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Directional Drilling Fundamentals & Directional Trajectories

Arun S Chandel Assistant Professor


Segments of Deviated Well

Major Directional Well Profiles

Directional Drilling Terminologies

KICK-OFF POINT The kick off point is defined as the point below the surface location where the well is deflected from the vertical. The position of the kick off depends on several parameters including: geological considerations, geometry of well and proximity of other wells. BUILD UP AND DROP OFF RATES The maximum permissible build up /drop off rate is normally determined by one or more of the following: The total depth p of the well Maximum torque and drag limitations Mechanical limitations of the drill string or casing Mechanical limitations of logging tools and production strings. The optimum build up and drop off rates in conventional directional wells are in the range of 1.50 to 30 per 100 ft, although much higher build up rates are used for horizontal and multilateral wells.

INCLINATION ANGLE The inclination angle of a well at any point is the angle the wellbore forms between its axis and the vertical, see Figure 11.11. MEASURED DEPTH Measured depth (MD) is the distance measured along the well path from one reference point to the survey point. Measured depth is also known as Along Hole Depth and is measured with the pipe tally or by a wireline. True vertical depth (TVD) is the vertical distance measured from a reference point to the survey point. TVD is usually referenced to the rotary table, but may also be referenced to mean sea level. Northing: Horizontal distance between one survey point and the RKB, measured to the North. A distance to the South is generally d denoted t d as being b i negative. ti Easting: Horizontal distance between one survey point and the , measured to the East. A distance to the West is generally g y RKB, denoted as being negative.

Azimuth & Departure

The azimuth of a wellbore at any point is defined as the direction of the wellbore on a horizontal plane measured clockwise form a north reference. Azimuths are usually expressed in angles from 0-360 , measured d from f zero north. th Azimuths can also be expressed in a quadrant system from 0-90 measured from north in the northern quadrants and from south in the southern quadrants. The azimuth reading of 135 equates to S45 E in quadrant readings.

Azimuth and departure

Azimuth and departure


A 84

W C 1852



0 AZIMUTH = 272.6 degrees


Azimuth and departure


Dt = De + Dn

De Azimuthofthewell ( )= tan Dn

Azimuth and departure

Given the following grid coordinates, determine the departure and azimuth of the target from the surface location. Grid Coordinates: Target 6,334,400.00 N (m) 200,600.00 E (m) Grid Coordinates: Surface 6,335,000.00 N (m) 200 400 00 E (m) 200,400.00

Circular Functions

Circular Functions

Radius of curvature

Radius of curvature

Build-up Rate Formula

Determining End of Build

J-Profile (departure >R)

J-Profile (departure < R)

S-Profile (R1+R2 < total target displacement)

S-Profile (R1+R2 > total target displacement)

Whats Best?


To carry out the geometric planning for a Type I well, Figure 11.13, the following information is required: Surface Co Co-ordinates ordinates Target Co-ordinates TVD of target TVD to KOP Build Build-up up rate

Base Equations
Using the detailed trigonometry shown in Figure 11.13, the maximum inclination angle max for type I trajectory can be calculated for two cases:

Base Equations

Base Equations

Following data is given for a directional offshore well ll drilled d ill d as J-profile: J fil Origin (O): 0 Kick-off point (K) = 1000 Build Rate ( (BUR) ) = 2.50/ /100 Target data True vertical depth (V3) = 9500 Northings (Dn) = +3507 E Eastings i (De) = -1752 1752

Find the following: 1.Horizontal Departure (D2) 2.Azimuth of the well ( ) 3 Final inclination of the well ( ) 3.Final 4.End of build at TVD (V2) 5.End of build at departure (D1) 6.Measured depth at end of build (OE) 7 Total measured depth at the target (OT) 7.Total

O v1 K C

v2 B E v3

T D1 D2