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1886 .' DELSARTE SYSTEM OF Dramatic Expression • BY- Genevieve Stebbins ORIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS NEW 4..8 YORK Werner UNIVERSITY PLACE Edgar S.

All rights reserved. 1885. WERNER. SEEN BY PRESERVATION SERVICES DA • MMM .MAR 3 1972 ^fcrrr of w^ ' Copyright BY- EDGAR S.

— Continued X. page 135. to with that of the attitudes of Chart VI. in lower right-hand corner. attitudes of Chart VIII.xeentro-eoiieeiitne : for " norread mo-concentric " uormo excentric . for it " excentro-concentric will "' read excentro-excentric. for " normo-excentric " read normo-concentrie: for " excentro-excentric " read e. ERRATA Change description of the correspond . that the necessary correc- LESSON The Arm IX. object to which both eyeliall and head turn being on the X. The philosoph- harmony is not thereby disturbed. 107 LESSON The Arm.I). be the same as the In Chart XIV.CONTENTS. spite of the utmost care. the left. page 152. in order made in the next edition. A moment's use of the pen in will remedy these in. for " excentro-concentric " read excentro-excentric. III . page 142. printer's errors. PAGE. have crept The reader is cordially asked to call the publisher's attention to any other errors or defects that tions may be may be discovered. —The arrangement of Charts VI and VIII at the is different from at the other Charts in order that the Plane of the Superior may be the top ical and the Plane of the Inferior bottom.) (When corrected. which. Criterion Chart. page 164. In Chart X.

.SEEN BY PRESERVATION SERVICES DAT? ~™4.

Introduction 3 LESSON Decomposing Exercises ^Esthetic Talk. 103 The Hand. 57 LESSON The Walk ^Esthetic Talk. 73 LESSON The Hand VI. 107 The Arm The Arm. 99 VIII. IV. n II. 17 LESSON Principle of Trinity III. — Continued LESSON VII. in . I. LESSON The Legs ^Esthetic Talk. LESSON Harmonic Poise of Bearing ^Esthetic Talk. 89 The Hand. — Continued LESSON X. 31 ^Esthetic Talk. V. PAGE. — Continued LESSON LESSON IX.CONTENTS.

121 LESSON The Head XIII. 115 LESSON The Torso XII. — Continued LESSON XI. 161 Jaw LESSON Grammar of Pantomime XVIII. Profiles 155 LESSON The Lips and the XVII. page. Color 219 Order of Exercises Index for Systematic Practice 234 257 . 187 LESSON XXI. Active Agents of the Eye 143 LESSON XVI. 129 The Head. — Continued LESSON XIV.iv Contents. The Arm. A Gamut The Voice of Expression in Pantomime 177 LESSON XX. 137 LESSON XV. 167 LESSON XIX.

Gestures from the significant zones. 83 Feather 95 101 Sinking wrist.2 AESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. Forearm. movement 8. Eyelids. Rising from sitting. Poise when seated : 1 18 3. Head. Back fall. i. Sitting. Rotation. Front fall. 11. fall. The command arms. Opposition of torso and arms. Entire leg. vital Standing in significant attitudes 49 66 73 The walk Stage falls : 6. back fall. PAGE. Foot. Gladiator oppositions 9. Harmonic Poise of Bearing Standing. mental. 2. Pivoting. Entire body." Evolution of motion in Involution of motion from action to repose. 5. " Go. Evolution of body. Hand. Serpentine movement. BowRising from Rising from ing. Rising on toes 7. Lower jaw. Involution of body. Change of centre of gravity forward. Kneeling. Lower leg. back and sideways. 104 10. Spiral Spiral 108 movement movement followed by extension of arms in breadths 113 . Entire arm. Rising from front kneeling. Decomposing Exercises: Fingers. Torso. moral and 4.

The door opens to admit a person for whom you have an affection. with repeated assurances of your affection. 19. Remorse. Re- pulsion from affection. Mouth exercise Gamut of expression Scene I. Nostril exercise 158 163 18. Resigned appeal to heaven. Imprecation. you intensify your expressions of devotion.vi ^Esthetic Gymnastics. Re- ceiving no response. Primary oppositions of head and arm: Mental or normal calm of being. still shows great doubt of and. Reproach. in pantomime 177 You are standing idly in a room : a step on the stairs attracts your attention. Your greeting increases affectionate protest. Scene V. 12. Pathetic benediction 13. you express surprise and Scene IV. you increase the courtesy of your salutation. Scene II. 124 134 140 151 ' Rotation of head in various attitudes 15. you ask the reason you guilty of some wrong surprise attest : In great " Does he think to him ? " You your innocence with great vehemence. Receiving no response from the object of your greeting. You greet this person in delighted surprise. No effect is produced on object. . 117 Direct. in ardor. 1 Lid exercises Brow exercises 7. circular and oblique movements for right arm and hand 14. 16. Accusation. The object your love . protest or- Deep thought. grief or shame. Scene III. PAGE. consequently.

You glance toward object. . Scene VII. You make. are attracted toward vision. leaving you prostrate. however. A vision of beauty is before you. one final effort for self-control. but vanishes. and you order the object of it to leave your presence. as 7. Continued disbelief in your truth and innocence enrages you. Scene VIII. While gazing in final attitude of in anger at object. its Pantomime and aspect changes into something which paralyzes you with terror. To your amazement. Your passion has now passed beyond your control. but show ex- treme anger in bearing and face. Great astonishment depicted on face. vii Scene VI. another transformation has taken place. It recedes. appalls you loathing.^Esthetic Gymnastics. it You You beseech it to remain with you. fills you with Scene IX.

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Symbolic colors 200 226 . XI. The brow X. Conditional attitudes of the hand 97 125 131 IV. .LIST OF GHARTS. Attitudes of the legs III. Expressions of the eyebrow Profile cuts XIII. Combinations of brow and upper 153 154 155 XII. Expressions of the nose 159 XIV. Divisions of the head VIII. Vowels XVI. 164 199 XV. Consonants XVII. Criterion 39 72 II. ETG. Expressions of the mouth. 135 136 142 143 lid.. ILLUSTRATIONS. Zones of the head VI. Chart I.152. PAGE. Circle V. Attitudes of the head VII. Attitudes of the eyeball IX.

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INTRODUCTION. coming toward me. stop her. a is huge basket on her head. " I Where. can after I find the I Abbe Delaumosne ? " in asked of every one met Paris when." At last a letter from his publisher. walk up the I find stone walls on each side hiding the At the end. I found myself settled for the for year's study of the French drama. contained the wished-for address. of whose church. matic art. " St. to whom I had written. street. He is the compiler of Delsarte's I system of drato see him. where. near an old fountain. ex-president of the government conservatory. " my arrival. to " whom I was applying for lessons. is the church St. No I one in sight . Reg- nier. "Where one long houses. Genevieve. Nanterre " ! shouts the guard. I descend and look about me. The next morning found me on my way. "I want very much but no one can me where to find him. the abbe was cure. Genevieve?" I In voluble patois she directs me. the . but yes." replied tell . Nanterre. " which had Who is the Abbe Delaumosne? asked M. a stout peasant woman. The tiniest of tiny hamlets. some I months come.

am seeking. and the ballet. my child? " In a few words I state my errand. He became. mitting labor and study After years of unre- —study which took him by . a government institution for instruction in dramatic art. " Entrez. at His father. Solesme. Realizing that he had been shipwrecked for want of a compass and pilot. comes back. the Abbe Delaumosne. a pleasant voice greet me. I wish to talk He is greatly interested with him about Delsarte. Finding himself thus incapacitated for the stage. 1 8 1 1 . He gives me the following resume "Francois Delsarte was born Nov. but his tastes carried him into other channels. " What can I in the report I bring of the spread of Delsarte's teachings in America. The young Delsarte was sent to Paris. a physician. An old woman who I is telling her beads before an image of the to the Madonna. Here. and enter. motions me knock. or the inspiration of genius. France. music. he resigned that career for that of a teacher of singing and the dramatic art. he determined to save others from his fate by seeking and formulating the laws left to of an art hitherto the caprice of mediocrity. a beaming It is face. in 1822. he lost his voice. died leav- ing his family poor." door of the tall sacristry. for the want of proper guidance. A form. to study with a painter on china. 1 1. a pupil of the conservatory. in 1825. do for you.: 4 church I Delsarte System.

He died. an art like acting should have some higher standard than the empirical its caprices of exponents. prisons.. Spencer for culture. re- Pasca. and. that science has now the same precision as that of mathematics. for expression It is as though the world. talked for I left. patiently unearthing the secrets and methods of past genius —study which kept him enchained by the hour watching the children at play in the great public gardens. is " Trusting to the inspiration of the moment. Buckle and Mill for history. etc. What Comte has done for exact science. July 20. ing into further depths sought to pause and rearrange before plungto rescue from the void and . surely. without arranging his life-work for publication. then." . late in the after- after promising a speedy return and newal of our conversation. famous in their different careers.Introduction. growing weary of productive . Delsarte ha s tried to do for action. This is an age of formulation. first like trusting to a shipwreck for your lesson in swimming. some hours . activity. and Ruskin for painting." We noon. Monsabre. 5 turns to hospitals. that have owed much to his instruction —Rachel. Thanks to him. art galleries. he succeeded in discoverin g and formulating the laws of aesthetic science. formless mass of collected material a system whose symmetry and beauty should embody all that is worth saving. morgues. Many are the names. Sontag. etc. 1871. weighing humanity every- where and everyhow. asylums.

managers and the public large to effect that all result work done on the stage shou ld be the of temperament rather than study. may be learned from am not denying the great benefit to be derived from a careful study o fojiejs own emotions but how portray? I if one's personal experiences is do not include the experience one was : called upon to to rehearsing " Phedre " one day M. painters. harmony." he criticised. such as standing. they declare. architects. after tionary. ! Poets are born . They admit one is fairly on the in stage. some guide. lawyers their codes . is make one mechanical and elocuthat. which does not interfere .. it should be entirely personal. but it will not do for Phedrer I had trusted to temperament and it had failed me. injurious. but they have their laws of . entrances and tone of one's interlocutor etc. Orators must study rhetoric singers have a technique . a few things. not that of a woman starving herself to death. musicians. points. and dying of remorse Very well for Juliet. taking the a scene of excitement. 6 Delsarte System. old professionals.— . there is an opinion prevalent at among the actors. I exits. " but you me the love of a young girl. and should come from the actor's observation of his own emotions. Now. that if any study is given. — all have some compass. In America. Regnier give " Recited with feeling. versification. and will More than this. sculptors.

and a reformed stage. One day he came forth jubilant. a theatre. with their natural aptitude." Many years ago an enthusiastic young man. like a John came back to America to prepare the New World for the coming of Delsarte. and his own methods. should enlighten the world. . A young painter shut himself in his studio. has "' : L'art cest la naturel en doctrine erigd. find- ing himself in Paris in pursuit of art-studies. his guidance. which. lectures." answered the master.— Introduction. interviews in the daily — Steele papers on the grand new philosophy inent excited public attention. Visions of a conservatory. but only increases 7 it. " in five minutes. like liberty. and imparted his discovery to Gerome. I could have showed you that and saved you two years of time profession " ! Delsarte has saved for the students of the dramatic many years of unnecessary labor those who will faithfully and to and conscientiously follow . and was conquered. saw. heard of the famous classes in pantomime of Francois Delsarte. He his went. for he holds the said lamp of truth. and prom- men united to bring Delsarte to this country. the result is certain. Samson. laboriously worked out " My dear boy. Talks. Things gr ow by what they fc eA nn and we save r time by using the experiences of others. The latter. Mackaye. Another great French master. He had found disciple master and the master his most ardent the Baptist.

Delsarte could not leave his country.8 . Alger. Monroe." The toc- was sounded. . But " man proposes and God disposes. his troubled land. and before the angel of peace had desin of battle scended on other world. and France and Germanyrushed into mortal combat. he had passed to the . Delsarte System. of the old Winter Garden theatre. floated before the public gaze and such people as William Stuart. thought the scheme practicable.

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as we trace our way through a course of lessons? And if you practice faithfully. will you accompany me. I have not even bruised myself. can assure you that you will not regret the time and patience required in the study. hips. spine. eyelids. This is acquired by diligent practice of the decomposing exercises. jaw. entire arm. and the current of nervous force can thus rush through them as a stream of water rushes through a channel. as witness: I withdraw my will-power from fingers. Now I fall. I simply withdrew my vital force into the reservoir at the base of the brain. Give me your hand and help me I did not mean to startle you so. ankles. Dear pupil. You are before me. Touch it. : A We . to rise. ^ESTHETIC TALK. and faithfully to practice many hours a day if you wish rapid results. Do not shudder. waist. knees. then hand. These exercises free the channels of expression.LESSON I. The first great thing to be acquired is flexibility of the joints. I. I wish you to buy a mirror large enough to reflect your entire figure. name these exercises decomposing. an invisible presence by my side. unclogged by obstacles. Do you feel as if a dead thing had struck your living palm? Now I will show you the same phenomenon with forearm. Listen to my words The first great step in the study of this art is the attainment of perfect flexibility. toes. • DECOMPOSING EXERCISES. lovely day in spring.

if Exercise Let fingers fall from knuckles as dead .. 12. of the best possibilities of the soul. Entire body. The order of practice is as follows : AESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. through that grand Interpreter. rotary shake. Delsarte required of his pupils a great deal of hard work. art. Fingers. 6. Torso Foot. 2. There is too much imperfection in our nature. Lower leg. Entire arm. 3. . You cannot in an instant prepare the human body . in that condition shake them. 8. 4. Head.for the translation. 10. Hand Forearm. Entire leg. 12 Dels arte System. 11. Eyelids. 7. up and down. shake it in that condition forward and back. Lower jaw. Vital force should stop at Exercise II. Let hand fall from wrist as if dead . side- ways. I. 1. 9. knuckles. . 5.

effort. by degrees. Exercise V. Raise arms above head. . . e. agitate it as you do the hand. Exercise IV.Decomposing Exercises. then on the other. shake it. 13 Drop forearm from elbow Vital force arrested at elbow. body with a rotary movement. Exercise III. The arms swing as dead weights now change and swing in this. The head draw the shoulder. Drop it back decomposed. moving from own weight as you have seen persons asleep nodding. commence the torso with the head. Do this first on one side. You better seat yourself for this exer- . Exercise VII. y withdraw force. Arms agitate will still hanging decomposed from shoulders. Drop and. it will its grad- ually describe a half-circle. will torso sideways decomposed will . with no conscious fall. i. knee bends arms will The they describe a circle in their sockets must be decomposed. Lifting foot from the ground. decompose them. as if dead . body forward and back. Drop head to one side decomposed. They will fall as dead weights. Exercise VI.

leg by a motion of the entire body free leg de- composed. leg. agitate from Exercise IX. decomposed. i. then swing free . Withdraw the will from back leg.. Let lids fall as if going to sleep. practice these exercises for me many hours a day and. Exercise XII. You must . come Thursday at two you shall then teach me all this. Let jaw fall so you feel its weight. . — . The head should the fall back. (b. bend also bend torso forward. Decompose lower knee. from ground as a horse does it in paw- then drop decomposed. Good morning. Exercise XI.14 cise.e. Be sure the foot falls from the ankle decom- posed. Exercise X. Dels arte System. body will drop to the ground.) Stand on footstool on one leg. Standing with your weight on back that knee . let me see yes. Exercise VIII. (a. You have discarded the footstool for the last exercise. I shall expect you to show me everything as if you know all and I nothing.) Lift leg ing. leg as forearm .

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Cultivation can make the wild * " Delsarte System of Oratory. and the free direction of the agents. by virtue of which are appropri- revealed the life. " Art is at once the knowledge. Edgar S. is very interI advise you to read it. Remember. the possession. of course. It is the relation of the type. . and beautiful definition of . 48 University Place. The first is only acquired by a patient practice of the technique.* which.LESSON II. Werner. by the master Delsarte? I came across it the other day in Arnaud's book on Delsarte. $2. and mind. beauties scattered through nature to It is not." By M. therefore. scales. genius has been defined as " the power of taking great pains. perfect our tools. fellow-student. HARMONIC POISE OF BEARING. much reading on the subject. but study can prepare our instruments. You may then content yourself with the brain's knowledge and what we are aiming for is unconscious cerebration. united to a keen instinct. but beware of too esting. not conscious. Nature's voice must whisper to us our vocation. Publisher. No study can take the place of natural intuition." is not the above a succinct art. It is the ation of the sign to the tiling. Angelique Arnaud. l'Abb6 Delaumosne and Mme. AESTHETIC TALK. the a superior mere imitation of nature. New York. as a singer studies her There. by the way." this. soul.

as its delicate perfume intoxicates the senses.8 ! 1 Dels arte System. curve from head and leg. rose a Gloire de Dijon — ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. the head and the leg sympathizing. Stand firm on both legs. the torso has an oppoleg. I am keeping you waiting. the torso forms the concave one. . First take your weight on both feet. I will off for you. Now. A normal viz. while. heels near together. toes turned will out. Attention Exercise I. but it cannot from a thistle make a rose. Practice this call it now for me a few moments . and so should incline from the strong line thus always presenting nature's of beauty. here. The head and leg form the convex curves. and you wish to commence your lesson. we must always bear mind the fact that the is. two convex curves separated and joined by a concave one. as site we observed above. head sympa- thizes with the strong leg. when by an so it act of will we change the weight no longer in rests equally on both feet. a dream of beauty with its marvelous tinting and many petals delighting the eye. that the head should incline to the side of the leg that bears the weight. But. form : have the curves of a line of beauty.

keeping a perfect proportion of line during each second of the change." Also let me warn you not to make the inclination of either head or torso too great. 19 right leg the strong one.! Harmonic Change weight. Change weight. making Incline head to the rule that the leg. Change slowly from left to right. in accordance with the head must sympathize with the strong Incline torso to the right. . did you hurt yourself? Not much. Attention ! Exercise II. making Incline head to right. Oh. You are now in a harmonic balance. Stand firm. Incline torso to the right also and you become fall. Incline torso to left." a certain possession of the two in question is necessary for all dignity of attitude. continue the inclination and you thus proving the lack of equilibrium. Poise. weight distributed equally left on both legs. awkward . do not let them " flop. leg the strong one. left. in accordance with the rule that the torso should always be in opposition to the head and strong leg for perfect equilibrium. That " it's an bruise will remind you to stand correctly ill wind that blows no one good. . Attention Exercise III. in other words.

pleasure the god or hero showed or grief. alas in our fallen human nature. the inclination of the head is Of course. cannot be represented by the body in opposition. This opposition of the three parts of the body is one of the most beautiful things I know of. Advance one leg. . having in them no elements of the sublime. and raises the chest. becomes and less marked as you. — — his race by the divine lines of opposition. ! Attention Exercise IV. Stand with weight on both legs. So some emotions. and.! 20 Delsarte System. but. The torso must incline back. Those only in the ideal are they truth. They indicate a moral poise which should always be. anger or sorrow. of course. It is the attitude of the Apollo Belvedere. near the centre. no matter what incident battle or peace. it. . Advanced leg is now The head must incline forward in sympathy. This inclination of the torso hollows the back at the waist-line. lines are ideal. Hour after hour has flown by me unheeded as I examined one after another the exquisite forms of gods and and no heroes in the great museum of the Louvre matter what the character the marble god portrayed. Carry the weight upon strong. as is more decided the torso it when the weight less is decidedly borne on one leg. is not always found.

and the result will I be as disastrous as in the former cases. do not wish you to fall and hurt yourself. a slight tottering will prove the case as well as a tumble. From forward last attitude. is taking care that the motion shall be continuous. carried on to the Allow head and torso to sway gently in opposi- tion as the centre of gravity changes. . Reverse that inclination of the torso and incline in similar it manner as the head. yourself. head and Ah left to ! see. . Attention Exercise V.. ! beauty power. Incline head back. strong leg behind. is you throw out your hand for a support. 21 Incline torso forward in similar line to leg. you would totter and fall so you see . Place one leg behind you and carry the weight on to it.! Harmonic Poise. Attention Exercise VI. Stand weight on both legs. is sway gently forward until the weight leg. Incline torso forward. viz. The slowness with which the changes are made.

only in subtleties. One has a sensation. in watching some one essayThe control ing the above. after one of the principal things to observe inclinations of the correct. slightly The back ! in opposition to the forward weight. Not that it should always be used .! — 22 Delsarte System. of being magnetized. the head and torso are seen to be —The nervous control is of inestimable value . is Sway ground. B. N. From above is attitude sway gently back until weight rise carried on to the heels —the toes must not from the ground. Attention Exercise VII. and it lends a magnetic charm to all change of bearing. gently forward until the weight on the balls of the feet — the heels must not rise from the The head will incline slightly forward in sympathy torso will incline with the forward weight. Attention Exercise VIII. of it enables the performer to show a most subtle attraction or repulsion. Stand weight on both legs. without the observer seeing the change he will only feel it. to an opposite. feet together. . to change his weight from extreme front or back or side. I advise a great deal of practice.

heels together. There are more than are dreamed of Attention ! a strange sensation. torso will incline slightly forward in sition to the back weight. it Continue for forward and back. rotating torso to the left and right. head to the wish you to practice this for me until great I flexibility has been secured at the waist. 23 in will incline slightly back sympathy oppo- with the back weight. Horain your philosophy. is Ah! you feel mesmerized You take a long breath it . feet. Stand weight on both apart. toes At this waist-line rotate torso to the right. yourself. left. to cannot find words enough to express I you the great im- portance lay upon this exercise. Almost all sinuousness depends on the easy control of the . do you not? " tio." Exercise IX. some time. things in heaven and earth. simul- taneously rotating head to the rotation is Be careful that made by the waist and not by the thighs. forward and back.Harmonic The head The Poise. Now I reverse above. Let me again enjoin on you to make the move- ment as slow as possible.

e. Incline torso forward. Now you reverse above . " and the great is articulation. I have kept sit you standing a long and we time.. Very ress. You may now 1 down will practice in a chair . X. % gracious.! 24 Delsarte System. for the ballet insist on arduous work Delsarte writes : " Dynamic wealth depends on and the number of : articulations brought into play /' also " When two parts follow the same direction. . so to speak. incline torso back as incline head forward. Attention Exercise Seat yourself squarely. to learn to control strictly it is at the waist (though not an articulation). Attention Rotate waist . they cannot be simultaneous without an injury to the law of opposition . Without that control one All masters in this direc- muscles at the waist. and really head as described above. may be tion. Make this movement a simul- taneous one. tired But you must be by this time . i. Incline head back. but never graceful. well I you all are making remarkable prog- wish ! my pupils were as intelligent.

Incline cline torso to the to the right. Attention Exercise XL simultaneously in- Seat yourself as before. simul- taneously incline head back and i. i. Reverse this. incline torso forward and to the left. you forget in your head is not moving opposition. incline torso to the left as you incline head to the right. so I counsel you to give your reflection these lessons. e.. Yes. Reverse this . I have already advised the use of a mirror. you see yours was bent We wish a direct side action. there. andT beg of you to be strict with her or him. simultaneously incline head back and to the right. head left. 25 me half a dozen times ! —one ! two ! three ! four ! five six ! There. There. is Be careful in this last exercise that the torso not forward or back. e. you are right now. back. Attention ! .! . to the left.. Incline torso forward and to the right. Harmonic Practice this for Poise. ! Attention Now we will make a combination : Exercise XII.

in opposition. Reverse this. head and torso going to from extreme Reverse to extreme this left . Sway slowly. Exercise XIII. As I cautioned you as slow as when standing. Very good.. Do the same with the back-side movement.. and do not be impatient with me. e. can. simultaneously incline head forward and i. Incline torso back and to the right to the . that you will have a whole month to perfect yourself in. left. though. extreme i. sway slowly from extreme right left. movement with a rota- Combine the forward-side tion of waist and head. Am Attention Exercise XIV.! ! 26 Delsarte System. make this movement you possibly Attention . right. left . I giving you too long a lesson? Remember. we have nearly finished. Perfect Attention Exercise XV. incline torso back and to the simultaneously incline head forward and to the right. e.

is You see the arc in which the head that in moves a smaller one than which the torso moves. however. of this never forget for one instant the simultaneous movement in opposition of the head and torso. 27 XVI. " You will arrive at no perfection in these and kindred exercises without spending many hours a day in arduous practice. to back-left..! — Harmonic Exercise Poise. Sway gently from extreme back to extreme forward. is All the above invaluable to the student all who wishes a real harmonic poise of the parts of the body. A perfect proportion. In' all still ^. Shut the world away for a time make no visits. Take care —your head and torso are not moving is in perfect opposition. person who fritters away . Dear pupil. A . i. That better. Attention Exercise XVII. do you yet realize the meaning of the great word study? I hear reechoing from the past. forward-right.from forward-right sway slowly an oblique course. There is no royal road. Oblique always mystic. must be maintained. ESTHETIC TALK— Continued. Reverse this. taking lines are Sway gently from back-left to an oblique line. receive no calls. You should devote yourself heart and soul to this study.

will her time in a thousand frivolous ways nothing. as long The failure of as she went to the head of the class. cannot be thankful enough that I was so conand was not allowed one advanced step until the preceding one was pronounced perfect. This is unnatural. dear invisible one. from the lack of attention to the technique. and had great faith in my teacher and faith is the corner-stone of the Temple I was unof Art as well as of the Temple of God. and will merit all the fun which is leveled at the mechanical mugging of so-called Delsarteans. I have long fancied." accomplish "An it. I stantly urged to practice. many persons to physically demonstrate these theories comes. and I I was very young." . acquainted with the various discussions relative to the use and practicability of Delsarte's formulae or his I was like a child learning to aesthetic gymnastics. and —keep out of Ruskin. Then they cry out studied and so they return to their unconscious awkwardness. A scious. ." artist should be fit for the best society.— 28 Delsarte System. you have not freed the channels for expression. . All this was listened to with bated breath. Work ! work ! work ! . little more practice and patience. you will simply be ridiculous. and if I stop and dwell on this here. they find rebellious joints and stiffened muscles. unconcerned as to the root of the words. They are fascinated by their analyzation but when they try to put them obeyed. . spell. it is to call your attention to the great necessity for work for there is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous and if. at the end of these lessons. and their acquired grace would have become unconinto practice : .

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prowess For the present sit in this chair. or light-giving prin- In the blue ray the power of actinism. yellow. the one is three. or chemical is found. ^ESTHETIC TALK. constitute the unity of ordinary or white light. — Red. too Good morning. You shall show me your later. to illustrate The ! air A has been freshened by rainbow It comes aptly ! my talk. The red is the The yellow is ciple. action. — . orange. Now. The three are one. however. the luminous. without the added power of the blue ray. No fruit appears. yellow and blue. by the open window. indigo and violet Red. The others are produced by overlapping. Plants will blossom into a bright passion of life under the influence of the red and yellow rays. in that rainbow ah! while we have been talking the "covenant of God" has faded away. caloric. The trinity of red. PRINCIPLE OF TRINITY. Will you have a fan? It is much warm for gymnastics. when combined. Look the shower. blue. or heating principle.LESSON III. tial ones. yellow and blue are the essenseven in all. Each primary color has its peculiar attribute distinct from the other two. Count the colors. Life is unproductive until the three united in one bring all things to perfection. green.

the Samian philosopher. by Jupiter Divine wisdom was the Persians. represented by the goddess Isis. the duad." Druidical triad was infinite plentitude of life. because goodness. The ancient trinities of the Hindoos. as well as those of the Egyptians. God was first represented by the ancients under three principal forms. las Athene. and look over Come from my scrap- book with me. Numberless superstitions and confused notions : . and the offspring. The third principle was called by the Egyptians." While Pythagoras. as having regard to the beginning. The same was done by early Chinese philosophy. all uniting in one whose power can never end. The Chinese take the triangle to signify union. . Apollo and by . 32 Delsarte System. or mother and the result or operation of both united. the heaven. Greece and by Mythene. the window. the chief good of man. in Persia. active principle. by Oromazes. passive principle. wisdom and power are the three essential divine attributes for instance The Egyptians represented divine goodness by the god Osiris the Greeks. in . it being thought the most perfect of all numbers. . the female or maternal principle. in Egypt by Palinfinite The — : . or father. — .. harmony. states that the symbol of all things or fulness is the monad.the Persians. The oracle of Serapis said " First God. middle and end. by the Greeks. Mithas. the earth. . " The number three was held sacred by the ancients. knowledge and infinite power the three grand attributes of God. then the Word and Spirit. emblematized the male or paternal principle. Orus.

which was the joint efflux of these. and the only begotten while the divine power. ideas agree with Swedenborg. as it became more debased and licentious. wisdom and' power. will and the third. the other material Hfe-power or energy. which is the The above . one sp irthat there must be a union of two fo"-ns the spiritual form being the itual. is called Father wisdom. all uniting to make up one divinity. The endeavor in a man who is : . The Platonic hypothesis seems to be Infinite goodness. going forth in creative energy and life-imparting influence. " What has all this to do with dramatic expression or aesthetic gymnastics? I did not come here for a sermon. consisting in the perfect union of love and wisdom. Every created thing is composed of two parts a life-powe r or energy. The latter the one which appears to the senses. concord or harmony of action. the second. is named Spirit. and the material form being : — . : not as mere qualities or accidents. In the philosophy of the ancient Egyptians. Love. being the origin and parent of all existence. infinite wisdom. . love. This demonstrates to us an important fact. but as substantial things. you will soon see the connection. and livine motion. is the Holy form of . 33 were founded on the corruptions of this philosophy. He defines trinity as consisting of " love." Patience.Principle of Trinity. namely. But you ask. and a form to show this power in effect." These are the sacred triune which form the fulness of the Godhead. the Son. the first principle of the mind is said to be intellect. Swedenborg writes: " Three degrees living endeavor. and infinite active power. living power. is the form b y which life-power or energy is brought into action.

That head. Now. the separate parts." Come to this long mirror with me. which you have just named. limbs. are but the covering of a spiritual head. his existere is that which is called his body corresponds to wisdom. Your own for Name me — It is being philosophy. torso and limbs are often very badly expressed by the outside covering. Powers have no -potency but by action of the body. Paul says a spiritual body. What do you . the proceeding from both is that which is called the sphere of his life it is his power." That interior head. a living subject is his will united to his understanding the living powers in him are what constitute the interior of his body." Notice not an essence. torso and limbs. torso and limbs. it is raised a spiritual body. matter has no form of itself. To recapitulate the foregoing ideas first All things exist from a cause. . in all of which there are movand living motion ing fibres variously interwoven in him is action which is produced through those powers by the will united to the understanding. 34 Delsarte System. but a formed body. torso. legs Very well. figure. Again. but include legs and arms "and arms. yes . Head." " There is a natural body and there love it .: — . This essence is a trinity. according to our under one term. and cower abashed and ashamed at the representation given of them to the world. an imperfect human cor- respondent and example being man. in whom the . deific essence. see reflected? but do not yet turn away. is : St. that forms the matter. Swedenborg writes: "Man His esse or soul corresponds to is a microcosm. " It is sown a natural : body .

the possession. the three principles of our being. all this to do with why go into the region of metaphysics? Let " me is again recall to you. life. "What " is requisite for the formation of a trinity? requisite. you may ask what has dramatic expression . mind and form a trinity." the Delsarte employs word life a bove as the equivalent of sensation. There must also Thus. to all things possible. be an absolute co-necessity between them. trinity of faculties. will. Each of the terms must imply the other two.: — . life and soul are one and the same mind. Delsarte himself says " The principle of the system lies in the statement is that there in the world a universal formula which all may be applied to is sciences. Now. Principle of Trinity. Power. The triune in deific essence is Love. Three expressions are each presupposthree ing and implying the other two. act together as one mind. "Why? " Because life and mind are one and the same soul are one and the soul and mind same life . . soul. at Art once the knowledge. 35 understanding and memory. "This formula the trinity. of physical manifestations. Wisdom.

etc. appro- priation of the sign to the thing. countless individualities are formed.: . is a mere imitation of nature. states art is to translate life The sensitive state to the 2." . ." art. 3. The moral The state to the soul intellectual state to the mind. " From the fusion of these three states in varying and incessant combination. habits. Now. whether accidental or permanent. These languages correspond to the three which i . character. and from the predominance of one of the primitive modalities. sensitive nature. In analyzing the organism. or physical gesture the lan- guage of emotion or soul of reason. free direction of the agents life. each with its personal constitution. —not a mere imitation of an often the inflection of the voice is distorted nature. It is not. the relation of the beauties scattered through nature to a superior type. by virtue of which It is the It is are revealed the soul and mind. articulation the language The first he named vocal . dynamic the third. man the object. of So you see we need a firm basis when we would have types — truth. age. the second. buccal. . 36 and the Delsarte System. . its shades of difference of education. therefore. Delsarte stated that the language of the life .

he has aptly termed normal." . is mental . it The Monroe called " the key of the universe. at the vista However. In essence. Motion between these two extremes.: . the vital number. — concentric for mental. is Below late Prof. So Delsarte has named motion from Again we in subjective states yourself as a centre. * * * Three. It is open- much simpler than you think. which has relation to the exterior world. normal for moral. raise itself calls multiple nine. will or love is vital is moral sensation or feeling states or physical in which three of being are translated the organism by the motions. being well balance d. This is what the master the ninefold accord. So motion to a centre Delsarte has named concentric. excentric for vital. concentrate our motion of mind. I 37 have quoted the above from Arnaud on Delsarte. ecce ntric. that the master founds the idea which dominates and pervades his whole system. do not be frightened ing before you. must. Again " It let is me quote Arnaud this upon mutual interpenetration of the various states in the triple unity. by its very essence and by inherent to its force. Principle of Trinity. reason or volitional . fold in." All motion is expansive which is objective. the chart of the ninefold accord. contract.

with their proper significance.— 38 Dels arte System. what should be the position of the eye in exaltation. for the first 'time. of the slightest movement. plete. where we see. aversion. and in the functions of the head are comprised the physiognomic movements. such as is — and the same with the other agents. astonishment. moral." He also called but we are wandering from our criterion.— These now The author has . The same labor is given to the arms. etc. the thought that I hope that these works may yet be recovered entire." Amaud N. for the master was lavish of them. charts are presented to the public. from the threatening oblivion. for instance.. or intellectual transmission . on Delsarte. comfelt it almost in the light of a sacred duty to rescue the life-work of the great master Delsarte. total. Each part observed gives rise to a special chart. family to a former pupil of Delsarte. — — enumerated above he examines them in their details. etc. — corresponding to the sensation. with the mark. borrowed from nature. the hands and the attitudes of the body. Many of these papers were entrusted by the the artist wishes to express. with which they are charged. the sentiment. hate. timent Thus gesture — the interprets of sen- produced by means of the head. contemplation. and that they may be given to the public. Delsarte " Swedenborg geometrized . torso and limbs . and assigns them their part in the sensitiye. B. who took them to America. the "In appropriate language wherein new words are not lacking for new science he takes apart each of the agents of the organism. intense application of the mind. also classified and described. partial or anger.

vital. Essence. Mento-moral. Mento-vitaL Essence. I.— Criterion. Excentro-excentric. Essence. 39 CHART Essence. Moro-moral. Action. Essence. Action. Excentro-concentric. Concen tro-normal. Moro-mental Essence. Concentro-conceijtric. Excentro-normal. Essence. Action. Action. Essence.Principle of Trinity. Vito-mental. Vito-vital. Essence. Mento-mental. Action. Action. Action. Normo-normal. Action. Concentro-excentric. Action. Normo-concentric. . Vito-moral. Normo-excentric. Moro.

Esthetic gymnastics aim to break that chain no more. shorthand of these terms is A good made by the use of the grave accent over French vowels. can emotions. . In the museum of the Louvre is Venus of Milo. They will not dower you with soul. The caste of " Vere de Vere " must be impassive. The inner Venus. the other day. Imitation will carry you but a short Personification contains the way. and write what I dictate. as the idea of the sculptor was first the form of the marble goddess. for the acute accent ( (\). For the ninefold accord combine. confining the body. is clothed in plaster. torso and limbs shape it to a semblance of herself. one must feel noble emotions. incarnated. The beautiful marble inner spirit. a hint. dear pupil.40 Delsarte System. never show truly more than you are capable of experiencing. a dash — ) for the name normal. is the form. themselves with Other art-galleries seen the original must content woman. In this guise each unfortunate It reminded me of man his racer struggles to run. by an education. ( /) for the name excentric . an a copy. I saw some darkies sack is tied about the neck. Cultivate your mind and heart. teaching that all expression is On running a bag-race. chain it stronger spirit is imprisoned. That is God-given. like the spiritual body. the seashore. Her lovely head. A : We vulgar. Promethean — spark. For the expression of noble You. And here. Take pencil and paper. such as is employed name concentric an .

volitional The passive zones are 1. : . 3. Each division subdivides into parts. The leg has three sections 1. Principle of Trinity. volitional. 3.: . : . = mental Buccal = moral or Genal = Frontal vital. three grand divisions: intellectual 2.. Temporal Parietal 2.. has three sections 2. The head has The three active and three passive zones. 3. . . = mental or Torso = moral or Limbs = or physical. : . 3. . 41 The human body has 1. = mental Forearm = moral or Upper arm = Hand vital. The zones are significant points of arrival or departure for the gesture. volitional The torso contains three zones 1 Thoracic 2. = mental = moral or Occipital = vital. : active zones are 1 2. . = mental Epigastric = moral or Abdominal = vital. 3. volitional. The arm 1 . Foot = mental. Head vital volitional.

The elbow tions = a thermometer of the self-will affec- and 3 The wrist = a thermometer of vital energy. word passion here excitement. 1 What Head itself. The torso contains the two great motive organs of the body 3. " He stretched forth his arm. = moral or Upper leg or thigh = Lower leg volitional vital. . . " Torso = moral or = volitional." reminds us that head corresponds to mind. Delsarte System. arm are three : The shoulder (the = a thermometer of passion signifies impulse." Surely that explains The common phrase of " he has no head. don't fold away your paper. How familiar the expression. No." Volitional sig- nifies pertaining to the will. " —the heart and or physical. 3." all lungs. " or. Look over it Have you it finished copying? stand again. • . 2. the desires. vehemence) 2. — depend on the limbs. Limbs vital Powerful action. deeds. progression. 42 2." to signify power. the love of the being. we will see if a little talk and some few examples will elucidate matters. . did you first write? " = mental or intellectual. You do not underthoroughly? Well. The articular centres of the 1." The protecting arm of his country. Now we come to the zones.. .

a mouth-zone represents touch. we reason we refer to various degrees of illumination. 43 The head. conquest. 3. mental three active and three passive : zones. we must imagine one. of blindness.: The Roman ethics. All three are vital. forehead and eyes." whose understanding " see " a man —one clear . cruelty. in that is mental. however. This zone includes the cheek and nose. darkness and brilliancy in reference to the intellect.. vital. nose.• the Turk's nose. Now. — all of which illustrates the frontal zone as purely mental." Buccal means pertaining to the cheek. modifying the division 1. contains. . sighted " frontal zone includes the " a clearis "The mental eye." " Genal = Genal comes from an old to the French word. " Buccal = moral or " volitional. etc. taste and sound. A keen-scented The noses man " refers to one whose perceptions are keen. 2. viz. beauty . we " look" into a subject. sensuality. which. meaning pertaining chin. mouth or The mouth is contained in this zone. here would draw a head you. the Greek nose." The If I for had a black-board Lacking it. the will or desire. " Frontal I = mental. as a division. .Principle of Trinity. The nose reveals of different nations reveal the leading desire of that nation.

when high." We The lungs are more are in that region than in the lower zone. metaphor as express- The It feelings largely affect the action of beats quicker in excitement.44 Delsarte System. seated in the cars settled for a long ride. indicates reverence. Their action we name inspiration. " Epigastric = moral or volitional. are capable of many The above-named zones subdivisions. when we call attention overpreponderance of the physical. as truth does the or love. mental. same of the mind. an organ always used in ive of love. more The base of the brain is vital. heart. etc. again on your paper. I have amused myself in constructing character and life from stories told by the faces opposite." pertaining This zone contains the to the love of the being. front brain is It is the moral zone. The middle of the head. will 2. Reference is often made to an to a man's thick neck. They purify the blood. Lungs mental. expiration. There is a certain amount of truth in physiognomy and phrenology and the student of expression will find an added interest in life by scrutinizing the faces and heads of chance acquaintances. The . Look " i. this organ. slower . Many a moment has passed unheeded as. The " Thoracic = mental. aspiraalso say the tion. torso contains three zones.

physical instincts.: Principle of Trinity. a modifying influence on the subdivision. as representing the material. work with the . express love as the side of the being preponderating 3. You are not forgetting. points. Read them from your " Hand = mental. that. " Abdominal = vital. It exerts Never lose sight of the grand division. the hand We talk with the hand ." in the The hand emphasizes the expression of the eyes. Three sections paper 1. governs and directs our being. as a division. The moral zone is the affectional zone. as love feeds. as a point of gesture. I the torso is hope. representative of the desire of the being. Gestures directed from that section. feeds with its life- fluid all our body. moral or volitional. in fear or horror. is arrival or departure for the called vital. 45 affected Our entire being It is by a change giving in its normal action. Gestures proceeding from this section are vulgar or sensual. in expression. to the deaf and dumb. as a point of departure. play. in the arm. The eyes are mental. The eye looks toward an object." more This zone. The hand is mental grand vital division of the arm. We write with the hand we draw.

" if Vital force flows first from the brain into that section. The first . writes "The elbow is the soul of the arm. " Upper leg or thigh = vital. obedience." Have you never observed as the a person in thought tapping his foot on the floor? The foot makes gestures hand does. Read the 1. Need more be adduced " to show it the agent of the brain? 2. Delsarte System. next. the vital impelling force flows part. There can be no force in the arm the muscles of that portion are undeveloped. vital. into this No powerful action of the ." Like the upper first is arm. love." We kneel etc.. retreats. in the expression of reverence. " Foot = mental." It is the articulation connecting the upper arm moral. ! It ad- vances.46 hand. This brings the moral section of the leg into prominence. : the great French actor and teacher." Samson. 3.legs possible without muscle being developed there. the shoulder." " Strike out from a familiar phrase. whenever we would express a subordination of our will to that of others. with the forearm "Upper arm is = vital. 3. — kicks " Lower leg = moral or volitional. stamps and 2. Forearm = moral or volitional.

" Please hand me that Take your pencil and copy these extracts from Delsarte's notes " I reproduced the movements of the head. the unexpected movement it of my shoulders had suddenly impressed of justice and truth. but lifeless. and. The . with an expression Thus first I gained possession of an aesthetic fact of the " rank. arm are three. my I shoulders were strangely in lifted up I .' ' ! What name we . does not specify their nature. shall I What. Principle of Trinity. cried is. of sensibility it it is the measure of their vehemence determines their degree of heat and intensity. me the next? The " articular centres of the The shoulder = a thermometer of passion— book. as then found myself the attitude which had previously tried to render natural. Will you read " 1 .: " . give to its shall I call it? dominant role — thermometer. 47 impulse of the leg in walking should be felt in the thigh. there fact. they were awkward and cause? What was I the As I uttered the preceding words. it However. noticed that under the sway of the grief which dictated them. then. The shoulder intervenes in all forms of emotion. is an excellent word The shoulder in precisely the thermometer of passion as well as .

With them it is the law of There must be a difference flexible between " the swift and movements of an elegant organism and those evolutions clumsily exe- cuted by the torpid limbs hardened by constant labor. the shoulder lim- first. Now. infinitesimal quantities. of expression subtler than in a degree. rises sensibly. The shoulder is. in every man who is moved or actuated. thermometer marks the degrees of heat and cold without specifying the nature of the weather. therefore. show that. "The shoulder. a ther- mometer of sensibility. The shoulder. emotion expressed by the face or not true then in marking with mathematical rigor the degree of intensity to which that emotion rises. is not called upon to teach us whether the source of the heat or violence which mark it arises from love or hate. his will playing no part in the ascension. " The elbow = a thermometer of the affections . It belongs is to the face to ited is . thermometer of sensibility.48 Delsarte System. the shoulder influ- even with them when they are under the ence of real emotion. those of the lower rises still." I have let Delsarte himself explain his reason for calling the shoulder a 2. in rising." Delsarte goes on to state that people of the higher classes have a gamut . is that the .

It is is self-assertive yourself. The hip. the mental zone. I will call off: practice the following. vital "The is wrist = a thermometer of is energy. To impress the foregoing zones well on your mind. affections. Exercise I. and is 49 : self-will. .— . Principle of Trinity. The concentrated or exploded from the wrist. indicates vulgarity. thus a thermometer of the 3. a vital division. and say: " There's a fearful thought " ! Exercise II. Place your hand on your forehead. the action expresses affection to the object. using that zone as a point of departure for the gesture.ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. sensualism ." vital The arm. and say: "I will not entertain so bad a thought " ! 4 ." I quoted Samson above In its " The elbow the soul of the arm. Take your hand away from your forehead. knee and ankle do not need dwelling on. hand is brought back. assertion the ankle concentrates vital energy as the wrist does. energy as a whole." if the movement toward an If the it object. affection for instance. for akimbo. The hip thrown the knee. out. forearm and hand continue the direction.

" Exercise IV. Juliet. and repeat: art "Oh. Place your chin in the palm of your hand and say " I shall forget to have thee ! still stand there. With the the tips of the fingers throw a kiss taken from " ! mouth: " A thousand times good night In the head. remembering how I love thy company " Exercise VI. and repeat: "Well. Place your hand on your cheek. Romeo. Take your hand away from the cheek with a gesture of negation. Exercise III. how she leans her hand upon her cheek. near the forehead. Place your hand on the brain.: . I will lie with thee to-night. Let's see for means " ! . Exercise VII. Romeo. wherefore thou Romeo! " You remember Romeo says : " See. and repeat little "Deny thy father!" Exercise V. the moral or affectional zone. whatever it is may be the distinctive zone. mentalized. 50 Delsarte System.

the mental zone. the vital zone. Place your hand on the top of your head." Exercise XII. and even so! " " It is Exercise X. on the bump repeat of reverence. Place your hands on the chest. and repeat: " 'Tis torture and not mercy. as phrenologists would say. Heaven is here where Juliet lives. Carry the hand from that zone. and repeat "Then I defy you. < 51 Carry the hand from that zone. stars! " Exercise XI. the seat of honor. in the affectional division. and repeat " I do remember an apothecary " ! Exercise IX.:: : : Principle of Trinity. and repeat "To live an unstained wife to my sweet love." Exercise XIII. Place your hand at the back of the brain. Exercise VIII. Carry the hands out from chest and repeat: " Shall I speak ill of him that is my husband ? " .

(a.) as " O.: : ." Exercise XVI Place your hand on your abdomen. are sensual. and repeat "Or this true heart with treacherous revolt turn to another. One slaps the thigh as a vulgar expression of vital satisfaction in .) Repeat Repeat as " Gregory. we'll not carry coals. in starvation. : : . Exercise XIV. the moral or affectional zone. speak again. kneels in reverence or love . Exercise XVII." you kneel " ! (b. bright angel . his hand departs from that vital zone. is not my will. 52 Delsarte System. cary does so to receive the gold. Place your hand on your heart." Exercise XV. a vital physical feeling taking the money Romeo offered. Carry the hands from heart and repeat " Take all myself. Gestures of affec- departing from that zone. and repeat: " My poverty. on you slap the thigh my word. The apothe- Carry the hand from the abdomen. the vital zone. consents. tion." His poverty so. stamps the foot mental excitement.

dear pupil. I think.: Principle of Trinity. Greater industry will be needed on your side. we shall meet again when the leaves are red and gold. you have quite a budget during the next month. in the beautiful month of October. Good-bye. to do without the aid of a living teacher. Of course. almost impossible.) 53 Repeat as you stamp the foot ! H Wilt thou provoke me Then have at the boy. it will need patience and perseverance on your part." Now. (c. to study for me . It is very difficult.

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IKal Mrasitftu .

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Copy as I dictate from our master Delsarte rod? Let me ! . the meadows were one white plain of daisies. and red sumach. the action of a superior principle (ontology). and purple aster. now they seem to have drawn the glowing sunset tints into their fecund bosom. an autumn I have come from a walk through the greeting. passional manifestations which are the object of and whose psychic form " Semeiotics is it constitutes. and sent them. is to reproduce. upward into passionate blossoming. fields. The object of therefore. and goldenHave you made rod look up to the grey-tinted sky. What shall we study to-day? Draw your chair to the table there you will find pen and paper. "^Esthetics is the science of the sensitive and art. the organic signs explained inherent fitness is by semeiotics. as much progress in your work as nature has in hers? Think of it When first we met in June. LEGS. ESTHETIC TALK Will you have this bunch of goldenfasten it in your dress. earth's stars. by by which " aesthetics must study inherent art.: LESSON THE Good day. and whose estimated by aesthetics. IV. /") the science of the organic signs fitness. . quivering with life.

that " 4. If. " If semeiotics does not tell us the passion which the sign reveals. is how shall the artist translate the passion which he called upon to express? "Esthetics determines the inherent forms of sentiment it in view of the effects whose truth of relation estimates. " 2. I infer a cer- tain sentiment. the sign which it how can aesthetics indicate to us it should apply to the passion that studies? In a word. in view of the sentiment which produces them. is I deduce a certain organic form. that is Ontology. invariably to reproduce that form by substituting herent cause. initial determine the phenomena under upon the impulsion of which the inherent powers act the organism. . If I tell how that organism behaves under the is inherent action. "5.58 Delsarte System. If. title I take possession of that arrangement under the of methods. that Physiology. that is Semeiotics. after studying the arrangement of an I organic form whose inherent fitness to am supposed know. ALsthetics. " Semeiotics studies organic forms. : "i. that " 3. " To sum up If. from a certain sentiment. If I is my individual will for its in- Art. from a certain organic form.

that the spirit makes. You One see. still but the outer reverberation of the small voice within." Look with me the purple star principle " as is at this aster. one by one. Anatomy. is What we produce in merely the form of what exists artist's our minds. the end. If I Legs. the creature. and most perfectly adapted to bring them into outward manifestation. The flower is the sign. Do you ? realize that as much I the result of its " superior you or am of ours The spirit in a plant is its power of gathering from it the earth and the air dead matter. In the every accent. dear pupil. is to reproduce. every inflection. " The object of art. the organic signs explained by semeiotics. two things to observe: .The " 6. is within ere glows on the canvas. * . Arnaud on Delsarte. the life-power and energy the other. every gesture. and whose inherent fitness is estimated by aesthetics. then. by the action of a superior principle (ontology). 59 examine. Every stroke of the it brush is made actor. the form proceeding therefrom. and shaping its to chosen form. therefore." * Let us consider the third paragraph. the agents of that it is organism.

' The sense which you all know that its reality exists as the power which shaped you into shape. on the one hand. The spirit of man truly means his passion and virtue. on the other hand. ' ' Delsarte says " External gesture. The music of the spheres might be echoing in the but without an inbrain of some inspired master . in trying to elevate your conception of it. which gives it birth and rules it. should be its inferior in development. as the clay of which we are made plastic to the inner emotion. or evolved by them into a gas. and the outward work but the material form. and is stately according to the height of his conception. and stable according to the measure of his endurance. revelatory of the soul." After reflecting seriously on the foregoing. take care that you yourselves. the effect of the spiritual idea or spiritual form. that either the sculpturing or the loving power can ever be beaten down by the philosophers into a metal. however powerful it may be. being only the reverberation of interior gesture. "The in certain and practical sense of this word 'spirit. The idea." He "A adds voice. but. You need not fear." Ruskin. exists prior is to the object itself. do not lose its truth in a dream or even in a word. should be inferior to the power which animates it. how can one call the system of Delsarte mechanical? Do we consider the blossoming into beauty of a rose mechanical because we soften and sod the hard soil through which it must force itself into being? We make the ground we aim to make flexible for the tender rootlets. . and by which you love and hate when you have received that shape. as separate from the object.: : — 60 Delsarte System.

. Suppose I say in metaphor. It is only complete when the one written to has replied. should answer " thought to thought. answering. Edward either way it is of little consequence. to Some have thought that correspondence might be more properly derived from cor. "The Greeks achieved marvelous deeds. has spoken to the other again from the heart. but as the signification is the same Science of Correspondences : Rev. We speech to show that written communication has passed between two people. its 6i how could he convey wondrous vibra- tions to his fellow-souls? Ontology deals with the inner impelling power." material form should correspond to the inner form.— The strument Legs. the individual will. Correspondence is derived from three Latin words. the heart. of correspondences. and respondens.* in common The heart. and it means literally use the word to answer again from the heart." " Correspondence. heart to " Correspondence is no arbitrary relation- ship like metaphor or figure. I am thus particular because a great deal is learned by a strict attention to the derivation of words. compounded of two Latin words con. The science of semeiotics is the science of signs. nurturing the gifts of the intellect like faithful gardeners. Madelky. semeiotics would determine the sign. but one founded alike on the inward and outward nature of the things by which we are surrounded. cor-re-spondeo. with and respondere. and making them bring forth marvelous fruit " ! Esthetics would determine the fitness of the simile." * answer.

. " If. Thrown into a mesmeric sleep by means of a few passes. viz. make art. that is semeiotics. an artist. from a certain sentiment. combined will. I read an interesting account of the hypnotic experiments made by French doctors. as I wished you never to lose sight of the fact that "The spirit quickens. " If. I know it displeased. that the child is I infer is pleased . that aesthetics. I from a certain organic form. is deduce a certain organic form. The marble must reveal the passion surging in the breast of the out- raged hero. is infer a certain sentiment. gendarme. was selected (on account of his phlegm) for the experiment. whom he had risked his and shed ^Esthetics would select the bearing. attitude. a child laughs. have dwelt at some length on the inherent principle.— 62 I Delsarte System. on guard in front A of the Louvre." An I example of which the foregoing. and expression. Remember. see an outward manifestation. it cries. . the letter kills." In a science monthly of last year. Do you not now see at a glance the importance to the aspirant for dramatic laurels of a knowledge of semeiotics and aesthetics? with individual I The two." An life artist wishes to model Coriolanus exiled from Rome by the people for his blood.

Regnier said to me. viz. will cause a reflex feeling within. This seems to bear out an idea to be inculcated these lessons. . but that idea seems in genius to be unconit scious . but you must bear in so. 63 a neighboring studio. But now comes the strangest fact. the idea was in the artist's I mind. by ex- tending or contracting the muscles. : in A perfect reproduction of the outer manifestation of some passion. the giving of the outer sign. " Donkeys. Certain attitudes. emotion is The then slightly felt. am conscious. you cannot mentally plan at the in moment speaking of its execution. by compelling the breath to come and go more rapidly." feel like replying with Janet. and described himself as ex- periencing the throes of terror. This is delicate ground. " Mechanical. I and will make some of you Aunt " ! cry. the artist's hand. by increas- ing the heart-beats. Betsy Trotwood. mind all. after first. The summoned from Legs. that the sign is first formed within the exterior expression does not come In the mesmerized subject.. donkeys Think seriously a moment. He felt the emotion. posed him as The unconscious soldier obeyed a model of fear. The artistic idea within must form the outward ex- pression. cause physical interior sensations which are the correspondences of emotion. I am treading on egg-shells here.

Passional. and aptitudes are also found. be considered in man: Constitutional. to There are three types 1. I which. return. all our observations. periences. 2. and. constitutional type is The that which is congenital. its At the call of art this memory awakes from lethargy." How I have wandered But. " Give me a lover and he will say " Give me a student with feu sacre. he is certainly we all not mechanical. . " If you have to seek in the head what artist. Habitual." ought to be in the heart. although these paths lead from the main road. think shall find the solution in this All our study. is mixed in the mystic alembic. you are not an That latter I is true in but not true of Delsarte. forms the expression. which expression affects St." And I : ! But to signs. The may be mystical. for want of a clearer name.: 64 of Delsarte : Delsarte System. they must be traversed by art's pilgrim. traits. you in a reflex : wave. if he would know all the truth. all our ex- our life. interior will call our memory. without your having to again feel the emotion. Semeiotics is thus the science of and so the science of the form of gesture. and he will understand. — that unconscious storehouse where inherited tendencies. itself. Augustine says understand. 3.

The habitual bearing of the agent of ex. that 65 produced under the sway of emotion. 3. Have you not observed how a man's habits will color his every action? This is such a well-recognized fact that we often hear. " He tried to pass for a gentleman. " He disguised himself as a workingman and went among the people. The bearing The The the most permanent. pression 2. Passional types explain habitual types. but his habit of command betrayed him. habitual type is one not inborn. which acts as a second nature. and 5 draw a chart contain- . inflections are passing." Continued indulgence in any one form of feeling will make that feeling the predominant trait. each day you are perhaps carving for eternity.: The The The by passional type is Legs. but his bearing betrayed him ." or. — Take your pencil again. but created habit. vice versa. attitudes are less so. inflections of the agent. for gesture There are three forms of expression 1. and habitual types explain congenital types. refashioning the material being. So beware. The emotional The passing is attitudes of the agent. Thus we obtain a complete analysis of man. young sculptors.

for connormal. Leave room in each square for writing the signification of the attitudes of the legs. You one must always observe two be a sign of a physical con- things : An attitude may dition. centric. Delsarte System. Will you stand? the legs. is an abbreviation of excentric. . —Action nor. see. Both legs strong and wide apart breadths. Strong leg signifies that the leg. the power of action. The legs and arms form the vital division of the body. ing nine squares similar to the one in our second lesson. -nor. or of a sentiment. Ex. representing. as they do. for ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. I will call off the attitudes of Attention Exercise I.! 66 . The foregoing attitude : in- dicates either a condition or a sentiment A condition of fatigue. Signification fatigue. vertigo. vulgarity. nor. : standing in the Vital repose. Now lay your chart aside while you again listen. or intoxication of familiarity or vulgar boorishness. . knees straight. intoxication. or a sentiment . con. weight of the body is borne on that Free leg signifies that the leg is free from weight.

in the lengths both legs are strong and other . that unbent. they beg their little sweethearts to tread a measure. a formal introduction to ladies. —Action . toes turned out. The young should always assume it before the old. with bent head and proffered arm. Do you observe that in all the normal attitudes ? of the legs. his back to the fire in the nor.-nor.— In all of these attitudes the toes should turn out. his hands under his coat-tails. in the privacy of his own household. Standing apart. He would be a vulgar boor if he assumed the same position in society. or in station. It is the position of the inferior before the in Gentlemen. might permit himself to stand. Standing in the breadths both legs are strbng and is together. the weight is born equally on both . —Action . Attention ! A Exercise II. to those superior to themselves superior. attitude. a valet. Attention Exercise III. heels to- gether. This attitude signifies a condition of feebleness. knees straight. It is taught to small cavaliers in dancingschool.-nor. take this position. ex. B. -nor. one directly in front of the the knees are straight.! The Legs. 67 gentleman. N. or a sentiment of respect It is the one a child assumes. con. a soldier. when.

! . "Who knows?" Attention Exercise IV. a slight backward movement would two opposites. —You will attitudes. B. thus bringing the foot in front near to the foot behind. is an attitude which shows the mind as ruler. Attention Exercise V. 68 Delsarte System. — it decides but hesitates and cries. the The foregoing attitude signifies calm strength. would be necessary to indicate these This attitude is agnostic. strong is the knee of that leg free. con. the attitude of the thinker. the gentleman. It is an action half-way im- between advance and retreat. -con. It reserved force. while the sentiment deliberation. —Action . controlled emotions. declare for retreat. The condition signified is is indecision. A slight forward A petus would decide for advance. change of weight. nor. the scholar. observe that in all three of the concentric weight is borne on the back leg. is Standing in the lengths is the back leg . The fir3t term serves as an attribute making a species in the genus. the free leg is knee straight. -con. reflection. It is the final term which names the genus of the attitude. N. for nothing. —Action . is Standing in the lengths the strong leg in front. straight the forward leg while its knee is bent. its knee bent . the back. It indicates concentration. however. .

mix. the knee leg is is straight. is very common. nor. The condition such a onistic . position represents is antag- the sentiment. is 69 . is Standing in the lengths strong leg in front. the strong leg back. -con. then. This attitude signifies a condition of vigor. knee straight the free leg in front. and the ex. between the nor. The mixed attitude. Attention Exercise VI.-con. They can run into each other. the ball of the foot .! ! The The condition shown Legs. as colors in the rainbow. anima- . overAn attitude midway lap. the knee bent. rests on the ground the heel should be raised. -ex. is Stand so firmly on the forward leg that the other unnecessary for support. Many men erroneously consider this position a Remember. these attitudes are types. partakes of the meaning of the two from which it is composed. Attention Exercise VII. —Action . prostration the senti- ment. free behind. ex. —Action . despondent passion. the knee also straight. is Standing its in the lengths . -con. splenetic emotion. irritation. It also indicates self-assertion with an added ele- ment of defiance. defiance. manly one to assume.

! !

yo

Delsarte System.
It

tion, intention, or attention.

represents sentiments

of an ardent or passional tendency.

There

is

no introspection

in

this

attitude,

it

is

essentially excentric.

Attention

Exercise VIII.

—Action
;
;

con.-ex.
is

Standing
in the rear

in the

breadths

the free leg

slightly

of the strong leg
;

the knee of the strong
is

leg

is

straight
is

the free knee
line

bent

;

the toe of the

free leg

on a

with the instep-arch of the strong
is
is

leg; the foot of the free leg

very

much

turned

out

;

the heel of the free leg

raised a

little

from

the ground, while the ball rests on the ground.

The

attitude should

be unconstrained.

It

rep-

resents a suspensive

condition, neutral, transitive,
It

or colorless sentiments.

should be assumed when
lateral walk

changing the direction of the
Attention

on the

stage.

Exercise IX.

—Action
;
;

ex. -ex.

Standing

in

the lengths

both legs should be
the knee bent ; free

wide apart

;

strong leg

in front,

leg behind, the knee straight
is

the heel of the foot

raised, the ball resting

on the ground.

This signifies a condition of great excitement or
exaltation, sentiments of an explosive nature.

The

Legs.

yi

You have done very well.
ing in each of them.

Practice these attitudes

before a mirror, strictly observing a harmonic bear-

Keep
viz.:

in

mind your previous

lesson on that subject,
leg,

The head must sympathize with the strong
incline to the side
tlie

must

of the strong

leg,

while the

torso inclines in

opposite direction, thus

always

preserving equilibrium

and

the line

of

beauty.

.ESTHETIC TALK.— Continued.

Again
you.

I will unearth some Look over my shoulder

of

my

treasures for

at this collection

of

photographed

statues.

We

will select

one for each

of the foregoing attitudes. See, here is a faun holding a huge bunch of grapes, high over head. With upturned face he is dropping them one by one into his laughing mouth. One seems to share the grapes, so contagious is his enjoyment. Be quick, be quick, my faun. Do I not hear the songs of the wine god and his bacchantes ? Soon you must join their revelry. Still he stands in marble silence. Can you tell me in what attitude'? Yes, correct, in the nor.-nor., that of vital repose. What have you found? Ah, Hebe, the bewitching little waitress on Olympus. She stands, with both lovely arms upraised. Her two dear little feet nestle
close together.
It is

Here

in this frieze

our second attitude. of the Parthenon we find our

That beautiful youth in the procession turns and stops for one short instant. About what does he hesitate? His lips are dumb we
third example.

shall never

know. Pallas Athene, haughty child of Zeus,

reflection,

;

J2
control, reserve

Delsarte System.
power
is

conveyed by your bearing. of the snaky locks on your helmet to chill our blood. It freezes at your look. We enter your temple to worship, and Cupid and Bacchus are left outs'de, twining their garlands of roses and grapes. Ariadne, do not despair. The same wind that is filling the sails of Theseus, and wafting his argosy from you, brings to your ear the chant of merry bacchantes. A hero has deserted, but a god comes to console. So courage. She still is despairing; the pictured stone changes not. She teaches us the

You do

not need

Medusa

fifth attitude.

Ah
but

!

Demosthenes,

my

noble friend, well met

why this defiant position? Why this self-assertion? You have been petrified in the midst of an
oration and are there to illustrate our sixth attitude. " The horn of the hunter is heard on the hill."

Diana of the Louvre quick, select your arrow, shoot your bow. My heart beats quicker, my blood bounds at the sight of your vital presence. I would be one of your nymphs, Diana Diana Sweet Modesty. Chastely your robes fold around you you stand in a neutral attitude. What shall I judge from that? Ah Fighting gladiator you indicate to me explosion, with your excited air and forward-bent knee. I am told that you are striving to seize the bridle of rearing horses with that outstretched arm, and you are running, not fighting. You have been much maligned. What is it, child? You would look at the others? Seek some gallery where you will find casts of the antique, and spend a profitable hour in discovering the attitude in which each statue stands. Then go home and essay them before the glass.
! ! ! !

Diana

;

!

!

LESSON

V.

THE WALK.
ESTHETIC TALK.
Nay, do not lay off your hat we will woods, faire V ecole buissiniere, in la belle France. How keen is the A few hundred yards before us we see the scarlet and brown of the trees in hectic glory,

Well met. go to school as they say autumnal air

;

in the

!

frescoed against the blue dome of the sky. This Madison Square. Will you rest on this bench?

is

We are out
moments
I

for a walking-lesson.

For the

last

few

have been observing you

intently,

you

unconscious.
fire

Are you brave enough

to stand the
;

of criticism?

Your walk

is full

of defects
it

stiffly

projecting the leg, dragging after

the torso, the

heel strikes the ground with a thud, jarring the spine.

There are almost as many walks as there are
dividuals.
It is

in-

temperamental, as

much an

indicator

of the habits, character and emotions, as the voice.

One

recognizes a friend

by

his step,

even when heard

but not seen.
lecture.

As we

sit

here, listen to a short

In our last lesson

we considered

the attitudes of

the legs, and learned the emotional signification of

must be avoided as gymnastic crimes. Remembering that all the parts of the human body to have a reciprocal action on one another. a man astonished bucolic audiences by his prowess in lifting a cannon weighing thousands of pounds. The best rowing is from the hip. He supported it suspended from a belt around the hips. none failed. each step a foot apart (your own not the ordinary foot-measure)." Many more essayed. succeeded. Bobbing up and down. pitching. the vital division of the leg. but more than ordinary wit in discovering the strength : An at of the thigh. a daring youth sought to emulate him. the thigh does most of the hard work. item I lately read illustrated this In England. torso and limbs. rolling. This is the strongest portion of the frame.. one fine day. the arms serving to hold the oars. we shall now find that each attitude is the basis of a walk. 74 each pose . In modern athletic sports. straight. The great work of the movement falls to the lot of the thigh. However. and. perfect walk be The must be foot. strutting. A straight forward step . come all. Delsarte System. country fairs. thus proving no extraordinary strength on the part of the showman. every step must be a nice adjustment of the opposition maintained between head. to his own astonishment. To recapitulate what we have collected so far for our walk: i . " Come one.

The straightening of the knee plants the hoof. . as simultaneously my weight sways on And ball. With vital force he lifts his thigh. The and head should sway every motion of the legs attention. but neither horses nor either men can afford when torso have work to do or races to run. harmonic sympathy with walk of animated this is the vital. if now. in . so to speak lower leg and hoof hang loosely. The bare foot in fashioned to grasp the ground. Carry the foot is transfer near the ground. lower leg and foot hang foot. mandate of fashion decrees a heel on the shoe so ordinary mortals must yield. the proportions of a bare foot but. which should touch first. emotions that are Observe the processions of the Athenian youths and maidens on the Elgin marbles. 75 Harmonic poise Thigh-movement. you ask. is What thigh-movement? Look! sweeping up . alas ! the stern . loosely the unbending at my knee plants the it. The Walk. Fifth avenue trots a thoroughbred mark his action. 2.. Now turn and observe me. the thigh forward. the we all were virtuous and restored the foot to . In these pro- . and in planting the foot the heel will is first touch mother earth. the ball or the heel of the foot? Strictly speaking. High stepping fine in it sound. 3. I lift .

is significant of ! a normo-vital poise of being but. Mercury. That St. whistling an air from " Trovatore. flattery This praise. book on your head. and. And all the virtues of man without his vices. This . perfect poise has The necessity for Profit been his task-master. walk- practice the walk with a ing straight on a chalked tape. What " Near says Byron? this spot Are deposited the remains of one Who possessed beauty Courage without without vanity. we example." Watch that restless crowd. Man alone hops and halts. Strength without insolence. —the normo-excentric. limps and ambles. Can you find me a human example? Appearing through the gleaming trees." comes a young Italian vender. fulfilling the requirements. and involved. Is but a just tribute to the memory of Boatswain. a dog. which would be unmeaning If inscribed over human ashes. no human Bernard there comes toward us all with majestic stride.y6 Delsarte System. fantastic sculptured in marble action in various stages of this walk. On his head he balances a tray of plaster-casts. with happy sun-kissed face. when you reach your home. the marks two feet . Psyche. by the example. alas find as your eye roams over the passing crowd. one finds each figure cessions. im- ages of Venus. trudges and strides. ferocity.

is mani- 2." wish you only to remember " the suprem." strong. Pin this tape in front of the looking-glass. will by art alone he can do his work . But do not mistake me am no advocate of the " inspiration of lazy mediI ocrity. express a passing emotion (immediit ate energy) or maybe gained by practice. " Bodily power by practice " Bodily power by moral habit " Bodily power by immediate energy. So the walk may express your temperament (moral habit) ." Ruskin. — . suf- be found vain and incapable will and the be thrust work of temperance and rationalism aside and obscured by that of inspiration." And again : " He who sets himself to any work with which the muses have to do without madness. . thinking that ficiently. and yet they emphasize what in wish you always to bear I mind.: . stepon the marks as you see them " The perfection and power of the body as an instrument fested in three stages 1. acy of genius as the necessity of labor for there . for inserI Very strong words. too tion here . perhaps. it may . apart (your 77 own feet) . The Walk. 3. Hear Plato " It is the testimony is of the ancients that the madness which a nobler thing than the of God is wisdom which is of men. and reflected. is Happy one if your temperament the exciting cause of : beautiful action.

" Study and prepare a perfect mirror re- which the vision of genius can be perfectly . . the other stained. flected without it often the image comes torn and rent as from a broken glass. while work must be is done. the ruling and. never was. the canif vas white and smooth wildly.' then the work becomes art. or rather that entire and man of which cornea and retina. boundless in power." Ruskin. but imitation. perhaps. harmoniously. fingers and hands are all the mere servants and instruments. never governed. Thus. a period in which so so vain efforts many and it have been made to replace toil by study and in toil. divine power. flecked and light. if the strings be true. the instrument perfected. and can gain in strength when the hand and the foot are hewn off and cast into the fire. a canvas on which that paints . it can al- ways be detected as and resembles truth is as nearly as the cloud on a painted canvas like one on heaven's canopy. The is imagination. the moment this part of the man stands forth with its solemn 'behold it is I. one be broken. you see. indeed. art as it only valuable expresses goodness and greatness in the soul. thrilled with golden only being of the " But the moment that inner part of man.— 78 Delsarte System. is The tendency of the age toward formulation of . that manhood which has light in itself though the eyeball be sightless. Imitation may imitate the expression. priceless in value. perfect in honor. The rest of man is but an in- strument on which that plays.

not art. may be yours without bodily power to express or you may be within. When we remember the last half century the real nature of earth. light. and of animal existence. to apprehend for we realize what children we have been years. or rather make no effort to recall them. she was virtuoso. showers all her gifts on one head. master of modern science says: "When men it invented the locomotive.The Walk. Because much of your practice without conscious thought. the child was learning to go when they to speak. of. will cling to you. not head-work. or the stage." invented the telegraph. So let us pray for . because nature rarely Inspiration . 79 that within air. creators. Your motto there should be heart-work. and here a word of advice : When before the public in the pulpit. science. on the platform. but Demosthenes and Talma were we all know their struggles to conquer the bodily powers in expression. was hardly dreamed fail — and that even now the mass of mankind it. " Then why study art's rules and formulae ? " I hear you ask. forget all rules. was learning But the locomotive and the telegraph must be guided . more than six thousand A ." virtuosos without " the still small voice Rachel sought Samson for interpreter.

vital force flowing to toes before I move rigid knee. Words unnecessary. It is selection to by many it needless add that should be used only in portraying secret." Are you ward us as rested ? Shall we walk ? ? we enter Fifth avenue Who comes toAn actress. perceptive and eager heart. The difference between this walk and the first de- scribed. step. . sinuous in its panther-like effect. it. we call that the normo-concentric walk. A walk taught the society actor. secrecy . and is selected by the excentro-concentric. consists in the planting of the foot with bent knee. in the .defiant attitude. 80 Delsarte System. as the weight sways on rises. by her walk. her secret step betrays her errand. the figure its No jar is possible to the frame. sinuous character. Very effective proper place. quick. : Im- agine this scene in " Diplomacy the " Zicka is crossing are room to steal the letter in the casket. ing defiance. and finally dealt with by by the body under the direct guidance of these higher powers. Observe. by stage-managers.. using the knee as a spring. expressI start Observe me. perfected "a the intellect. as expressive of controlled force. a A soft." Each ad- vance step strikes the heel hard on the pavement. hence actresses for grace. she plants her foot with bent knee. then. I feel " how manly I am.

the torso dragged after. Watch her. walk. you her legs to take their tiny pace. Here toddles a wee one. the blind instinctively seek a broad base in standing and walking. as yonder she trots A little shake at the hips helps Miss Flora. dear. Prof. " My knees sink under me . my opinion " I have but one criticism to make. aptly to in two dudes." " " can I make them so ? legs blind my My ! How explained " Fearing to lose their equilibrium. asked of his performance. with soubrette steps. despairing walk of prostration seems to exclaim. musing over proto- plasm. dict. small atom. you are toddling in the in that of nurse. I 6 . Turn your head before sight." was ver"Your legs are not blind. help or I die ! " the despondent. Muggins is out of With doubting step he hesitates and thinks a slight pause.: . ever and anon . should sport cap and ribbons and muslin apron to be all in harmony. hand Baby. Behold. professor? An actor playing a blind part. but quite out of place in Miss Flora McFlimsey. The Walk. concentro-normal . The windows the opposite house almost jar as they pass. expressing infancy or inferiority in very cunning you. stride 8i illustrate.

for me. the free foot then points the changed direction. Very well . torso thrown well forward. It is the vulgar and peasant walk. is The concentro- excentric attitude the one assumed in the change of direction. And now. the sinking forces seek to recover their equilibrium on as broad a base as possible. Shall we race again? We a gray-coated policeman appears. no one observing sail- but those two black swans with crimson beaks. Catch for. This saves numberless especially so behind small steps. an apt scholar. you are cannot. He eyes us with . forward leg strong. awkward and Central Park us try a run. Let Here a by-path. women. The run Try is a continuous succession of these attitudes. like me.82 Dels arte System. always the footlights. raising the heel and anchoring with both heels free. Also in vertigo and drunkenness. step is Each attitude is taken with rigid knee. weight on the ball of the advanced foot. Recall the atti- tude of the fighting gladiator. the excentro-excentric. the basis of this walk. you roll instead of run. all if you can. knee bent. ! A good is arena for our race. Ah ! I outdistance you." the nor. attention to the turn.-nor. the ball of the free foot this leaves So I turn to any point I choose . ing majestically on that tree-encircled lake. I throw my .

Assume leg. B. of legs Assume attitude of explosion. con. Exercise III. ^ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. —Always rest on knee which is Exercise IV. (a) Sink into attitude of prostration. —Back Fall. The body is now prone.-ex. (b) rise slowly from carefully observing . We will go home .-ex. (a) (b) —Kneeling. striking the thigh of the back leg on one side just above the knee . suspicion.. Exercise {a) II. —Bowing. of legs. attitude of explosion. —Front Fall. ex. 83 He thinks us "children of too large a growth sun is " for such games. it. toward the audience. (d) let torso fall back. Assume attitude of prostration. The Walk. the setting. of legs floor (b) throw body forward.-con. striking on thigh of strong Be careful to protect the face with the forearms as you throw torso to the ground. simultaneously straightentire ening bent knee. N. Exercise I.-con. of (b) sink as low as the back knee will allow (c) then swing the body to the floor. (a) legs . con. ex. free leg until the bend knee rests on the ground.

fall. Exercise VII. —Rising from Front Fall. attitude of legs con. B. With the aid of the arm if the bent leg in falling was the right). There are various degrees of bowing.con. (a) —Rising from arm Back (right Fall. as is possible bend torso forward the chair and The thigh now meets you are seated. say right.- ex. in harmonic poise of head and torso the legs. raise the torso as you simultaneously bend under you the (b) right leg. (c) then rise as de- right knee touching the floor. This (a) is about the same as rising from back outstretched leg. (a) Rise —Rising from (b) Sitting. Exercise VI. . — Sitting. Sink on knee toward the audience. and (c) rise to nor. (b) . right leg strong. weight on right leg chair. Exercise VIII. scribed below in the rise from kneeling. by bending torso forward and throwing . — Exercise V. bend (c) right knee as far down and out in opposition. attitude of legs.84 Delsarte System. when torso is raised from throw weight on left leg. throw yourself thus into a kneeling position. is The bent under . (a) Stand before a chair. the knee bends less in a slight obeisance. opposition to N.

heel clearing the ground. —Pivoting. -con. aided to that rise 85 by the right arm holding the weight for one instant. B. Throw the weight on the free leg. . foot to attitude ex. the palm on the floor . Your direction will then be to- ward the left. (b) from kneeling position. as the torso rises. N. e. left ball . N. The arm and knee which bear the weight should be on the same side. {a) Stand erect. (e) Stand in attitude nor. B. The three great things to be always borne in mind in every movement are ease. (a) —Rising from is Kneeling. (b) rise from thence to attitude of legs nor. (/) pivot on ball of advanced This completely reverses the attitude. both legs strong (b) sway weight on to ball of right foot.-ex. .The Walk. — Exercise IX. precision.-ex. i. which system is founded on the universal laws of equilibrium and grace. Reverse this to change the direction toward the right. (d) rest on heel of right foot. ball of left left foot touching the ground ball.. not the one the knee of which on the ground . harmony. the face replacing the back. (V) turn toward on the right following. Do . — Exercise X. not jar on the heel. you then rise. All of the foregoing stage business is in accordance with the system of Delsarte.

sink as Be careful not to lurch back on heels and so jar the body. heels 'together. {b) slowly on toes. the chief merit of the fore- going exercise. slowly. toes diverging. in attitude con.. -nor.86 Delsarte System. Exercise {a) Stand XL—Rising rise on Toes. . This develops the calves of the rise The slowness with which you is and sink in uninterrupted motion. legs.

and to=day your letter —such a for the present. a messenger • u : Am called away will explain —our chats and studies must cease letter. 40 University Place.: . elaborating the following." blue one ! rat=tat=tat. unless I can teach by I will send you concise summaries of the to laws to be be essayed. No. instead a telegram by letter . THE AUTHOR. Write me of your progress. see The Voice. Werner. but you came not . New York. ln= closed find the lesson. For articles on the Delsarte System of Dramatic Expression. your hour. . Your teacher and friend. the gymnastics I cannot promise. Edgar S. Publisher. (Dearest The clock struck one. —more apprehended.

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3. To mold or detect. The palm. have to consider.. side. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE HAND. moral The in nature. 4. THE FACES OF THE HAND. mental in nature. indications of the hand.— . THE HAND. functions of the hand. 3. VI. faces of the The The The hand 2. 5. mystic in expres- sion. vital in nature. . affirm or 2. LESSON We i . 1. To accept or reject . indicative or defini- tive in expression. . To conceal or reveal To surrender or hold. revelatory in ex- pression 2. 1. deny. 6. To To define or indicate. The back. 3.

hand points to object to be indicated. (b) side to earth. To caress or assail. 1. as if To deny: ment of negation from 3. 5. makes move- ment of (b) up and down. the fingers at the same time gently closing on palm. («) To mold: hand makes a movement soft substance. 8.. exposing palm. often made when following a train of (#) To conceal: bring the palm of the hand toward you. makes moveside to side. Description of Movement. To support or protect. (A movement thought. po 7. hand. palm down. palm down. molding a (b) To detect: rub the thumb across the fin- gers as if feeling a texture held between them. To inquire or acquire 9. (a) To affirm affirmation : hand. . Delsarte System. (b) To reveal : reverse the above movement. palm down. action as if dropping something on the ground. {a) To surrender: closed hand opens. hand moves up and down. as clay.) 4. : indicate first finger prominent . {a) To To define: first finger prominent. 2.

significant zone. The hand indicates the condition of the being. reject: if (b) fingers unclose from down- turned palm as 7. or sideways. The hand indicates the side of the being pre- dominating in activity. . 6. (b) If sideways. outstretched fingers as in the blind (b) palm down. THE INDICATIONS OF THE HAND. (b) 91 if To hold : the hand closes as to retain something. (a) To support palm : up. : (a) inquire a tremulous movement of the . fin- To acquire : hand drawn toward you. (a) as if To To To accept: fingers close on upturned palm receiving something. making a flat surface as if supporting a weight. gers curve toward down-turned palm 8. This is shown by the point its of departure of the gesture from 2. To assail : palm down . the fingers make a convulsive movement of clutching. covering what you protect. animal nature.The Hand. throwing something away. 1. caress: a («) To movement of stroking up and one caresses the down. (b) To if protect: palm down . a movement of fingers as 9.

first is In the subdivision of its the fingers. as the palm the fingers mental. the mental. : Description of action hand normal. hence little predomi- nance in defining. : . the thumb carried opposed to the second this and third fingers.-nor. 92 This is Delsarte System. The hand . as illustrated in the attitudes of the hand. Second and third fingers touch each other . fingers are apart and little is from these two. as follows Thumb exactly opposed to second and third fingers 2. . I.. indicates the intention or attention of the being this is shown by the inflections of the hand in gesture. we have to observe its here is that in the normal attitude of the hand. Test by shutting the thumb the first on the two foregoing fingers. hand. Action : nor. is proper carriage 1. the finger is expressive of the affections the second and third together repAll resent the vital tendencies. 3. That is. shown by the unfolding of the hand by itself. : Signification calm repose. THE CONDITIONAL ATTITUDES OF THE HAND. in the The thumb the thermometer of will-power is vital.

Signification: approbation. forefinger. : Signification indifference. will still do so from submission. Action : con. Description of action: the fingers curved gently. " If I observe in the second a slight contraction of the thumb. II. " But if the third oppose his thumb forcibly to the other fingers Oh! all I can count on him." Delsarte. : thumb attracted inward. "—Delsarte. although indisposed to oblige me. that in all these corpses the — that of adduction or attraction inward. " Now in I prove that the thumbs of the dying man contracted at first * * * an almost imperceptible degree. Hold " Suppose I had asked the same service of three men.-nor. Thus. but that this phenomenon indicates the approach of death in proportion to its intensity. The abduction of his thumb me more in regard to his loyalty than the assurances which he might give me. thumb displayed a I noticed. thumb abducted. or death. Action : ex. tells me that he is dead to my proposition. I had acquired the proof that not only does the adduction of the thumb characterize death.— The Hand. Description of action " similar tendency. it is plain to me that he would deceive me for his thumb. -nor. thus placed. 3. tenderness. this attitude lightly. tells he will not deceive me. imbecility.' accompanied by a If one of them had let his thumb approach the gesture of the hand. in fact. 93 Little and first fingers spread apart and a little back of their neighbors. insensibility. and that each had answered me with the single word 'yes. prostration. III. . I must believe that he. the .

the fingers of the hand that held the child With other nurses.— 94 "I noticed nurses Delsarte System. Signification: animated attention or intention. Action: nor. : Signification calm self-possession. : Description of action fold fingers on palm. Description of action : fold fingers on palm. resolution.-ex. : Signification convulsion. concentration of force. power. thumb pressed tightly across the second joints of closed hand. more affectionate. in these. but this eccentration rose to more startling proportions in the mothers. : Description of action fingers and thumb crooked toward centre of palm.-con.-con. who were distracted and indifferent to the chil- dren under their charge. Action : ex. the thumb was invariably drawn toward the fingers. if There the thumb was Delsarte. hand nearly closed. thus offering some resemblance to the contraction which it manifests in death. bent violently as to embrace a beloved being. Action : con. . Action : nor. VI. V. VII. disstill playing a thumb bent outward. thumb upright at side of first finger." IV. were visibly parted.-con. : Signification struggle. • earnestness.

Raise arm in breadths . hand open. Action: ex. recompose hand. Signification : exaltation of passion.The Hand. arm stiff. as in convulsion. hand expanded. Practice the line. VIII. by the sympathy there between the muscles and nerves of the hand and those of the throat and jaws. : Description of action extent. Description of action : 95 straight.fingers more spread from palm crooked. Each attitude will effectually color the tone. sink wrist action brings . only. " — " Shut the door ! assuming by turn each attitude with both hands. : Description of action hand . Arm still tended. fingers thumb spread. : Signification exasperation. to its greatest and thumb wide The attitudes of the is hand color the voice. AESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. IX.-ex. in to This hand from palm palm out. Action : con. hand falling as if dead ex- brings finger-tips level with shoulder. fingers hand spread apart. finger- . Exercise I.-ex.

sink elbow again to side com- bine last with a rotary inward movement of upper throw the hand arm. Exercise HI. Sink wrist as breadths. raise elbow up and out . Straighten elbow . which needs the living teacher. Sink wrist the air. arm in Rotate wrist until fingers point to ground. formed. Raise hand on wrist. N. falls decomposed. move the arm through It will float keeping hand as a dead weight. Recompose hand. palm out. B. Exercise II. . — The foregoing must be practiced until easily per- SERPENTINE MOVEMENT.96 tips raised. this will out and up. hand . simultaneously sinking upper side of torso. wrist remains level with armpit. bend elbow Without unbending. The above must be done with great accuracy or it is worthless. which throws decomposed hand palm out and down. N. palm stiff. previously explained . Delsarte System. Now. Elbow arm to has been Now. B. in. The level of finger-tips has not changed during the process. as a feather.— It is difficult to write out movement. in every altitude . until finger-tips touch shoulder.

Normo-normal.. The Hand. Conditional Attitudes of the Hand. Concentro-concentric. Concentro-normal. . Excentro-normal. Excentro-concentric. Normo-concentric. Concentro-excentric. 97 CHART III. Normo-excen trie Excentro-excentric.

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-nor. He has radiations to each. Divinity. THE POSITIONS OF THE HAND IN SPACE. side to earth. Humanity. RELATIVE TO THE CENTRES OF GRAVITY AND BEING.— Continued. The human in the lengths. the universal centre up. en rapport with : Nature. 3.. radiations between man and man is are The individual centre represented by the torso. palm turned to earth. Man is 1. and looks upward THE RELATIVE ATTITUDES OF THE HAND. Hand Hand straight with forearm. earth. THE HAND. . Thus man stands on the his fellow-beings communicates with centres. Nature and divinity are the two extremes the centre of gravity down. . Con. expanding from individual to the universal. straight with forearm.-nor. which figures the love of the being. 1 Nor. 2. LESSON VII. 2.

. assailment 7.-nor. out.-ex. signifies salu- tation. . 7. 5... signifies grasp.-con.-con.. moves from side to side. signifies ap- pellation. Con. signifies exalta- tion. to con. 6. Con. sig- nifies distribution. Hand from Hand from ex.-con. 5. 6. THE INFLECTIONS OF THE HAND. 4. Ex.. Nor. ing. sig- nifies 3. side to earth. out. palm turned up from earth. fingers turned to earth.-ex. from earth. formulation. fingers 8. Delsarte System.-con. # Hand straight with forearm. Palm Palm 9. lust. moves from side to side. 1. signi- fies simple statement.-ex. Ex. to ex. to ex.-nor. fingers to earth. con. abbreviations used below describe the relative attitudes of the For their explanation. The hand.-con. ex.-con.-ex. curved fingers. con. or definition. Palm Palm Palm in. out.ioo 3. Nor. Hand Hand Hand nor.-ex. to con.-ex.. Ex. Palm turned to self. Hand from con. impatient negation. fingers up from earth.-nor. Hand from ex.-nor. in.-con. side to earth. surprise.. moves up and down.-ex. 4. 2. refer to the foregoing definitions.

commencing level. simultaneously raise in opposition. Bend torso forward at waist . Bend raise torso backward at waist. Exercise V.The Hand. Exercise III. to the right. Sway arms in opposition. simultaneously arms forward in opposition.-con. arms back Exercise II.. ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. 8. nor. to nor. deceit. mysticism. Exercise I. signifies con- cealment. head turning to the left Exercise VI to the right Sway arms in opposition. head turning . to the left.-ex. at shoulder At the same time head must sink on breast in opposition. to nor. signifies ex- position. Exercise IV. Raise arms slowly over head. revelation.. 9. Let arms fall.-con. ioi Hand from Hand from nor. head rising in opposition.-ex.

of to side. legs. e. Take attitude ex. of legs. heels together. GLADIATOR OPPOSITIONS. Arms drop in Repeat the above quick succession.. of legs. Exercise VIII. of legs. left Right arm raised simultaneously with arm back. . gesture in the lengths.-ex. Take attitude ex. signifying explosion right leg strong. i. 102 Delsarte System.-ex. should always be in opposition to the forto maintain perfect equilibrium. Return to attitude con. Exercise VII.-nor. Arms drop to side. front.-nor.. movements a number of times The arm ward leg in excentric gesture. right Simultaneously raise left arm in arm back. in front left leg strong. Return to attitude con.

-nor. Bigot's affirmation. ex. It defines. : Signification 8. Signification: 4. -ex.-nor..-ex. It Signification: rejects all opposed. con. : Signification 2. Below are nine. It protects. : Signification 7. Hand con. nor. etc. 5. nor. There are many affirmations of the hand. : Signification 3.-nor. It Signification: Tyrant's affirmation. commands. affirmation is a movement up and down. THE HAND.-con. It reveals.-con. Hand Hand Hand nor. 6.. It limits.-con. Saint's affirmation. ex. The abbreviations. hand. Seer's affirmation.LESSON VIII. Patron's affirmation. Teacher's affirmation. THE AFFIRMATIONS OF THE HAND. Champion's affirmation. It supports. Signification: Conservative's affirmation. It mystifies. Hand Hand Hand Hand nor. describe the relative attitudes of the An i. con. -nor.— Continued. .

Sink elbow. relative position.-nor. is now be- hind. attitudes. raise elbow. elbow bends without changing wrist is When falls level with armpit. stretched to its full length. in the various conditional The two hands clasped not change the meaning.-ex. It paints. finger unchanged. THE COMMAND "GO. hand decomposed. Raise arm tate in front level with the shoulder." This movement takes place in the lengths. The arm. convulsion. Hand ex. Delsarte System. Exercise II. upper arm has continued a backward sweep Altitude of first during preceding movement. as power. struggle. . demonstrates or protests. : Signification Orator's affirmation. Exercise I. etc. does AESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. Ro- hand into ex. level with shoulder. un- bend it.. Exercise III. Withdraw arm the altitude. first finger indicating object. The hand supplements the expression of the face.104 9. Sink wrist until hand .

Practice raising the arm-movements in evolution-motion. 6. Wrist. 2. 5. if finger point- ing as to an exit. 3. 4. palm down. 5. Exercise VI. Shoulder. Shoulder. Exercise IV. Exercise V. Upper arm. shall 105 first be level with arm. 2. Hand.: . Forearm. 3. : The Hand. Practice evolution of muscular action in gesture of arms thus 1. Forearm Wrist. Elbow. Upper arm. Notice that the forearm forms a more and more acute angle with the upper arm as the altitude rises. arm in every degree of altitude. Practice involution from action to repose thus 1. 4. Hand. 6.. Begin the unbending of the forearm before the upper . Elbow.

Exercise Bow head as you raise hand then torso as you bend forearm toward the breasE Practice evolution of body thus Exercise VIII.: : 106 Delsarte System. . — I cannot too strongly call your attention exercise. so the hand recom- arm reaches poses as the upper arm ceases motion. is also exemplified in the Practice involution of body thus VII. . Raise torso as you unbend forearm. to this The law of evolution perfect walk. then head as you expand hand. B. the destined level. N.

The The 1. " The shoulder. 2. THE SHOULDER.. or agitated. THE ARM. to be noted in order to understand the motions of the arm 1. the thermometer of the affections 3. pas- sion. articulations of the arm is are three The shoulder. his will playing no part in the ascension of this involuntary act are in absolute relation of proportion to the passional intensity whose numeric measure they form. 3. in every man who is moved . which the thermometer of sensibility 2. rises the developments sensibly. The The articulations. therefore. which and self-will. insensibility. The shoulder dropped death. The shoulder raised indicates sensibility. The shoulder may. and passion is The elbow. 2. attitudes. . inflections." —Del- 1. sarte. The wrist. be fitly called the thermometer of sensibility. :: LESSON There are three things fully IX. indicates prostration. which is the thermometer of vital energy.

conceit. in the heights and — Keep in mind evolution of motion.. 3. for fine. inversely. The wrist turned out demonstrates The vital energy in action 2. re- the elbow. for pathetic action. N. imbecility indicates self. the hand. . force. The wrist normal demonstrates vital energy in repose. audacity. calm. ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. B. body by reason of humility. concentration. 1. indicates tenderness. for pride lastly. 2. in indicates suppression of weakness. and delicate actions. SPIRAL MOVEMENT. concealment. wrist turned in demonstrates vital energy in accumulation. The elbow turned out The elbow turned poverty of spirit. modesty." Delsarte. 3. self-assertion. — . 108 3. self. Delsarte System. that spiritual is. which approaches the ciprocally. The shoulder advanced indicates endurance patience. The elbow normal calm repose. unconsciousness of THE WRIST. This movement takes place depths. • I. "Three centres in the arm: The shoulder. and . THE ELBOW.

force flows into forearm it. raising on arm. raise it (#) Putting force in to level of shoulder in front. At level of shoulder. (e) force flows into hand. When arm line with straight. palm in. Now follows the evolution of motion. This exercise consists in evolution of motion carried to the altitude of absolute truth. and is unbends upper arm still rising. . The arm is now directly over head. muscular force acting only in upper arm. fingers pointing up. (cf) a rotary movement of wrist it turns hand . A rotary moveof the elbow ment of the arm has turned the eye (commonly upper arm. 109 (a) Bring arm directly in front of body. Exercise. (c) The forearm and hand must hang decomposed.The Arm. called crazy-bone) to the front.

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-nor. indifference. arms extended from shoul- elbows unbent. Action : nor. : Signification calm resignation of : will.-nor. . IV. or affection. II. Action : ex. III. Hands decomposed.— Continued. suspense of will in its attention or Description of action to sides fall : elbows bent and pressed brings wrists to level of chest.LESSON X. Description of action arms crossed on breast. THE ARM. : Signification expansion of will-power in the as- sertion of its force.-con.-nor. THE ATTITUDES OF THE ARM. : Description of action ders in breadths . I. : Signification intention. : Signification calm repose. Action : nor. Action : con.

inso- Description hips . : arms hang full length in VII. reflective vital concentration. VI.-ex. of action: elbows bent.-con. force in am- bush (/. : Signification lence. Action : nor. form of excitement or of action: Description arms folded tightly on chest. objective reflection. arms hanging from shoul- V. e. eye of elbow toward VIII. self-assertion.-ex. Action : con. : Description of action ders at sides. Action : ex.. hands on front. suppressed pasvitality. vital repose. . : Signification ation. forearms are nearly level with shoulders. force in prepar- Description of action front of body. Action : con. force concealed). defiance. : Signification sion.-con. : Description of action arms hang back of body. : Signification subjective reflection.ii2 Delsarte System.

execute the spiral move- ment are to the altitude of absolute truth . 113 Action : ex. full Description of action: arms extended their length in front. level with shoulders. Exercise. IX. the (c) ..-nor. slightly precede the action of the 8 . then forearms sweep upper arms (e) (d) unbend elbows finish in expand hands. (a) With both arms. (b) decompose hands. into breadths .The Arm. passional explosion. One arm should other.-ex. ^ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. or tenderness. both arms now over . signifying expansion of will in force. : Signification exaltation. head. The arms attitude ex.

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. relative. hand nor. .-nor. relative. : Description of action movement of arm in . -nor. . : Signification caress.-nor.-ex.-nor. in hand con. Action : nor.— Continued. relative . III.. relative. : Description of action in movement of arm . LESSON XL THE ARM. Description breadths . of action : movement of arm relative. directly breadths . I. THE INFLECTIONS OF THE ARM. -nor. IV. . : Signification declaration. hand nor. : Signification rejection. heights and depths in . hand con.-nor. : Signification negation. Action : nor. animal caress breadths . : Description of action oblique movement of arm hand ex. Action : ex. Action : con. II. -nor.-con.

V. lengths toward torso . of action .-ex.-ex. Action : con. hand ex.n6 Action : Delsarte System.-con.-nor. . : Description of action movement of arm from ex. repulsion. : Signification: Description of action movement from . IX.-ex. hand relative. hand ex. . VIII. relative. relative. -ex. in heights and depths . relative. VII. relative. : Signification appellation. : Description of action movement of arm in . : Signification attraction. depths to heights .-ex. Action : ex. torso of arm in lengths . -con.-nor. Description lengths . con. : Signification acceptation. : Signification affirmation. -nor. : movement of arm in hand ex. VI. Action : ex. : Description of action movement of arm . Action : nor. hand con.

conditional. relative. —Accusation. {a) ex. quiet. to attitude ex. . when movement Exercise III. meet then forearm this drops hand on back of head. —Remorse. con. eye of elbow to front. Hand decomposes.into ex.-ex. opposition and ceases. (Head has sunk opposition to level position.- Upper-arm muscles swing arm (c) (b) rotate wrist. thrusting out chin... (Head has sunk as low as possible. which has risen in opposition to it . which turns eye of elbow out bends . expand hand in nor. . .) Exercise IV. {a) —Imprecation. (a) Right shoulder rises slightly. (d) hand expands in tenderness in head has been slowly rising back.ex. ^esthetic gymnastics. while head sinks in opposition . oblique. position of legs con. weight on right head and arm Exercise II. (c) then forearm un. —Resigned Appeal . is right. . . (b) upper arm makes rotary movement. —Mental or Normal Calm of Being.. Heaven..-ex.The Arm. 117 PRIMARY OPPOSITIONS OF THE ARM AND HEAD. to Take foot. Swing arm above head and (b) expand hand ex.) Exercise V. relative. Exercise I. expressing execration.

Head and arm separate (b) head rises and rotates to the right. Grief or Shame. Exercise VII. (a) —Reproach." . — Pathetic Protest or Benediction.- (d) hand expands. separate. united. sink Head and arm do not on chest. it expresses pathetic appeal or protest. con. Expanding ex.. while (c) hand and forearm left decomposing.-ex. Exercise VIII. hand expands. which gives ment. signifying bene- diction. -nor. should be its inferior in developis —Delsarte. (a) (b) —Repulsion from . Each action flows into the subsequent one. but. {a) Upper-arm muscles swing ex. . it birth and rules it. Always retain a gesture as long as the same thought or emotion is retained. into breadths Upper-arm muscles swing arm (c) forearm unbends to front .. B. back of left. Delsarte System. "Nothing more deplorable than a gesture without a motive. drops hand near armpit and fore- arm across chest.. The action of head and arm in above movements must be made simultaneously. arm to attitude ex. hand (d) head rotates in opposition to Exercise IX. N. —Deep Thought. Affection. — " External gesture being only the reverberation of interior gesture. . n8 Exercise VI. or one remains in the same mood.

HXtfral Sxxrtsiotu .

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If the gesture seeks the heart-region. XII. . . for that is the moral zone. to be known in relation to Its significant Its attitudes Its inflections. the affections predominate . THE TORSO. LESSON There are three things the torso i.: . Mental Zone : The seat of conscience. the torso are the points of departure The zones of or arrival for a gesture. ZONES OF THE TORSO. Moral Zone Vital Zone : : Seat of the affections. Its zones we have already studied. honor. As such they indicate the side of the being predominating in expression. if the gesture seeks the chest. Seat of the appetites. manhood and womanhood. 3. 2. In emotion. but will here recapitulate. self- respect predominates for that is the mental zone. zones.

ATTITUDES OF THE TORSO. effort. prostration. pain. indicating different degrees of or surrender. Above into all . indicating different degrees of timidity. those produced by the physical condition of the 2. the prominent zone is very significant of the being. or convulsion of will 3. indolence. Conditional attitudes that is. Expansion indicating different degrees of ex- citement. The i . The sion in 1. . power in the will. insensibility in the will. torso in itself. vehemence. torso has two species of attitudes . protruding the aodomen should be avoided the best carriage throws the moral zone prominence. intoxication. : 122 Delsarte System. Contraction. those relating the torso to the object in nature. conditional attitudes of the torso are three . for that is the vital zone. the appetites If the gesture seeks the predominate . abdomen. In the carriage of the torso.: : . things. or to the image in mind. that is. The i. and 2. Relaxation. torso its is endowed with three forms of expres- variable movements Bearings. Relative Attitudes. Relative attitudes.

123 Attitudes. relative attitudes of the torso are three to The 1. 2. or objective repulsion . The torso represents the moral element. INFLECTIONS OF THE TORSO. is direct. Inflections. so to speak. . Leaning before the object denotes vital or ob- jective humility. 1 Up and down indicates the despair of the weak alternately excited oscillation of the will and de- pressed 2. Its bearings and attitudes are the most deeply expressive. lique. Its inflections are all indicative of weakness. moral or subjective repulsion. 3. shame or rever- ence. if direct. if ob- moral or subjective humility. From side to side indicates carelessness . shame or obsequiousness. 3. vacil- . is Leaning from the object. moral or subjective. the core. real or assumed. as love It is the weight and centre of the being. The Torso. If the attitude . of the man. is the attraction is vital or objective is if the attitude oblique. signifies vital if the attitude oblique. or love It is is of the being. : . Leaning the object.. the attraction 2. the weight and centre of the body.

.. 124 lation of the will Delsarte System. circular. impatience of the will. and oblique direct inflections. indifference to the equilibrium of the will 3. concave The inside quarter circles. comprise three they are usually united. should be lowed by the right hand or arm as they are curved. The primary types of motion inflections of gesture . Twisting or rotary . We name them direct. di- ments circular the abductory chart. . They apply to the right arm and hand. movement indicates childish will . . drawn fol- in relation to the outer circle. movements Study the following and mark well the rection of the arrowheads. the rotary moveoblique. The flexor movements are . spasmodic convulsion of the chaos ^ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS.

. 125 CHART IV. Movements of Right Arm and Hand.Circle-Chart.

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|$jettM ipxrisicro. .

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. 2. in relation to Its significant Its attitudes. 3. vital in: predominate 9 namely. THE HEAD.: . zones. appetites. . passions . LESSON XIII. Its inflections. : : . Nose and cheek are moral. stincts the hand seeks the chin. to recapitulate How- The zones 1 of the face are three. The zone on top of at moral is vital. . . The zones of the head we have already studied as points of departure or arrival for the gesture. There are three things to be known the head i. the back of the head In emotion. 3. Forehead and eye are mental 2. The top and back of zones 1 the head also divide into three The zone above The zone if the forehead the head is is mental 2. ever. 3. Mouth and chin are vital.

130 Delsarte System. the mental predominate hand touches the cheeks. the affections. if While instincts If the the hand seeks the forehead. the moral instincts that is. . predominate. ..

3. Mental. . Zones of the Head. 2. 1. Moral. 131 CHART V. Vital.The Head.

132 Delsarte System. III. : Signification reflection.-con. but must not be raised. Action: nor. concentration. Signification : calm repose. shoulders. Action : nor. affec- esteem from the soul. sympathy.-nor. or indifference. : Signification tion. inclined neither to right nor up nor down. humility.-nor. attitudes of the head. Description of action : head sinks on chest mid- way between the shoulders. trust.-nor. : esteem from the senses. IV". depressed or rotated. II. tenderness. Description of action: head level between the left. : Description of action head leans toward object. depressed or rotated. Description of action head leans from object. scrutiny. but must not be raised. . Action : ex. : Signification distrust. I. Action : con.

VII. explosion from self as a centre. Action : con.-con.The Head. V.-con. adoration. Description of action: head thrown back mid- way between the shoulders. a lifting to the universal. not rotated. envy. not rotated. Action : ex. Action : nor. . : head depressed and toward VI. jealousy. : Signification exaltation.-ex. : Signification scrutiny plus distrust = suspicion. VIII. hate. : Signification humility plus trust and affection = veneration. abandonment to sense or plus trust soul. = resignation or abandonment Description of action: head thrown back and toward object. Description of action object. 133 Action : con.-ex. : Signification exaltation plus trust. Description of action: head depressed and from object .

rotate the Then head in each attitude.-ex. IX. ^ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. should be avoided as weak. Action: ex.134 Delsarte System. Signification trust : = arrogance. other than those necessary for opposition of movement. Two are in common usei (i) A rotation . taking care not to change the significant angle of the head in relation to the shoulders. expressing negation (2) a and movement down. exaltation plus self-assertion or dis- Description of action: head thrown back and from object. Exercise. Practice the nine attitudes of the head. signifying assent. Inflections of the head. . from shoulder to shoulder.

. Excentro-normal. Excentro-excentric.. Normo-excentric.l- vital Concentro-normal.. ^VOTiOKi THAT t The Head. Normonormal. -xcentro-concenttifc. Attitudes of the Head. CHART VI. jJWAL- WML . / Noraio-concentric.. _u : VITAL- rtOgfi L Concentro-conccntric. Concentrp-excentric. Excentro-concen i - . v]T^.

CHART VII. Divisions of the Head. .136 Delsarte System.

XIV. The simply an 'indicator of the direction from which an impression comes. THE HEAD— Continued. divided in the same man- (See Chart VII. Active. which is organized in the eyeball. EYES. tion it Its significance arises from the rela- indicates between the subject and the object. which eyeball is is organized about the eyeball. 2.) The Active Division of the Head. THE There are two 1. 2. passive division is The ner. 3. active division of the The 1. Animal. 2. is divided into three divisions: Active Passive. or to which an expression goes. : : LESSON The head i . sets of agents in the eye Passive. Human. head has three parts Divine. 3. page 136. Neuter. ..

simple mystic regard of object or Description of action : eye is turned to object.-nor. III.. neither raised nor depressed. Action : nor. . has more white in the eye than any other more life in the mind than any SIGNIFICATION AND ACTION OF THE EYEBALL. Man animal. Action : con. is turned from object. I. : Signification thing.idea. : Signification neutral.-nor. Action : ex. : Description of action eyeball is calm midway between the two corners. mental White Iris is is vital moral. Signification: or. showing other animal. II. simple 'mystic attention to subject Description of action: eye neither raised nor depressed. 138 Pupil is Delsarte System.-nor. .

: Signification exaltation of self in mystic atten- tion to subject or idea. 139 Action : nor.-con. : eye is depressed and turned VI. VII. object or idea to self. : Description of action eye is depressed midway between the two corners. Description of action to object.The Head. . Action : ex. : Signification exaltation of self in mystic regard of object. : Description of action eye is raised midway be- tween the two corners. V. Description of action : eye is depressed and turned from object.-con.-ex. Action: nor. Action : con.-con. IV. image or idea. : Signification simple subjection of image. Signification: simple subjection of self to object.

and a parallel gaze of the eye.. VIII. is the gaze of ecstacy. ^ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. eye keeping eyeball steady. The parallel. Description of action : eye is raised and turned from object. 140 Delsarte System. : eye is raised and turned IX. . Action: ex. Action : con. The mind seems to be viewing an object which the eye cannot focus. having no appreciable focus. Beside the foregoing. : Signification subjection of self in mystic regard of object. raise lid as high as possible above iris. Using a hand-glass. . Description of action to object. there is a converging. The converging The diverging insanity is is the ordinary gaze the gaze of vertigo. Signification : subjection of self in mystic atten- tion to subject or idea. . drunkenness.-nor.-ex.-ex. take nor. a diverging. Exercise I.

This exercise accustoms lid and eyeball to separate action. and independent accomplish.The Head.) N. and should be practiced until easy to . B. Exercise II. the attitudes of the chart. move the eyeball (See Chart VIII. 141 Keeping into all lid raised and steady. page 142.

Normo-concentric. Plane of the Inferior the depressing of the eyeball. PLANE OF THE SUPERIOR. Excentro-excentric. Normo-excentric. . Normo-normal. Concentro-concentric. Excentro-normal. Concentro-normaL Excentro-concentric. vice versa. Concentro-excentric. —Plane of the superior indicates the upraising of the eyeball. Attitudes of the Eyeball.142 Delsarte System. To object —the eyeball turned to the object. CHART VIII. PLANE OF THE INFERIOR. From object. B. N.

= moral reveals condition of the will Upper lid Lower lid = vital . = mental reveals condition of the mind. i. . Con. Ex. 2. . Nor. vital force of mind. . . Brow Brow —Upper Lid—Under Lid. ACTIVE AGENTS OF THE EYE.—The Brow. 3. (near the nose) .. reveals condition of the senses. . CHART IX. mental force of mind.LESSON XV. moral force of mind.

: Description of action con. III. vital force mental force dormant and depressed. ex. of brow lowered. of Description of action brow depressed. vital force exalted. Description of action : brow normal. . : but serene. vital force concen- trated . : Signification calm reflection . Action : con. of brow raised. Signification: calm serenity of mind. timid or sterile mind.-con.-nor.-nor. mental force full. Action : ex. Signification: in repose. IV.-nor. : Signification anxiety. calm suffering . Action : nor. SIGNIFICATION AND ACTION OF THE EYEBROW. mental force quiet. Description of action : ex. I. vital and mental force inactive.144 Delsarte System. II. Action : nor.

Description of action ered. con. and con. vital force quiet. Action : con. 145 V. of brow low- VI.The Eye. Action : nor. Action : con. of brow raised . : ex. 10 . : mental force exalted. : Description of action ex. Description of action con. mental despair . im- agination . fury. con. : Signification passional excitement of mind. vital force concen- mental force exalted. mental force prostrated. VII. mental force prostrated. vital force con- centrated. : Signification timid reflection . VIII. Description of action of brow depressed. of brow raised.-con. : Signification trated. madness . agony. : ex. depressed. Action : ex. of brow raised.-con.-ex. vital force exalted. : Signification pain. of brow lowered .-ex.

Action : nor. tendency to . Description of action : ex. III. terror.-nor. . Action: ex. vital and mental force exalted. II. of brow raised. Signification : painful passion. : Signification animated attention or intention.146 Delsarte System.-nor. IX.-nor. Action: con.-ex. Signification: indifference to object. IV. I. UPPER EYELID. subject in mind rejection of object : by will. Action : nor. Signification: intense consideration of subject within. Description of action lid falls to top of pupil. and con.-con. Action : ex. : Description of action lid touches top of iris. fear . lid Description of action: half-way be- tween pupil and top of iris. : Signification calm attention or edge of intention.

Action: ex. insensibility or Signification: death. VII.-ex. prostration. Description of action : lid is completely shut. Action : nor. IX. : Signification passional tendency. raised. : Signification subjectivity or inferiority of mind. V. . Action : con.-ex.The Description of action pupil and bottom of : Eye. lid falls 147 half-way between iris. showing line VIII. : Signification exaltation.-con. lid shows a slight line of less than in nor.-con.-ex. sleep. Action : con. Action : ex. Signification: madness.-ex. : Description of action white above iris. lid Description of action: of white above iris. : Description of action lid half covers pupil. VI.

brow with the nine positions of the upper you can form eighty-one combinations.-nor. By combining the nine positions of the lid. normal Inner corner near nose tiveness to pain when raised denotes sensi- Outer corner raised denotes sensitiveness to pleasure. for a (See Chart X. Nine of these are described below. Lower Lower lid raised lid = calm = sensitiveness depressed = death. 148 Delsarte System. : Signification calm serenity. lid Description of action: point above iris. page 152. .) I. . . Action : nor. : Description of action brow normal = nor. SIMPLE COMBINATIONS OF BROW AND UPPER LID. . second nine see Chart XI.. page 153. raised to its highest LOWER Lower lid EYELID. lid normal = nor.

-nor. lid normal = nor.-con. III. Action: nor. Signification will. . normal = nor. : Signification calm reflection. IV. con. . . Description of action lid brow depressed => con. : Description of action brow normal = nor. depressed = con. Description of action: lid brow depressed = con. interiority of quiescent tendency of will in mind. Description of action: brow raised = ex. : Signification calm indifference.. : Action : Signification deep thought.-nor. Action : ex. concentrated atten- tion or intention. Action : con. lid depressed = con. : subjective reflection. The Eye. 149 II. .-con. subjective action of mind. V. with calm of : will.

that of the brow.-ex. : Action nor. lid depressed = con. resolution. IX. VIII. In the abbreviations above used. . : Description of action raised brow calm = nor. — . Description of action raised : brow depressed = con. . supercilious re- gard. N. VII.150 Delsarte System. : Signification eagerness to know plus inability to mentally solve = stupor. Action: ex. Action : ex. . -ex. : Signification surprise. Description of action : brow raised = ex. concentrated eagerness Signification: of will. lid = ex. VI.-ex. B. Signification: mental contempt.-con. Action : con. lid = ex. . lid = ex. : Description of action raised brow raised = ex. the last term signifies the position of the lid the first. .

) Exercise II. of brow the . Exercise I. it. and Chart XI. 151 esthetic gymnastics. Practice the combinations of brow and lid. page 153. try to raise and depress quiet. concentrate your attention on con.The Eye. Before a mirror. (See Chart X. page 152. other parts of brow remaining .

. Simple Combinations of Upper Lid and Brow. CHART X. Concentro-exeentric.152 Delsarte System. Normo-concentric Excentro-concentric.

153 CHART XL Combinations of Upper Lid and Brow. Concentro-normal. Normo-nornial Excentro-normal Concentro-excentric. Normo-concentric. Normo-excentric .The Eye. the upper lid the first. By combining nine of the brow with nine of the lid here eighty-one distinct combinations can be made. We ic: Concentro-concentric. B. present eighteen combinations.— In this chart the brow is the final term. N. Excentro-concentric.

154 Delsarte System. Normo-excentric. . Normo-concentric. Concentro-excentric. Excentro-excentnc. Concentro-concentric. CHART XII. Concentro-normal. Excentro-normal. Excentro-concentric. Expressions of the Eyebrow. Normo-normal.

There are three primitive and characteristic profiles: i. Convex.LESSON XVI. 3. 2. Straight. . Concave. PROFILES.

. or habit. EXPRESSIONS OF THE NOSE. chaste warm. : Signification insensibility. . : Signification aggression. sensual. II.-nor. cruelty. a combination of the lines produces varied profiles. hardness. : Description of action nostrils dilated. straight profile is is is The the best The concave The convex cold. -nor. many and The form of each stamped from long feature is either congenital. : indifference. Action : nor. I. As each feature may be straight. concave or con- vex.-con. Action : nor. IV. Description of action nostrils in repose. : Signification calm serenity. Action : ex. excitement. . : Description of action nostrils contracted.-nor. : Signification sensibility. Action : con. 156 Dels arte System. passion. III.

wrinkled between eyebrows. Description of action: 157 wrinkled laterally nose between eyebrows. Action : con. : Signification aggression plus scorn action: nostrils = fury.Profiles. . lasciviousness. : Signification sensuousness. : Signification rejection sensuousness plus insensibility or = contempt. VI. : Description of action nostrils raised. Description of action nostrils contracted nose wrinkled between eyebrows.-ex. VII.-con. nose Description of dilated. VIII. V. Action : nor. and . Action : con. nostrils contracted Description of action: raised. : Signification aggression plus cruelty : = hate. -ex. Action : ex. -con.

ESTHETIC GYMNASTICS. Description of action : nostrils dilated and raised. Action: ex. IX. . Exercise.158 Delsarte System.-ex. Dilate and contract the nostrils as rapidly as possible . move no other portion of the face. Signification: sensuousness plus excitement = scorn.

159 CHART XIII.. Normo-normal. Profiles. Concentro-excen trie Normo-excentric. Excen tro-excen trie. . . Expressions of the Nose. Concentro-concentric.concentric. Excen tro-normal.. Normo. Excentro-concentric Concentro-norma.

.

will in force. LIPS AND THE Lower jaw 2. I. THE LOWER JAW. EXPRESSIONS OF THE MOUTH. suspense. II. . Description of action II : lips closely shut. Jaw brought rigidly up and forward — exaltation of energy in force. : Description of action lips slightly parted. Action : con. sensitiveness in force. Action : nor. 3. : Signification abandon.-nor.LESSON THE i. JAW. Signification: firmness. XVII.-hor. slightly — suspension of energy — paralysis of The jaw entirely dropped and back energy in force. Upper Lower lip lip — energy — — dropped in force. The jaw in force.

Signification: disapproval plus abandon : = grief. pleasure.1 62 Delsarte System. cor- VII. Description of action ners depressed. : lips closely shut. Signification: disapproval plus astonishment = horror.-con.-con. . : Description of action lips completely apart. Action : con. Action : nor. IV. Description of action depressed. Signification: approval plus abandon = joy. Action : ex. Signification : astonishment. : Signification disapproval plus firmness = dis- content. corners mouth depressed. corners VI.-con. : lips completely apart. Description of action of lips slightly apart. III. Action : nor. Action: ex.-nor. V.-ex.

: Signification approval. Description of action: lips closely shut. IX. page 164. passing in succession from one to the other.-ex. : 163 Description of action of lips slightly apart.The Lips and the Jaw. : Description of action ners raised. Signification: larity. VIII. Practice the various expressions contained in the chart of the mouth. cor- AESTHETIC GYMNASTICS.-ex. Action : ex. approval plus astonishment = hi- laughter. Exercise. (See Chart XIV. Action : con. lips completely apart. corners mouth raised.) . corners of mouth raised.

Concentro-normal. Normo-normal.1 64 Delsarte System. Excentro-concentric. <^N Concentro-concentric. CHART XIV. . Excentro-concentric. Excentro-normal. Concentro-excentric Normo-excentric. Expressions of the Mouth. Normo-concentric.

drammar #f ^utoxmmz. .

;

;

LESSON

XVIII.

GRAMMAR OF PANTOMIME.
There are nine laws that govern the significance
of motion in the
i.

human body, namely:

Altitude;

2.
3.

Force;

Motion;

4.
5.

Sequence
Direction;

6.
7. 8.

Form;
Velocity;

Reaction;
Extension.
three primary laws are
:

9.

The

(1) Altitude;

(2)

Force; (3) Motion.

LAW OF ALTITUDE.
Positive assertion rises

Negative assertion

falls.

The
I.

different degrees signify:

Probability;

;

;

;

;;

1

68
2. 3.

Dels arte System.
Possibility;

Improbability;

4.
5.

Negation;
Impossibility;

6.
7. 8.

Assertion [level with shoulder line]

;

Evidence;
Certainty;

9.

Absolute truth
first five

The
from

are negative and

fall

from

level ot

shoulder line; the last three are positive and rise
level of shoulder line.

LAW OF FORCE.
Conscious strength assumes weak attitudes
Conscious weakness assumes strong attitudes.
This
is

true spiritually as well as physically.

LAW OF MOTION.
Its Relation to

Emotion.
to

Excitement or passion tends

expand gesture

Thought or
Love or
Thus,
Passion

reflection tends to contract gesture

affection tends to

moderate gesture.

tends

to

extreme

expansion

of

the

muscles

Grammar of Pantomime.
Thought tends
cles;

169

to

extreme contraction of the mus-

Affection tends to a
the muscles.

happy medium of activity of

The balance of passion and

reason, in affection,

constitutes the divinest emotion of being,

and pro-

duces the most beautiful modulations of manner in
the body.

An An
An
istic

illustration of the
is

tendency of passion to exin the

pand the body,

shown

explosion of anger.

illustration of the

tendency of thought to conin the attitude

tract the

body,

is

shown

of the student.

illustration of the tendency of affection to a
is

happy medium,
of love.

shown

in the attitudes character-

The

battle of reason with passion, in gesture,

is

one of the strongest forms of pantomime.

Illustration.

— Listening

to a speech

which ex-

cites passion, reason, trying to

suppress the passion,

contracts the form gradually.

Those thermometers
lids, will indi-

of passion, the nostrils and the upper
cate the passion.

The mouth

will contract, so will will

the hands and whole body.

This

go on

until the

force of passion exceeds the force of reason in the
will
;

then comes the explosion of passion, by the

sudden and vehement expansion of the gesture.

;

;

170

Delsarte System,

law of sequence.
" Let your
attitude, gesture

and

face foretell

what you would make

felt."—Delsarte.

Expression of face precedes gesture,
precedes speech.

and

gesture

This law
speech.

illustrates the relation of

pantomime

to

It is

a very important one.

In considering

the two languages of emotion, the verbal and the

pantomimic, the
while the verbal

latter is revelatory
is

of the true
It

man
takes

more or

less artificial.

many words
ure
is

to say

what a single look

reveals.

Gest-

the

lightning,

speech the thunder;

thus

gesture should precede speech.

The

gesture shows the emotional condition from
flow,

which the words

and

justifies

them.

The eye
pression.

is

the centre of mental significance in excentre of gravity
is

The

the vital centre.

As

the

mind

is first

impressed and the passions are

thence aroused, the eye should indicate attention or
intention
ticulation
first
;
;

then the centre of gravity

;

then ges-

then articulation

LAW OF
Lengths are passional

DIRECTION.

Heights and depths are intellectual;
Breadths are volitional.

;

;

Grammar of Pantomime.
These
tions.

171
inflec-

facts

apply both to the attitudes and

LAW OF FORM.
Straight form
Circular form
Spiral form
is

is vital
is

mental

moral, mystic.

LAW OF

VELOCITY.

" Gesture is melodic or inflective through the richness of its forms; harmonic through the multiplicity of parts that unite simultaneously to
Gesture is rhythmic through its movement more or less more or less rapid. The law is thus formulated "The rhythm of gesture is proportional to the mass to be moved. This law is based upon the vibration of the pendulum. Great levers have slow movements ; small agents more rapid ones." Delaumosne

produce

it.

slow, or

:

on Delsarte. " Rhythm

is

the form of
that
is

" Melody is " Harmony

movement. which distinguishes. that which conjoins."
in

— Delsarte.
moved and
move
faster

Velocity

is

proportion to the mass

the force moving.

Agents of expression with short
than those with long
radii.

radii

In proportion to the depth and majesty of the
emotion, is the deliberation and slowness of the motion ;

and, vice versa, in proportion to the superficiality

and explosiveness of the emotion,
of
its

will

be the velocity

expression

in motion.

—— ." — A maud on Delsarte. taneous. law of reaction. was in consequence of attitudes this period of study that the master condemned the parallel movement which of the limbs in inverse. LAW OF EXTENSION. " Delsarte. direct movements should be successive and opposite movements simulDelsarte. explo- Thus the only emotion which does not tend to is its own destruction. to react to its Concentrated passion tends to explosion sion to prostration. makes the body recoil. . 3. " Every object of agreeable or disagreeable aspect which surprises us. they cannot two limbs follow the same be simul- taneous without an injury to the law of opposition. Evolution Trinity. direction. Opposition. Finally. tells " Delsarte himself us that he studied the poses of the statues It of antiquity for fifteen years. Every extreme of emotion tends opposite. LAW OF "When OPPOSITION. namely i. The degree of reaction should be proportionate to the degree of emotion caused by the sight of the object. gesture. The extension of a gesture is in proportion to the surrender of the will in emotion. there remain but three additional great laws to consider. : 172 Delsarte System. is that which perfectly poised. 2. ' ' Therefore. and recommended he called .

: — Grammar of Pantomime. unity." Progression of the articulations of the limbs. elbow and it is Passional expression passes from the shoulder. where it is presented in Delsarte. process of growth. Successive It is movement should be parallel. vital force flowing into fingers. grace action . in as the evolution of flower from the . " Evolutio bud. repose sex . hence. symmetry in in form. movement. then to where it is presented in the affecthe wrist and the thumb. equilibrium. Then ex- pand hand. — all this being a gradual unrolling or evolution of vital force through the various articulations. vital force flowing into forearm. : The shoulder. LAW OF EVOLUTION. to the elbow. A series of things unrolled. follow the vital expression of the arm. The law is 173 thus stated Simultaneous movement must be made in opposition. the law of in harmony in music ." Example. or by the necessity of opposition of form things that are to unite. — Lift your arm. The law of evolution necessarily includes its oppo- . the susceptive and volitional state. Webster's Dictionary. vital force in upper arm. development Act of unfolding or unrolling. where in the emotional state. and the progression it " Here another. This law applied to gesture sublimates it. forearm and hand decomposed. Then unbend elbow. tional state. through which should pass in moving from one articulation to articular centres " There are three great wrist. ** —evolvere. as illustrated by the magnetic in poles.

Delsarte System. Thus. " What is requisite for the formation of a trinity? "Three expressions are requisite." trinity-principle has been extensively treated in Lesson III. Given an extended gesture of the from the hand . is principle of the system lies in the statement that there in the world a universal formula which to all things possible. to wrap or arm. " Why ? " Because life and mind are one and the same soul soul and mind . LAW OF "The TRINITY. involution.174 site. vital force retires. There must also be an absolute co-necessity between them. may be applied to all sciences.. form a trinity. first. viz.] . are one and the same —Delsarte. from the Latin root involvo. from upper arm and shoulder. second. each presupposing and implying the other two. [The life . life. mind and soul. the correct use of this law which forms one of the principal elements in the production of perfect gesture. fold in. the three principles of our being. " This formula is the trinity. life and soul are one and the same mind. Each of the three terms must imply the other two. from forearm It is third. .

^ daraut of %xpxz$$xon in ^untomimz. .

u .

LESSON

XIX.
IN

A GAMUT OF EXPRESSION
You
are standing idly in a

PANTOMIME.
;

IMAGINARY SCENE

I.

room

a step on the
to

stairs attracts

your attention.

The door opens
have an

admit a person for

whom you

affection.

You

greet this person in delighted surprise.

Pantomime

I.
;

Assume
ear,

attitude of legs con.-ex.

right leg strong.
lift

Attention called to noise on the right, you eyes turning
left in

right

opposition.

Door opens.

Eyes turn

right toward object entering.

Head

fol-

lows in rotary motion, levelling gaze on object.

Face
Titilla-

assumes an expression of delighted surprise.
tion of eyelids.

Head

lowers slightly toward object
;

in tenderness, con.-con.
tion.

shoulder rising

in

oppositurns

Movement

creeps

down upper arm and

eye of elbow toward object, thus asserting tenderness.
it

This movement has slightly bent forearm as

hangs from elbow decomposed.

Now

unbend

forearm.

Rotary movement of wrist turns hand into
con.-ex.

relative attitude

Hand

then expands in

conditional

attitude

ex.-nor.,

affection.

During

12

;

178

DelsArte System.
its

action of arm, head has Deen rising in
tionate arc
;

propor-

it

finishes in attitude con.-ex.,

abandon-

ment

to affection.

IMAGINARY SCENE

II.

Receiving no response from the object of your
greeting,
tion,

you increase the courtesy of your

saluta-

with repeated assurance of your affection.

Pantomime

2.
1,

From

final attitude
;

of Pantomime
trifle in

head becomes

con.-nor.

shoulder rises a

opposition, show-

ing sensibility.

which

rises in relative attitude ex.-con.
;

Head continues motion toward hand, The motion
that
is,

now

passes into torso and forearm
in

the torso

bends obliquely toward object
ence, forearm at the

courteous reveruntil

same time bending up

backs of fingers touch chin.
tion,

Retaining that posi-

elbow
falls

is lifted

out and up to level of shoulder
(similar to a motion in serleft in

hand

decomposed

pentine movement) and the head rotates to
opposition.
position.

Head and arm now resume

previous
rises as

Torso and forearm unbend.
into relative attitude con.-ex.,

Head

hand

falls

and expands

into conditional attitude ex.-nor. of tenderness.

N. B.

—The movement of elbow UP and OUT has signified
my
affection for
force, etc.

:

1 1 emphasize the assurance of

you

!

"

The

elbow turned

out,

meaning tenderness,

;

Expression in Pantomime.
imaginary scene
iii.

179

Your greeting increases

in ardor.

Receiving no re-

sponse, you express surprise and affectionate protest.

Pantomime

3.

From
a
little in

final

attitude of

Pantomime

2,

arm makes
into con-

an upward movement of appellation, head dropping
opposition.
attitude

Hand now expands
zone of the torso.
is

ditional

nor.-ex., animation;

little

finger

pointing to normal

Forearm
of

bends

until little finger

brought to

left side

normal zone.

Simultaneously, torso has bent for-

ward

in

opposition.
lift
;

A

moment's pause, then the
;

shoulders

face expresses surprise

hand drops

decomposed, position of arm retained.
elbow, pressing upper

Now

sink

arm against
relative

side,

throwing
con.-nor.

decomposed hand

into

attitude

Unbend The
head

elbow, which throws hand out and up into

relative attitude ex.-ex.

torso has risen in opposition to forearm, the

to the hand,

and the attitude

is

now one

of

affectionate protest.

IMAGINARY SCENE

IV.

The

object

still

shows great doubt of your love

and, consequently,

you

intensify

your expressions of

devotion.

; ;

180

Delsarte System.
Pantomime
4.

Retaining the attitude of protest, you
the aid of your
expressions.
left

now

call in

arm
left

in

order to intensify your
to level of shoul-

Raise

arm almost

der, attitude similar to that of right arm.

Rotary

movement of wrists
con.-ex.

turns hands into relative attitude

Raise hands, relative attitude ex.-con.

bend forearms.

Sink elbows, pressing them to sides

this brings fingers to armpits, torso

bending

in

oppo-

sition to forearm,
rise

head to hand.

Now
fall

both elbows

up and out sideways.

Hands

decomposed

shoulders rise as head sinks lower.

Attitude of legs
Left
leg

changes to nor. -con.

= concentration.
as

strong, while elbows sink to sides.

Forearms unhead resumes
rises to atti-

bend
its

as torso rises.

Hands expand

position.

Shoulders drop and head

tude ex. -ex. in assertion.

IMAGINARY SCENE

V.

No

effect

is

produced on object.
:

In great surprise
guilty of

you ask the reason

"

Does he think you

some wrong

to

him?"

You

attest

your innocence

with great vehemence.

Pantomime

5.

From

final

attitude of

Pantomime

4,

right

arm

sweeps up

in appellation.

Head

sinks toward object

Expression in Pantomime.
in opposition.

181

Scrutiny and bewilderment depicted
pause.

on

face.

A

Then both forearms bend,
parallel with shoulders.
in opposition.

bringing hands vehemently to mental zone of torso.

Upper arms level and
ders rise;
rotates to

Shoul-

head sinks lower
left,

Head
into

followed

by arms expanding
to right.

attitude ex.-nor. as

head returns

Shoulders

sink as head rises.

IMAGINARY SCENE
Continued disbelief
enrages you.
in

VI.

your truth and innocence
final effort

You make, however, one
show extreme anger

for self-control, but

in

bearing

and

face.

Pantomime

6.
5,

From
in

final
left

attitude of

Pantomime

right

hand

sweeps to

moral zone of torso.
attitude
in.

Hand

clenches

conditional

con. -con.

= concentrated
left

passion, wrists turning

At

the same time,

elbow

sinks, bringing wrist to level of hip.

Hand
concenattitude
in

clenched, wrist turned in
tration.

=

vital

energy

in

Right knee has

stiffened,

making

of legs ex.-con.

=

defiance.

Head has sunk

op-

position to attitude ex.-con.

=

hate.

A half spring
is

on to right leg, as

if

to advance

on

object,

checked,

1

82

Delsarte System.
stamp only
;

resulting in a quick

then you recoil
the spring, the

into attitude of legs ex.-con.

At

hands have unclenched convulsively and rotated
slightly,

only to reclench at the
in opposition.

recoil.

Head has

risen

and sunk

The

face expresses

menace.

The brows
etc.

are lowered, the nostrils dilated,

jaws clenched,

IMAGINARY SCENE

VII.

Your passion has now passed beyond your control,

and you order the object of

it

to leave

your

presence.

Pantomime

7.

From
hand

final attitude

of Pantomime

6,

forearm un-

bends into attitude of arms ex.-ex.
into relative attitude ex.-nor.
in

Wrist rotates

Now make
the
"

the

movement described
to leave the

Lesson VIII
!

—the command
arm
is

room, to " Go
last half
is

"

When

executing the
i.

of the

movement

Go

!

"

e.,

when

the wrist

level with armpit,

—change

bearing to attitude of legs nor.-ex., animated attention.

Right leg strong.

IMAGINARY SCENE
While gazing
of Pantomime
in

VIII.

anger at object, as

in final attitude

7,

its

aspect changes into something

head violently averted from object hate. Arms expand. You glance toward object. As . Pantomime * 8.-ex. con. palms outward as to banish object from sight.-ex.-con. it You beseech to remain with you. Pantomime 9. but vanishes.- arms out into attitude of extreme repulsion. of beauty is A vision before you. ex. Head follows. violently throwing Bearing changes to Left leg in ex. and you with loathing. while the bearing becomes nor. = horror. Bearing becomes ex..-con. Then arms brought to attitude of attraction. Eye turns to object. appalls you. are slowly Wrists turn hands palms up. con. Hands relative attitude ex. Right leg strong. Hands decompose and are brought tremblingly in if front of face. leaving prostrate. strong. IMAGINARY SCENE IX.. Then elbows unbend. = prostration.Expression in Pantomime. Great astonishment de- picted on face. left leg strong. attitude of legs con. It recedes.-ex. another transformation has taken place. it You you are attracted toward vision. which paralyzes you with fills 183 terror. To your amazement.-ex.

the bearing becomes ex.. vanishes. right leg strong. arms rising in appellation to object as you kneel.-ex. You faint.1 84 Delsarte System. you gradually fall on left knee. the vision recedes. arms decomposing as you . Object fall.

%\tz ^0kje. .

.

The word. Vital. \ we found: The The voice. RESPIRATION. I shall let TONE AND WORD Of that follows.— : LESSON XX. life. You remember. respiration. In a previous lesson I. three zones in the torso 1. THE IN In sarte all VOICE. —-vital. {logos). must first be studied. j p. —moral. glad of any scintillation from the brilliant spirit-light of the master. Moral. Delbut speak for himself. 2. — mental. Mental. its great essential. the three thus revealing mind and soul. gesture. wherever I can. no doubt. 3. during inspiration. —abdomen. In the language of Del- Natural respiration brings into prominence. 3. this division I am the editor.—chest. the vital zone. sarte : . 2. In regard to tone. — heart.

the vital breath ." Delsarte taught diaphragmatic breathing. on the contrary.2S. which cause suffering alike to singer and listener. gasping utterance. only to be used when the dramatic situation demands sobbing. preserves the ease and freshness of the voice. it is if not augmented by additional inhalation for it results in dryness and breathlessness. New York. and fall For a complete and practical guide to the develop- ment and correct use of the respiratory and vocal organs. during inspiration. 48 University Place. 1 88 " It is Dels arte System. is great excitement and loss of control rise betrayed of the pantomimically by the quick chest in clavicular respiration. which throws. It is an hysteric method. the natural respiration."* *$i. in soon causes All dizziness performed a sobbing manner. the moral zone into greatest prominence. it Be very careful in It its use indicates a if mind unbalanced. Publisher. The chest should be a passive agent. Edgar S. but while you can sing with rapidly exhausted . The artificial breath. the student is referred to Guttmann's " Gym- nastics of the Voice. Werner.. . Clavicular breathing brings the chest or mental zone into action.

3.: . escapement or articuglottic stroke late click of the glottis. thence to the mouth-cavities. Delsarte martellatOy invisible named the " direct attack " of the glottis. The foregoing refers to Upon " this point the initial master directs that. The lungs convey the air to the larynx. each note should be produced by an elastic escapement. Such is the concentration of the archer preparing to launch an arrow. The should be produced by explosion. 2. The larynx The pharynx." Dragging of the voice before the consonant is . nose and mouth-cavities. In studying voice-production three essentials 1. ex- pulsion. He taught that all intensity of effect was produced by a profound and finally this elastic inspiration. it and compared to pearls united to by an thread. He cautioned against the squeezing out of the tone after it was produced. — The Voice. of the runner about to leap a ditch. According him. the vi- brating agent. the reverberating or resonating agent. The consonant should be prepared the same way as the attack on the tone. voice-production. 189 we must consider The lungs . vowels.

the broad Italian sound it (alt). should it. it A voice. put let your heart in the place your voice become a mysterious hand to caress the hearer. : the vocally which which is the vulgar voice ." be inferior to the power which animates QUALITY OF TONE. This special exercise will prevent the separation of the registers and gain the heart-voice. loud. others. excentric with a grave accent becomes a (as in awe). with an acute accent . be avoided. " There are two kinds of loud voices loud. becomes & it (as in at). concentric. . how- ever powerful may be. Delsarte's directions are to swell and diminish on a single note. . The vowel sounds. Delsarte says " If you would move of your larynx. is normal. E flat (of the me- dium) the intermediary notes will be sympathetically strengthened. and the dynamically is the powerful voice. the development to be communicated to the neighboring notes. mixed or When this note has acquired broad and powerful is tones. the forms of the openaffect the pharynx and mouth. being ings of tone. quality of The mother vowel a.: 190 to Delsarte System.

or normal in the palatine arch. a e e i a a e o au eu u ou N. . p. They give the mixed then couple further with them the consonants m. POINTS OF REVERBERATION. these viz. . B. — Look in a French dictionary for the correct pronunE flat ciation of the foregoing sounds. practice on the chromatic scale these combinations. The concentric give the mental Once having secured and recognized the For dramatic is moral love-tone. 2. Practice on (medium) the normal vowels. From sounds. tone. 3. the mental and physical vowels can be amalgamated into normal quality. effect the power to take each quality at will neces- sary. Concentric. Normal. There are three significant points of reverberation in the 1. quality of tone /.: The Voice. The moral The^ mental back of the_ upper teeth. When advanced.: th: ree a's 191 spring the other simple vowel Excentric. mouth The physical in the pharynx. The excentric vowels give the physical quality of tone.

hoarseness consequence. statement of facts. To quote dazzled " The ravished listener should be by a song unheard as yet. I have previously called your attention to the fact that the conditional attitudes of the . naturally directed to the excentric to the pharynx the concentric or mental to the back of the teeth. is "Hoarse with passion" voice is a common in is phrase. the expression of the will face preceding the tone Delsarte : — color it. . This sometimes very effective dramatic expressure to be the sion. our voices harmonize in expression.. The mental voice expresses a hard. is The normal vowel emission the palatine arch . The voice is brilliant when there is little emotion. but which he guesses or thinks he guesses. an example of the physical emission and reverber- ation. if much used. scientific COLOR OF TONE. the lower the utterance. hand sympathetically color the voice and again. cold. The common is street-vender. 192 Delsarte System. The voice is further colored by gesture. When we are under the influence of physi- cal emotion. but. as he calls his wares. The more one is moved." Loudness of tone is inconsistent with true feeling.

" — (Delsarte. or the voice rests in monotone." Inflections are rising. You may have heard its many barren times. is it The shade. and . ' 193 In deep feeling the heart seems to be in the throat and the voice is is stifled. some day. rather felt than ex- pressed. been defined In- as a movement indicating a passing emotion.The Voice. inflection Thus they are excentric. It . effect on you has been cold and inspiration of a but. flection in voice also subtly indicates each passing thought. " Persuade yourself that there are blind deaf men in your audience ! whom you must inflection interest and persuade Your must become inflec- pantomime to the blind. a song. and your pantomime. normal. a poetic accent. Hear again the master : — men and move. falling. tion to the deaf. the dead ashes of 13 your enthusiasm . not learned. can be named. but a play. " The whining.) INFLECTION. under the creative touch. We now approach a subject of great importance. Inflection in gesture has — inflection. tearful tone always weak. concentric and Combinations of these three produce the named by English must be innate authorities circumflex.

" The shade sis is intimately connected with the ellip- which formed a most important part of Delsarte's method "The conjunction and interjection are elliptical. reproach. "Accent sarte. . how miserable I . the hesitation of a troubled mind. ' thus in the sentence. coaxing.: 194 * Delsarte System. admiration. Delsarte. words a great number of modula- expressing endearment. pity his far-reaching and affection. by a living spark. where the mere shade gave an appropriate meaning to every variety of impression and sentiment which can possibly be expressed by any one : ' set of words. are fired The feu sacri of genius all has fallen from Olympus and illumined around. ironical praise.) is the modulation of the soul. Ah ! . with comprehension. as the case might be. . is One of these phrases was this " This a pretty dog. indifference. conceived of more than 600 ways of differentiating these examples." — ''Del- Arnaud writes " Delsarte had established typical phrases.' in giving A very talented young girl succeeded different to these tions. " I The second phrase was not. encour- agement. .' : ' I did not tell you that would " This time the words lent themselves to revealing.

B. nous repetition of these tones produces the 4. then strikes a from a high sound. expressing grief that cannot be re- pressed. lugu- brious. 195 'Ah ' ! should imply a painful situation before the explanatory words begin. fear. PARTICULAR INFLECTIONS. Groans. or oh. faint-toned expira- . formed by two successive sounds. Cries. Under the head of 1. a high and then a low sound." — (Delsarte.: The am ' ! Voice. prolonged exclamations on ah. Lamentation. A constant and monotoeffect. The the product of a long and slow in- spiration followed tion. particular inflections come eh. joy. hysteric breathing. by a significant gesture. Exclamations. big voice. 6. 5. in a circumflex manner. The sob is produced by a clavicular. the rise and fall of the chest. by acute In violent pain produced starts by a physical cause.) " The silence which follows "Ah! be rilled must. in a succession of rations followed little vocalized inspiexpiration. by a sudden. expressed by a sombre. 2. a sign of excitement. a startled cry on ah. is — Clavicular sigh is breathing. caused pain. then a me- dium tone 3. the exclamation deep sound. however. by a long vocalized N.

" Falling inflection expresses the will or knowl- edge of the speaker. " Rising inflection is is prospective. the one that suggests "The emphatic word is the main idea. de— (Delsarte. quick explosive vocal expirations. Lewis B.) N. The laugh is the product of a deep inspiration followed by a succession of short. The vowel used should be h. for in himself I with great he felt the reverberation.) late The Prof. Things said quietly should sing themselves in the utterance.196 7. PRINCIPLES OF EMPHASIS 1. for a Italian a or 8. or to the will of the hearer. Monroe was an ardent Their minds were akin. 0. pression of larynx. he welcomed every thought of the joy. 3. " Singing the modulated voice. 5. 2." — (Delsarte. prefixed is by normal laugh. "Rising inflection defers to the hearer. 4." — " Preparation for tone consists in deep breathing. retrospective. B. "Falling inflection " 6. . and latter student of Delsarte. Monotone is suspensive. Dels arte System. AND INFLECTION. So make no apology for here introducing a collection of notes from him. canalization of tongue.

13. "Of falling inflections. 7. "A concession followed by an opposing as- sertion takes the rising inflection. 14.The Voice. " A modifying phrase reverts by word modified. the higher takes pre- cedence. 197 " The slide always falls on the accented syllable of the word. " Reiteration in emphasis requires the falling inflection. " Doubt about emphasis." THE WORD {logos). 11. the subor. " Rising circumflex may indicate a doubt. 12. gesture. Man communicates ways: 1. dinate clause must be lower in pitch if the rising. 8. the subordinate clause must be higher in pitch. " Fact of negation in a sentence does not. less. 10. as a rule. 2. 15. with his fellow-man in three The The voice. . its pitch to the clause or 9. change the emphasis. will greater includes the See which word convey the idea or sug- gest the answer. and which words can be thrown away. "If the falling inflection is given.

198 3. I are the combinations of vowels and con- here quote the late Dr. Words sonants. Delsarte System. .. the different expressions of mind and soul. Guilmette's arrangement . of vowels and consonants it is invaluable. The word life.

iuoae V. all. XI. — a (ah). auieo auoie a u e i ieua e i oaiue a e i a u i u u e a Bell. ieoua IV. Permutation of the Five Organic Vowel Sounds. — — — . . pool. II. . true. [The sounds of the English vowels. old. 6 ask 8 an 9 up. 13 u as in duty. according to are: " 1 eel. with " direct attack " of glottis.The Voice. literature . o (oh). urn 7 ah her — 11 . after a vocal r is u after consonant is 00 as in rue. 12 U — — — . 2 -ill. VIII. a e u i XII. u u i e a u a u a a i e i a e i e u i a e i a i u e i u e u e a a e u X. e (eh). —ore. III. ere. e i i iaeuo i u a a u e u i a i a u e a u e e e i e u a e i i a u uoia IX. u (00). I.—Vowels. 4 ell."] pull. i (ee). 3 ale. — — . Let there be a prompt and firm molding of the sounds. B. 5: — — 10— on. i VII. N. 199 CHART XV. 1 1 e u a e u u e a u e a 1 e u a i a i i u a e a u e VI.

LINGUALS. Permutations of the Labials. t 1 k r k t 1 r tklr trlk 1 r t 1 k r t t k r rklt II. b g f fgpb g f p b g b p f p gf f g b p p b g bpfg III. LABIALS p AND / WITH LARYNGEALS p f b AND g.b k 1 200 Delsarte System. and Laryngeals. Linguals I.— Consonants. AND k k AND p'tkb b p t pktb kbpt ktpb kpbt btkp tpkb . CHART XVI. LABIAL p WITH LINGUALS LARYNGEAL t b.

LARYNGEAL. b— b. Let the mind be very . by DIRECTIONS FOR PRACTICE. — — Dorsum of the tongue arched. consonants to the closed organic vowel taking care to keep passive those vocal organs whose im- mediate use is not required. of the tongue curved. 1. 2. nant. lingual and laryngeal articulations. g—g. It is wrongly named a conso- Prefix the articulation of each of the above i (ee). . t t hard soft . The Voice. 201 classification of the organic labial. I. be practiced forcibly several times a day. f. 1 1 r r hard. r r soft.. Labial proper p Semi-labial f II. The principal laryngeal sound represented the character b should. — Apex of the tongue curved. v—v. vibratory vibratory. LINGUAL. — Apex Apex of the tongue straight. — —p . d— d. . III. for the purpose of enlarging the chamber of the larynx.

with strict regard to the molding of vowels and consonants. 6. otherwise a slurring and drawling of the vocal element will be the result. with the mouth widely opened and held duction of the points of the first firm by the intro- three fingers. 3. 8. 4. Practice chart of organic vowels with active b. The organic vowel sounds a and (ah and oh) should be practiced upon a steady intonation. whisper. essay the following lines. 8. Finally. viz. and none other. 1. 5. been given. 7. rising a half tone at each cized itali- word and continuing the next line on that tone. and there retained during the molding of these vowel sounds. Use the same process 00). 3.202 Delsarte System. tak- vigilant over the active organ. and a miserably defined vowel will result for 4. speaker or singer. . 1. 6. The same rule should be strictly observed in the molding of the organic vowel sounds. 6. 5. for the vowels e and u (ch and with the points of two fingers holding Finally use one finger for i the jaws firmly apart. 1. 4. ing care to retain it for a second or more in its posi- tion after the articulation shall have 3. 2. on the chromatic scale. (ee). 8. without vocaliza: on different notes of the scale. 5. then practice laryngeal tion.

man. perhaps. in the called on is One of the secrets of expression initial time you hold the consonant of the is root before articulation. That it. 203 "There stood an unsold Chain'd to a pillar. the theory " In the of degrees was largely developed. Arnaud Course of Applied Esthetics." majestical old It " The initial consonant should be articulated dis- tinctly." — (Delconis would be better. And not a sound was heard but of a dog Crunching beneath the stall a refuse done. and original with him —one should have some idea of the grammar which he composed . silence the father of the word and justifies consideration of This brings us to the THE THEORY OF DEGREES.) It the strength of the word lies in it. to say the initial sonant of the root. sarte. The force of the consonant it is subordinated to the degree of the idea to determine. was almost night. this To understand in theory — one of the most striking points Del- sarte's method. captive in the mart.: The A gray-haired and Voice. Or the dull echo from the pavement rung As the faint captive changed his weary feet. I shall quote entire from an old pupil of the mas- ter. And the last seller from his place had gone.

no idiom can escape speech — the constituent parts of — are examined and investigated from a Just as philosophic and psychologic point of view. simple. we find the following definitions which serve to grees . The participle alone a sign of action. the extent assigned to each articulait tion or vocal emission to enable to express the thoughts. sentiments and sensations of our being in their truth and proportionate intensity is " i. he' seized the far as re- between the laws of speech. - All that is the very essence of language. — logos — and I will the moral manifes- only enter into these studies so far as they refer to the special field of aesthetics. as gards the voice tations of art. . Adjective expresses ideas. Substantive the name given to a group of appearances. that from which no language. Verb is the word that affirms the existence and the coexistence between the being existing and its manner of existing. abstract. " In this category. it is general and modificative substantive. an abstraction in the "3. . the author examined the constituent modalities of our being affinities in the light of aesthetics. classify the quantitative values or de- that is. to a totality of attributes.: 204 for the Delsarte System. is "4. " 2. use of his pupils.

because. and the same for com- plement. while the conjunction has an entire phrase for antecedent. and a single word objective. and . as but . is " 8. . The conjunction . 205 fit The article. pre- sents a general view to our thought it is the reunion of scattered facts " 10. it. not mod- by either of them it is a sign of proportion. etc. case. as then.: The Voice. "5. conclusive. " 9. The interjection responds to those circum- stances where the soul. is an attribute is it modifies them both. feels that far uttering it would be It experiences. moved and shaken by by from expressing what a crowd of emotions a phrase it at once. hypothetical or conditional. it is essentially elliptical. 6. pronoun and preposition into the common definitions. . same function as the preposition it unites one object to another object. and confides its to gesture the transmission of " emotion The interjection is essentially elliptical. then exhales a sound. but it differs from inasmuch as the preposition has its but a single word for for its antecedent. an intellectual compass. The adverb the adjective of the adjective far as it and of the participle (in so of the verb) ifiable . 7. It characterizes the point of view under the sway of which the relation should be regarded restrictive. The conjunction has the . as if.

" ' near." ' "The listeners. jection and adverb are classed highest. and vomits up before " It was on the word and . inter- " Delsarte in the ' made the following experiment one day ' : Circle of Learned Societies during a lecture " 'Which word. breaks. 'requires most emphasis << < the lines it « The wave draws near. . " It must first be noted that these degrees are to nine. it breaks. another gave the preference to the adjecstill tive Jinge . it it expressing nothing all is expresses at the time to express. another thought that vomits de- manded the most expressive accent. that he concentrated it. a monster huge of size.' he asked in his audience. : " Delsarte repeated the lines ***** The wave draws our eyes. numbered from one and that. for ellipsis that the gesture desires a hidden sense. and vomits up before our eyes. the revelation of which belongs exclusively to gesture. of all the grammatical values defined. from the ugliit ness of that which expresses. in itself. Amid the surging foam. all the force of his accent but giving by gesture. the conjunction.— 2o6 Delsarte System. absence of any rule 'applicable to the sub- ject caused the most complete anarchy among the that the One thought word to be empha- sized must be monster — as indicating an object of terror*.

invariably when she caressed her child. colorless in as he protremwhile nounced the word. " But this particle. all 207 voice and facial expression." Gesture and expression of face should always preN.: : The Voice. cede the pronunciation of the initial consonant. — Delsarte continues " On retracing in my memory the walks I had taken in the Tuileries. is which here allows of eight it degrees. assumed the double character of tenuity It and acuteness. presaged something terrible to relate. much diminished when fills the office of a simple copulative. He saw what it. B. It should The inflection of the voice should also justify its value. ing to that particle. I fact was struck by an important : amidst the phenomena called up the voice of the nurse or mother. was in a voice equally sweet and high-pitched that she uttered such words as these . in does not require more than the figure 2. syllable is The extent of the word or always subordinate to the sense of the the latter case it phrase . the bling hands. harmonize -with the value. the significance lackitself. and frightful. he was about had only tion he made you see his words to specify the fact. all body shrinking back seemed riveted to the earth. his his feet fixity of his gaze. and to justify the emo- which had accumulated in the interval. his into-itself.

' ! How lovely he is — Smile a little bit for Now this caressing intonation. Thus. whose theories I had attacked. fore. by a thousand irrefutable examples. he felt there must be some truth in such a universally received law. she prescribes a decrease of music. impressed mamma ' ' ! by nature upon the upper notes of all these voices. that intensity (in is. was. I will question every phenomenon. a direction which consists sound in in augmenting the intensity of the its direct ratio to acuteness. " I then perceived that my first affirmations were no better founded than those of the masters. The truth of the matter .208 ' Delsarte System. He " proceeds I : will knock unceasingly at the door of facts. tender and gentle sentiments find their normal expression in high notes. there- fully convinced that caressing. all forms a strange contrast to the direction which singing-teachers agree in formulating. to them the in entire law of vocal shades would consist augmenting progressively the sound of the ascend- ing phrase or scale." Delsarte was not yet satisfied . decrescendo) proportionate to I the ascensional force of the sounds. and diminishing in the same proportion for a descending scale. directs us to do the contrary. Now nature.

senti- ment and passion. as well as children. 209 arise that ascending progressions may from opposaid I site shades ' of is meaning. these shades of meaning : may be traced back to two distinct sources It is ." The is Voice. revealed in mothers sentiment which passion which I have seen find in it is we uncultured persons. in an Passion strengthens the voice in pro- 14 .' N.' to myself. etc. it equally inadmissible to exclude either affirmation. vehemence. then. as if struck ! lightning. 'I've found the law sensuality As with the movements of the head. fond nurses. and tenderness. both the expressions and the circumstances which produce them. act in regard to an ascensional progression in an in- verse sense to well-educated. " But why I this difference ? What by are its motive causes? "'Ha!' cried. excitement. "Vulgar and uncultured people.' " The law contrary is necessarily complex : let us bring together. or. such as mothers. "Sentiment and passion. at any rate. B. ' Therefore. affectionate persons.— The word passion here seems to signify impulse. proceed inverse way. that we may seize them as a whole.

and sentiment.: — 210 portion as softens it Delsarte System. such as the ascending scale. this Moreover. " There will be. a gamut should be considered as a double scale of proportion. there will be intensitive progression when this form should express passion (whether impulse. excite- ment or vehemence). the application of law is subject to quantitative expressions or shades. what ' ! little ! flower ' And : ' See that nice. fat peasant woman — ' What a comfortable great house " Thus." Here follows Delsarte's formulation of the law of vocal proportions " Given a rising form." These formulae are applicable as well as to music. Thus we would : not use the same tones for the words a pretty little girl ' ! ' — What a lovely ' ' ! Oh. its in due ratio to intensity. on the other hand. it rises. to the spoken phrase . a diminution is of intensity where this form " caused by sentiment. on the contrary. " These quantitative shades or expressions result from the greatness or littleness of the being or objects to which the sounds relate. according to the theory indicated above.

they are subject to the arbitration of inspiration. the opinion which makes of seven. necessarily increase in intensity far is. " If we find a note repeated in the rising phrase. as has been asserted. ruled by laws (for in art there is no phenomenon not subject to absolute mathematical laws). highest note it will become the is principal note (the note upon which chief stress so express tion to its to be laid. These which it is most important to know. incorrect. form the basis of the system. " The sound of an ascending phrase does not . Laure de La Madelene reports Delsarte as saying " Light and shade are not. 211 DEGREES FOR MUSIC. if we may propor- it). laws. The sound must diminish in distance from this centre of expression. encountered in the Then the intensity of the sound : may be centred upon the culminating note will call it in that case we First Degree. it progressive six times out re- It is only correct where no is peated note or dissonant note ascent. for in a musical phrase (as in a logical or mimetic . from it . that note must be made more intense than the .: The Voice.

This note could. you receive no it answer to sarily this appeal.) more marked " We may possibly find a dissonant note in the ascending phrase. it it acquire new intensity: must be marked as having Three Degrees. have but one the accident would give it the form of . have Two " If the repeated note will Degrees. " (For we only repeat those things which : are requisite or necessary if for instance. however low. preceding a repeating and culminating sound. should. in conversation. be also the highest note. and your remarks do not seem to be very important.212 Delsarte System. you you may be heard and if repeat your words in a louder tone and articulating more distinctly. significance . the person with whom you are talking seems ab- sent-minded. phrase) there cannot be two chief values: the re- peated note. but you think your statement requires a hearing. therefore. in order that . upon repeating you neceswhich make some change appeal was in the conditions in : the first made this change can only be a renewed augmentation of sound and a articulation. then. understood in the same way. you lay no stress upon them if .

take Four Degrees. but implied. at a — if. and the which fifth note should be given the same intensity if it would have had the three preceding notes had been uttered. in 213 the musical would have. highest therefore. instead of following the diatonic or chro- matic order. and it Voice. " If the dissonant note is also the highest note. the value that an adjective would have in a logical or spoken phrase. and mi would have more power than re . therefore. . the value of the three notes suppressed will not be destroyed. : that fact would give it new intensity it would then have Five Degrees. and so on. And if. be : greater it than that of the repeated note would. the position which the notes occupy in the scale of sounds that is. phrase. re would exceed do in intensity. there be a solution of continuity for instance. without affecting the intermediary values (the progressive value of the notes) — values determined by normal course.— The an adjective. : for in a phrase following a a phrase containing neither repeated notes nor dissonances. we pass from the first to the fifth note in the gamut. bound. Its intensity would.

will He will never be really free until he can obey the ." Finally. in may be it consequence of this repetition it would receive a greater value. which would give Six Degrees. let quote Uelsarte's words in regard to musical signs " Signs are studies." Arnaud " tells us that Delsarte taught : The root of the word appoggiatura being appuyer (to sustain). the chief importance should be given in the phrase. The dissonant repeated : note. to and when he has no teacher beside he can refer and submit. to a certain extent. according to is on the dissonance frequently. as is — and not of the random and very singers the habit of many — me that the powerful effect vibration of sound should be produced. at it and. that this note generally this placed on a dissonance master's system. of a stranger him. signs may. by extent is and expression the more so . needs leading strings. the pupil. to appoggiatura. . appearing in a rising phrase. indicative whom but. useful when the pupil in begins use his To acquire freedom the of the artistic mechanism.: — 214 " Delsarte System. from the day that the student pos- . supply the absent adviser. before creating an personality for himself.

dear pupil. 215 the use of the instruments bylife. hold to a strict observance of written in Otherwise he would be danger of becoming a mere automaton. it the ability to obey test his and the pupil cannot better power of conception than by according to the high standard of perfect all Remember. Rus- kin. mind and soul. has said of the I Book of books. not one " save all in the foregoing word of which will be comprehended by a deed. wings of inspiration should never be clipped." as another great art-teacher. The it precision and thoroughness of music It proves a nobler art than the drama. playing when the springs are pressed. cannot too strongly recommend the following utilizing the Delsarte in method of System of Dramatic While the still Expression. it need not uplift be so. remember ' that the is first essential . while annoting their music in accordance with the laws of harmony and orchestration. You have now in your power to . great musicians have to stop the flight of Pegasus. of the power to in art command forming law." There.The sesses freedom in Voice. means of which are revealed being an to artist. he should no longer be compelled signs. the creation of character. the master himself has advised the method of your use of pages.

N.=emphasis (4) being . We fail We must resign Head bows. of Macbeth. Some breath on moral tone.=stage business.=gesture. 8. C. you have the patience. b. The expression of the face and the hand colors the tone . be studied ) v. . B. In. Will you do so? If your own art-language. — Lady Macbeth speaks. too. — resigna- tion. thus they. 3.=expression of face. ex.=ellipsis (6) at. 5. ourselves to destiny. Ex. Text. will correspond. fail " . . after the word " text " above . On " fail " . it write ( I c. (7) g. Below I give you an example Scene from Macbeth. : . Falling on " Em. V. El. 4. G. —The ellipsis of a text is expressed by the gesture so the signification of the two correspond. . S.=inflection (3) em. . 7. obey the following directions Write one line of the text to . At. "text".=vocal color . B. eyelids droop. (8) =attitude (9) s.. 1. 216 Delsarte System. (2) in. 2. Arms drop Stands in abandon Concentro-excentric left 9. 6. under "text" write (5) el. : .

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XXI. color. The Christmas COLOR. Draw . — red. less varying intensity. for how the snowflakes powder. blue. yellow and the chemical Colors derive their tints and hues from the and refractions light and reflections of the rays of heat in from the sun. see Lay open sit aside your fur. and with me and watch care the burning of the great log. There are two fundamental elements of is — red. for the What we now cold outside? this Listen to the sleigh-bells. Do you it recall how. the colorific ray. the arm- chair close to this great feet fireplace put your on the brass fender. holi- days have brought you. You brought me the wreath? How it smells of woods are going to talk on color to-day We —a fasci- nating subject. the calorific. we touched on in our illustrations of trinity? We and found that the prismatic rays of the sun were clearly divided into three primary colors. which derived from the flaming light proceeding .! LESSON So we are together again. combined more or " with darkness or blackness and shade. some time ago.

220 Delsarte System. the chemical ray. from which other color was derived. and white from All colors are modifications of these with obscurity or blackness." the messenger of the gods and good . Middle Ages. yellow and blue constilight. Red is significant of love . blue is vital. Colors had the same significance amongst ancient peoples. vital painting of the windows of the Gothic cathedrals and the walls of the churches of Venice. is is Red or.." says Milton. thus moral is . love's proper hue. all the In Persia. light. in Paradise Lost. the unity of white or ordinary red is is The blue the calorific or heating principle. the two principles of good and trasts. evil were symbolized under the two con- light all and darkness. words and speak to us of heaven. page 226. in Rome. combined. It was revived in the the passionate. The color-lan- guage passed from to Egypt and Greece. The trinity of red. — " hues that have Iris. yellow concentric. N. white and black. look at the symbolic chart of color. from the heat. China. —For the hues produced by their intermingling. India. yellow of intelligence is blue of action or use." tute. yellow mental. B. " Celestial rosy red. blue excentric. is red normal. the the yellow is the colorific or light-giving principle. in which the power of is actinism or chemical action found.

and her symbolic robe was the hieroglyphic of the material and of the spiritual worlds." Heraldry is the last remnant of ancient symbolism. the union of one color ' with another by reciprocal interference say. the whole thirteenth and the early fourteenth century. or from what other source is know one magnificent attribute of the coloring of the late twelfth. We all know there symbolic meaning attached to the colors of a knight's shield. that is to mass of red is to be set beside a mass of . the rainbow for her symbol of regeneration — the covenant between Isis God and all- man. though the origin Aztec of such meaning seems to be lost in antiquity. namely. paintings indicated these significations. but there knight's shield.: Color. Every genuine old coat of arms was an utterance of chivalric honor to its is wearer. " Osiris. tidings. Let me read you this from Ruskin the quarterings of the I "Whether derived from not. has the 221 girdle. gives light to transmits it who modifies it and by reflection to men. Isis is the earth. that of great colorists. Isis. The robe of all the Egyptian sparkles and shines with of nature's hues. which definitely in I do not find in in any previous work nor afterward though constantly and necessarily general art. if a . the powerful god.

. for in art only. greater than the appointment that the most lovely and perfect unity shall be obtained by the taking of one nature into another. I trespass upon too high ground and yet I cannot fully show the reader the extent of this law. and the natures that are unlike. as in a shield divided into four quarters. .. be carried into the blue. and the nations that are unlike.222 Dels arte System. side will be of the same color in on the other the . And it is just because it is . being bound one noble whole by each receiving somegifts thing from and of the other's glory. though in a thousand various ways. in periods above named. but by leading him so vast and so thus far. of which the uppermost on one as the lowermost . nor by likeness. . —the souls into that are unlike. not equality. it is an eternal in and a universal one. but by giving and receiv- ing. I And human by call it a magnificent principle. in nor are any of His one sense. I and the other's in have long believed that whatever has been the made by the Deity externally delightful to is human sense of beauty. blue. sometimes smaller fragments but. there . a piece of the red will and a piece of the blue carried into the red some- times in nearly equal portions. not life. but It is the great principle of brotherhood. some type of God's nature or of God's laws laws. always definitely and grandly..

mystically says " The colors which the earth displays to our eyes are manifest signs for who think. Madeley. in his " Science of Correspondences. To me Ruskin has ever been an apostle of and truth. conseis. signi- fying good." says: " The twelve stones in the urim and thummim are ." . but moment unfolding an illustration of its an ordainment to which the earth and their continuance creatures owe and their redemption. Color.. Ah you ! draw a long breath so do light I. is The selam The Koran those " or nosegay of the Arabs : emblematic. and beauty " Wherever literature assuages woe " his will fire burning words and cheer. spiritual and." (Portal's Des Couleurs Symboliques?) Red in the original tongue is called adam. the origin of the symbolical meaning of colors in the books of the prophets and the Apocalypse. quently." The colors which appear on where everything the earth correspond in the to the colors which the seer beholds is world of spirits. awful a law. Such at least. significative. that It 223 has rule over the smallest things and there is not a vein of color on the lightest leaf at this it is which the spring winds are in the fields around us.

Reuben signifying celestial Simeon Levi and representing the three degrees of in goodness the internal brilliancy. will.. carbuncle. Naphtali. and representing the three degrees of in the internal understanding. brilliant. distinctly significative of the twofold constitution of the internal and external man each trine having especial relation to the three degrees of the mind and life. and the its signification of each stone being determined by its color and by place. of which they are but the outward forms. This may be seen more clearly from the following arrangement: 1st row: Sardius. signifying celestial sapphire. Judah. diamond. 224 Delsarte System. charity. . transparent. with their evi- purity and burning (Topaz was dently red. Dan. They were divided into four orders of trines. topaz. They were ordered by express to divine com- mand be arranged in trines and worn on the breast or over the heart of the high priest when he entered the tabernacle. all representative of the varieties of divine truth. .) 2nd row: Emerald. . . goodness and benevolence. with wisdom their transparent and sparkling lustre. glowing with inward radiant principles of love. sparkling.

in colors that speak. onyx. like an aura. . Color. emanates life. Ah ! while chatting our flaming log has changed to radiant coals. Pierre's " Stud- of Nature. Obshown serve the burning red thrilled and penetrated with yellow luminous in the tiny bluish light.. jasper. 225 amethyst. Issachar Gad spiritual love or charity Asher signifying and representing the three # degrees of in the which are active ex- ternal will. . " Similar things are signified in the order of the stones in the foundations of the new Jerusalem. but modified in brilliancy. have not given you quite a universal budget? arranged When next we meet. as well as their harmonies. bring a nosegay." — (St. Its vivid existence is flame which. . have relation to moral and ies spiritual affections. 3rd row: Ligure. Zebulon Joseph Benjamin degrees of signifying and representing the three faith or knowledge in the external understanding. from its consuming IS . 4th row: Beryl. agate.") I There. . . " Colors have an influence on the passions and they." . less transparent and more opaque than the three degrees of internal wisdom.

vital red in vito-vital yellow blue plus m blue = blue = blue =3 indigo. purple. violet. concentro-concentric. concentro-normal. * green (dark). exccntro-cxcentric. green (light). 226 Delsarte System. normo-excentric. mento-vital moro.. mento-moral yellow in moro-moral red plus vito-moral blue in red = red = red = salmon. normo-concentric. . normo-normal. orange. Symbolic Colors. Yellow = Intelligence Blue= Power. Red= Love. red. excentro-normal. concentro-excentric. mento-mental yellow plus moro-mental red in vito-mental blue in yellow = yellow = yellow = yellow. CHART XVII. excentro-concentric.

. this for our first lesson tell quatuor. Never. Parting Advice. and measures . certain modulations which cannot entirely approve ' because they are contrary to the principles ? a little surprised.' said the pupil. that man cannot all voluntarily command it. As recall a standard of criticism of sculpture. they have great use . already learned in the art. will is they start you on your art-pilgrimage all but they not take you the way. painting and acting. Next. drawing at the same time a quatuor of Haydn's ' from his pocket. in creating a voluntary a role. use all the charts. make them your masters by seeking of their attitudes in symbolic meaning. lessons'. Before we part. let 227 me tell you how to use our they place you in possession all of the highest standards by which to judge great works. but as gymnastics only. at the very first The nobleman began. The greatest art-work only produced under the inspiration of such supreme laws. previous First. and 'will you I may we examine me the reasons of Haydn. Practice of the aesthetic gymnastics. yet here let me an anecdote Vi< Haydn had agreed to give some lessons in ' counterpoint to an English nobleman.: Color. For our first lesson. declared himself ready to answer.

my you you who have the goodI ness to give lessons to me. it is at last lost patience and ' I see. who judged that these answers proved nothing. truly. recommenced his proofs and demonstrated to him. and.' But why best which is contrary to the rules?' Because the pleasantest.' The English- man. to confess to am forced that I do not deserve the honor. my play lord. to your fancy so and ' you will see is ' which of yours the it is the two ways is the best. namely. it arrange this quatuor. . de Mozart et de Meta- Ruskin adds to this all " This anecdote. and answered always. Haydn found himself ' found matter for objection.' still The partisan of the rules departed.: 228 Dels arte System. it I have done that because has a good it effect. except only in that makes one false inference or admission. whether in is parts true or not. in its it tendency most instructive. that his quatuor was good for But. I put that passage there because does well." (De Stendhal's Vies de stases) Haydn. It may be contrary to certain principles . then. astonished that in following the rules to the letter one cannot infallibly produce a Matrimonio Segreto. much embarrassed. by very good nothing. that a good composition can be contrary to the rules.' said : Haydn lord. ' reasons.

And my best whence results have been attained when a passive subject. supposed. an enthuat I siast on this subject of method. still. all And. to results I had not aimed has been This. but every in harmony with all true rules and involves thousands too delicate or thought to trace . only all our reasoning will not enable any one to do another thing like it. great composition is 229 to be general. I was I it relate my it. because all reasoning falls short of the divine instinct." You own will not think experience. the way a bee builds his comb. and be profited finding out certain things about the angles of but the bee knows nothing about those matters. Thus we may reason wisely over by it. for ear. from a bee to Paul Veronese. worked thought of it. master-workers work with this awful. it is possible to reason with infinite pleasure and profit about these principles. builds its It court in a far more inevitable way. I. or eye.Color. in : my own ! modest efforts. I dreamed night and day. me egotistical if I When a student. this inspired unconsciousness. but it I have never consciously used in public work. obeyed an inner inspiration coming from I know not and urging me on at. my experience be the experience of great artists how much more must it Then why study ? . when the thing is once done. in ignorance.

and the general character of his dream of them. it is to be taken straight fifty from nature. and so guides the beginner to truth. Now. whether the child earth's heaven's or blackness. writing and painting. Favorable circumstances. ditional He rejected the train the methods of movement taught Conser- . let me conclude this by quotations from Ruskin and acting as just as applicable to "oratory sister arts. whether the flower shall shall wither ere reflect blossom light ." (Delsarte studied for years from nature. observe the main conclusions which follow from these two conditions attached always to art of this kind. will have these facts again brought before him by the involuntary imaginative power in their noblest associations. therefore. And to the now. He who habituates himself in his daily life to seek for the stern facts in whatever he hears or sees. the child needs cultiva- development. and die. " First. fruit. the flower. .230 Because the tion for Dels arte System. to his " Only according own nobleness is an artist's power of entering " into the hearts of noble persons. fallacies Will And have in his he who seeks for frivolities and frivolities and fallacies again pre- sented to him dreams. resolution and industry can do much they deterfall mine as to whether the poor fruit shall or expand into velvet softness it .

) 231 " It is to be the plain narration of someAll great it. of imagination. men see what they paint before they paint fectly passive see it in a perit if manner.. nor will be taught. whether . I does not matter believe. whether they it will or it and requiring them to paint as they see its they not daring under the might of alter presence to it one jot or it tittle of it as they write it is. character. . —the before no. clearer than the it is bodily one but vision of one kind or another. enforces upon him the manifest possibility and assured duty of in a endeavoring to draw intelligible manner in at least honest and general and cultivates him those characteristics of heart. is Therefore that every system of ' teaching false which holds forth great art ' as in any wise to be taught to students or even to be aimed at by them. —cannot help seeing they would . or incident passing them as in second sight. sincerities of thought. in their mind's eye or in bodily fact is. vatoire. thing the painter or writer saw. preeminently and finally the expression of the spirits of great men like and without holding out to him as a possible or even probable result that he shall ever paint Titian or carve like Michael Angelo. in very often the mental vision men . and . Great art is precisely that which It is never was. down or paint down. whole scene. Color.

realities to shadows and beauty to corruption. two Deep down. have ever cried. dear companion always. " On. little finished our task.— 232 Delsarte System. masters grand old music. GoodWhile book. inspirer of my girlish dreams. we are with you. impressed on I find names emblazoned. your thoughts. Delsarte — Ruskin. reverberate through all I my being. — nay pleasure. graces of habit which are likely to lead him through- out life to prefer openness to affectation." We have bye. youthful pilgrim " Beauty's torch must be art is fired in a flaming heart. heart and mind. loving spirit of the master. God's — madmen ! are ye. True but the soul's "BEHOLD IT IS I. To one and bow and say. sorry to part. has seemed beside me. mine. Amen. Kindred like spirits." . Your keen white souls. the living.

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in attitude nor. . 4. 2. 3. 3. Torso exercise. BEARING. 7..-con. exercise. DECOMPOSING EXERCISES. 10.-nor. exercise. dropped back.-ex. exercise. Harmonic bearing in standing attitude nor. (a) dropped forward. 5. ORDER OF EXERCISES FOR SYSTEMATIC PRACTICE. Harmonic bearing Harmonic bearing in attitude nor. exercise.. exercise. — one Hand — one Forearm — one Entire arm — three Head — two exercises. 8. exercise. 12. exercises. 1 2. 9. Fingers exercise. exercise. — one Foot — one Lower leg — one Entire leg — one Entire body — one n. Eyelids — one Lower jaw — one 1 exercise. (d) 6.

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-ex. Take a long feet tape. ARM-MOVEMENTS. 7. Keep the elbow Evolution of vital force in arm-movement. foot. 1. 2. in motion. plant the let the torso lead. Harmonic bearing when seated back . Pin it in front of a long mirror. Walk with a book on your head. (d) obliquely forward and back. (b) (c) sideways .-con. mark the length of two of your on it. 4. (a) forward . Delsarte Sxstem. in attitude ex. The hand stiff. Sink wrist. WALKING. feather.-ex. 3. Harmonic bearing Harmonic bearing Harmonic bearing Harmonic bearing in attitude con. in attitude con. 1. Wave arm through the air. it. letting the will float hand as a hang a dead weight. 5.236 4. 2. letting the heel fall on the mark each Observe harmonic bearing while Lift the thigh. 6. . . in attitude ex.-con. unbend the knee. 8. 3. Walk on step.

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6. 11. is in the breadths . . the the commanding move- ment is 10. in the lengths. 9. Raise the arm. bring down . Evolution of force in every altitude in lengths. Serpentine movement.— Lengths and breadths until heights and depths are reached. N. B. N. 4. Spiral movement. in Patron's Affirmation. tection 12. Evolution of force in every altitude in breadths. Raise the arm expand the hand in Support. upper arm . taking care that the thumb shall oppose the two middle 7. bring 13. B. bring down in Teacher's Affirmation. (c) expand hand.238 {a) lift Delsarte System. expand the hand into Pro. Raise the arm the in evolution of motion. down in Conservative's Affirmation. Raise the arm. Commanding movement. . ex- pand hand into Definition. Expand hand from closed fist. {&) unbend elbow. expand the hand in Limitabring tion . spiral — The serpentine movement movement is in the heights. fingers. down in Champion's Affirmation. 8. gradually open- ing the fingers. 5.

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20. as hand-movements. expand the hand in Protest . Raise the arm sink wrist . 24. Raise the arm. . Poise forward and back from heels to balls of feet and back to heels. 22. hand dead . . Practice the nine affirmations with bent arm. Raise the arm. expand the hand . -nor. -con. in attitude nor. and rotation with elbows bent and near sides. Raise the arm. 2 1 .-ex. expand the hand bring Exposi- tion . attitude to nor. left from ex. attitude bring down in Bigot's Affirmation. rotate arm. 17. attitude 18. in Despot's attitude 13. 23 Rise upon toes.240 14. expand the hand . bring down in Orator's Affirmation. 25. Delsarte System. rotate arm. Practice the sinking of the wrist. down in Saint's Affirmation. Stand then poise from to right and vice versa. bring down in Seer's Affirmation. . 19. in Raise the arm. bring down in Tyrant's Affirmation. Poise 26. Mystic attitude 16. Raise the arm. expand the hand in Bigot's . slowly changing the centre of gravity. in Raise the arm.

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(c) half-way- 27. round. 39. 30. 36. Rotation of head in the various attitudes without changing the significant angle. 28. Primary oppositions of head and arm. then the head bows and the torso inclines. Arm-gestures from significant zones. 29. 32. the eyes droop. (b) to left. Falling. N. 37. as the knee sinks back. Evolution of bod)'.— The head rotates to the side of the strong leg. Involution of body. 38. BREATHING EXERCISES. . I.242 Delsarte System. 31. 33. the torso bends forward and the head 35. Gladiator oppositions. 34. Gamut of expression in motion. Simple vital breathing. Waist rotation in opposition to head rotation. bring into prominence vital or excentric zone. Kneeling. Pivot (a) to right. Bowing in opposition . B. rises. Bowing in successive movement.

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2. tak- ing a short breath between each number. then exhale very slowly. exhale slowly. Always inhale through the nostrils speaking and singing. Normal breathing . hold all move arms vigorously in 6. glottis. Artistic breathing. then exhale as slowly. as gently sniffing a nosegay. Mental breathing. 8. current within. VOWEL AND CONSONANT ARTICULATION. then count one to ten. walking quickly and moving arms vigor- ously.244 2. until Normal breathing. directions. 1. hold breath you feel a warm 7. 3. 4. Preparation for consonant articulation. N. if Inhale slowly through the nostrils. continuing the arm and leg movement. B. . "Direct attack" of the glottis on charts of organic vowels. Dels arte System. pronouncing the 5. — when possible in Inhale very slowly through the lips held as if whistling. bring into prominence moral or normal zone. number with "direct attack" of breath. bring into prominence mental or concentric zone. Normal breathing.

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Chromatic scale on organic vowels. Pronounce with the organic vowel molding. Chromatic scale on Sta-bat-ma-ter-do-lo-ro-sa- Jiix-ta-cru-cem-la-cri-mo-sa-diim-pen-de-bat-fi-li-us. Practice coloring pantomimic expressions of the body. 5. 4. verse from " Parrhasius " . (a) Descend from . Practice " Do you think so? " coloring the tone with the conditional attitudes of the hand. Crescendo and diminuendo on moral or heart-tone. 10. 6.246 3. do ! as " Stop ! " " Hold ! " "I will not it " etc. marked word. Practice . 8. taking any word or phrase. E flat (medium) in the 9. (a) in whisper (b) in aspirate (c) with normal tone. rising a note on each 7. . in the heart-tone {b) E flat (medium) on the scale ascend from E flat (medium) the tone with the various on the scale in the normal or heart-tone. . Delsarte System. Combinations of vowels and consonants.

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true. pool.. 10— —ore. 5—an 6 —ask. . 8—her —up. 7— ah.. . —old — 9 on. urn. litera- u after r is 00 as in rue. ere. . . 248 Delsarte System. . ill 2— 3—ale 4 ell. is U ture . after a vocal consonant u as in duty. bell's vowel 1 table. — — eel. all 1 1 12 13 pull.

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BELLS CONSONANT TABLE.. Breath. qu . 'P b m Lipss wh w V d z If "t s n Point of tongue < th(i n) r 1 th(en) r (rough) (smoo th) fsh zh Top of tongue < Back of tongue. Voice. J or soft k ch g «g in = kw . = dzh ph = g f. 250 Delsarte System. = tsh (as church) . Nasal Voice.

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the soft and And in dewy atmosphere Like forms and landscapes magical they lay. The golden light into the painter's room Stream' d richly. and the hidden colors stole From the dark pictures radiantly forth. . and Lay rich a yellow atmosphere in the and dusky shaded Through which the captive gazed. It Chain'd to a pillar. the faint captive changed his weary feet. As 'Twas evening. was almost night. And And Or the last seller from his place had gone. not a sound was heard but of a dog stall Crunching beneath the a refuse bone.252 Delsarte System. There stood an unsold captive in the mart. and the half descended sun Tipp'd with a golden fire the many domes street Of Athens. VERSES FROM PARRHASIUS. A grey-haired and majestical old man. the dull echo from the pavement rung.

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117. aim of 57 40 how talk to practice 11.. 101. 40. 73.12. 68 8 W. 151. Appoggiatura 214 41. 20. 177 Affection. 124. 18. . INDEX. 83. 95. 134. symbolic meaning of colors in Belvedere 20 '. 57. 158. Abbreviations. 108. 66. Ankle Apollo 225 59 49 223 32 Apocalypse. 227 73 113 exercises for practice. 140. explanation of PAGE. 71. definition of ^Esthetic gymnastics. tendency of 169 225 78 Agate Age. 47. 163. 31. 17. 42. sections of articular centres of 45 107 attitudes of inflections of in 115 right . A. 49. tendency of the Agnostic attitude Alger. 66 194 65 204 205 Accent Action colored by habit Adjective Adverb Advice to those appearing in public 79 ^Esthetics. R definition of Amethyst Anatomy. 27. Arm.. chart of vital movements of 125 1 expression of 73 17 .

36. how attained fruit 229 31 Blue ray. Angelique. Index. 214 Art. chart of Buckle Byron's tribute to a dog 76 C Carbuncle Celestial 224 224 wisdom. Melville 199 Beryl 225 Best results. PAGE. 38. necessary for grand divisions of perfection recoil of Body. 37. 17. 194 203.. and society 28 230 167 19 1 necessity for nobleness of character in an Attitude.258 Arnaud. vital Brotherhood. Mme. law of dignity of inverse 72 Aztec painting B. definition of 17. 58 79 reason for studying rules of object of great Article 59 231 205 Articulation the language of reason situation of the great its 36 24 70 sequential order 1 classification of the different Artificial 201 188 breath Artist. an. Beauty. A. 172. line of is 221 18 21 power Bell. opposition of parts of 20 41 77 172 188 and power of Breath. three degrees of . principle of 222 143 5 Brow. quotations from.

143. definition of Criterion chart terms. 259 PACK Centres. 200. Circumflex Clavicular breathing 197 195 Color language Coloring. 152.. 154. 155 159.. 124. theory of 203 34 3 171 Delaumosne. 203 207 200 201 Coriolanus. Conjunction Consonants. 1 37 194. /31. 153. 135. 219 220 13th and 14th centuries 221 31 Colors. attribute of. 205 189. definition of. great articular Cerebration. unconscious. 72. in breathing Circle-chart 188 125 193. exiled 62 61 Correspondence. Decomposing Deific essence exercises 1 Degrees. 39. 226 38 227 J2 g Delsarte's now given to the public lor the first time how Cheek Chin to use 129 Chest. a shorthand of 39 40 195 Cry D. their attributes significations of 220 meaning among the ancients chart of 220 226 104 5 Command " Go. 164. 142. 199. y7. l'Abbe' quotation from . in 12th." Comte the Concentric motion. 136. 188.1 Index. initial initial preceded by gesture chart of directions for practice of . necessary 1 73 17 Charts.

57. not mechanical principle of 64 1 35. 208. 189. 194. 203 206. 118. Delsarte system. 207. 190.24. 47. the first step necessary for necessity of practicing the technique of 215 140 Drunkenness. 94. harmful 40 . 107. 170 171. 108. PAGE. to America quotations from .. 93. the Divisions of the book ' 32 I Introduction Decomposing exercises Harmonic poise of bearing Basis of the system Vital division 9 15 29 55 119 Moral division Mental division Grammar of pantomime 127 165 A gamut of expression voice in pantomime 1 75 The 185 Color 217 233 76 11 Order of exercises for practice Dog's walk contrasted with man's Dramatic art. the gaze of Duad principle Dynamic wealth E. law of 224 188 1 70 Divine attributes. 35. 196. 193. Fran9ois. 60. 214 his fifty years of study 230 60. quotation from 228 Diamond Diaphragmatic breathing Direction. Ecstasy. 188.: 260 Index. the gaze of 32 24 140 Educational tendencies. 172. 192. Delsarte. 173. biographical sketch of his efforts in behalf of dramatic art 4 5 7 his plans to come . in 74 one of the most striking points 203 79 Demosthenes De Stendhal. 174. 210.

1 \^lpow soul of the as a 73 arm 42. J \ \ Egyptians. principles of doubt about reiteration in illustration in 224 172 196. 21 Emerald Emotion. 1 46 48 78 thermometer signification of movement of Ellipsis 194. upper I43> I43> 54 '4^ 1 lower simple combinations of brow and upper '4^ 148 137 ?$&" Eyes man has more white in active agents of centre of mental significance -/*43 \J°j . 197 197 197 206 1 Evolution. definition of 37 195 11 1 Exclamation Expression. law of Eyeball. as an indicator signification 203 172 137 138 and action of chart of 142 143 Eyebrow signification and action of 152. 144 153 charts of combinations of upper lid and chart of Eyelid. 261 PAGE. freeing the channels of precedes gesture 70 movements of agents of passional 171 1 a gamut of 73 177 one of the secrets of Extension. philosophy of the ancient 1 33 08. law of 73 Excentric motion.6 Index. the only non-self-destructive Emphasis.

necessity of 216 28 28 225 three degrees of Feather movement Flexibility 96 1 Foot Force. attitude of the Gentlemen. position of. in 68 introduction to ladies 67 7 Gerome Gesture. forms of expression for external and interior 65 118 duration of retaining a inflections of effect of effect of 118 124 168 168 168 passion on thought on effect of love on . Faith. Gamut of expression in pantomime 1 77 17 Genius. expression colors tone Failure. F. the 32 33 jge Groan Guilmette. as represented by the ancients Godhead. definition of Gentleman. precedes speech 170 171 rhythm of Gladiator oppositions Glottis. 102 189 " direct attack " of God. law of Form. Dr 108 188 Guttmann's u Gymnastics of the Voice " . a universal 46 168 171 174 G.1 262 Index. zones of " 129 of. law of Formula. PAGB- Face. the language of emotion or soul the interpreter of sentiment 36 38 from significant zones 49 60. the cause of.

89. main 4°> 9° ' Imagination Imitation. 28. 263 PAGE. continued.Index. insufficiency of 7* Indulgences. metaphor for love 44 221 Heraldry High notes for tender sentiments Hip How to move others Hypnotic experiments 208 49 19° °2 I. the. result of 65 . color the voice inflections of 95. positions of. affirmations of Hard work Harmonic required poise of bearing 78 17 171 Harmony Haydn. Head zones of 43 129 71 sympathy with strong leg chart of zones of attitudes of inflections of 131 132 134 135 chart of attitudes of chart of divisions of active divisions of 136 137 Heart. 18. 41. 27. H. in space relative to the centres of gravity and being attitudes of. anecdote of 227 42. Hand faces of 99 89 89 functions of description of indications of movement 90 91 conditional attitudes of 92 chart of relative attitudes of 97 99 99 216 100 103 12. Idea.

Interior sensations. Language. trusting to 207 140 5 to Intensity of effect. Larynx heart in the 36 189. caressing I ntroduction 1 Involution Iris 74] J. quotation from L. 220J 221/ Isis 3^ J- Jasper . Inflection 193 the language of the sensitive nature in gesture 36 193 pantomime particular to the blind 193 195 principles of 196 should harmonize Insanity.^205 20^ 3* / Intonation.264 Index. Laugh Legs sections of attitudes of 66 41 66 . vocal. caused by outer manifestations and 63 memory Interjection 64 194. how produce 189 attitudes. PAGE. 223 Lamentation 195 buccal'. 57. 201 190 196 46. the gaze of Inspiration. . 225 161 Jaw Jupiter 32 K. dynamic. " Key Knee of the universe " 37 49 221 Knight's shield. . colors of Koran.

Macbeth. 37. - 2 Ligure 225 Limbs. proper use of Michael Angelo Mill Milton. quotation from Madeley. 265 PAGE Legs illustrated by photographed statues A faun. 92 62 189 Lungs are mental 44 M. Ariadne. (legs and arms) progression of articulations of 66 173 161 Lips Little finger. use of a 32 heart. 196 5 . 40 25 Mirror. Pallas Athene. youth in Parthenon frieze. expressive of the affections Louvre. Lewis Monsabre 196 B 8. the museum of 20. Hebe. quotation from 231 229 231 5 220 Mind and Mithas heart. Monad principle Monotone Monroe. imprisoned in three three types in 40 64 communicates Martellato ways 197 189 itself Matter has no form of 34 171 Melody Mental vision Method. fighting gladiator chart of 7. necessity of culture of II. quotation from • 216 7 211 223 36 Man the object of art spirit of. Demosthenes. a scene from Mackaye. Modesty. Steele Madelene. Mixed or how to acquire 190 32 193. 40.voice. 42. Laure de la.Index. : Diana.

the. held sacred 32 O. progressive value of Number three. definition of 37 43 156 159 213 Nose. 1 law of Order of exercises for systematic practice Organism. lines of 225 20 24. fact of 32 3 17 197 Nervous control. Roman. Nanterre Natural intuition Negation. simultaneous and successive Music. grammar of a gamut of expression 32 167 in 177 . Moral division poise 119 20 168 171 161 Motion. 58 Onyx Opposition.1 266 Index. curves of motion. expressions of chart of 164 173 21 Movement. Turk's expressions of chart of Notes. value of 22 Ninefold accord chart of 37 39 18 Normal form. definition of. degrees for Mythene N. 221 Oromazes Orus Osiris P. PAGE. Ontology. analyzation of 72 236 36 32 32 32. Pallas Athene Pantomime. Greek. law of and emotion Mouth.

vulgar and uncultured Pharynx Phrase. ascending 209 Promethean spark. Participle its relation to speech 170 193 inflection to the deaf 204 227 5 Parting advice Pasca Passion 209 169 tendency of by color People. the Pronoun Pythagoras 40 205 32 R. how to use 227 117 155 155 Primary oppositions of arm and head Profiles chart of Progressions. 221 ' I Regnier. quotation from Preposition 33 223 205 Previous lessons. used in Reaction. M 3» 6' 9° 63 Respiration '°7 Respiratory and vocal organs. definition of Plato. law of Registers illustration 31. quotation from 44 58 77 Platonic hypothesis Portal.Index. Delsarte's method of differentiating influenced 225 209 189 194 197 211 modifying rising dissonant note in 212 Physiognomy and phrenology Physiology. Rachel 5. correct use of 188 17' Rhythm . 79 72 Rainbow. 267 PACK Pantomime.

Run.268 Index. father of a word 203 196 23 197 195 5 Singing Sinuousness. church of Paul. Shade. conscious . quotations from 7. Genevieve. Pierre.. PAGE. 46 79 interpreter for Rachel 224 224 . attitude of the Selections. Sapphire Sardius . quotation from St. 47 195 Sigh Signs. 228. 208. oracle of 64 209 1 70 32 193. definition of science of . Ruskin quotations from 214. definition 60 Spiritual love. law of Serapis. Slide how to acquire Sob Sontag Spencer Spiral 5 movement of 108 Spirit. Serpentine movement 107. three degrees of St. S. quotation from St. M. arrangement and signification of Strength. 221. 216 57 Semeiotics. quotation from 34 225 224 168 Stones. women 28. the of 82 82 5.. 78. vocal 96 210 1 Shoulder as a 73 thermometer 1 42. St. 232 230 Sampson. Sentiment Sequence. 60. 225 64 3 Augustine. musical 214 Silence. directions for analyzing 68 and practicing 61. 77. „ Scholar. 194.

meaning of and reason for Substantive 229 204 33. Talma Teaching. Stuart. quality of points of reverberation of color of -^ 190 191 192 preparation for 196 Topaz Torso zones of. 121 41. 269 PAGE. attitude of the 74 68 169 Thought. the vital number mind : things to be borne in 37 85 173 Thumb as a thermometer significance of the attitudes of 93. the Druidical Tribute to Delsarte and Ruskin 32 232 . Swedenborg. quotations from System.1 Index. attention to 28 Temperament. movement of strength of its 6 169 75 74 46. trusting to Thermometers of passion Thigh. 92 Thummim. William toil # 27 7g Study. 224 42. basis of the 34 29 T. false system of 79 231 Technique. Titian stones in 94 223 23 Tone. 44. 121 attitudes of 122 carriage and expression of inflections of 122 123 Triad. tendency of Three. part in walking Thinker.

external 225 Urim. stones in 223 V." Veronese. 64 Understanding. 192 190 190 192 in emotion mental in 192 193 monotone of the mother strengthened by passion softened 207 209 210 189 by affection Voice-production Vowel. by gesture a caressing hand two kinds of loud colored quality of. PAGE. 201 normal emission of 192 . Paul Vital division 40 204 caste of 40 229 55 Vocal proportions. in 82 man U. law of Voice the language of the sensitive nature 210 187 36 95. law of 171 Venus of Milo Verb " Vere de Vere. 32 219 31 220 74 174 1 requisites of 35. the. concentric 190 191 . Velocity. mother excentric. law of Turn. Egyptians and Chinese Trinity principle of in color 31. normal. directions for practice 191. the Types. 224 Trinities of the Hindoos.270 Trines Index.

conscious Will or desire revealed by the nose Wisdom. importance of control of 23 73 Walk. Waist-muscles. 271 PACE. thermometer 49 . Vowel. indicative of character the perfect 74 75 how to directions for practicing the 76 of an actress of prostration 80 81 81 81 81 81 of dudes of infancy and inferiority of meditation of the blind of the intoxicated 82 73 168 Walking-lesson Weakness. chart of English. according to Bell 199 199 W. Wrist as a internal 108. 43 225 173 42.Index.

.

in arrangeI d in sure guide of in trie finely printed and «ET voice. management and cultivation of the singing and speaking voice. Ittssold at a low price. Twenty-five years ago was issued the first German edition of Gymnastics of the Voice. BASED UPON PHYSIOLOGICAL LAWS. and as a self-instructor by any person. Many tems" — mere theories — — — POINTS OF SUPERIORITY. the inventor. something which had been subjected to the crucial test of practical experience. persons begin their professional career by publishing " treatises. It tisuseaas a . Oskar Glttmann. . It i s fou nded on n atural. i to a 10. A SYSTEM OF CORRECT BREATHING IN SINGING AND SPEAKING. sometimes these publications are even injurious because they are the result of ignorance and false principles. if original. z." " syswhich the authors themselves have not tested. possess little or no merit .urope. 6. and the whole work has been put into a form adapted to use as a text-book in colleges and schools. and the necessity of another American edition so soon after the issue of the first. and which are the results of the author's life-long study and experience . in contradistinction to the many writers who flood and afflict the public. text-be is been translated indesign TTarvard University in other schools." " Talent and School. physiology and hygiene . no author from whom he could draw. or.uid in K h." " methods.Second Edition — Revised and Enlarged./Esthetic Physical Culture. to drink at the fountain head. WERNER. which at once became a standard authority. GYMNASTICS OF THE VOICE. generally without credit and also without properly and intelligently reproducing them. the production. But he had no prototype. for in so doing he produced a work founded upon the natural. // /* a book that has come to stay I The text for the new edition has been thoroughly revised from beginning to end. etc ntific produced satisfac thorough! fijj. postpaid. the formulater. complete and coraIt is co prehensive. 48 University Place. Price $1. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT. It is It is plain and . did not take up the pen until he had something of value to communicate. It is safe 3. recogn ized ft ict-n to testecT 7." etc. Many pages of new matter have been added. of Aesthetic Physical Culture. the pioneer. A Practical Guide in the Training and Use of the Speaking and Singing Voice. Dramatic Reading and Acting . New York. an vate teachers. scientific principles governing vocal anatomy. thorny in k mi-rici . yet concist It \ convenient excellence.25. Author of ". The repeated editions in Europe. It is well that he was forced to go to nature. a position it holds until this day. DESIGNED FOR SCHOOLS AND FOR SELF-INSTRUCTION. and unec :id bound and fully illustra- ted. It number of languages in arv_pn13. including numerous exercises for practice tvhirh have never before been in print. and which are either plagiarisms. He was alone. are proof positive of its merit and durability. By Professor OSKAR GUTTMANN. training ment. . notwithstandforgotten ! It has been the source ing the many volumes that have appeared and which are from which many subsequent writers have taken ideas and exercises. Address the Publisher. EDGAR S. practical li e laws. He was the discoverer.

;

AESTHETIC
PHYSICAL CULTURE.
A SELF-INSTRUCTOR FOR ALL CULTURED CIRCLES, AND ESPECIALLY FOR ORATORICAL AND DRAMATIC ARTISTS.

By

OSKAR GUTTMANN.

Our literature possesses no work of this kind. Its special value is the strictly scientific basis on which .he author rests. The book is to be considered in a twofold manner, from the general standpoint of a person of culture, and from the particular standpoint of a professional artist. The author proceeds from the right principle, namely, that every actor must first be a man of culture. In this respect, the scope of the book is a masterpiece. Prof. Guttmann's keen powers of observation, to which we had occasion to refer in reviewing his " Gymnastics of the Voice," are more strikingly manifested in " ./Esthetic Physical Culture,'' and we urgently advise young persons of both sexes, who are anxious to improve themselves, to closely follow
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FROM LEO KOFLER, TEACHER OF THE ART OF SINGING, NEW YORK.
[In his " The Old Italian School of Singing."! have arrived now at the last expedient of a singer's good styie in singing This subnamely, the external demeanor of the body and the facial expression. This was, ject ought to engage a singer's very careful attention and study. There was, to my knowledge, no work in existence hitherto, no easy matter. It that treated this subject fully and systematically from the singer's standpoint. is true that in a number of books pertaining to the vocal and dramatic art, this but nowhere has it received the attention it desubject has been ventilated serves, except at the hands of Oskar Guttmann, in his excellent work, " ./Esthetic

We

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Physical Culture."

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WITH AN ESSAY ON

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Indispensable to every person who wishes to gii e pression to his work, whatever that work may be,— Acting, Oratory, Painting, Sculpture,
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MOUTH-BREATHING.
ITS CAUSES,
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[From the American Art Journal.] It is a well-known fact that the vocal profession presents a medley of various theories in utter contradiction of each other, and to endeavor to bring system and order out of this chaos
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