Lecture on Finite Dimension in Vector Spaces and Modules by Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana (AP Scientist Awardee 2009, Glory of India, Top 100 Professionals -2011) Acharya Nagarjun University

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Lecture on Finite Dimension in Vector Spaces and Modules by Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana (AP Scientist Awardee 2009, Glory of India, Top 100 Professionals -2011) Acharya Nagarjun University

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, (October 25, 2011) (Editors: Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana, Mr. VVN Suresh Kumar and Mr Mohiddin Shaw Shaik.)

Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana

AP Scientist Awardee Fellow, AP Akademy of Sciences Siksha Rattan Puraskar (New Delhi, Jan.2011) Glory of India Award (Tailand, 2011) International Achievers Award (Tahiland, 2011) One of the TOP-100 PROFESSIONALS (Cambridge, England, 2011) Rajiv Gandhi Excellence Award (New Delhi, 2011) Deputy Director General, IBC, England, 2011. Head, Department of Mathematics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, A.P., India

Introduction: It is well known that the dimension of a vector space is defined as the number of

elements in its basis. One can define a basis of a vector space as a maximal set of linearly independent vectors or a minimal set of vectors, which span the space. The former, when generalized to modules over rings, becomes the concept of Goldie Dimension. We discuss some results and examples related to the dimension in Vector Spaces as well as Modules over Rings.

1.1 Definition: An Abelian group (V, +) is said to be a vector space over a field F if there exists a mapping from F V to V (the image of ( , v) is denoted by v) satisfying the following conditions: (i) (v + w) = v + w; (ii) ( + ) v = v + v; (iii) (v) = ()v; and (iv) 1.v = v for all , F and v, w V (here 1 is the multiplicative identity in F). 1.2 Note: We use F for field. The elements of F are called scalars and the elements of V are called vectors. 1.3 Remark: Let (v, +) be a vector space over F. Let F. Define f : V V by f(v) = v for all v V. Then (i) f is a group homomorphism (or group endomorphism). (ii) If 0 then f is an isomorphism. 1.4 Examples: (i) Let K be a field and F be a subfield of K. Then K is a vector space over F.

Proceedings of the National Seminar on ALGEBRA (200th Birth Anniversary Celebrations of Evariste GALOIS), KBN College, Vijayawada, A.P., (October 25, 2011) (Editors: Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana, Mr. VVN Suresh Kumar and Mr Mohiddin Shaw Shaik.)

(ii) Let F be a field. Write V = F n = {(x1, x2,..., xn) / xi F, 1 i n}. Define (x1, x2,..., xn) = (x1, x2, ..., xn) for F and (x1, x2, ..., xn) Fn. Then Fn is a vector space. If we take F = R, the field of real numbers, then we conclude that the n-dimensional Euclidean space R k is a vector space over R. (iii) Let F be a field. Consider F[x], the ring of polynomials over F. Write V n = {f(x) / f(x) F[x] and deg.(f(x)) n}. Then (Vn, +) is an Abelian group where + is the addition of polynomials. Now for any F and f(x) = a 0 + a1x + ... + anxn Vn , define (f(x)) = a0 + a1x + ... + anxn. Then Vn is a vector space over F. 1.5 Definition: Let V be a vector space over F and W V. Then W is called a subspace of V if W is a vector space over F under the same operation. (Equivalently, W is a subspace if it satisfies the condition: v, w W, , F v + w W). 1.6 To construct a quotient space of V by W: Let V be a vector space and W be a subspace of V. Define ~ on V as a ~ b iff a b W. Clearly this ~ is an equivalence relation and a + W is the equivalence class containing a V. Write V/W = {a + W / a V}. Define + on V/W as (a + W) + (b + W) = (a + b) + W. Since V is an Abelian group we have that (V/W, +) is also an Abelian group. Now to get vector space structure, let us define the scalar product between F and a + W V/W as (a + W) = a + W. Now V/W becomes a vector space over F and it is called the quotient space of V by W.

1.7 Definition: Suppose V is a vector space over F. (i) If v i V and i F for 1 i n, then 1v1 + 2v2 + ... + nvn is called a linear combination of v1, v2, ..., vn. (ii) For S V, we write L(S) = { 1v1 + 2v2 + ... + nvn / n N, vi S and i F for 1 i n} = the set of all linear combinations of finite number of elements of S. This L(S) is called the linear span of S. 1.8 Note: (i) S L(S); (ii) L(S) is a subspace of V; (iii) S T L(S) L(T); (iv) L(S T) = L(S) + L(T); (v) L(L(S)) = L(S); (vi) L(S) is the smallest subspace containing S. 1.9 Definitions: (i) The vector space V is said to be finite-dimensional (over F) if there is a finite subset S in V such that L(S) = V. (ii) If V is a vector space and v i V for 1 i n, then we say that vi, 1 i n are linearly dependent over F if there exists elements a i F, 1 i n, not all of them equal to zero, such that a1v1 + a2v2 + ... + anvn = 0.

Proceedings of the National Seminar on ALGEBRA (200th Birth Anniversary Celebrations of Evariste GALOIS), KBN College, Vijayawada, A.P., (October 25, 2011) (Editors: Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana, Mr. VVN Suresh Kumar and Mr Mohiddin Shaw Shaik.)

(iii) If the vectors vi, 1 i n are not linearly dependent over F, then they are said to be linearly independent over F. 1.10 Lemma: Let V be a vector space over F. If v 1, v2, ..., vn V are linearly independent, then every element v in their linear span has a unique representation as v = 1v1 + 2v2 + ... + nvn with i F, 1 i n. 1.11 Corollary: Let vi V, 1 i n and W = L({vi / 1 i n}). If v1, v2, ... , vk are linearly independent, then we can find a subset of {vi / 1 i n}, of the form S = {v1, v2, ... , vk, vi1, vi2, ... vir} such that (i) S is linearly independent and (ii) L(S) = W. 1.12 Definition: (i) A subset S of a vector space V is called a basis of V if the elements of S are linearly independent, and V = L(S); and (ii) Let S be a basis for a vector space V. If S contains finite number of elements, then V is a finite dimensional vector space. If S contains infinite number of elements then V is called an infinite dimensional vector space; (iii) If V is a finite dimensional vector space, and S is a basis for V, n = |S|, then the integer n is called the dimension of V over F, and we write n = dim V. 1.13 Lemma: If V is finite dimensional and if W is a sub space of V, then (i) W is finite dimensional, (ii) dim W dim V, and (iii) dim (V/W) = dim V dim W. 1.14 Corollary: If A and B are finite dimensional sub spaces of a vector space V. Then (i) A + B is finite dimensional; and (ii) dim (A + B) = dim A + dim B dim (A B).

2.1 Definition: Let R be an associative ring. An Abelian group (M, +) is said to be a module over R if there exists a mapping f : R M M (the image of (r, m) is denoted by rm) satisfying the following three conditions: (i) r(a+b) = ra + rb; (ii) (r+s)a = ra + sa; and (iii) r(sa) = (rs)a for all a, b M and r, s R. Moreover if R is ring with identity 1, and if 1m = m for all m M, then M is called a unital RModule. 2.2 Example: (i) Every ring R is a module over it self; (ii) Every group is a module over Z; (iii) Every vector space over a field F, is a module over the ring F;

Proceedings of the National Seminar on ALGEBRA (200th Birth Anniversary Celebrations of Evariste GALOIS), KBN College, Vijayawada, A.P., (October 25, 2011) (Editors: Prof. Dr Bhavanari Satyanarayana, Mr. VVN Suresh Kumar and Mr Mohiddin Shaw Shaik.)

(iv) Let (G, +) be an Abelian group. Write R = {f: G G / f is a group homomorphism}. Define (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) for all x G and f, g R. Then (R, +) becomes an additive Abelian group. The zero function is the additive identity and (-f) is the additive inverse of f R where f is defined by (-f)(x) = -(f(x)) for all x G. Define (f.g)(x) = f(g(x)) for all f, g R and x G. Then (R, .) is a semigroup. The distributive laws f(g + h) = fg + gh and (f + g)h = fh + gh hold good. So (R, +, .) becomes a ring with identity (Here identity function on G acts as identity element in R). For any f R and a G, the element fa (the image of a under f) is in G. Now G is a module over R. (v) Let R be a ring and L a left ideal of R. Define a ~ b a b L for any a, b R. Then ~ is an equivalence relation and the equivalence class containing a is [a] = a + L. Write M = {a + L / a R}. If we define (a + L) + (b + L) = (a + b) + L on M, then (M, +) is an Abelian group. Here 0 + L is the additive identity and (- a) + L is the inverse of (a + L) in M. For any r R, a + L M, if we define r(a + L) = ra + L, then M is an R-module. It is called quotient module of R by L. 2.3 Definitions: (i) Let M be an R-Module. A subgroup (A, +) of (M, +) is said to be a submodule of M if r R, a A then ra A. (ii) If M is an R-module and M 1, M2, , Ms are submodules of M, then M is said to be the direct sum of Mi, 1 i s if every element m M can be written in a unique manner as m = m1 + m2 + + ms where mi Mi, 1 i s. (iii) An R-Module M is said to be cyclic if there exists an element a M such that M = {ra / r R}. (iv) An R-module is said to be finitely generated if there exist elements a j M, 1 j n such that M = {r1a1 + + rnan / rj R, for 1 j n}. 2.4 Definition: (i) If K, A are submodules of M, and K is a maximal submodule of M such that K A = (0), then K is said to be a complement of A (or a complement submodule in M). (ii) A non-zero submodule K of M is called essential (or large) in M (or M is an essential extension of K) if A is a submodule of M and K A = (0), imply A = (0). 2.5 Remark: (i) If V is a vector space and W is a subspace of V, then W has no proper essential extensions. (ii). If W, W1 are two subspaces of V such that W is essential in W1 , then W = W1 (iii). Every subspace W is a complement.

Hence forth, R denotes a fixed (not necessarily commutative) ring with 1. 3.1 Definition: (i) M has finite Goldie dimension (abbr. FGD) if M does not contain a direct sum of infinite number of non-zero submodules. [Equivalently, M has FGD if for any strictly increasing sequence H0 H1 of submodules of M, there exists an integer i such that H k is an essential submodule in Hk+1 for every k i]. (ii) A non-zero submodule K of M is said to be an uniform submodule if every non-zero submodule of K is essential in K. With the concepts defined above, Goldie proved the following Theorem. 3.2 Theorem: (Goldie): If M is a module with finite Goldie dimension, then there exist uniform submodules U1, U2, , Un whose sum is direct and essential in M. The number n is independent of the uniform sumodules. The number n of the above theorem is called the Goldie dimension of M, and is denoted by dim M. 3.3 Remark: (i) Let W be a subspace of V. Then W is uniform dim W = 1. (ii) For any subspace W, we have that dim W = 1 W is indecomposable. 3.4 Note (i): As in vector space theory, for any submodules K, H of M such that K M = (0), the condition dim (K + H) = dim K + dim H holds. (ii) If K and H are isomorphic, then dim K = dim H. (iii) When we observe the following example, we will learn that the condition dim (M/K) = dim M dim K does not hold for a general submodule K of M. 3.5 Example: Consider Z, the ring of integers. Since Z is uniform Z-module, we have that dim Z = 1. Suppose p 1, p2, , pk are distinct primes and consider K, the submodule generated by the product of these primes. Now Z/K is isomorphic to the external direct sum of the modules Z/(pi) where (pi) denotes the submodule of Z generated by pi (for 1 i k) and so dim Z/K = k. For k 2, dim Z dim K = 1-1 = 0 k = dim (Z/K). Hence, there arise a type of submodules K which satisfy the condition dim (M/K) = dim M dim K. In this connection, Goldie obtained the following Theorem. 3.6 Theorem: (Goldie [1]): If M has finite Goldie dimension and K is a complement submodule, then dim (M/K) = dim M dim K. On the way of getting the converse for Theorem 3.6, the concept E-irreducible submodule of M was introduced in Satyanarayana [1].

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3.7 Definition: A submodule H of M is said to be E-irreducible if H = K J where K and J are submodules of M, and H is essential in K, imply H = K or H = J. 3.8 Note: Every complement submodule is an E-irreducible submodule, but the converse is not true. 3.9 Example: Consider Z, the ring of integers and Z 12 the ring of integers module 12. The principle submodule K of the Z-module Z 12 generated by 2, is E-irreducible submodule, but it is not a complement submodule. It is proved in Reddy & Satyanarayana [1] that: 3.10 Theorem: (Reddy Satyanarayana): If K is a submodule of an R-module M and f : MM/K is the canonical epimorphism, then the conditions given below are equivalent: (i) K = M or K is not essential, but E-irreducible; (ii) K has no proper essential extensions; (iii) K is a complement; (iv) For any submodule K1 of M containing K, we have that K1 is a complement in M f(K1) is complement in M/K; and (v) f(S) is essential in M/K for any essential submodule S of M. Moreover, if M has FGD, then each of the above conditions (i) to (v) are equivalent to (vi) M/K has FGD and dim (M/K) = dim M dim K. 3.11 Note: The converse of the Theorem 3.6, is a part of the Theorem 3.10. As consequence of Theorem 3.10, we have the following Theorem 3.12. 3.12 Theorem: (Reddy Satyanarayana [1]): If M is an R-module, then the following conditions are equivalent: (i) M is a completely reducible module; (ii) Every submodule of M is a complement submodule (iii) Every proper submodule of M is not an essential submodule, but it is an E-irreducible sumodule; (iv) Every proper submodule of M has no proper essential extensions; (v) For any submodule K of M with the canonical epimorphism f : M M/K, we have that: K1 is a complement submodule in M f(K1) is a complement submodule in M/K; and (vi) For any submodule K of M with the canonical epimorphism f : M M/K, we have that: S is an essential submodule in M imply f(S) is an essential submodule in M/K. Moreover, if M has finite Goldie dimension, then the above conditions are equivalent to each of the following: (vii) M has the descending chain condition on its submodules and M is completely reducible; and (viii) For any submodule K of M, we have that M/K has finite Goldie dimension and

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E-direct systems: 3.13 Definition: A family {Mi}iI of submodules of M is said to be an E-direct system if, for any finite number of elements i1, i2, , ik of I there is an element i0 I such that M i 0 M i1 + + M i k and M i 0 is non-essential submodule of M. 3.14 Theorem: (Satyanarayana [1]): For an R-module M the following two conditions are equivalent: (i) M has FGD; and (ii) Every E-direct system of non-zero submodules of M is bounded above by a non-essential submodule of M.

4.1 Definition: Let M be a unitary R-module and : M [0, 1] is a mapping. is said to be a fuzzy submodule if the following conditions hold: (i) (m + m1) min{(m), (m1)} for all m and m1 M; and (ii) (am) (m) for all m M, a R. This concept (given in Definition 4.1) of "fuzzy submodule" is a generalization of the definition of "fuzzy submodule" studied by Fu-Zheng PAN [ 1, 2 ], Golan [ 1 ] and Negoeta & Ralescu [ 1 ]. 4.2 Proposition: If M is a unitary R-module, : M [0, 1] is a fuzzy set with (am) (m) for all m M, a R then the following two conditions are true. (i). for all 0 a R, (am) = (m) if a is left invertible; and (ii). (-m) = (m). 4.3 Corollary: If : M [0, 1] is a fuzzy submodule and m, m 1 M, then (m - m1) min{(m), (m1)}. 4.4 Proposition: If : M [0, 1] is a fuzzy submodule, m, m 1 M and (m) > (m1), then (m + m1) = (m1). 4.5 Corollary: If : M [0, 1] is a mapping satisfies the condition (am) (m) for all m M and a R, then the following conditions are equivalent: (i) (m - m1) min{(m), (m1)}; and (ii) (m + m1) min{(m), (m1)}.

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4.6 Corollary: If : M [0, 1] is a fuzzy submodule and m, m 1 M with (m) (m1), then (m + m1) = min{(m), (m1)}. 4.7 Proposition: If : M [0, 1] is a fuzzy submodule, then

Sup ( m ) . (i) (0) (m) for all m M ; and (ii) (0) = m M

Level Submodules

Now, we discuss few results on level submodules. 4.8 Theorem: A fuzzy subset of a module M is a fuzzy submodule t is a submodule of M for all t [0, (0)]. 4.9 Definition: Let be any fuzzy submodule. The submodules t, t [0, 1] where t = {x M / (x) t} are called level submodules of . 4.10 Result : Let M1 M. Define (x) = 1 if x M1, = 0 otherwise. Then the following conditions are equivalent: (i) is a fuzzy submodule; and (ii) M1 is a submodule of M. 4.11 Proposition: Let be a fuzzy submodule of M and t, s (with t < s) be two level submodules of . Then the following two conditions are equivalent: (i) t = s; and (ii) there is no x M such that t (x) < s.

Minimal Elements

Now we introduce the concept "minimal element". 4.12 Definition: An element x M is said to be a minimal element if the submodule generated by x is minimal in the set of all non-zero submodules of M. 4.13 Theorem: If M has DCC on its submodules, then every nonzero submodule of M contains a minimal element. There are modules which do not satisfy DCC on its submodules, but contains a minimal element. For this we observe the following example. 4.14 Example: Write M = 6. Now M is a module over the ring R = . Clearly M have no DCC on its submodules. Consider a = (0, 2) M. Now the submodule generated by a, that is, a = {(0, 0), (0, 2), (0, 4)} is a minimal element in the set of all nonzero submodules of M. Hence a is a minimal element.

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Every minimal element is an u-element. The converse is not true. For this observe the example 4.15 (given below). If M is a vector space over a field R, then every non-zero element is a minimal element as well as an u-element. 4.15 Example: Write M = as a module over the ring R = .. Since is a uniform module, and 1 is a generator, we have that 1 is an u-element. But 2 is a proper submodule of 1. = = M. Hence 1 cannot be a minimal element. Thus 1 is an u-element but not a minimal element. 4.16 Theorem: Suppose is a fuzzy submodule of M. (i) If a M, then for any x Ra we have (x) (a); and (ii) If a is a minimal element, then for any 0 x Ra we have (x) = (a). 4.17 Lemma: If x is an u-element of a module M with DCC on submodules, then there exist minimal element y Rx such that Ry e Rx. 4.18 Theorem: If M has DCC on its submodules, then there exist linearly independent minimal elements x1, x2, .., xn in M where n = dim M, and the sum <x 1> + .+ <xn> is direct and essential in M. Also B = {x1, x2,.,xn} forms a basis for M.

4.19 Definition: Let M be a module and a fuzzy submodule of M. x 1, x2, , xn M are said to be fuzzy -linearly independent ( or fuzzy linearly independent with respect to ) if (i) x1, x2, , xn are linearly independent; and (ii) (y1 + + yn) = min{(y1), , (yn)} for any yi Rxi, 1 i n. 4.20 Theorem: Let be a fuzzy submodule on M. If x1, x2, , xn are minimal elements in M with distinct -values, then x1, x2, , xn are (i). linearly independent; and (ii). fuzzy -linearly independent.

Fuzzy Dimension

4.21 Definition: (i). Let be a fuzzy submodule on M. A subset B of M is said to be a fuzzy pseudo basis for if B is a maximal subset of M such that x 1, x2,.., xk are fuzzy linearly independent for any finite subset { x1, x2,.., xk } of B. (ii). Consider the set = {k / there exist a fuzzy pseudo basis B for with |B| = k}. If has no upper bound then we say that the fuzzy dimension of is infinite. We denote this fact by S-dim( ) = . If has an upper bound, then the fuzzy dimension of is sup . We denote this fact by S-dim() = sup .

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If m = S-dim() = sup , then a fuzzy pseudo basis B for with |B| = m, is called as fuzzy basis for the fuzzy submodule . 4.22 Result: Suppose M has FGD and is a fuzzy submodule on M. Then (i). |B| dim M for any fuzzy pseudo basis B for ; and (ii). S-dim () dim M. 4.23 Definition: A module M is said to have a fuzzy basis if there exists an essential submodule A of M and a fuzzy submodule on A such that S-dim() = dim M. The fuzzy pseudo basis of is called as fuzzy basis for M. 4.24 Remark: If M has FGD, then every fuzzy basis for M is a basis for M. 4.25 Theorem: Let M be a module with DCC on submodules. Then M has a fuzzy basis (In other words, there exists an essential submodule A of M and a fuzzy submodule of A such that S-dim() = dim M).

Acknowledgements

The author thank the authorities of KBN College, Vijayawada for their affection towards mathematics, and encouragement to conduct a National Seminar on Algebra in the College. He also thank Dr P. Krishna Murthy (Principal), and Mr. V.V.N. Suresh Kumar (Head of the Department of Mathematics) for inviting me to present this Key Note Address at the One day National Seminar on 25th October 2011 (the 200 Birth day of Galois).

Reference

Chatters A.W & Hajarnivas C.R [1] "Rings with Chain Conditions", Research Notes in Mathematics, Pitman Advanced publishing program, Boston-London-Melbourne, 1980. Fu-Zheng Pan [1] "Fuzzy finitely generated Modules", Fuzzy sets and Systems 21 (1987) 105-113. [2] "Fuzzy Quotient Modules", Fuzzy sets and Systems 28 (1988) 85-90. Golan J. S. [1] "Making Modules Fuzzy", Fuzzy sets and Systems 32(1989) 91-94. Goldie A.W [1] "The Structure of Noetherian Rings", Lectures on Rings and Modules, Springer Verlag, New York, Lecture Notes, 246 (1974) 213-31. Lambek J [1]"Lectures on Rings and Modules", Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1966. Negotia C.A. & Ralescu D. A. [1] "Applications of Fuzzy sets to system Analysis", Birkhauser, Basel, 1975. Pilz G

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[1] Near-rings, North-Holland pub., 1983. Reddy Y.V and Satyanarayana Bh [1] "A Note on Modules", Proc. Japan Acad., 63-A (1987) 208-211. Satyanarayana Bh [1] A Note on E-direct and S-inverse Systems, Proc. Japan Academy 64A(1988) 292 295. [2] Lecture on "Modules with Finite Goldie dimension and Finite Spanning dimension", International Conference on General Algebra, Krems, Vienna, Austria, August, 21-27, 1988. [3] "The Injective Hull of a Module with FGD", Indian J. Pure & Appl. Math. 20 (1989) 874-883. [4] "On Modules with Finite Goldie Dimension" J. Ramanujan Math. Society. 5 (1990) 61-75. [5] Lecture on "Modules with Finite Spanning Dimension", Asian Mathematical Society Conference, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, August 14-18, 1990. [6] "On Essential E-irreducible submodules", Proc., 4th Ramanujan symposium on Algebra and its Applications, University of Madras, Feb 1-3 (1995), pp 127-129. Satyanarayan Bhavanari & Mohiddin Shaw Sk [1] "On Fuzzy Dimension of a Module with DCC on Submodules, Acharya Nagarjuna International Journal of Mathematics and Information Technology, 01 (2004), 13-32. [2] Fuzzy Dimension of Modules over Rings, VDM Verlag Dr Muller, Germany, 2010, (ISBN 978-3-639-23197-7) Satyanarayana Bhavanari, Mohiddin Shah Sk, Eswaraiah Setty S, and Babu Prasad M. [1] A generalization of Dimension of Vector Space to Modules over Associative Rings, International Journal of Computational Mathematical Ideas, Vol. 1., No. 2 (2009) 39 46 (India). (ISSN : 0974 8652) Satyanarayana Bh and Syam Prasad K [1] A Result on E-direct systems in N-groups , Indian J. Pure & Appl. Math. 29 (1998) 285-287. [2] "On Direct & Inverse Systems in N-groups", Indian J. Maths (BN Prasad Birth Commemoration Volume) 42 (2000) 183 - 192. [3] Discrete Mathematics with Graph Theory (for B.Tech/B.Sc/M.Sc.,(Maths)) Printice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2009 (ISBN: 978-81-203-3842-5). Satyanarayana Bhavanari, Syam Prasad K & Nagaraju D. [1] "A Theorem on Modules with Finite Goldie Dimension", Soochow Journal of Mathematics, 32, No.2 (2006) 311-315. Sharpe D.W and Vamaos P [1] "Injective Modules", Cambridge University Press, 1972. Varada Rajan K [1] "Dual Goldie Dimension", Communications in Algebra, 7(1979) 565-610. Zadeh L.A. [1] "Fuzzy Sets", Information and Control, 8(1965) 338-353

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