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MSc Sustainable Energy Technologies

and Part IV MEng


Prof. K.H. Luo and Dr. S.M. Sharkh
School of Engineering Sciences University of Southampton

1. To teach principles of operation of internal combustion engines
2. To introduce fundamentals of chemical kinetics and turbulent combustion 3. To describe environmental impact of internal combustion engines and emission control 4. To introduce series and parallel hybrid electric vehicle concepts with emphasis on electric motor drive design

Part I – Combustion and I.C. Engines (Prof Luo) Part II – Hybrid Electric Propulsion (Dr Sharkh)

Prof Kai Luo • Office: 25/1055 • Extension: 27202 • Email:

Dr Suleiman Sharkh • Office: 26/2017 • Extension: 23397 • Email:


C. Engines Prof Kai Luo 4 .Part I Combustion and I.

Top Ten Achievements of Mechanical Engineering in 20th Century (Source: ASME 2000) • • • • • • • • • • The automobile The Apollo Programme Power generation Agricultural mechanization The aeroplane Integrated circuit mass production Air-conditioning and refrigeration Computer-aided engineering (CAE) Bioengineering Codes and standards 5 .

cost and fuel flexibility compared with alternative engine technologies • Combustion – the energy conversion process in ICEs. reliability.Why study automotive propulsion? • Transport is vital to modern economy and human mobility and comfort • Transport is an important part of our sustainable future • Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) are a marvel of engineering that offers superior performance. which is the underpinning science and technology for over 90% of energy conversion in the world • Road vehicles are major oil consumers and sources of pollutant and CO2 emissions 6 .

1832-1839. Siegfried Marcus. first practical four-stroke internal combustion engine built by German engineer.1804). 1807.Early History of Engines for Road Vehicles 1769. Robert Anderson. first gasoline-powered internal combustion engines built by Austrian engineer. first electric carriage built by Scottish engineer. powered by a steam engine. Nicolaus August Otto 1885. 7 . Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented the first internal combustion engine powered car burning a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel (gas engines). first self-propelled road vehicle built by French engineer. Southampton graduate Frederick William Lanchester built the first all British automobile. Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach. 1896. 1864. Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 . 1876. first prototype of modern internal combustion engines built by German engineers.

Cugnot Self-Propelled Vehicles Reciprocating Steam Engine 1769 1771 • • • • • Military tractor to haul artillery Large steam boiler at front. modified to accommodate four passengers Responsible for the first automobile accident when it crashed into a garden wall . stopped every 10-12 mins to build up steam pressure 8 In 1771. 2 pistons ~ 2.5 mph.

Some History of Internal Combustion Engines Otto-Langen engine patent and engine (1867) • Fuel is introduced at base and burns • The piston in the column is driven up due to the pressure • Once the piston is in freefall a racket engages which spins the fly wheel Diesel engine patent (1893) • Rudolf Diesel introduced the first diesel engine in 1893 • The slow-combustion engine compresses air to raise its temperature above the igniting point of the fuel • Fuel was gradually introduced and vapourisation takes place due to heat • The fuel supply is stopped.expansion occurs driving the piston down 9 .

Top speed ~10mph Daimler (1886) First four wheeled motor carriage Stagecoach adapted with a prototype of the modern gas engine. two roller chains to the rear axel.Some History of Internal Combustion Engines Lenoir (1863) Hydrogen gas fuelled one cylinder. top speed ~ 93 mph 10 . ~2 mph Benz (1885) Motorwagen Four stroke engine. top speed ~11mph Maybach (1929): Four stroke. 12 cylinder spark ignition engine.

laying foundation for Aerodynamics 1916 .Built the first British automobile 1897 .graduated from Southampton University (Hartley University College) 1896 .Published “The soaring of flight of birds and the possibilities of mechanical flight” 1907 .Published “Aircraft in warfare: the dawn of the fourth arm”.Frederick William Lanchester 1868 – 1946 An automobile and aeronautics pioneer • • • • • 1891 . laying the foundation for Operational Research 11 .Published two-volume work “Aerial Flight”.

Four Stroke Engine (Otto Cycle) Mercedes Petrol Engine 12 .

there were about 776 million road vehicles worldwide • By 2050. by projection 13 . there will be 3.Some Milestones of Modern Road Transport • 1908: the first Ford “Model T” sold • 1913: mass production of Ford cars began • By 1960 global car population exceeded 100 million • In 2005.300 million road vehicles worldwide.

Licensed Motor Vehicles in the UK: 1950 .2008 14 Source: DfT .

Global Vehicle Sales *China accounts for 25% of the world’s vehicle sales (20% of cars only) .

Projection of Road Vehicle Number and Density (Source: BP Energy Outlook 2030) 16 .

4% natural gas and 1% electricity 17 . 87% oil.Projection of Transport Energy Demand and Efficiency (Source: BP Energy Outlook 2030) In 2030. 7% biofuel.

WEO2010) Production capacity Investment Demand Efficiency of use Production technologies Government policies Alternative energy Price New discoveries 18 Ultimately recoverable reserves .Peak (Conventional) Oil Day In the New Policies Scenarios. oil production does not peak before 2035 and the peak would not be caused by resource constraint (Source: IEA.

Fuel Economy Projection IEA. WEO2010 19 .

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Non-Combustion Propulsion • • • • • Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) Solar powered vehicles (SPVs) Others? 22 .

2008 .Vehicle On-Board Storage Density 23 Source: Lotus Engineering.

Comparison of Weight Requirements (in Kg) for a Driving Range of 300 Miles 24 .

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Future Transport IEA. WEO2010 27 .

Engines • Improvement in fuel economy and carbon reduction • Production and utlization of alternative fuels • Development of ultra low emission vehicles • Policy and regulations 28 .The Future of I. C.

Assessment Examination • 80% Coursework • 20% 29 .

The electric car. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. IEE. BE Milton. 2. 5. JB Heywood. Combustion and Engines. Chapman & Hall. R Stone. MacMillan. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. Wiley. McGraw Hill. Electric Vehicle Technology Explained. 4. 3. M Westbrook. J Larminie & J Lowry. Thermodynamics. 30 .Reference Books on Combustion and Hybrid Electric Engines 1.

Cambridge University Press.Reference Books on Combustion 1. Williams. Glassman. 2000 5. Peters. N. Kuo.K. Cambridge University Press. 1985 2. Combustion Theory.K. Addison Wesley. John Wiley & Sons. Law. F. K. I. Academic Press. Combustion Physics. 1996 4. Turbulent Combustion. Combustion. 2005 3. 2007 31 .A. C. Principles of Combustion.