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# Learning Trajectory for Polygon Area in Japanese Curriculum (Tokyo Shoseki, 2006) Grade Level, No. of 45-Min.

Periods, Textbook Pages
Gr.1: Playing with Shapes, pp. 53–56 4 periods Gr.1: Which One is Longer? pp. 57–58 4 periods Gr.1: Making Shapes, pp. 101–104 4 periods Gr. 2A Length (1), pp. 25–33 8 periods Gr. 2B Triangles and Quadrilaterals, pp. 2–12 8 periods Gr. 2B Shapes of Boxes, pp. 68–73 7 periods Gr. 2B Shapes of Boxes, pp. 68–73 7 periods Gr. 3B Triangles, pp. 2–12 8 periods Gr. 4A Angles, pp. 16–24 7 periods Gr. 4A Quadrilaterals, pp. 80–99 14 periods Gr. 4A Tangrams, pp. 100–101 2 periods Gr. 4B Area, pp. 22–37. See Teachers’ Manual 11 periods Gr. 5A Congruent Shapes, pp. 52–67 See Teachers’ Manual 10 periods Gr. 5A Area of Quadrilaterals and Triangles, pp. 68-84. See Teachers’ Manual 15 periods

Student Learning Activities
Notice, classify, and make 3-D shapes. Trace outlines of block faces to make rectangle, square, triangle, circle. Classify resulting shapes. Use 3 measurement strategies: direct, indirect and non-standard units. In final task, students figure out starting point for measurement, using grid. Compose, decompose, and manipulate geometric figures, using plastic triangles and squares, sticks, and dot grid. Estimate length, measure length with non-standard units and centimeters. Draw straight line, learn what a straight line is. Write expression for measurement of two-segment line. Draw, define, and distinguish triangles and quadrilaterals. Make and define right angle. Use set-square. Make, define and distinguish square, rectangle, and right triangle Identify rectangles and lengths of their sides on 3D solids. (Identify number of faces, vertices, and edges on rectangular prisms.) Identify rectangles and lengths of their sides on 3D solids. (Identify number of faces, vertices, and edges on rectangular prisms.) Make triangles with sticks, classify and define isosceles and equilateral triangles, and draw both types with compass. Use set-square and folding to compare angles. Measure angles, using non-standard measure and protractor. Draw angles, write expressions for angle measurements. Identify and draw perpendicular and parallel lines. Understand that the width between parallel lines is always equal and a straight line intersects parallel lines at equal angles. Make trapezoids, parallelograms and rhombuses and investigate their characteristics; draw diagonals of each and investigate their length and intersection angle. Make shapes from paper triangles, square, parallelogram—attending to lengths of sides, measure of angles. Consider meaning of area, think about how to measure a rectangle and square, finally using a square centimeter for measurement. See square centimeters that are not square in shape. Build formula for area of rectangle and square, create shapes with a given area, find area of composite figures. Link numerical expressions to areas of decomposed figures. Learn measurement units for large areas. Find, manipulate, investigate and draw congruent triangles and quadrilaterals, with focus on congruent shapes, sides, and angles, to build perception of shape. Investigate which quadrilaterals have congruent triangles when divided by diagonal. Find angle sum of triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon. Use rectangle area formula and transformation to find formulas for areas of parallelograms, triangles, trapezoids. Use grid, then base and height. Coordinate mathematical expressions, measurement, and geometry.