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byby ACHARYAACHARYA NARENDRANARENDRA DEVDEV COLLEGECOLLEGE
byby
ACHARYAACHARYA NARENDRANARENDRA DEVDEV
COLLEGECOLLEGE
WHAT IS COLOUR? “Colour is the visual perceptual property corresponding to the spectrum of light
WHAT IS COLOUR?
“Colour is the visual perceptual property
corresponding to the spectrum of light
interacting in the eye with the spectral
sensitivities of the light receptors.”
VISIBLE PART OF THE E.M. SPECTRUM color wavelength interval frequency interval red ~ 625–740 nm
VISIBLE PART OF THE E.M.
SPECTRUM
color
wavelength interval
frequency interval
red
~ 625–740 nm
~ 480–405 THz
orange
~ 590–625 nm
~ 510–480 THz
yellow
~ 565–590 nm
~ 530–510 THz
green
~ 500–565 nm
~ 600–530 THz
cyan
~ 485–500 nm
~ 620–600 THz
blue
~ 440–485 nm
~ 680–620 THz
violet
~ 380–440 nm
~ 790–680 THz
SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY OF HUMAN EYE Three types of cones are there on the basis of
SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY OF
HUMAN EYE
Three types of cones are
there on the basis of the
wavelength they absorb:
• Short
• Medium
• Long
back
EXPERIENCE OF COLOUR • HUE- identification of colour • BRIGHTNESS- intensity of colour • SATURATION-
EXPERIENCE OF COLOUR
• HUE- identification of
colour
• BRIGHTNESS-
intensity of colour
• SATURATION- purity
of a colour
COLOUR PRODUCTION reflection • Opaque objects absorption scattering • Transparent and translucent objects •
COLOUR PRODUCTION
reflection
• Opaque objects
absorption
scattering
• Transparent and translucent objects
• Fluorescence and phosphoresence
• Chemiluminescence
• Incandescence
MIXING OF COLOURS Additive colour mixing: •Addition of two or more light sources of different
MIXING OF COLOURS
Additive colour mixing:
•Addition of two or more light sources of
different hues
•Basis of T.V. and computer screens and
partition mixing in clothes
Subtractive colour mixing: • Selective removal of wavelengths of light • Basis of dyes, paints,
Subtractive colour mixing:
• Selective removal of wavelengths of light
• Basis of dyes, paints, inks etc
ARRANGEMENT OF NEURONS IN RETINA
ARRANGEMENT OF NEURONS
IN RETINA
ACTIVATION OF RHODOPSIN
ACTIVATION OF RHODOPSIN
GENERATION OF AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL Transducin - GDP Metarhodopsin II Transducin - GTP Phosphodiesterase cGMP
GENERATION OF AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL
Transducin - GDP
Metarhodopsin II
Transducin - GTP
Phosphodiesterase
cGMP
GMP
Decreased Na +
conductance
back
Hyperpolarization
TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNAL The signals are carried to the brain via three channels: •
TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL
SIGNAL
The signals are carried to the
brain via three channels:
• Red – Green & Blue –Yellow
channel which sense colour
• Intensity channel
COLOUR PERCEPTION BASED ON “OPPONENT THEORY”
COLOUR PERCEPTION BASED ON
“OPPONENT THEORY”
REQUISITES FOR COLOUR VISION • Two different spectral classes of receptors, with each class defined
REQUISITES FOR COLOUR
VISION
• Two different spectral classes of receptors,
with each class defined by the sensitivity of
the receptor to the wavelength of light.
• Realised through:
– Expression of different opsins by different
genes.
– Use of more than one chromophores.
– Oil droplets screening individual receptors.
EVOLUTION OF COLOUR VISION
EVOLUTION OF COLOUR
VISION
COLOUR VISION • A 2 cone system provides advantage in the form of visual contrast
COLOUR VISION
• A 2 cone system provides advantage in the form
of visual contrast i.e. recognition of difference in
a given space.
• Dominant and offset wavelength detection.
• More the no. of photoreceptors, greater the
sensitivity.
DIVARIANT COLOUR VISION • About 2% of human males have only 2 types of cones;
DIVARIANT COLOUR VISION
• About 2% of human males have only 2 types of
cones; long and short wavelength sensitive.
• Neighbouring retinal areas are compared in the
brain to detect border contrast.
TRIVARIANT HUMAN VISION Pink circles represent substitutions. White circles represent conserved residues.
TRIVARIANT HUMAN VISION
Pink circles represent substitutions. White circles represent
conserved residues.
DIVARIANT SYSTEM LONG WAVE-ON SYSTEM ACTIVE LONG WAVE-OFF SYSTEM ACTIVE SHORT WAVE SYSTEM ACTIVE BLUE
DIVARIANT SYSTEM
LONG WAVE-ON
SYSTEM ACTIVE
LONG WAVE-OFF
SYSTEM ACTIVE
SHORT WAVE
SYSTEM ACTIVE
BLUE
GRAY
WHITE
SHORT WAVE
SYSTEM INACTIVE
BLACK
BROWN
YELLOW
TRIVARIANCE
M-CONE-ON
SYSTEM ACTIVE
M-CONE-OFF
SYSTEM ACTIVE
L-CONE-ON
SYSTEM ACTIVE
DIVARIANT
RED
L-CONE-OFF
SYSTEM ACTIVE
GREEN
DIVARIANT
ELSEWHERE Gonodactylus smithii (Mantis Shrimp)
ELSEWHERE
Gonodactylus smithii (Mantis Shrimp)
A BEE-UTIFUL WORLD
A BEE-UTIFUL WORLD
ADVANTAGES OF COLOUR VISION • Allows detection of subtle differences in surroundings. • Better survival
ADVANTAGES OF COLOUR
VISION
• Allows detection of subtle differences in
surroundings.
• Better survival of organisms due to being
sensitive towards a particular organism/nutrition.
• Co-evolution of the colour expression in plants.
• Colour therapy
• Colour therapy
COMPLEMENTARY CHROMATIC ADAPTATION
COMPLEMENTARY
CHROMATIC ADAPTATION
THANKTHANK YOU!YOU! • • Manoj Manoj Kumar Kumar • • Vikrant Vikrant Suri Suri •
THANKTHANK YOU!YOU!
• • Manoj Manoj Kumar Kumar
• • Vikrant Vikrant Suri Suri
• • Manish Manish Grover Grover
• • Navneet Navneet A A Vasistha Vasistha