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GRAPHS: 1.the value which is varying is always on the y-axis while the constant value is on the xaxis. 2.

no unbroken lines 3.it must be neat and thin 4.the points can be joined using a ruler or by hand 5.do not draw beyond the plotted points. 6.blobs or centre points more than 1mm are NOT acceptable 7.if zero is present in the reading, your graph MUST pass through zero. 8.label both axis 9.use appropriate units 10.use appropriate scale 11.use sharpened pencil to plot 12.plot the dots within circles, of equal sizes, must be clear and not too big. SOURCES OF ERRORS: 1.temperature not controlled 2.pH not controlled or not measured accurately 3.difficulty in judging the colour. 4.difficulty in having the same time 5.inaccuracy in preparing serial dilution 6.inaccuracy of equipment, for e.g. pipette/syringe 7.too short time. 8.evaporation of the solution which can cause the concentration to change. LIMITATIONS OF ERRORS 1.measure the volume accurately using syringe with narrow range of calibration 2.repeat more times at each pH/conc./temp 3.use range of pH/conc./temp 4.accurate specific measuring devices 5.use colorimeter to measure the degree of colour change. 6.use buffer to control pHs 7.use of water bath/thermostat to control temp 8.use thermometer to measure the temp. 9.thermostatically controlled environment. 10.repeat with each conc. 11.volume of the sample(e.g. enzyme/substrate. must be the same.. because as volume increases, conc also increases 12.keep only one factor different, and all others must be the same.

don’t just draw anywhere within the cell never draw what u know. And don’t draw more than 2 cells 6..write down the UNITS in each column of the table.RELIABILITY 1. NO DRAWING OF ANY CELLS. use of pipettes instead of measuring cylinders KEY 1. 8. unshaded.whenever u see the plant cells. 7. 12. muscular tissue.. 11...make a table 5..seeing electronic thermostat 2... if its oval or round or has wavy outlines 10.. You'll lose the whole mark 5.read the whole question till the end 2. 9.IN PLAN DIAGRAMS. cartilage cells (lacunae.fraw the adjacent (touching.decide number of readings to take 3.simplest thing to label is cytoplasm.when asked to draw 2 cells.if u'll do either of them. AND NO SHADING.repeat with more pH/conc/temp and find out their mean ACCURACY 1. temp/°C MICROSCOPY (IMPORTANT) 1. draw the cell walls.if its a trachea cell. cells.take minimum of 3 readings 2. then label goblet cells. nucleus and cell membrane. 4. 2. draw the ones that are easiest to draw.make a table (drawing a table itself has 1 mark .g. 4...e.label the diagram. cilia.put at least one similarity .draw the organelles where u see them..don't go for more or less than 3 readings per conc/vol of any ques.proportion of thickness must be correct. 3..drawing should be large. blood vessels.. when asked to compare 2 diagrams.in plan diagrams show the relative thickness of each layer.draw the exact shape. conc/cm^3 .

ERRORS IN MESUREMENTS 1.....one involving quantitative observations like most enzyme experiments and other involving qualitative observations like food-tests.Measure the length of the object you’re asked to measure in the question. 4.irregular in shape 2..preperation is squashed . and then substitute the actual in the formula to get the magnification..in question 1 of exam..To convert from cm to μm ... 3.as far as observations for qualitative data are concerned..and observations or dependent variables in other columns. multiply it by 10000..so a likely error for these experiments can be difficulty in judging b/w different colors with your improvement being the use of colorimeter to measure color intensity. 2. MAKING TABLES Independent Variable in the first column... substitute it in the formula...difficulty in focusing 3....two kinds of questions can be set..MAGNIFICATION 1.Now you have an observed value in μm..Your measurement will probably be in centimeters.these will include most probably color changes during course of investigation. μm). you have to convert it to the same unit as the actual length provided in the question (usually micrometers. take the observed value in cm..