoxide. latent heat is added or subtracted for phase transitions at constant temperature. All in all.out is the moles of water vaporized and nfuel. and the sensible heat of the condensed water between 100°C and 25°C. This is becoming noticeable in modern UK energy publications with the increase of energy awareness and based on the simple fact that it is correct. values may have been reported to be generally based on the HHV.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 4/15 . For hydrogen the difference is much more significant as it includes the sensible heat of water vapour between 150°C and 100°C. cooling is stopped at 150°C and the reaction heat is only partially recovered. Most applications that burn fuel produce water vapour. For gasoline and diesel the higher heating value exceeds the lower heating value by about 10% and 7% respectively. the difference being the sensible heat content of carbon dioxide between 150°C and 25°C (sensible heat exchange causes a change of temperature. the two heating values are almost identical. this does not seem to be the case nowadays and most countries are tending to correctly use HHV for true efficiency figures. Relation between heating values The difference between the two heating values depends on the chemical composition of the fuel. However. however. the lower heating value is generally used to give a 'benchmark' for the process. Usage of terms For historical reasons. For hydrocarbons the difference depends on the hydrogen content of the fuel. In contrast. recovering heat which would otherwise be wasted. for true energy calculations the higher heating value is correct.7/10/13 Heat of combustion . and for natural gas about 11%. Note: Higher heating value (HHV) is calculated with the product of water being in liquid form while lower heating value (LHV) is calculated with the product of water being in vapor form.wikipedia. whose high hydrogen content produces much water.Wikipedia. the efficiency of power plants and combined heat and power plants in Europe may have once been calculated based on the LHV. The gross energy value is relevant for gas burned in condensing boilers and power plants with flue-gas condensation that condense the water vapour produced by combustion.in ) where hv is the heat of vaporization of water. the free encyclopedia When the lower heating value (LHV) is determined. This is particularly relevant for natural gas.
and MAF are commonly used for indicating the heating values of coal: AR (As Received) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured with all moisture and ash forming minerals present.80 46. if only to avoid confusion.50 61.400 21.220 2. Using LHV in other energy calculations brings similar errors.300. the free encyclopedia use LHV in some circumstances.96 50. whether technically correct or not.9 41.00 47. MF.50 51. but HHV should be used for overall energy efficiency calculations.270. For simply benchmarking part of a reaction the LHV may be appropriate. The difference between HHV and LHV definitions causes endless confusion when quoters do not bother to state the convention being used.35 49.Wikipedia.500 18. Heat of combustion tables Higher (HHV) and Lower (LHV) Heating values of some common fuels HHV MJ/kg HHV BTU/lb HHV kJ/mol 141.7 33.0 1.700 20. American consumers should be aware that the corresponding fuel-consumption figure based on the higher heating value will be somewhat higher. MF (Moisture Free) or Dry indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured after the fuel has been dried of all inherent moisture but still retaining its ash forming minerals.800 12.0 5/15 Fuel Hydrogen Methane Ethane Propane Butane LHV MJ/kg 119. where flue-gas condensation is implemented. This has the peculiar result that contemporary combined heat and power plants.0 1.0 2. Many engine manufacturers rate their engine fuel consumption by the lower heating values.6 49.0 3. and in any case the value or convention should be clearly stated. AR. since there is typically a 10% difference between the two methods for a power plant burning natural gas.wikipedia.500 21.90 50. Accounting for moisture Both HHV and LHV can be expressed in terms of AR (all moisture counted).7/10/13 Heat of combustion .900 22. MAF (Moisture and Ash Free) or DAF (Dry and Ash Free) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured in the absence of inherent moisture and ash forming minerals.877 Higher heating value of some less common fuels HHV MJ/kg BTU/lb kJ/mol 22. especially when pulled (incorrectly) into electrolysis calculations etc.7 29.000 23.000 726.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .300.020.8 9.75 Fuel Methanol Ethanol Propanol Acetylene Benzene en.560 2.35 45.900 286 889 1.80 55. may report efficiencies exceeding 100%.800 14. MF and MAF (only water from combustion of hydrogen).
2 15.0 61.200 6.Wikipedia.0 393.8 9.000 21.000 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.0 45.9 11.000 21.000 23.20 44.9 11.0 54.900 14.5 19.5 Heat of Combustion for some common fuels (higher value) Fuel kJ/g kcal/g BTU/lb Hydrogen Gasoline Diesel Ethanol Propane Butane Wood Coal (Lignite) Coal (Anthracite) Natural Gas 141.50 43.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 6/15 .00 46.8 13.9 47.000 20.400 19.500 6.00 15.000 19.35 44.0 15.7 6.4 41.00 43.6 4.100 382.8 3.000 8.1 11.500 45.0 33.00 20.200.0 29.0 622.0 32.000 8. the free encyclopedia Pentane Gasoline Paraffin wax Kerosene Diesel Coal (Anthracite) Coal (Lignite) Wood (MAF) Peat (damp) Peat (dry) 47.000 14.370 12.80 32.690 8.300 14.300 12.4 7.3 10.0 4.9 49.4°C) Fuel MJ/kg MJ/L BTU/lb kJ/mol Alkanes en.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .wikipedia.7 49.4 Ammonia Hydrazine Hexamine Carbon 22.862 19.900 19.50 15.4 30.7 7.0 27.00 21.000 8.30 46.700 2.
551 1.3-Dimethylbutane 2.651.43? 19.147 33.614 2.613 — 19.357 — 21.653 4.133 4.454 3.39 21.49 19.wikipedia.656.054 5.8 44.659 29.465.794 — 46.4-Trimethylpentane Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene en.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 50.752 — 19.29 19.856.0 44.70 19.519.003 6.5 Monoolefins 47.129.56 19.7 44.683.18 19.458.311 31.7 44.0 44.87 19.259.213 6.983 7.5 Naphthenes 44.848.2 19.194 — — — — — — — — — 7/15 .074.193? 3.009 — 47.2 45.053 5.294.272.496 30.203 3.9 44.5 44.48 19.504 3.908.659.636 33.673 2.52 19.Wikipedia.756.0 45.450 33.1 44.357 28.437.310 30.752 29.061.850.380 33.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .40 18.82 19.264.934 2.104 5.34 20.195 — 45.241 27.044.684 3.7 44.334 — 45.706 3.3-Dimethylpentane 2.636? 33.799 — 45.5 44.504 802.6 44.85 18.163 4.240 33.194 32. the free encyclopedia Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Isobutane Isopentane 2-Methylpentane 2.3 45.23 19.3 44.30 19.11 18.682 29.193 3.427 31.92 19.8 43.566 30.023 6.2.6? 43.6 Isoparaffins 45.
193 — — Cumene 41.55 8/15 Propylbenzene[disambiguation needed ] 41.4-Trimethylbenzene 45.590 45.426 — Diolefins 44.055 — 45.799 — 44.938 40.wikipedia.124 — 45.961 40.2.194 45.693 — Acetylenes 48.513 — 20.961 40.984 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 638.570 en.3-Butadiene Isoprene Nitromethane Nitropropane Acetylene Methylacetylene 1-Butyne 1-Pentyne Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene 1.217 Aromatics 40.031 — 44.241 46.170 40.798 40.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion . the free encyclopedia trans-2-Butene Isobutene 1-Pentene 2-Methyl-1-pentene 1-Hexene 1.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .613 — 44.Wikipedia.217 — — Alcohols Methanol 19.589 40.078 Nitrous derivated 10.930 15.78 8.
62 — 120.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 9/15 .24 317.259 — 24.092 1.3 14.922.9 30.93 13.563 2.28 14.843.77 12.412 1.65 13.9 25.933 3.253 4.2 15.075 26.348 8.442.680 24.172 2.769.79 14.012 2.646 — 9.447 23.45 14.0 16.633 3.798 28.8 30.509? 2.6 32.329.018 3.959 32.112 — 18.wikipedia.889 31.548 Other species 32.610 28.501. en.222 2.56 293.82 33. carbon monoxide and sulfur since no water is formed in combusting those substances.192 1.156 28.829.163 — Note that there is no difference between the lower and higher heating values for the combustion of carbon.16 36.703 26.568.64? 13. BTU/lb values are calculated from MJ/kg (1 MJ/kg = 430 BTU/lb).061.416? Ethers 28.971 — 10.3? — 12.727 31.76 37.9 33.940 — — — — — — 244 283. the free encyclopedia Ethanol n-Propanol Isopropanol n-Butanol Isobutanol Tert-butanol n-Pentanol Isoamyl alcohol Methoxymethane Ethoxyethane Propoxypropane Butoxybutane Methanal Ethanal Propionaldehyde Butyraldehyde Acetone Carbon (graphite) Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Ammonia Sulfur (solid ) 28.510.867 24.2 35.355 26.88 Aldehydes and ketones 17.3 28.342 1.Wikipedia.865 22.808 — — — 22.322.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .415.43 14.587 34.017 4.4 — — — — — — 52.
the free encyclopedia Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources The International Energy Agency reports the following typical higher heating values: Algeria: 42.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .71 MJ/m³ United States: 38.Wikipedia.00 MJ/m³ Canada: 38.00 MJ/m³ United Kingdom: 39.89 MJ/m³ The lower heating value of natural gas is normally about 90 percent of its higher heating val.wikipedia.42 MJ/m³ Uzbekistan: 37.88 MJ/m³ Pakistan: 34.00 MJ/m³ Bangladesh: 36.90 MJ/m³ Russia: 38.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 10/15 . See also Adiabatic flame temperature Combustion Energy density Energy value of coal Exothermic reaction Fire Fuel efficiency#Energy content of fuel Food energy Internal energy Thermal efficiency Wobbe index: heat density ISO 15971 Electrical efficiency en.60 MJ/m³ Netherlands: 33.23 MJ/m³ Saudi Arabia: 38.20 MJ/m³ Indonesia: 40.32 MJ/m³ Norway: 39.
W. Nazaroff and R. ^ http://www. CE 218A. page 59 "Carburants et moteurs". Publication de l'Institut Français du Pétrole.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .Wikipedia. 2007 2. ^ Key World Energy Statistics (2005). ^ Air Quality Engineering.php?title=Heat_of_combustion&oldid=560659865" Categories: Chemical engineering Combustion Fuels Thermodynamics Nuclear physics Thermochemistry Thermodynamic properties Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May 2011 en. University of California Berkeley.wikipedia.org/w/index. ISBN 2-7108-0704-1 External links NIST Chemistry WebBook ASTM Standard Testing Retrieved from "http://en.claverton-energy. J-C Guibet.com/the-difference-between-lcv-and-hcv-or-lower-and-higher-heating-value-or-net-and-gross-is-clearly-understood-byall-energy-engineers-there-is-no-right-or-wrong-definition. the free encyclopedia Mechanical efficiency Figure of merit Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources Energy conversion efficiency References 1. Harley.wikipedia.html 3. ^ a b NIST Chemistry WebBook 4.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 11/15 .
the free encyclopedia Articles with links needing disambiguation from January 2013 Navigation menu Personal tools Create account Log in Namespaces Article Talk Variants Views Read Edit Actions View history Search Search Main page Contents Featured content en.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 12/15 .Wikipedia.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .wikipedia.
wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages اﻟﻌﺮﺑﯿﺔ Català Česky Dansk Deutsch Español en.7/10/13 Heat of combustion .org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 13/15 .Wikipedia.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 15/15 .7/10/13 Heat of combustion . the free encyclopedia About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Mobile view en.Wikipedia.