6 views

Uploaded by cata4one

Mixed mode interaction,
crack trajectory in 2D

Mixed mode interaction,
crack trajectory in 2D

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Cement Fracture
- Hong Jiang (Eds.) - Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference_ Volume 3 (2017, Springer Singapore)
- Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures-MIT NOTES
- Tehnologia_Ancorarii_FTM_2010_1
- bolted_connection_fatigue
- 3_Engineering-critical-analyses-to-BS-7910---in-UK-guide-on-methods-for-assessing-the-acceptability-of-flaws-in-metallic-structur
- A solid friction model
- IMPACT AND CRASH MODELLING OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
- OpenFOAM in Non-linear Stress Analysis_Modeling Adhesive JointsTropsaUniVarazdin
- Crack Tip Opening Displacement-WPHead
- Effect of Band-overload on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of HSLA Steel
- Bursting Forces in Anchorage Zones
- Nea Study of Thermal Fatigue
- 9.ISCA-RJRS-2013-411.pdf
- Journal Club for December 2016
- Marine Shaft Steels
- Tokio
- Crack Arrestor
- 10905-41701-1-PB
- fatigue bridge

You are on page 1of 34

Learn theories for predicting mixed mode interaction, crack trajectory in 2D, and stability of such trajectory: 1st Order, LEFM theories, isotropic material Crack kinking vs crack turning: trajectory stability 2nd Order, LEFM theory, isotropic and orthotropic materials

102

Cracks do not usually propagate as straight lines, or flat surfaces, or perfect ellipses.

What controls the shape (sometimes called trajectory when 2D idealization is reasonable) of a propagating crack?

Why do some cracks in a symmetric structure with symmetric BCs not propagate symmetrically?

103

Very non-simple crack shapes!

104

... NOTHING AT ALL HAPPENS IN THE UNIVERSE IN WHICH THERE DOES NOT SHINE OUT SOME PRINCIPLE OF MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM, WHEREFORE THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO DOUBT BUT THAT ALL HAPPENINGS IN THE UNIVERSE MAY BE DETERMINED FROM FINAL EFFECTS BY A METHOD OF MAXIMA OR MINIMA QUITE AS SUCCESSFULLY AS FROM ACTUAL CAUSES THEMSELVES. L. EULER, 1744

105

y,v x,u y,v x,u y,v x,u

z,w

z,w

z,w

Mode I

Mode II

Mode III

Basic modes of crack loading. Positive sense shown for each: Mode I = crack opening Mode II = in-plane sliding Mode III = anti-plane tearing

106

h 2

z y r

membrane

KI K II

bending

K1 k1

K2 , K3 Reissner theory k2

Kirchhoff theory

107

1st Order LEFM theories are based on only the singular terms of the local asymptotic LEFM crack front fields. Many such theories have been proposed and tested, and most of these are variants of these 3:

Maximum Hoop Stress Theory

max

Maximum Energy Release Rate Theory G()max Minimum Strain Energy Density Theory

S()min

We will study only the max theory, here, but will return to the concept of maximum energy release rate theory later. Why, and why?

108

Recall equation 16, p.36:

=

1 3 T cos K I cos2 K II sin + (1 cos 2 ) 2 2 2 2r 2

(16)

This theory asserts that, for an isotropic material, a crack will kink into the direction normal to the maximum circumferential (hoop) stress. So maximize (16) wrt , ignoring T-stress, set = c, and rearrange,

y

sin c K II = K I (3 cos c 1)

max max

c

1 1 + 8(K K )2 II I c = 2tan 4( K K ) II I

1

(65)

109

Rewrite (16), again neglecting T-stress, and recognize that the new left-hand side represents a measure of fracture toughness that, in the limit of Mode I only, must be KIc

(66)

Equations 65 and 66 comprise a parametric set in c, KI, and KII .These can be solved to produce an interaction diagram that is analogous to a multi-axial yield interaction diagram, or a biaxial bending yield-crushing diagram.

110

1.2 1

Note that each theory has its own interaction surface, and its own Mode II toughness prediction

111

= tan-1(KII/KI)

/ c

1.2 1

S min ( = 0.25)

K( ) / K Ic

max

max

max

G max

60 ,

90

(b)

90

112

Comparison of 1st Order, Linear Elastic, Isotropic Crack Kinking Theories: Kink Angle

1 K tan I KII 2

Mode I

113

SEN(B) polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beams. Initial crack location and length were varied among the specimens.

P Note: all dimensions in inches 2.0 0.5 dia. typ. thickness: 0.5 8.0 2.0

2.75

4.0

114

Comparisons between observations and predictions for two different initial crack configurations

analysis experiment Analysis crackincrement lengths: a = 0.3 inch a = 0.2 inch a = 0.05 inch pre-cut slot 1.0 inch 6.0 inches (from centerline) 2.5 inches (from bottom of plate) pre-cut slot 6.0 inches (from centerline)

115

Crack path problems encountered in most real structural applications are not really crack kinking problems. In an average macroscopic sense, cracks typically propagate in a rather smoothly turning fashion as the crack negotiates its way among the structural features of the part. Since the first-order isotropic theories predict crack kinking for non-zero KII , the only way for a crack to propagate smoothly is for the crack to follow a path along which KII=0. Since all the first-order isotropic theories agree exactly for this condition, the crack path is apparently independent of any first-order theory.

116

117

Consider a Mode I crack subjected to a small trajectory perturbation at x= 0, i.e. the crack propagates very slightly out of its self-similar direction and feels some small, corresponding KII. Also, lets include the first 2nd order field term, the T-stress. Cotterell and Rice (1980) then asked: What happens to continuing trajectory if we enforce the condition that subsequent KII=0?

0

2 K II KI

T KI

118

Cotterell and Rice found that subsequent trajectory is

(x) = o 2 x 2 ( ) exp x erfc x 1 2

=2 2

T KI

0 =

2 K II KI

Normalized Plot of the Perturbed Crack Path of Cotterell and Rice (1980).

119

Many Materials Exhibit More Complicated Behavior Such as Toughness Orthotropy and Crack Path Sensitivity to Load Level

Objective: develop a theory for crack turning in real materials based on LEFM concepts

120

121

Cotterell and Rice (1980) crack perturbation theory highlighted the importance of the T-stress in trajectory predictions.

Their work inspired the creation of 2nd order theories for prediction of crack shape.

We will investigate one of these 2nd order theories, and extend our thinking about crack shapes to the more general case of materials with anisotropic toughness.

122

3 K I (1 + sin 2 ( 2) ) + 2 K II sin( ) 2 K II tan( 2) rr 1 + cos(2 ) 1 T 3 cos K I cos2 ( 2) 2 K II sin( ) = + 1 cos(2 ) 2 2r 2 sin(2 ) sin( ) ( 3 cos( ) 1 ) K K I II r

Include the T-term and the maximum hoop stress expression then becomes:

rc is the distance from the crack tip at which the stresses are computed. rc scales with the plastic zone size. rc for plastic tearing is theorized to be a material constant. T y

(67)

Kosai, Kobayashi, and Ramulu, Tear straps in aircraft fuselage, Durability of metal aircraft structures: Proc. of Int. Workshop Structural Integrity of Aging Airplanes, Atlanta, GA, 443-457, 1992

123

Normalized Crack Turning Plot for Isotropic Material Based on the Formulation of Kosai et al. (1992).

124

80 60 40 20

90o 67.5o 45o 22.5o 5o 5o 22.5o 67.5o 45o

max criterion

tan 1 (K II K I )

0

-20 -40 -60 -80 -4 -3 -2 -1

1o 1o

tan 1 (K II K I ) = 0o

tan 1 (K II K I ) = 90o

8T 3K I

2rc

Pettit, Wang, and Toh, Integral airframe structures (IAS) - validated feasibility study of integrally stiffened metallic fuselage panels for reducing manufacturing cost, Boeing Report CRAD-9306-TR-4542, NASA contract NAS1-20014, Task 34, November, 1998.

125

c

Predicted direction of crack propagation

rc

() evaluated at rc

( K I , K II , E 1 , E 2 , T , rc , ) Maximum = K c ( ) Kc

Vol. 35 (1990) pp. 159-170

critical

(68)

Boone, Wawrzynek, and Ingraffea, Analysis of fracture propagation in orthotropic materials, Engng Fracture Mech,

126

Kp is the stress intensity at which the crack propagates, in the relevant regime of crack growth. Thus, for fatigue crack growth, Kp is the stress intensity at which the crack propagates at a given rate; for stable tearing, Kp represents the fracture toughness.

n

K p (90) Km K p (0)

127

1.2

100 75 50 25

crack oriented at = 0

Kc L T = 1.2 Kc T L

1.0

0

-25 -50 -75 -100 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 8T 2r c 3K I 2 3 4

crack

100 75 50 25

crack oriented at = 45

100 75 50 25

crack oriented at = 90

0

-25 -50 -75 -100 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 8T 2r c 3K I 2 3 4

0

-25 -50 -75 -100 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 8T 2r c 3K I 2 3 4

128

Normalized Crack Turning Plots for an Elastically Isotropic Material with Fracture Orthotropy Km =1.6, n = -1, Various Crack Orientations.

(a) Crack Oriented at =0, (b) Crack Oriented at =45, (c) Crack Oriented at =90.

129

No T-Stress

T-Stress

Propagation direction

c = 0o

c = 23.5o

c = 45.6o

130

Observed and predicted crack paths for 7050-T7451 DCB specimens, Static Loading

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Horizontal Crack Growth (in) 7 8 9 10 rc=0 , Km = 1.3 rc=.05 inches, Km = 1.3 rc=.1 inches, Km = 1.3 rc-LT-15-5

2.5 Vertical Crack Growth (in) 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Horizontal Crack Growth (in) 7 8 9 10

rc-TL-15-5 rc=.05 inches, Km = 1.3 rc=0, Km = 1.3

131

Observed and predicted crack paths for 7050-T7451 DCB specimens, Fatigue Loading

2.5

2.0 1.5 1.0 FRANC2D, Km=1.1, rc=0 0.5 0.0 rc-LT-15-2 rc-TL-15-2

-0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

132

100 80 60 40 c 20 0 -20 -40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Mode mixity, - Mode II Dominated 80 90 Mode I Dominated LEFM Max stress Pure mode virtual kink, Eq. (5.30) Curve fit to 2024-T3 Test Data [40] SSY CTOD Analyses [40] 2024-T3 Arcan Test Data [40]

Look only at the test data and the LEFM Max stress, max , information.

133

Predicted Effect of T-Stress on Kink Angle for Mode II Crack According to Maximum Shear Stress Theory, Isotropic Case.

134

Predicted Effect of T-Stress on Kink Angle for Mode II Crack According to Maximum Shear Stress Theory, KII m=1.6, n=-1

135

- Cement FractureUploaded byRatkovic Predrag
- Hong Jiang (Eds.) - Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference_ Volume 3 (2017, Springer Singapore)Uploaded byAjit Panja
- Mechanics and Design of Concrete Structures-MIT NOTESUploaded byIrfan Ibrahim
- Tehnologia_Ancorarii_FTM_2010_1Uploaded byPopa Aurel
- bolted_connection_fatigueUploaded byOmar Omar
- 3_Engineering-critical-analyses-to-BS-7910---in-UK-guide-on-methods-for-assessing-the-acceptability-of-flaws-in-metallic-structurUploaded byRenato Vargas
- A solid friction modelUploaded byJoe Tahir
- IMPACT AND CRASH MODELLING OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURESUploaded byesamco
- OpenFOAM in Non-linear Stress Analysis_Modeling Adhesive JointsTropsaUniVarazdinUploaded byapmapm
- Crack Tip Opening Displacement-WPHeadUploaded bymarkus_naslund
- Effect of Band-overload on Fatigue Crack Growth Rate of HSLA SteelUploaded byOm Prakash Tenduwe
- Bursting Forces in Anchorage ZonesUploaded byMarco Figueiredo
- Nea Study of Thermal FatigueUploaded bymoffatdab
- 9.ISCA-RJRS-2013-411.pdfUploaded bysammar_10
- Journal Club for December 2016Uploaded byMousavi N Sajad
- Marine Shaft SteelsUploaded byLucas Vieira
- TokioUploaded byRory Cristian Cordero Rojo
- Crack ArrestorUploaded byJulia Wade
- 10905-41701-1-PBUploaded byNguyễn Văn Thường
- fatigue bridgeUploaded byGuilherme Alencar
- Predicting the influence of overload and loading mode on fatigue crack growth: A numerical approach using irreversible cohesive elementsUploaded byesatec
- sdhm.2005.001.203Uploaded byjs kalyana rama
- AIAA-2001-1485-153Uploaded byJunghyun Ahn
- 3DCrack2013Uploaded byOmar Barrionuevo
- Electives - 2nd Sem 2013-14Uploaded byRohit Lad
- metals-09-00275Uploaded byHASAN IZHAR KHAN
- 1-s2.0-S2211812815001534-mainUploaded byRaul Velasco
- 20010202 - CopyUploaded byatgsganesh
- Vh Cf 4 Final ProgramUploaded byCarlos Ramón Plazaola Lorio
- Oxley 1961Uploaded byCarlos Heyser Villanueva Roman

- Mens Fitness Ultimate Work Out PlanUploaded byVladanMilivojevic
- Long Term Performance of Buried High Density Polethylene Plastic Piping(Inc)Uploaded bycata4one
- Buried Corrugated Thermoplastic Pipe Simulation and Design-5Uploaded bycata4one
- [J-10] Merah Et Al. Effect of TemperatureUploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 4 Extracting SifsUploaded bycata4one
- The Temperature Effects on High Density PolyethyleneUploaded bycata4one
- Think Like a Billionaire Become a BillionaireUploaded bycata4one
- Green compositeUploaded bycata4one
- PE4710 Typical Physical PropertiesUploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 9 Nlfm CtoaUploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 7 Energy Release RateUploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 11 NLFM CohesiveUploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 10 Experimental Fracture Mechanics 1Uploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 2 Review LEFM 1Uploaded bycata4one
- Lecture 5 Limit of LEFMUploaded bycata4one
- Extra 3D Crack GrowthUploaded bycata4one
- Theoretical CalculationUploaded bycata4one

- PDSDetailPage (2)Uploaded byDinukaDeshan
- Nueva Familia de ArañasUploaded bySebastian Galvis Jimenez
- Understanding Errors in Hand-Held Measuring Instruments _ Modern Machine ShopUploaded bymehdi
- Lesson 1-CHE 358Uploaded bypercydziks
- Ge-IIUploaded byVaibhav Sharma
- MDM Use CaseUploaded byWilliam Arispe
- Orientation Programme for New TeacherUploaded byarchim_azyma
- EE6411 2009 Unit00 Introduction c ChapterUploaded bylila001
- logistical management question bankUploaded byashish.bms9
- Metoda the Kepner IncompletaUploaded byOlga Mariana
- Excerpt from "The Hidden Life Of Trees" by Peter Wohllben.Uploaded byOnPointRadio
- Math_TG_Q4Uploaded byAnna Pierce
- speech prepare for exam.docxUploaded byfatfat987
- Art After Identity PoliticsUploaded byMilenaCostadeSouza
- The Woody Plant Seed ManualUploaded byGregory Bakas
- John HicksUploaded byIsmith Pokhrel
- s5 Btech Nov 2012Uploaded byArathi Krishna
- Sux Digest 2nd BatchUploaded byCezz Tata
- lesson plan templet 8Uploaded byapi-307403301
- vapa di lesson plan template su16Uploaded byapi-323660508
- Computer VirusUploaded byJsmBhanot
- Ss Project for PlanetUploaded byapi-3731257
- A Practical Guide to Robust Optimization11Uploaded byLalo Pato
- TR - Plumbing NC I (5)Uploaded bydyllan
- Lesson Plan NBA-Operations ResearchUploaded bysunilme
- Mice package RUploaded bySwarna Khare
- Mantle Programming Guide and API ReferenceUploaded byStanford Adderley
- 5Uploaded bykirana
- Biology Catalase Experiment DesignUploaded byLata Sharma
- SAC Fabian Johnson v. CCSF (2)Uploaded byJoe Eskenazi