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" And you liath be quickened, who wei'e dead in trespasses and sius : wherein in time past ye walked, according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience." — Ephes. 2:1,2. The terms quicken and dead, or life and death, are frequently employed in Scripture, as denoting, and even descriptive of the two states of nature and grace; in other words, the moral condition of the unregenerate and regenerate. With reference to these two conditions, the Apostle addressed the text to the Ephesian Church. They were once in a state of death, but they had been quickened. These terms are of frequent occurrence, as thus applied ; and stronger ones cannot be well conceived. The word "quicken," in the text, which, though supplied by the translators, occurs in a subsequent verse, in the same sense and application, showing that they properly supplied it, — literally means, to make to live, or make alive. It is used to denote the resurrection of the Saviour's body from the sepulchre ; and the resurrec-
SERMO II. 31 tion of the dead, generally. It, of itself, implies a previous state of death. It is never used to denote, as some have supposed, and as our word "quicken" sometimes is used, an increased degree of life or activity j to awake from a sluggish or dormant state;
which would imply a previous state of life. This is the Arminian construction of the word, as employed in the text and elsewhere, when applied to a sinner; and hence, it is held, that the text and similar expressions, only signify to give a new impulse to a principle of grace, as it is termed, or something naturally good in every man ; and that regeneration is only giving this new impulse to the soul. This view not only disclaims the doctrine of the total moral depravity of the impenitent, but destroys the difference between regeneration and sanctification, which means progress in the Divine life. It is, indeed, true, that as nothing material can strictly apply to that which is immaterial, or the properties of matter express the qualities of the mind, such comparisons must be understood with certain qualifications, such as the nature of the subject demands. To show what some of these are, I remark, I. atural death destroys all the natural power of the body ; but spiritual death leaves one in the full possession of all his natural faculties. He is still a rational being; and to be addressed by, and capable of feeling the force of, motives and arguments. It was Paul's practice to reason with sinners. He even
32 SERMO II. made Felix tremble, " while he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come." And God himself said, to those whose sins were as scarlet, and red like crimson, " Come, now, and let us reason together." He even challenges sinners " to bring forward their strong reasons, and to plead together." II. atural death leaves all its subjects in precisely the same state. The deceased bodies of all are alike reduced to dust. The robust and the feeble, the
beautiful and the deformed, soon become an undistinguishable mass. But the spiritually dead may differ in many important respects. They may possess a thousand different shades of intellect, and of moral character, according to their conditions and circumstances in life, the force of education, authority, example, temptations, and restraints, by all of which they may be differently affected. They may be, and are, in widely different degrees, actually depraved. Total depravity does not imply the greatest possible degree of wickedness. umbers and aggravation of crimes or offences certainly enhance one's guilt. It was on the ground of this difference, the Saviour said, that it should be more tolerable for the cities of the plain on the day of judgment, than for the inhabitants of Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum. III. atural death destroys the very principle of animation, and puts it beyond the power of the departed spirit to revive or resuscitate it. But spiritual death affects not the power of moral agency.
SERMOJT II. 33 The most abandoned sinner is a free moral agent. Moral agency is as essential to sin, as it is to holiness ; to disobey, as to obey God. Without it there could not be accountability. The want of it is the only reason why brutes are not accountable beings ; and its possession the only reason why men are accountable beings. In these respects, therefore, sinners are not dead. But, notwithstanding these qualifications of the text, which the very nature of the subject demands, there is a striking resemblance between natural and spiritual death ; and my second object will be to trace this resemblance. And
1. The subjects of both are destitute of what may be termed a vital principle ; the seat or spring of life ; that which chiefly conduces to the preservation of life. The question, in what consists this vital principle, I leave to the discussion of philosophers. We do not pretend to know. We contend only for the fact of that which is so called. Whatever, or wherever, it may be, or of what it may precisely consist, it is destroyed in the animal when the body dies, and that power alone which created the body, can restore it. So in a moral point of view, there is a vital principle, not less the effect of Omnipotent grace. It is breathed into the soul by the Holy Ghost, by which the sinner's heart is renewed. We call it a principle, because it operates and is permanent, giving a right direction to the faculties of the soul ; bringing them
34 SERMO II. into a cheerful conformity to the Divine will ; producing a love of the truth and a persevering engagedness in the service of God. But of this the impenitent sinner is entirely destitute. He may be firmly persuaded of the truth of the Gospel ; may believe its doctrines ; may be influenced by its precepts ; pay an external observance to its enjoined forms. For men may have a form of godliness, without its power : may have a zeal for God without a true knowledge, or real love of God. They desire the happy consequences of religion, while they dislike that which constitutes true religion. They may desire the happiness of heaven, while they dislike that which makes heaven a happy place. 2. The resemblance holds, in that, as natural death destroys the j)ower of external perception and sensa-
tion, so spiritual death is a destitution of spiritual discernment. Paul tells us that they only who are born of the Spirit, " do mind or apprehend the things of the Spirit; for the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned." " To be carnally minded is death." So also the Saviour taught : "Therefore speak I unto them in parables, because they seeing, see not, and hearing, they hear not ; neither do they understand, for this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed, lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and
SERMO II. 35 hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them." Here is both the fact and the reasons of that state, plainly declared. otwithstanding, therefore, they have all the natural faculties in the freest exercise, both the Apostle and the Saviour declare the sinner entirely destitute of any spiritual apprehension, or proper discernment of Divine things. 3. Sinnexs are as unmoved, as to any saving purpose, by the calls and invitations, commands and threatenings of the Gospel, as the naturally dead are by the sounds of the natural voice. They are compared to "the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear, which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely." " To whom shall I speak and give warning, that they may hear ? Behold their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken ! Behold the word of the Lord is unto them a reproach ; they have no delight in it." " Come, I pray you, and hear what is the word that cometli forth from the Lord ; and they come unto thee as the people cometh, and
they sit before thee, as my people, and they hear thy words, but they will not do them ; their heart goeth after their covetousness." Were not this language descriptive of them still, where w^ould you find an impenitent sinner under the sound of the Gospel ? 4. atural death reduces the body to a loathsome state. But sin, in God's sight, is the thing most loathsome. There is nothing in existence so much
36 SERMO II. the object of his abhorrence. This is the only thing he does not love. It is sin which has drawn forth all the maledictions of his law. It is sin against which all the perfections of God are arrayed. o wonder we find it written : " God is angry with the wicked every day." " Those mine enemies that would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me." o wonder that at the final disposition of his rational universe, he should say, " Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels ;" which include all the finally impenitent. Everlasting banishment from God awaits all who die in their sins. But the text introduces to our grateful and joyful notice another class of topics. " You hath he quickened who were dead in trespasses and sins." But what is it to be quickened ? It is to give a proper direction to the natural faculties of man under the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit, on the affections or the heart. This statement covers the whole ground. Here is the necessary Agent, — the Holy Spirit. If what has been said under the former topic be true, nothing short of Omnipotence can produce the change denoted by
being quickened. And, I need not say to you, that this work is everywhere ascribed, in the Bible, to the Holy Ghost. Here, too, are the particular subjects of his influence : the natural faculties. o new faculty is created by
SERMO II. 37 the sanctifying influence of the Spirit. Understanding, memory, will, conscience, and the affections, exist as well before, as after con-version ; in an infidel, as in a Christian. On this ground, every command and threatening, every invitation and entreaty found in God's word is placed. All the faculties of the soul are under a wrong bias. And that bias comes from the heart, where is lodged the mainspring of every moral action. That, of course, must be changed. The affections are wrong; wrong in their nature, wrong in their direction, and the object on which they supremely centre. The heart made right, all the natural faculties will at once be brought into proper operation. The man becomes a new creature. We cannot well conceive of a greater change than this. Here, we see, too, the whole difficulty in this great work, and the reason why God must perform it, if ever effected. It is the heart which governs the man ; and, of course, he can have no disposition to change that, for it would be a disposition to change from that state which supremely pleases him. A disposition superior to the supreme one, w^hich is absurd. God, then, I repeat it, must change the heart, or that change will never be accomplished. Our Saviour expressed the whole difficulty on the sinner's part, and the absolute necessity of God's agency in overcoming it, in two short sentences, " Ye will not come unto me, that ye might have life ;" and, " o man can come unto me, except the Father draw him." othing but a Divine influ-
38 SERMO II. ence can overcome the sinner's will. And does not reason drive us to the same conclusion ? If this be the state of the sinner's Avill, a will under the entire control of a depraved heart, fixedly opposed to God and to holiness, he assuredly will perish if left to his own chosen way, if left to have his will. How most unreasonable is opposition, or denial of the doctrine of God's sovereign, omnipotent grace, in order to the salvation of such a being as man is ; when it should call forth from the lips of our whole race, most adoring thanks to Almighty God for doing that without which the entire race would have perished. If anything were needed to deepen and darken "the depravity of the human heart in its natural state, it is found in its opposition to that which is the sole possible ground of a sinner's salvation. While this is one of the most important doctrines, and which, in truth, lies at the very foundation of the whole scheme of salvation, it is one of the most plainly and frequently revealed truths of the Bible. Salvation by grace is the grand theme of Divine revelation. Everywhere is the work ascribed to God. And in regard to scarcely any other point is there greater harmony and unanimity, I may not, indeed, say of sentiment or opinion, but of heart, among all Christians. It is true, indeed, that on few subjects are opinion and experience oftener brought into conflict with each other, than on the doctrine here presented. And yet, not a Christian exists, or ever ex-
SERMO II. S9
isted, who dares to go to the throne of grace with anyother feeling than that of entire indebtedness to God's free and sovereign mercy for the hope of his salvation. And if experience were made the bond or ground of union, there would not be one discordant note between those who really bear the image of Christ. St. Paul, in the fewest words possible, expressed this universal feeling of Christians, when he exclaimed, " By the grace of God, I am what I am." Where is a renewed heart which will not promptly and gratefully respond Amen, to that sentiment ? To this he ascribes his first awakening ; his first serious anxiety ; his conviction ; his repentance of sin ; his first breath of acceptable prayer. He knows he would never have taken one proper step towards heaven, never would have raised himself from his death in trespasses and sins, nor from any proper motive have even desired to be raised from that state, but by the grace of God. By that his eyes were opened to see, and his heart softened to feel his necessities as a perishing sinner. And the song, " Thanks be unto God, by grace I am saved," which he was here first taught to sing, he expects to make his theme of glorying in heaven forever ; or heaven would lose much of its glory. This subject is fruitful of m.any inferences addressed to the reason of men, touching their relation to God, his reasonable claims on them as rational creatures and free moral agents, the nature and extent of human depravity, their obligations and duties, and many other topics usually presented by
40 SERMO II. the discussion of it. But I have a different message in closing this discourse. One which immediately concerns the sinner's eternal salvation. What has been true of all who are now in heaven of our race, and true of all who are on their way to
that happy world, must be true of every sinner here, to whom that world will become his eternal home. We have no long process of reasoning to go through with, to reach the object at which I now aim • and, indeed, most thoroughly to convince the sinner's reason, were making but a small advance towards gaining that object. For the convictions of reason are a slender barrier to the deep-rooted, inwrought depravity of the heart, offer but a weak resistance to its workings, and furnish no effectual cure of that deep-seated malady which has seized upon the soul, and threatens its endless destruction. Would to God I could bring every sinner here to one single point ; for, without that, his eternal death is as certain as his temporal : that point is a proper sense of his wretchedness and helplessness. On this point, little reasoning is required. The merest child is competent to this. Many a child has reached it, and saved his soul. And no one who is capable of seeing danger, was ever saved, who did not so see it as to feel his utter helplessness. It requires but little ability to be brought to that spot. The marvel is, that every sinner does not feel this. What Paul said to Agrippa, when arraigned before him as his prisoner, " King Agrippa, believest thou
SERMO II. 41 the prophets? I know that thou belie vest," I might, with the same confidence, I trust, address to every sinner in this house, "Believest thou the Scriptures? I know that thou believest." Who is there here that would not give an affirmative answer to that question ? And what do they teach — not as a whole, but as the point under consideration is concerned? Why, that the sinner is dead — dead in trespasses and sins. In sin, indeed, not dead, but most active ; " walking according to the course of this world; according to the prince
of the power of the air, the spirit that worketh in the children of disobedience." But as spiritually dead, dead to holiness, dead to the love and favor of God, and dead to all right apprehension of eternal things ; as dead to all these tilings, as the body is from which the soul has fled. If this is not so, then inspiration has employed, not merely an inapt, but a false comparison. If all that was meant by it was, that the sinner is greatly deficient — is not as good as he should be — is less active in the service of his Maker than he ought to be; that his spiritual discernment is too obscure, too feeble, even Oriental hyperbole would not bear out the Apostle in making such a comparison. Ah, inspiration never stretches the truth. Its teachings are exact truth. To the truth of this position, every one yields who is not an infidel. Believing this, is there a sinner here who does not see his danger ? It is but to feel the force of what he sees or believes, to reach that only spot of safety. This felt, the sinner
42 SERMO II. instantly falls down at the Saviour's feet, with the only cry, " Help, Lord, or I perish !" But perish there, no soul ever did. It was the Saviour's mission to our world to save such : " For the Son of man came to seek and to save that which Avas lost." To raise from the death of sin, and breathe into the soul, dead in trespasses and sins, the breath of eternal life. This spot reached, and the soul is saved — not attained to, and the soul is forever lost.
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