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# Until now we have been finding integrals of continuous

## functions over closed intervals.

Sometimes we can find integrals for functions where
the function or the limits are infinite. These are called
improper integrals.
Example 1:
1
0
1

1
x
dx
x
+

}
The function is
undefined at x = 1 .
0
1
2
3
4
1
Since x = 1 is an asymptote, the
function has no maximum.
Can we find
the area under
an infinitely
high curve?
We could define this integral as:
0
1
1
lim
1
b
b
x
dx
x

}
(left hand limit)
We must approach the limit from
inside the interval.
0
1
1
lim
1
b
b
x
dx
x

}
1
1
1
1
x
x
x
dx
x
+ +
+

}
Rationalize the numerator.
2
1+x

1
dx
x
}
2 2
1 x

1 1
dx dx
x x
+

} }
2
1 u x =
2 du x dx =
1
2
du x dx =
1
1
2
1
sin
2
x u du

}
2 2
1 x

1 1
dx dx
x x
+

} }
2
1 u x =
2 du x dx =
1
2
du x dx =
1
1
2
1
sin
2
x u du

}
1
1
2
sin x u

1 2
1
0
lim sin 1
b
b
x x

( )
( )
1 2 1
1
lim sin 1 sin 0 1
b
b b

1
2
t
= +
2
t
0 0
This integral converges
because it approaches a
solution.
Example 2:
-1
0
1
2
3
4
-1 1
1
0
dx
x
}
1
0
limln
b
b
x
+

0
lim ln1 ln
b
b
+

0
1
lim ln
b
b
+

=
This integral diverges.
(right hand limit)
We approach the limit from inside
the interval.
1
0
1
lim
b
b
dx
x
+

}
Example 3:
( )
3
2
0
3
1
dx
x
}
The function
approaches
when .

1 x
0
1
2
3
4
1 2 3
( )
2
3
3
0
1 x dx

}
( ) ( )
2 2
3
3 3
0
1 1
lim 1 lim 1
b
c
b c
x dx x dx
+

+
} }
( ) ( )
3
1 1
3 3
1 1
0
lim3 1 lim3 1
b
b c
c
x x
+

+
( ) ( )
2 2
3
3 3
0
1 1
lim 1 lim 1
b
c
b c
x dx x dx
+

+
} }
( ) ( )
3
1 1
3 3
1 1
0
lim3 1 lim3 1
b
b c
c
x x
+

+
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 1 1
3
3 3 3
1 1
lim 3 1 3 1 lim 3 2 3 1
b c
b c
+

(
(
+
(
(

0
0
3
3 3 2 +
0
1
2
3
4
1 2 3
Example 3 without limits:
( )
3
2
0
3
1
dx
x
}
The function
approaches
when .

1 x
( )
2
3
3
0
1 x dx

}
( ) 1 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 3
3 3 3
3
0
3
+ = = = x
So yes, you can evaluate this without limits.
Note that the limit method will
always
always work if you
have a singularity. The regular method may not, or
may give you a wrong answer.
Example 4:
1
P
dx
x

}
0 P >
1

P
x dx

}
1
lim
b
P
b
x dx

}
1
1
1
lim
1
b
P
b
x
P
+

+
1 1
1
lim
1 1
P P
b
b
P P
+ +

+ +
What happens here?
If , then the ratio involving
gets bigger and bigger as ,
therefore the integral diverges.
1 P s
1 P
b
+
b
If then b has a negative
exponent and ,
therefore the integral converges.
1 P >
1
0
P
b
+