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A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA BY

James Patrick Meyer

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE

Professor Joseph F. Labuz

March 2012

© Copyright by James Patrick Meyer, 2012

Abstract

Any failure criterion can be represented as a surface in principal stress space, and the shape of the surface depends on the functional form of the criterion. For isotropic materials that exhibit a pressure dependence on strength, the simplest failure criterion is a linear function, and the failure surface is a hexagonal pyramid with a common vertex Vo on the tension side of the hydrostatic axis. An example of a pyramidal failure surface for rock is the popular Mohr-Coulomb criterion, which is independent of the intermediate principal stress and thus contains two material parameters. A linear failure criteria in three principal stress is formulated with three material constants: internal friction angles for (i) compression c and (ii) extension e, and (iii) a common vertex Vo. Nonlinearity on the failure surface can be approximated by additional planes with appropriate material parameters (i), (ii), and (iii). To demonstrate the utility of the linear failure criterion, a series of conventional triaxial compression (II = III) and extension (I = II) experiments were performed on an isotropic rock. The results were processed using the developed data fitting techniques, and the material parameters for the six-sided pyramidal failure surface were determined. Multi-axial (I ≠ II ≠ III) experiments were also performed to evaluate the

nonlinearity, and a twelve-sided pyramid was constructed and the appropriate equations were derived.

i

.................2 Plane-strain compression ................... 8 2........................................................................................................................................................................................ 18 2................................................................................................... 20 3.........................................................................................................................................................1 1......................................2............2 Material parameters ..........1 Six-sided pyramidal failure surface ...............................0 Introduction .................................................................1................................................0 References ........................ iii List of Figures ...............................................2 1..................................................3 Data analysis................................. 66 ii ..............................1....................... 3 Objectives ..................................... 63 6.........................................1 Conventional triaxial compression and extension....1.........3 Uniaxial tension ...... 23 Triaxial testing results ..0 Strength parameters ...... 6 Organization .............2 Shear strength testing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents List of Tables ........................... 33 4....................................................................................... 8 2.................................................................. 1 1... 33 4......................... 47 5.............1..............................................2 Uniaxial compression ..........0 Evaluation of failure criteria ................................................................................................................................ 23 3.......................................................................0 Concluding remarks ...........................................................................2 4............................................................. 29 4...................................1 5..................................................... 33 4...........1 Ultrasonic velocity ..........................1 Material ....... 25 Equal triaxial tension state ........................................................................2 3............. 62 5..................1 Formulation .......................2....0 Description of experiments ......................................................................................................... 37 4....................................1 3................................ 43 Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface .................. 10 2............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 62 Future work ..................2 Conclusions ...............3 Stress invariants p and q ...... iv 1....... 7 2........... 13 2................................................................................................................................................ 8 2............................................... 40 4.......3 Tension cut-off ................................................................................3 Background .......................................1........................................................................................... 18 2..1...............................................................................

.. 10 2 Uniaxial compression results of cylindrical Calcarenite specimens ....................... 32 7 Triaxial compression and extension results in terms of principal stresses 1......................................................... II = III = r) .................................................................... 39 8 Plane-strain experimental results ................................... III = a) ............ 13 4 Results from triaxial compression experiments (I = a................... 61 iii ......................... 27 6 Strength parameters with common intercept Vo (adjusted) and raw (unadjusted) data . 11 3 Comparison of ultrasonic and uniaxial compression testing results .............. and 3 (no order implied) .................................................. 2............... 48 9 Material parameters determined from three different pyramidal failure surfaces .......... 26 5 Results from triaxial extension experiments (I = II = r.............................................................................................List of Tables 1 Results from ultrasonic testing ........

................................................................................................ 14 10 Direct tension testing apparatus ............. 26 18 (a) Specimen influenced by a weak plane................................................ (b) Plan view ........................... 22 16 Failure surface described by compression and extension results . 17 12 Direct tension specimen (a) before testing......... 12 8 Deformation response from a uniaxial compression test performed on the rectangular prism Calcarenite specimen ...................................... 4 4 Typical data obtained by testing rock over a range of III from 0 to Co ................................... 18 13 Sketch of Hoek-Franklin triaxial cell ............... (b) Typical compression failure plane ........................................................................... 28 20 Sketch of least squares lines intersecting the x-axis at Vo ... 27 19 Triaxial compression and extension results presented in p ................................................................................................................. 13 9 Dimensions of Calcarenite specimen for uniaxial tension testing .. 21 15 Biaxial test specimen with large brass tab exposed and AE sensor attached ........ 3 3 Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope on a Mohr diagram ............................... also known as the deviator plane (b) Pyramidal surface in principal stress space ...................... 15 11 Axial stress – axial strain from two strain gages attached on two sides of the Calcarenite specimen located in the reduced cross-section .................................................................................................................................................................. 36 24 Failure locus corresponding to 2 = 3 ................................................... 6 6 Sketch of ultrasonic testing apparatus ..................................List of Figures 1 Six-sided pyramidal failure surface ........................................... (b) Typical extension failure plane ....................... (a) Elevation view............................. 24 17 (a) Specimen influenced by a weak plane.. 30 21 Triaxial compression and extension data with a common vertex ............. 8 7 Mechanical response from a uniaxial compression test performed on the Rectangular prism Calcarenite specimen ......................................................... 42 iv . 41 26 Experimental data points plotted on pyramidal failure surface ........................................ 34 23 (a) -plane cross-section at 1 = 2 = 3 = 0 plane................. 5 5 Nonlinear failure surface in principal stress space ..q form ........................................ 2 2 Piecewise linear surface approximately describing the actual response ... (b) after testing .......................... 31 22 Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to σ 2 = σ3 .............................................................................. 19 14 Sketch of UMN Plane-Strain Apparatus............................ 40 25 Cross section of MC failure surfaces and linear failure surface with intermediate stress effect .....................................................................................................

..........................2 MPa ........................ 46 31 Pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with tension cut-offs ..... 64 42 Modified UMN plane-strain apparatus . 50 35 Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3 ..................... developed assuming two vertices............................................ 58 39 Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface with two vertices ..................................27 MC failure envelope in principal stress space...................... 65 v ..................................................................................................................... along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3 ...... 54 38 Cross-section of failure surface................................ 49 34 Cross-section of equipressure plane of a twelve-sided piecewise linear failure surface at p = 11.................................... piecewise linear.......................................................2 MPa with plane-strain data point ............................................ 45 30 Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 =3 with tension cut-offs .............................................................................................. 47 32 Equipressure plane of p = 11.................................................................... 44 29 Pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with tension cut-offs ........................................ 51 36 Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with theoretical failure surface ........ 59 40 Twelve-sided failure surface with tension cut-offs .................................................................................................. 61 41 Modified conventional triaxial testing apparatus ............................................ 43 28 Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3 with tension cut-offs ................ with solid line representing linear failure surface with intermediate stress effect .. 52 37 Section of an equipressure plane plotted in the F-E coordinate system ............................................... and linear failure surfaces ............................. 48 33 Section showing nonlinear...................................................

If the rock is isotropic. a linear function maps as a plane and a nonlinear function as a curvilinear surface. any one of the 60° sections uniquely defines the failure surface. 2 . any failure criterion can be represented as a surface in principal stress space (cartesian coordinates 1. where the axes 1′ . On a plane perpendicular to the hydrostatic axis ( 1 = 2 = 3) called the equipressure plane or -plane described by ( ) the failure surface displays a three-fold symmetry (Figure 1).1. 3′ are the projections of the coordinate axes on the π-plane. 2′ . 3). 2. equation (1) is actually six failure surfaces. such as a slope or tunnel. 1 . and an example for a pressure-dependent material is a pyramidal failure surface with a common vertex Vo (Figure 1). each corresponding to a particular order of principal stresses. Because there are six possible orderings of the principal stresses. the linear equation represents the popular Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and the two material constant A and C are related to the internal friction angle and the uniaxial compression strength Co or the vertex Vo on the tension side of the hydrostatic axis (Figure 1). the focus of this research will be limited to linear forms of equation (1): ( ) With B = 0. Thus. but as suggested in the seminal paper by Paul [1968 a]. The literature is full of various forms of the general relationship. e. then the directional dependence disappears and a failure criterion can always be written as ( ) ( ) Furthermore. requires a description of material failure that should be verified from experimental results of appropriate strength tests. where a state of stress ij at failure can be expressed in terms of three principal stresses I ≥ II ≥ III (or 1. and the shape of the surface depends on the form of equation (1). 3 with no regard to order) and three directions. a direct requirement of isotropic response.0 Introduction Design of a structure composed of or in rock.g.

Six-sided pyramidal failure surface. 2 . can be reasonably captured by piecewise linear segments (Figure 2). then three material parameters are required. and it will be shown that A. Note that the nonlinear response of the rock. B and C can be related to internal friction angles (i) c for compression (II = III) and (ii) e for extension (I = II). If all three principal stresses are admitted. as represented in the -plane.Figure 1. and (iii) Vo.

Mogi 1967].2 The Mohr-Coulomb (MC) criterion is one of the most widely used theories for describing the failure of rock.Figure 2.f. and lastly there is a general level of acceptance for the criterion. and . Mohr’s [1900] failure hypothes is can be represented by a general failure envelope: 3 . This is due to a number of reasons. and an intermediate stress effect sometimes appears [c. on the failure plane: | | ( ) where c is cohesion and is the angle of internal friction. Piecewise linear surface (solid lines) approximately describing the actual response (nonlinear surface in dashed lines). The MC theory can be thought of as a set of linear equations in principal stress space that represent a shear failure surface for an isotropic material. However. 1. various researchers have performed multi-axial testing. The Coulomb [1776] failure criterion can be written in terms of normal and shear stresses.1 Background 1. first of which is its mathematical simplicity. Another reason is the physical meaning of the material parameters. with no effect from intermediate principal stress ( II).

which is commonly known as the MC failure theory. To account for tensile failure. The discrepancy is due to the specimen failing in a tensile mode instead of the shear failure mode that MC predicts. It is often convenient to represent the MC failure criterion in terms of principal stresses: ( or ( ) ) ( ) ( ) 4 . Co/To = 3. Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope on a Mohr diagram. with Co = uniaxial compressive strength (UCS). For example. However. this value is generally much larger than what is observed from actual testing. The dashed circle with diameter Co represents the state of stress for uniaxial compression testing. Figure 3. Paul [1961] introduced the concept of tension cut-offs. A representation of the MC failure envelope on a Mohr diagram is shown in Figure 3.| | ( ) ( ) Of course. the two envelopes coincide when the Mohr criterion is a linear function. The point ( . while from experiments the tensile strength T is approximately 1/10 of Co. with φ = 30°. The dashed circle with diameter To represents the tensile strength predicted from MC.)f corresponds to stresses acting on a plane with normal inclined to the major principal stress at an angle α.

The nonlinear envelope of Mohr was promoted by Hoek and Brown [1980]. Typical data obtained by testing rock over a range of III from 0 to Co.where I = major principal stress. which had been used as early as 1936 to describe the failure of concrete [Hoek 2002]. Usually a nonlinear failure curve fits the data better than a straight line over the entire range of stress states. Mogi [1967] also suggested a nonlinear failure criterion that takes into account intermediate 5 . However. by considering a limited range of III. III = minor principal stress ( ( ) ) ( ) ( ) It is important to note that a nonlinear failure envelope is needed to describe the behavior exhibited by many rock. Figure 4. a straight line provides a reasonable description of material response. Figure 4 shows typical experimental data obtained over a range of III: 0 < III < Co. using a parabolic equation.

it is recognized that the failure surface appears to be nonlinear in the plane (Figure 5).stress. Willam and Warnke 1974]. Furthermore. and the material parameters sometimes have no physical meaning. Nonlinear failure surface in principal stress space. However. which can be constructed from the three material parameters: (i) c measured from compression 6 . both compression and extension testing is necessary to define a six-sided surface. sufficient experimental data is often not available to accurately describe the nonlinear surface. Matsuoka and Nakai 1974. 1.2 Objectives The thesis presents an experimental program and analytical formulations to establish linear failure criteria for rock. and a smooth surface – no corners. From conventional triaxial testing with a Hoek-Franklin cell or similar equipment. Figure 5.has advantages in numerical analyses [Borja 2003.

Strength parameters of the material are discussed in Chapter 3. Finally. Additional testing with multi-axial loading (1 ≠ 2 ≠ 3) is required to enhance the failure surface. The formulations of the six-sided and twelve-sided failure surfaces are presented in Chapter 4. 1. and (iii) Vo calculated from data fitting.failure. and an example of a twelve-sided pyramid with necessary parameter identification is highlighted. 7 .3 Organization Chapter 2 presents material parameters obtain from ultrasonic and mechanical testing. including the angles of internal friction in compression and extension. as well as cohesion values. (ii) e measured from extension failure. as well as detailed descriptions of the testing techniques used. a discussion of results and future work is found in Chapter 5.

Sketch of ultrasonic testing apparatus. The signal sent to the oscilloscope acts as a trigger for the recording in the oscilloscope workstation. The elastic parameters were determined using both ultrasonic and mechanical testing techniques. Figure 6.and S-wave velocities.2. The electrical signal sent to the transmitter is converted into a mechanical disturbance that propagates through the specimen. With appropriate transducers (Panametrics-NDT).0 Description of experiments 2. was used to fabricate all the specimens. provide a convenient method to determine elastic constants and degree of anisotropy. A Velonex high power pulse generator is used to send an electrical signal to the transmitting sensor and the digital oscilloscope when the pulse generator is activated. Uniaxial compression and tension specimens were instrumented with strain gages to allow for the measurement of Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio ( v). both P. P.1. along with density. and the apparatus is shown in Figure 6. a calcareous sedimentary rock formed of detritus particles ranging in diameter from 0.and S-waves can be generated. The receiver that is connected to the other end of the specimen converts the mechanical disturbance back into an electrical signal. 3 2.06 – 2 mm. which is amplified and recorded. A single block 300 x 300 x 150 mm.1 Ultrasonic velocity testing The ultrasonic velocity testing followed ASTM D 2845-08 standards. with density ρ = 1610 kg/m and porosity n = 31%.1 Material The rock tested was Calcarenite. 8 .

25%. This is important. while for S-wave velocities the degree of anisotropy was 2. 9 . and the average was used to calculate their respective wave velocities (Table 1). Nonetheless. and z-axis.or S-wave With this information and the density ρ. The S-wave velocities with the most discrepancies were the measurements taken through the z-axis.1% is small and approximately equal to the value of 2. This difference can partially be explained by the difficulty experienced in determining the S-wave arrival time. the elastic parameters can be determined using ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ( ) ) ( ) Testing was performed on the Calcarenite block with a cross-section of 300 x 300 mm and 150 mm in height labeled as x. the P-wave velocities measured through the z-axis showed a degree of anisotropy of 0. However. Pressure dependence of elastic parameters was not considered. six readings of P. respectively. l= length of specimen [m] and ti = first arrival [s] of P.By visually examining the waveform. as the time needed to travel through the specimen is used to determine the wave speed: ( ) ( where. The degree of (velocity) anisotropy was evaluated using a percent difference calculation: ( ) ( ) The degree of velocity anisotropy from P-wave measurements was 1. P. the arrival time can be determined for each wave type.and S-wave measurements were performed at two different locations on each axis. At each of these locations. y. at atmospheric pressure.and S-wave arrival times were recorded.1%.4%. a degree of velocity anisotropy of 2.0% recommended by ASTM D 2845-08 in order to use equations (12) and (13) to calculate the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of an isotropic material (Table 1).

52 Location x1 Test P S Velocity [m/s] 2404 1442 Velocity [m/s] 2415 1446 Velocity [m/s] 2414 1442 Velocity [m/s] 2429 1457 Velocity [m/s] 2432 1447 Velocity [m/s] 2438 1477 Poisson's Ratio.210-0.1. v 0. 10 . 2. v 0. E [GPa] 8.29 GPa. with average values of 0. E [GPa] 8.223 Location y2 Test P S Poisson's Ratio.220 and 8. E [GPa] 8.226 Location z2 Test P S Poisson's Ratio. Eden Prairie. v 0.2 Uniaxial compression testing Uniaxial compression tests were performed on both right circular cylinders and rectangular prisms. MN) at an axial displacement rate of 5 x 10 mm/s.28 Young’s Modulus.20 Young’s Modulus.23 Young’s Modulus. servo hydraulic 1 MN load frame (MTS Systems. Three cylindrical specimens and one rectangular prism specimen were prepared in -4 accordance with ASTM and ISRM standards and tested within a closed-loop.220 Location y1 Test P S Poisson's Ratio.226 and 8. respectively. v 0. Young’s Modulus. E [GPa] 8. E [GPa] 8.34 Young’s Modulus.219 Location x2 Test P S Poisson's Ratio. v 0.210 As is shown in Table 1.219 Location z1 Test P S Poisson's Ratio. the elastic parameters and E range from 0.18 Young’s Modulus. v 0.Table 1. Results from ultrasonic testing. E [GPa] 8.18–8.52 GPa.

8 89. Table 2. UCS [MPa] 2 ) Orientation x y z D [mm] H [mm] 31. within the linear region of material response. and 60.2 16. The specimen was loaded to approximately 50% of the UCS.6 x 43.9 16. a uniaxial compressive test was performed on the rectangular specimen instrumented with axial and transverse strain gages.The cylindrical specimens were 31.02 mm and they did not depart from perpendicularity to the longitudinal axis by more than ±0.4 89.8 83. The rectangular specimen was 35.8 mm. The height of the cylindrical specimens ranged from 83.0 mm in diameter. The strains measured during loading were used to calculate the Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (v): ( ) ( Δσa = increment of axial stress [MPa] Δεa = increment of axial strain [µε] Δεt = increment of transverse strain [µε] ) 11 . slightly smaller than the suggested diameter size of 54 mm but the diameter to grain size ratio was still larger than the recommended value of 10:1. The axial force was measured with a load cell (sensitivity = 1 kN/vdc) and the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS or Co) is simply ( A = cross-sectional area [m ] The cylindrical cores were fabricated from each orientation x. The material was determined to be isotropic in UCS (Table 2).05 mm in 50 mm.9 30.0 To determine elastic parameters from mechanical loading.2 16.1 30. and then unloaded. The ends of the specimens were flat to 0.0 mm in height. within the desired height to diameter ratio of 2 – 3.9 – 89. Uniaxial compression results of cylindrical Calcarenite specimens. y and z of the Calcarenite block.0 mm in crosssection.

40 GPa R² = 0.9999 Figure 7. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 200 400 600 Axial strain [x 10-6] 800 1000 1200 E = 8.axial strain curve is the linear portion considered when calculating the Young’s modulus (E). The highlighted portion of the axial stress .The rectangular specimen was fabricated so that axial force was applied along the z-axis of the material. Axial stress [MPa] 12 . The specimen was then loaded to approximately 50% of the UCS. The transverse strain – axial strain curve is shown in Figure 8. The axial stress – axial strain response is shown in Figure 7.800 Ω resistor. The highlighted portion of the curve corresponds to the same region highlighted in the axial stress – axial strain curve. both strain gages had a shunt strain of . Mechanical response from a uniaxial compression test performed on the rectangular Calcarenite specimen. Each of the strain gages were connected to a Wheatstone bridge circuit and were shunt calibrated with a 174.

1.9999 250 -Transverse strain [x 10-6] 200 150 100 50 0 0 200 400 600 Axial strain [x 10-6] 800 1000 1200 Figure 8. direct tensile strength and deformability should be determined from dog-bone shaped specimens of intact rock (Figure 9).300 v= 0. A comparison of the elastic properties determined by the ultrasonic wave and uniaxial compression testing is presented in Table 3. Comparison of ultrasonic and uniaxial compression testing results.40 Poisson’s Ratio 0. Table 3.220 0.3 Uniaxial tension testing According to ASTM D2936-08. having a reduced cross section allows 13 .254 Testing technique Ultrasonic wave Uniaxial compression 2. Deformation response from a uniaxial compression test performed on the rectangular Calcarenite specimen. Young’s Modulus [GPa] 8.254 R² = 0.29 8.

using the direct butt-jointing technique. Dimensions of Calcarenite specimen for uniaxial tension testing.fracture to occur away from the ends of the specimen. more than enough to ensure failure of the specimen before the failure of the epoxy. where simple bonding cannot be used due to limited tensile strength of the epoxy. The friction grip is generally used on high strength rocks. Direct tension testing was performed using the flexible-cable method (Figure 10) suggested by Fairhurst [1961]. 14 . The rectangular prism dog-bone shaped specimen was bonded by direct buttjointing. The epoxy (6) has a tensile strength of 22. Another benefit to this design is that the machined flat section in the middle of the specimen is a convenient location for strain gages (1) the numbers in the parenthesis refer to the components labeled in Figure 9. The test set-up consisted of two steel platens (2) that were bonded to the specimen (1). which can be used to measure any bending that may be induced. Since Calcarenite is a soft rock with an estimated tensile strength of 1 .1 MPa. a drawback to this connection of the platen is that the failure occurs near the connection [Hawkes and Mellor 1969]. Hawkes and Mellor [1969] described a method using an aluminum collar that tightens around the specimen end as the cable is connected. Figure 9. Another technique for connecting a specimen to the platens is to clamp the specimen to the platen. where the specimen end was bonded directly to the surface of the platen using a highstrength epoxy.2 MPa. it was determined that bonding platens would be the best approach.

To avoid torsion in the specimen. The ball joint was connected to a 22.25 in. which allowed the specimen to rotate freely ±20 °. Figure 10.Another important aspect of the flexible cable method is the cable itself. 15 . the top cable was attached to a threaded steel ball joint (4). The specimen was then fastened into the load frame by attaching the bottom steel cable to the bottom actuator through a high-tensile-strength eye-bolt. Fairhurst [1961] used a 3 mm (1/8 in. the steel platens were connected to 6 mm (0. Direct tension testing apparatus.) wire cable that was unwrapped and soldered directly to a cable grip attached to the steel platen. The technique of “unwrapping” the cable and soldering the now unwrapped strands directly to the cable grip was done to eliminate torsion due to twist of the cable strands. For the experiments.25 kN (5000 lb) load cell.) diameter steel cables (5) with high-tensile-strength eye-bolts (3) that were threaded directly into the steel platens.

The strain gages on the specimen were connected to a Wheatstone bridge circuit and was shunt calibrated with a 174. servo controlled test was performed with an average axial displacement of rate of 5x10 mm/s.A closed-loop. T. From this test the uniaxial tensile strength. both strain gages had a shunt strain of using equation (18) . The direct tensile strength of the material was determined 2 The axial stress was then plotted against the axial strain to determine the Young’s modulus in tension of the Calcarenite specimen (Figure 11). axial displacement. can be determined using ( ) -4 Fmax = maximum tensile load applied [kN] A = reduced cross-sectional area [m ] One uniaxial tension test was performed on a Calcarenite specimen instrumented with two strain gages. The 1 MN load frame was connected to a data acquisition system that recorded axial force. and output from two axial strain gages located on opposite sides of the specimen in the reduced cross-sectional area. 16 .800 Ω resistor int ernal to the signal conditioner.

5 2 -Axial stress [MPa] 1. By computing the average percent difference between the two strain gages.80 GPa.6 – 1. it can be seen that the strains on either side of the specimen are within 1. which agrees with the known fact that brittle materials fracture on planes normal to the direction of maximum tensile stress (minor principal stress). axial stress of approximately 0.9984 0.0% of each other.2.4 MPa. Since the strain values are so close to each other throughout the linear section.5 1 Et = 8. As shown in Figure 12.80 GPa R² = 0. Considering the highlighted portion. it can be safely assumed that the test was performed with no bending. the specimen failed normal to the direction of applied load.5 Strain gage 1 Strain gage 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 -Axial strain [x 10-6] 250 300 Figure 11. Axial stress – axial strain of two strain gages attached on two sides of the Calcarenite specimen located in the reduced cross-section. to be the linear response of the Calcarenite during the direct tension test the Young’s m odulus in tension was determined to be 8. 17 .

(b) after testing.2. Radial stress was 18 .1 Conventional triaxial testing A Hoek-Franklin cell. 2. This allowed for the shear strength parameters to be determined with an evaluation of the intermediate stress effect. (2) Multi-axial tests. often called a triaxial cell. Loveland.0 mm in diameter and approximately 80 mm in height. CO). was designed for cores 31. that allows for an application of axial stress independent of radial stress developed through confining pressure. Direct tension specimen (a) before testing.. The triaxial cell. where all three principal stresses were different. 2. is a pressure vessel.2 Shear strength testing The shear strength parameters of Calcarenite were determined using two methods: (1) a series of conventional triaxial tests in compression and extension. (ELE International Inc. Figure 13. manufactured by Engineering Laboratory Equipment International Inc.(a) (b) Figure 12. under a condition of biaxial deformation (plane-strain). Axial stress was developed by the 1 MN load frame.

The various instrumentation was connected to a data acquisition system that recorded axial force. To increase. or maintain constant hydraulic pressure. axial displacement. Closed-loop. The membrane protects the specimen from the hydraulic oil and it allows for confining pressure to be applied without leakage. Figure 13. The inside surface of the membrane that comes into contact with the specimen was coated with a layer of stearic acid to reduce friction between the specimen and the membrane. radial stress at a digitizing frequency of 1 Hz. decrease.generated by a fluid pressure system. Sketch of Hoek-Franklin triaxial cell. the intensifier piston was advanced or retracted by a stepper motor in response to volume changes elsewhere in the system. which helped during extrusion of the specimen from the membrane. Axial force was applied to the specimen by the load frame through machined platens (4) designed to fit the cell. computer controlled tests were performed with an average axial displacement rate of 5 x 10 mm/s. -4 19 . The surfaces of the specimen in contact with the steel platens were coated with stearic acid lubricant to promote homogeneous deformation (Labuz and Bridell 1993). and in some tests. Testing of the specimen (1) involved a specified radial stress induced by hydraulic oil (3). An important component of the Hoek-Franklin cell is a one-piece synthetic rubber membrane (2) that is used to isolate the hydraulic oil from the specimen. featuring a microcontroller and a screw-type hydraulic intensifier.

The device also features a low friction linear bearing called a sled (2) that is useful for evaluating post-failure response. The axial displacement. allows for testing of a specimen in a multi-axial setting. the orientation of the cores with respect to the block geometry was selected to optimize the number of specimens. using a diamond tipped 31 mm core barrel that was cooled using water.34 mm.05 mm in 50 mm. Δux ≠ 0. where all three principal stresses are different [Labuz et al. Δuz ≈ 0. The cores were then cut using a masonry saw equipped with a diamond blade to an approximate length of 82 mm. z-axis. The specimen dimensions were 31. 1997].21 – 82. The specific stiffness of the biaxial frame is determined by calibrating the frame using materials with known properties (aluminum. Δuy ≠ 0. they were prepared in accordance to ISRM standards: the ends were ground flat to within 0.2.0 mm in diameter and the height ranged from 80. is enforced by a thick -walled cylinder called a biaxial frame (3). plexiglass): ( where εz = the intermediate principal strain of the specimen εθ = the strain measured on the frame k = specific stiffness of the biaxial frame (k = 0.Twenty four Calcarenite specimens were cored from the 300 x 300 x 150 mm block. Figure 14. Because the rock is isotropic. The specimen is secured within the biaxial frame by a set of wedges.02 mm and they did not depart from perpendicularity to the longitudinal axis of the specimen by more than ±0. Once the cores were cut to length. Thus. are measured by LVDTs (5). within 2% in elastic properties. The plane-strain deformation.180 or 0. which allows for a measure of the intermediate principal stress acting on the specimen. 2. and lateral displacement.174 depending on specimen size) f f f ) 20 . the specimens were cored through the 150 mm length. The biaxial frame is instrumented with strain gages. The axial force applied to the specimen (1) is measured by a load cell (4) located inside the pressure chamber.2 Plane-strain testing The UMN plane-strain compression apparatus.

The first specimen was prepared with a cross-section of 100. while the second specimen had a cross-section of 100. Each specimen was prepared to the same standards as the triaxial specimen.91 mm and 99.93 mm in height. the intermediate principal stress. can be calculated using generalized Hooke’s law: ( ) ( ) where σy = axial stress [MPa] and σx = confining stress [MPa]. Sketch of UMN Plane-Strain Apparatus.47 x 27.98 mm and 74. the Calcarenite specimens were prepared such that the axial load was applied parallel to the z-axis.69 x 41. (a) (b) Figure 14. 1997]. (a) Elevation view. σz. (b) Plan view [Labuz et al.88 mm in height.By knowing the intermediate principal strain acting on the specimen. Two Calcarenite specimens were cut from the same 300 x 300 x 150 mm block from which the triaxial specimens were cored. Similar to the triaxial specimens. All of the faces of the specimen were ground such that opposite sides were parallel and adjacent sides were perpendicular within 21 .

88 mm faces.93 mm or 100.88 mm face. The specimen was then placed in an oven at 50° C for 12 hours to promote curing of the polyurethane.47 x 74. Two brass tabs.69 x 41. 3 mm thick.69 x 99.98 mm or 100.98 x 74.8 mm in diameter and 1. which was used to monitor microseismic activity (Figure 15). The specimen was then placed in the oven for another 12 hours (Figure 15).69 x 99. However.88 mm face of the specimen while the specimen was still warm.61 x 99.47 x 74. Biaxial test specimen with large brass tab exposed and AE sensor attached.93 mm and 100. Figure 15. The large brass tabs provided firm contact locations for the lateral LVDTs while the small brass taps provided a location to attach an acoustic emission [AE] sensor.47 x 74.6 mm thick and one 13 mm in diameter and 1. The four surfaces in contact with steel platens were coated with stearic acid to reduce friction (Labuz and Bridell 1993).47 x 27.93 mm or 44. one 4. depending on the specimen being prepared.93 mm or 100. The specimens were assembled with the upper and lower steel platens contacting the 100.6 mm thick were glued to the 100.69 x 99.91 mm faces. there were very few AE signals recorded during the experiments and the results will not be discussed. The specimen was then removed from the oven and a thin layer of polyurethane was applied to the other 100. were placed against the 27.01 mm in 100 mm. Two steel plates.88 mm faces. The specimen and platens were held together with a custom jig and a thin layer of polyurethane was applied to one side of the specimen on the 100. 22 .±0.

where an axial stress a is applied along the longitudinal axis of the cylindrical specimen. is I = a. This is known as conventional triaxial testing.0 Strength Parameters 3. and the state of stress is I = II = r. two. II. Thus. ij: ( ) ( ) For an isotropic material. For triaxial extension experiments. It is often convenient to express a failure criterion in terms of the stress invariants. the failure criterion for an isotropic material is invariant. and a radial stress r is applied by confining pressure. the MC failure criterion is dependent on only the major and minor principal stresses. when the specimen experiences axial shortening. or all three principal stresses. the specimen experiences axial elongation. for conventional triaxial testing are simply 23 . I. the state of stress at failure does not depend on the axes selected. III: ( ) ( ) Note that a failure criterion can be dependent on one. The state of stress for conventional triaxial experiments in compression. material response is the same in all directions. p and q. II = III = r. For example. The stress invariants. p and q: ( ) ( ) ( ) where I1 is the first invariant of the stress tensor ij. since by the definition of isotropy. and it can be expressed as a function of principal stresses. Rock is typically sampled as a core – a right circular cylinder – and a common stress state in testing the material is associated with two principal stresses being equal.1 Stress invariants p and q The failure criterion of a material can be written as a mathematical function of the components of the stress state.3. III = a. and √ √ [( ) ( ) ( ) ] ( ) where J2 is the second invariant of the stress deviator Sij = ij –pδij and δij = kronecker delta.

( ) ( ) √ [( ) ( ) ( ) ] √ [ ] ( ) The value of q will be either positive or negative depending on the type of triaxial experiment performed. and q > 0 and in triaxial extension. In triaxial compression. ) Figure 16. and q < 0. a linear failure criterion can be expressed by ( where the subscripts are included to represent failure in either triaxial compression or extension. 24 . σa >σr. Failure surface described by compression and extension results. σa < σr. In a p – q diagram (Figure 16).

2 Triaxial testing results Twenty-four conventional triaxial tests were performed on Calcarenite specimens fabricated from a block sample of Calcarenite. where a was decreased (Δa < 0) until failure and r = constant. six were performed in compression unloading. r is decreased (Δr < 0) until failure with a = constant. where a was increased (Δa > 0) from a = r until failure and r = constant. Six of these were performed in extension loading. respectively. I = a and II = III = r. The results from the compression and extension experiments are presented in Table 4 and Table 5. I = 2 = r and III = a. six were conducted in extension unloading. Compression loading and extension unloading were performed at an axial -4 displacement rate of 5 x 10 mm/s.The MC strength parameters and c can be related to m c. determined from conventional triaxial compression and extension experiments may not be equal. equation (25) becomes ( )( ) ( ) ( ) which can be written in terms of p and q ( ) The extension line can be solved in a similar manner: ( ) The strength parameters. equation (6) can be rewritten as ( ) Expanding and rearranging. r is increased (Δr > 0) until failure and a = constant. considering the compression line. Of the twenty-four tests. For example. ( ) ( ) and . 3. c and e. The remaining twelve tests were performed in extension.e.e and bc. Six of these compression tests were performed as compression loading tests. 25 . twelve were performed in compression.

1 6.0 6.5 5.2 6.3 25.2 9.8 19. II = III = r).9 19.0 22.7 p [MPa] 11.1 0.5 1.5 q [MPa] 18.2 20.1 17. (a) Specimen influenced by a weak plane.8 7.0 Test 1* 3* 4 8 9 10 14* 16 17 18 19* 20 Radial stress [MPa] 5. (b) typical compression failure plane.6 19. Figure 17.5 18.6 7.6 10. 26 .9 3.5 17.5 6. Stress path L L L L L L U U U U U U Axial stress [MPa] 23.Table 4.10 0.5 18.9 16.0 24.8 20.5 24.4 17.5 18. as tests marked with * indicate failure occurring along a weak plane or no failure plane was observed.4 19. (a) (b) Figure 17.3 Not all values presented were used in calculation of material properties.3 17.1 11.a shows an example of a specimen influenced by a weak plane.25 1.90 1. while Figure 17. Results from triaxial compression experiments (I = a.8 16.2 2.3 18.3 8.25 2.3 8.5 20.8 12.0 2.b shows a through-going failure plane.5 20.

Mohr-Coulomb theory predicts the angle of the failure plane to be principal stress. Table 5. Results from triaxial extension experiments (I = II = r and III = a). Test 15 21 22 23 24 25 5 6 7 11* 12 13 Stress path L L L L L L U U U U U U Radial stress [MPa] 19.5 18.0 23.7 24.0 20.0 16.0 16.8 18.0 21.8 16.8 18.0 21.8 Axial stress [MPa] 1.2 0.3 2.6 2.6 1.2 0.1 0.1 1.1 2.7 1.4 0.4 2.5 p [MPa] 13.4 12.1 16.7 17.1 13.7 16.9 11.2 12.4 15.4 11.6 12.1 15.3

from the minor

q [MPa] -18.3 -17.8 -21.1 -20.6 -18.8 -21.4 -16.6 -16.9 -19.1 -15.4 -17.6 -19.2

(a)

(b)

Figure 18 (a) Specimen influenced by a weak plane; (b) typical extension failure plane.

27

The photographs presented in Figure 18 demonstrate extension failure planes that are either influenced by weak planes (a) or that develop without influence of weak planes (b). orientation of the failure plane is governed by the equation

The

, but it is important to note in

extension tests the orientation of the minor principal stress is parallel to the vertical axis of the specimen. The data obtained from conventional triaxial experiments is presented in (Figure 19). 25 20 15 10 5 q [MPa] y = 0.7607x + 12.121 R² = 0.9932

c

-20 -15

e

-10 -5

0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 p [MPa] y = -0.6574x - 9.3023 R² = 0.996 5 10 15 20

Figure 19. Triaxial compression and extension results presented in p - q form. Open data points represent tests run in unloading stress path.

From the lines of least-squares in Figure 19, the angle of internal friction and cohesion for compression can be determined using equation (30): ( ) ( ) ( ( ) )

28

( ) ( ) ( ( )) ( ) Similarly, e and cc were calculated using equation (31): e = 21.7° and ce = 5.62 MPa. Thus, it appears that this rock exhibits a (small) effect due to the intermediate stress.

3.3 Equal triaxial tension state

A difficulty in interpreting the data comes from the unequal intercepts on the p-axis (Figure 19). When constructing a failure surface, all planes must intersect at one point referred to as the vertex or the stress state of equal triaxial tension. Although this stress state is difficult to generate in an experiment, it must be defined to describe the failure surface. The method of defining the least squares fit was modified by adding the constraint that the lines must intersect the p-axis at the same point (Vo) and Vo must be within the original p-axis intersections for the compression and extension lines, c and e respectively (Figure 20), new equations of the lines of best fit can be calculated.

29

The point Vo and corresponding lines of best fit to the data sets. there is one additional constraint. this is done so that one line does not fit perfectly while one does not match the data well. can be determined by minimizing ( ) ∑( ( ) ( )) ∑( ( ) ( )) ( ) where a is used to calculate the location of the vertex Vo and b and d are the slopes of the lines of best fit for the compression and extension data. Sketch of least squares lines intersecting the x-axis at Vo. 2 2 30 . The values of R for each line must be as close to each other as possible.Figure 20. equation (33) was determined. Sc (compression) and Se (extension). respectively. For this problem. Another method used to determine the vertex and the lines of best fit was to maximize the value of the square of the correlation coefficient (R ) for each line. By again examining Figure 20. By maximizing equation (33). the optimal vertex point and the corresponding lines of best fit can be calculated.

It was determined that c = 20. while the line corresponding to the extension data set had a slope of -0. The line corresponding to the compression data set had a slope of 0. Open data points represent tests conducted in unloading stress path.4° and e = 20.4° c = 5.61 MPa R² = 0.75 MPa R² = 0.16 MPa.635.785. The 31 .( ) ∑ ( ∑ ( ( ) ( ) ( )) ( )) ∑ ( ∑ ( ( ) ( ) ( )) ( )) ( ) From both methods.8°. it was determined that the lines of best fit for the data obtained during testing intersected the p-axis (Vo) at -15.8° c = 5. Triaxial compression and extension data with a common vertex.8849 Vo -15 -10 -5 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 p [MPa] e = 20.9415 5 10 15 20 -20 Figure 21. 25 20 15 10 5 q [MPa] c = 20. The angles of internal friction for compression and extension were calculated in the same manner as was shown for the unadjusted data.

75 MPa using equation (31). This difference is associated with an 32 .compression cohesion. a slight difference is observed.7 Adjusted data i [°] 20.62 Adjusted data ci [MPa] 5.4 20. Table 6. Table 6 shows a comparison between calculated strength parameters for adjusted and unadjusted data. cc.71 5. and then using equation (30): ( ) ( ) ( | ( )| ( )) ( ) Extension cohesion was calculated to be ce = 5. was calculated by first finding bc considering the slopes and vertex value.61 5. e Unadjusted data i [°] 19.7 21. intermediate stress effect in the material. c Extension.75 When comparing the strength parameters calculated from the conventional triaxial compression and extension tests.8 Unadjusted data ci [MPa] 5. Strength parameters with common intercept Vo (adjusted) and raw (unadjusted) data Conventional triaxial test method Compression.

g. and the failure surface has a pyramid shape (Figure 1). 2. Any state of stress can be presented as a point with 1. creating a hexagon with three-fold symmetry about the hydrostatic axis. The shape of the failure surface in principal stress space depends on the form of the failure criterion.1.g.1 Six-sided pyramidal failure surface 4. 2 = 3 (Figure 22). For linear functions (e. where 1. 3 coordinates. MC). 3 are the principal stresses with no order implied.4. the surface will map as a series of six planes. 2. This cross-section is also convenient because the surface can be defined from the data obtained during conventional triaxial testing in compression and extension. The six planes all pass through a common point known as the vertex (Vo). which lies on the hydrostatic axis. each corresponding to a particular order of principal stresses.0 Evaluation of failure criteria 4. can be determined through one cross-section along the hydrostatic axis. where two of the principal stresses are equal. The construction of the failure surface for an isotropic material in principal stress space is simplified greatly by the three-fold symmetry about the hydrostatic axis. The two lines shown in the cross-section represent versions of equation (7) corresponding to different orders of principal stresses and define the intersection of two planes of the failure surface: Compression ( Extension ( ) ) 33 . which can be used with the vertex to construct the entire failure surface. 1 = 2 = 3. Two points. e.1 Formulation When analyzing any failure criterion it is useful to consider the geometrical representation in principal stress space.

b). Figure 22.a) and (7.where To is the predicted MC value of tensile strength. respectively: √ √ √ √ ( ) ( ) 34 . Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3. The compression line defines the intersection of the planes representing the principal stress orderings of 1 > 2 > 3 and 1 > 3 > 2. while the extension line defines the intersection of the planes representing the principal stress orderings of 2 > 3 > 1 and 3 > 2 > 1. The slopes Mc and Me can be defined in terms of the strength parameter by differentiating equations (7.

√ ( ) These equations can be solved in terms of MC strength parameters by noting that the point V is equivalent to ( Substituting equation (41) into equation (7.b) gives and √ ( ) ) . Substituting this back into equation (37) gives ( ) ( ) Equation (38) can be substituted back into equation (36) to get √ √ ( ) Similarly. From Figure 22. only two lengths are required.In order to draw any -plane cross-section.a) or (7. Next tanβ can be determined from triangle TDV: √ where √ √ and √ . The lengths of OB and OA. By substituting equation (42) into equations (39) and (40) | | ( ) 35 . ( √( ) √ ) where .

(b) Pyramidal surface in principal stress space. the cross-sectional hexagon and six-sided pyramidal failure surface can be constructed (Figure 23. e and Vo. A.a). e.g. B. any one of the sides of the pyramidal surface can be used to describe the rest. also known as the deviator plane. (a) (b) Figure 23. 36 . Each of the six sides shown in Figure 23 (a) is an intersection of the equipressure plane with an oblique plane represented by an equation of the form ( ) Considering an isotropic material.| | √ ( ) With the lengths determined. and C are necessary to define the six planes of the pyramidal surface (Figure 23. three points on the plane must be known. only three constants. To. In order to determine each of these constants. Co and Vo or c. Therefore. (a) -plane cross-section at 1 = 2 = 3 = 0 plane.b).

when failure occurs during uniform triaxial tension. the state of stress is and . ) but the value predicted from the failure criterion will be used. the state of stress is which leaves equation (45) as ( When performing a uniaxial tension test. gives ( ) (√ ) ( √ ) After simplification. which leaves equation (45) as ( Plugging equation (47) and (48) into equation (49) and rearranging gives ( ) ) ) It is convenient to write Co and To in terms of Vo. From Figure 17. Co and To can be represented as (√ ( √ ) ) ( ( ) ) which. which leaves equation (45) as ( Lastly. equation (53) can be written as 37 . and Me.2 Material parameters When performing a uniaxial compression test.1.4. the state of stress is . when substituted into equation (50). Mc.

giving ( √ ) ( ) With the three constants defined in terms of strength parameters c and e and the vertex Vo. the linear failure criterion can be written as [ ] ) [ ] ) ( ) (√ ) (√ )( √ ( √ A representation of equation (55) can be written in terms of strength parameters c and e.[ (√ )( √ ] ) ( ) With the three constants solved for in terms of Vo. the constant C can be written in terms of e if equation (35) is substituted into equation (55). the constant B can be written in terms of c and e: ( [ (√ )( √ ) ] ( [ )( )( ) ) ] ( ) And after simplification. For convenience. it can be written as [ ] ( ) Lastly. the linear failure criterion is [ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) 38 . Mc and Me. equation (55). by substituting equations (34) and (35) into equation (55). the constant A can be written as (√ ) ( ) By substituting equation (34) into Similarly. each constant will be analyzed individually.

5 18. if c = e. 3 are given in Table 7. Table 7.2 0.7 19.5 5.which.2 0.6 1.3 Data analysis The results obtained during the conventional triaxial experiments are used to construct the sixsided pyramidal failure surface of the Calcarenite sample.0 16.0 23.0 22.8 18.0 21. is equivalent to the MC failure criterion: [ ] [ ] ( ) 4.9 3.1 0.1 2. Triaxial compression and extension results in terms of principal stresses 1.25 1.8 18.0 24.3 25.7 24.6 2.0 1. 1. 2.25 2.3 2.0 21. and 3 (no order implied).5 39 . The results of the triaxial experiments in terms of principal stress.5 18.1.0 2.1 0.1 1. Test 4 8 9 10 16 17 18 20 15 21 22 23 24 25 5 6 7 12 13 Stress Path L L L L U U U U L L L L L L U U U U U σ2 = σ 3 [MPa] 1.5 18.4 2.4 19.8 σ1 [MPa] 17. 2.7 0.0 16.90 0.0 16.5 20.

0° y = 0. Open circles were extrapolated from the data. with an intersection of V.16 MPa. 40 .9966 A σ1 [MPa] B -10 V -15 -20 Figure 24.2° y = 1.9966 30 40 √2 σ2 =√2 σ3 [MPa] c = 20. Note the x-axis is equivalent to √ √ while the values presented in Table 7 represent 2 = 3.3343x . this point was determined to occur at 1 = 2 = 3 = -Vo = -15. Vo.The triaxial compression and extension tests performed on the Calcarenite sample were all performed with the axial direction of the core being in the 1 direction (along the z-axis).11 R² = 0. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -30 -20 -10 -5 0 10 20 e = 21. From the p – q plot. The resulting locus is presented if Figure 24.9023 R² = 0. The angles of internal friction for compression and extension of Calcarenite are determined using the slopes of the lines of best fit and equations (34) and (35).4538x + 16. This allows for the locus of the pyramidal failure surface corresponding to 2 = 3 to be constructed from the data presented in Table 7. Failure locus corresponding to 2 = 3. Another important property that was calculated was the point where the failure surfaces intersect.7.

The solid line represents the cross section of the linear failure surface for Calcarenite. 41 . Figure 25. √ ( √ ( ) ) These values closely agree with the values of the p – q plot (Figure 19). cross sections of the MC deviatoric plane (1 = 2 = 3 = 0) of failure surfaces representing and . Figure 25 shows. Comparison of cross section of MC failure surfaces and linear failure surface with intermediate stress effect. and that were calculated from The fact that c is different than e suggests that there is an intermediate stress effect for the Calcarenite sample. The different angles of internal friction c and e change the shape of the failure surface. in dashed lines. The six-sided pyramidal failure surface can also be constructed with the measured data (Figure 26).

The constants in the equation for the six planes. Open circles are extrapolated from data. equation (60). and .Figure 26. and the linear failure criterion is 42 .16 MPa. can be determined from the strength parameters c and e and vertex Vo determined from testing: Vo = 15. Experimental data points plotted on pyramidal failure surface.

where T is the tensile strength of the material (Figure 27). it is known that brittle materials fail on planes normal to the direction of tensile stress. Figure 27. which would suggest the mode of failure to be tensile as opposed to shear Therefore.6° (average of c and e) 4. However. Paul assumed that a brittle material will fail according to the values predicted by equation (7) 43 .2 Tension cut-off An issue with any shear failure criterion is its inability to correctly predict the tensile strength of the material. essentially because the failure criterion predicts the tensile strength of a material assuming shear failure. Paul [1961] suggested the concept of a tension cut-off and a modified MC failure criterion that would account for this transition from shear to tensile failure modes.compared to the MC failure criterion assuming c = 20. Failure envelope in principal stress plane. I – III. the failure plane is perpendicular to III = -T.

( ) when III > -T. 44 . Figure 28. Following the same construction processes presented for the six-sided pyramidal failure surface. otherwise ( ) The modified MC failure criterion can also be represented in principal stress space. the crosssection of the pyramidal surface along the hydrostatic axis with two principal stresses equal is shown in Figure 28. Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3 with tension cut-offs included.

The cross-section of the failure surface. is shown in Figure 30. Figure 29. Pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with tension cut-offs. the tension cut-off for the Calcarenite sample tested could be incorporated. The only difference is that this pyramid is intercepted by a second pyramid with three planes perpendicular to the principal stress axes (Figure 29). With this result. including the data and constraint. it was determined that T = 2. From the uniaxial tension test performed.All equations previously presented for the determination of the six-sided pyramidal failure surface hold true for the development of the six-sided pyramidal failure surface with tension cut-offs. 45 . along the hydrostatic axis with two principal stresses equal.06 MPa.

46 .3343x .9966 5 0 -5 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 √2 σ2 =√2 σ3 [MPa] Figure 30. Figure 31 shows the six-sided pyramidal failures surface including tension cut-offs calculated from the direct tension test. Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3 with tension cut-offs included.0° y = 0.30 25 c = 20.9966 20 σ1 [MPa] 15 10 e = 21.9023 R² = 0.4538x + 16. The tension cut-offs can also be incorporated to the failure surface in principal stress space.7.11 R² = 0.2° y = 1.

3 Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface The conventional triaxial experiments showed that the intermediate stress did affect the material properties determined for the Calcarenite. and it is clear that the failure surface does not capture the observed response.0 MPa. The data from the test with p = 11. 47 . 4. two plane-strain (multi-axial) experiments were performed at lateral (confining) stress III = 2. The specimen dimensions and results are presented in Table 8.0 and 3. To examine other stress states besides axisymmetric compression and extension.2 MPa are plotted on an equipressure plane of the sixsided pyramidal section (Figure 32).Figure 31. Pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with tension cut-offs.

8 Thickness [mm] 27. p [MPa] 12. Willam and Warnke [1974].93 99. Equipressure plane of p = 11. creating a smooth failure surface.4 23. Plane-strain experimental results Axial stress. By using a sufficient number of planes.0 Intermediate stress. σII [MPa] 7.47 100.6 Lateral stress. 48 . Paul [1968c] suggested a piecewise linear description of the curved failure surface.2 Specimen Bx-1 Bx-2 Width [mm] 100. σI [MPa] 27.Table 8.0 2. To better approximate the actual behavior.98 41. σIII [MPa] 3. a nonlinear failure surface can be accurately approximated (Figure 33).2 MPa with plane-strain data point.7 11.69 Height [mm] 74. the six-sided surface must be modified.91 Figure 32. and others is to fit a curve to the data (shown as dashed line in Figure 32).7 8. To keep retain mathematical simplicity.0 Mean stress. An approach suggested by Matsuoka and Nakai [1974].

D3 in Figure 34. the hexagon with vertices D1 . a piecewise linear surface consisting of twelve sides can be constructed (Figure 34). Section showing nonlinear. D2 .Figure 33.(a) in the fact that each side can be represented by equation (45). The twelve sides in Figure 34 are similar to the six sides of Figure 21. By considering each hexagon separately. three for each hexagon. can be represented as ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 49 . shown as the solid line in Figure 34. piecewise linear. with the portion of the hexagon closer to the hydrostatic axis controlling failure. all twelve sides of the surface can be described with six constants. D3 . D2 . and linear failure surfaces. By incorporating the data point obtained from plane-strain testing. equation (45) can be written as ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 1 ( 2 2 2 ) Similarly. The constants of equation (45) are determined by realizing the twelve-sided equipressure crosssection is the intersection of two hexagons. Considering the hexagon with vertices D 1 .

However. the constants can be solved in terms of compression and extension friction angles. Figure 35 shows that Co (1) and To (2) cannot be measured through testing. Cross-section of equipressure plane of a twelve-sided piecewise linear failure surface at p = 11.2 MPa. Co. The twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with a common vertex (Vo (1) (2) = Vo ) is shown in Figure 36. if Vo.Figure 34. and To are known. because the failure surface dictates failure before reaching these values. As shown in Figure 20. 50 .

Open circles are extrapolated from data.Figure 35. 51 . Cross-section of failure surface along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3.

Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with theoretical failure surface shown.Figure 36. Open circles are extrapolated from data. 52 .

where ( ) ( ) √ and √ ( ) ( ) Note that the deviator stress q is related to F and E: √ √( ) ( ) The points (E. taken as the plane-strain point.F.b) are the points determined from triaxial (1) (1) (2) (2) compression.E coordinate system [Davis and Selvadurai 2002].To determine the fictitious friction angles. (1) Figure 37 shows a 60° section of an equipressure plane plotted in the F .e . the failure surface must be extrapolated from the intersection.F.b. the relation to the deviator stress associated with each stress state can be calculated using equation (67).F.F.e .c . triaxial extension and plane-strain (multi-axial) experiments. of the two hexagons and the value of Co (2) and To . 53 .F.e ) are the points that need to be determined using the following equations: ( ) ( ( ( ) ) ( ) ( )) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) Once these points are known.c ). (E.e ). and (E. (E.c (2) (2) .c ) The points and (1) (1) (E.

a range for which each pyramidal surface is describing the failure surface can be calculated. Considering the data points obtained at a mean stress of p = 11.F.89) (1) (1) (2) (2) and (11.5°. determined from the plane-strain experiment is (4.F.c . the deviator stress associated with the unknown points (E.c ) and (E. From (2) (2) (1) (1) triaxial compression and extension testing. which is related to the principal stresses [Davis and Selvadurai 2002]: ( ) √ ( ) The Lode angle θ is a convenient method for determining which pyramidal surface is controlling the failure of the specimen. By calculating θ from the multi-axial experiment.e ) are (0.b).c ) and (2) (2) 54 .F. Using these data points ( E.b. Section of an equipressure plane plotted in the σ F-σE coordinate system.14).c . 15.Figure 37.e ) can be calculated.F.c . Open circles are extrapolated from data.16.19.F. Another important value that can be determined from Figure 37 is the Lode angle θ. which gives a Lode angle θ = 74.e . points ( E.2 MPa.e .75.79) respectively.c ) and (E. 6.F. while point (E.

e ) were determined to be (0. the relation to the deviator stress associated with each point can be determined: (1) (1) √ √( ) √ √( ) Once the relation to the deviator stress is determined for the two unknown points.e . Co . which describe the failure surface presented in Figure 36. Co (1) (2) or To must be adjusted so that < 90°. Once the compression and extension friction angles are known.77) and (16. equations (63) and (64). the corresponding angles of internal friction (1) need to be determined. Co . The unknown values of Co and To (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) can be determined using slightly modified forms of equations (36) and (40): √ | | √ (√ | | √ ) (√ | | √ ) ( ) √ (√ | | √ ) (√ | | √ ) √ | | ( ) After the values of Co (1) and To (2) are determined.σF. then all twelve sides of the failure surface can be defined with five constants. From equation (67). If Vo is assumed to be the same for both hexagons. the angle of internal friction must be less than 90°.19. if the value of internal friction is greater than 90 °. With OB and OA known. can be written as ( ) [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ] ) [ ( ) ( ) ] ( ) and 55 . This can be done by substituting the values of Co and To (2) into equations (39) and (40) to obtain OB and OA (Figure 17). the values of Co (1) and To (2) can be obtained by using one of two approaches: (1) assume both pyramids have the same vertex. 1. the angles of internal friction can be found using equations (43) and (44).80). 9. (2) assume each pyramid has a separate vertex. To . As a constraint.(σE. To .97. and Vo.

[ ( ) ( ) ] [ ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] [ ( ) ( ) ] ( ) with equation (74) describing the failure surface from θ = 74. c of Co (1) (2) and e (1) are known and the vertex was determined to be Vo = -15.5° to 90° and equation (75) describing the failure surface from θ = 30° to 74. From triaxial compression and extension testing of the Calcarenite specimens.16 MPa. the values and To (2) can be determined using equations (72) and (73): (√ ( )) √ ( ) ( ) ( ) (√ ( )) √ ( ) ( ) ( ) The angle of internal friction associated with Co of OA and OB: √ ( ) (1) or To (2) can now be calculated from the values √ √ ( ) √ The angles of internal friction can be determined using equations (43) and (44): √ ( ) ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 56 .5°. Using this vertex and the known relations to the deviator stress.

(2) Co . (2) To . and (2) Vo . (1) Co . (1) To .√ ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( Plugging the known values into equations (73) and (74).15 MPa while the vertex Vo for and (2) To is 15.93 MPa. the original intercepts from the compression and extension best fit lines did not coincide. convenient choice as to where the two vertices are located comes from the conventional triaxial compression and extension experiments. the vertex (2) Co (1) Vo For the (2) for (1) Co and (1) To is 14. By taking these two intercepts as the vertices of the two hexagons a failure surface with two vertices can be formed. allows the equations of the planes to written as and 2. As shown in Figure 14. The second approach assumes that each hexagon has its own vertex (Figure 38). 57 . Calcarenite being tested. (1) Vo Six A constants are needed to define the failure surface.

developed assuming two vertices.Figure 38. along hydrostatic axis corresponding to 2 = 3. The twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface in principal stress space with two vertices is shown in Figure 39. 58 . Open circles are extrapolated from data. Cross-section of failure surface.

Figure 39. Twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface with two vertices. 59 .

(1) (2) (1) and To (2) can be determined using equation (72) and (73). and To (2) (1) (2) (1) and Vo . (37). To angles of internal friction can be determined. the values of Co . and equation (75) describing the failure surface from θ = 30° to 74. 19. Similar to the six-sided pyramidal failure surface. To . and (41) the angles of internal friction associated with these values were obtained: c = 24. (1) respectively. Co . (40).5° to 90°. and twelve-sided with two vertices) are presented in Table 9.5°.83 MPa. Using equation (36). 60 . equations (63) and (64) can be written in terms of compression and extension friction angles and the vertices: ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ] ( [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] ( [ ) ( ) ( ) ] ( ) and ( ) ( [ ) ( ) ] ( [ ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] ( [ ) ( ) ( ) ] ( ) Again. 7.2°. the twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface can be constructed with a tension cut-off (Figure 40).3°. twelve-sided with one vertex.88 MPa. the Once all the angles of internal friction are determined.With the vertices known.6°. the failure surface equations can be written as and with equation (74) describing the failure surface from θ = 74. and e =31.61 MPa.2 MPa and knowing the values of Vo Co . The strength parameters of the three pyramidal surfaces developed (six-sided.75 MPa. and 10. c (2) = 19.8°. Following the same steps as presented for a failure surface with one vertex. considering p = 11. (2) (1) were determined to be 19. e (1) = 21. By (2) plugging these known values into equations (76) and (77). the values of Co .

07 19.75 [MPa] 10.8 [°] 32. 61 .3 [°] 21.2 [MPa] 16.93 (2) [°] 20.15 (1) c (2) e (2) Co (2) To (2) |Vo | [MPa] 15.0 21.10 20.83 [MPa] 7.16 15. Twelve-sided failure surface with tension cut-offs.16 15.2 23.91 7.5 31.6 [MPa] 16.61 [°] 20.0 21.88 Figure 40.16 14. Material parameters determined from three different pyramidal failure surfaces.10 19.59 10.4 24.Table 9.2 19.91 7. Failure surface Six-sided Twelve-sided w/ one vertex Twelve-sided w/ two vertices c (1) e (1) Co (1) To (1) |Vo | [MPa] 15.

Using the values of Vo. A uniaxial tension test was used to determine the tensile strength T. The tension cut-off is another pyramidal surface with three planes perpendicular to the principal stress axis at a value of -T which intersects the six-sided pyramidal surface and acts as a limit to the tensile stress that can 62 .1 Conclusions A series of experiments were performed on an isotropic Calcarenite sample to establish a linear failure criterion for rock that incorporates all three principal stresses. Vo. 2 The calculated failure lines need to be adjusted (e. on the p-axis. the six-sided pyramidal surface was modified to incorporate a tension cut-off. From conventional triaxial compression ( II = III) and extension experiments (I = II) performed with a Hoek-Franklin cell (or a similar testing apparatus). using a minimization of least-squares or the maximization of the coefficient of correlation R ). if angle of internal friction c and e are different.0 Concluding remarks 5. the intermediate stress can be evaluated and the angles of internal friction c and e can be determined. a six-sided pyramidal surface that incorporates all three principal stresses can be constructed in principal stress space.g. with the constraint that the failure lines in compression and extension have the same intersection on the p-axis. which allowed for a modification of the six-sided pyramidal surface. which is the state of equal triaxial tension. c and e. The six sides of the failure surface can be described by a single equation: [ ] [ ] [ ] The advantage to this equation is that it contains the three principal stresses and allows for the description of the entire failure surface while knowing three material parameters. p and q. With the measured tensile strength. known as the vertex Vo. A convenient method to determine the values of c and e is to use the stress invariants. where p is the mean stress and q is related to the second invariant of the stress deviator. usually do not coincide. it is still possible that an intermediate stress effect exists. After the adjustment. If c = e. but multi-axial testing is required to establish the relation. the intersection of the compression and extension failure lines. there is an intermediate stress effect. c and e determined from the adjusted p – q diagram.5. The linear failure criterion is described by three material parameters: the angles of internal friction in compression c and extension e as well as a common vertex Vo. However.

To develop the twelve-sided pyramidal failure surface. it was determined that a twelvesided. two approaches can be used: (1) the two six-sided pyramidal failure surfaces have a common vertex. would be to use a lathe to reduce the cross-sectional area of the specimen and then fill this reduced cross-sectional area in with hydrostone. Another area of interest analyzed in this thesis was the intermediate stress effect at different stress states. Another modification is to fabricate a stand to support the triaxial cell (6). plane strain experiments were performed. as once the material parameters are known. A twelve-sided pyramidal surface is a combination of two six-sided pyramidal surfaces. 63 . for both tensile and compressive normal stresses. with the controlling pyramidal surface having the smaller deviator stress. which can be described using the Lode angle θ. (2) the two six-sided pyramidal failure surfaces have independent vertices. In order to apply a tensile axial stress to a specimen under a confining stress. Using the flexible cable method and the direct butt-jointing technique. To avoid failure due to end effects. It is important to determine the material parameters of each pyramidal surface. some slight modifications to the conventional triaxial testing apparatus would need to be made (Figure 41). A technique that could be used. the equation for the six-sided surface can be used to describe the two pyramids that are associated with the twelve sided surface. piecewise linear failure surface would describe the material response better than the sixsided pyramidal surface.2 Future work The suggested area of future work involves additional multi-axial testing. but in order to apply a uniform confining stress the reduced cross-section would have to be filled in. the specimen should have a reduced crosssection near its middle. By incorporating the data obtained during multi-axial experiments. In order to achieve a stress state where all three principal stresses were different (1 ≠ 2 ≠ 3). By examining the equipressure plane at a given mean stress. an enhanced failure surface was developed. 5. The possible anisotropy in tensile strength was not investigated. at a particular stress state. a tensile stress could be applied to a specimen under confining stress. and by incorporating values from conventional triaxial compression and extension as well as a multi-axial experiments.be applied to the material before failure will occur. Investigating the tensile strength of a material at different stress states would be appropriate to evaluate the tension cut-offs. labeled (5) in Figure 41.

It would be important to have bleeder valves on the flat jacks to ensure no air is in the system. The thickness of the flat jacks would be 4. Modified conventional triaxial testing apparatus.0 mm. a specified value of σII could be maintained. which would replace the flat and wedge.5 mm in height with a width of 44. By fabricating custom stainless steel flat jacks. which causes difficulties in developing specific stress states. An issue with this apparatus is that σII cannot be controlled. A modification to the testing apparatus that would allow for σII to be The controlled can be made. 64 . The multi-axial experiments were performed using the UMN plane-strain testing apparatus.30 mm.0 mm with the capability of expanding to 4. the predicted failure along the tension cut-off could be studied. labeled (5) in Figure 42. recommended dimensions of the flat jacks would be 100. With this modified conventional triaxial apparatus.Figure 41.

Modified UMN plane-strain apparatus.Figure 42. 65 .

3 (1970): 179-285. pp. In Memories de Mathematique et de Physique. and Evert Hoeck. Pennsylvania State University. C. C. (The Pennsylvania State University. O. 157–165. Jaeger.. pp. in Proceedings of th the 4 Symposium on Rock Mechanics. H. Hawkes. S. Cambridge. T. and A.1 (2007): 116. On the Numerical Integration of Three-invariant Elastoplastic Constitutive Models. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 33.2 (1986): 97-101. E. and E. 2 (1952). Rock Characterization. Testing and Monitoring: ISRM Suggested Methods. Plane-strain Compression of Rock-like Materials. 343-382 Davis.4 (1970): 223-28. W. Quarterly of Applied Mathematics. Coulomb. London: Chapman and Hall. 2 (2007) Houlsby. 105-118.6. No. A General Failure Criterion for Frictional and Cohesive Materials. Underground Excavations in Rock. Rock Mechanics 2. and J. V. No..A. Stress Path Testing of an Anisotropic Sandstone. G.. and Prager. 66 . 76. Marinos. London: Institution of Mining and Metallurgy.. and P. Soil Mechanics and Plastic Analysis for Limit Design. International Society for Rock Mechanics by Pergamon. 10. pp. Laboratory Measurement of Some Physical Properties of Rock. C. Stress-deformation and strength characteristics of soil under three different principal stresses. 59 – 70. John A. Uniaxial Testing in Rock Mechanics Laboratories.. Bull.T. A brief history of the development of the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. No. UK: Cambridge UP. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 192. 1981. and E. Drucker. Proceedings of Japan Society of Civil Engineers . W. Soils And Foundations 26. (1961) Franklin. G.. Hoek E. P. 232 (1974). Soils and Rocks. E.. T..9-10 (2003): 1227-258. T. and N. Mineral Industries Experiment Station. S. New York: Published for the Commission on Testing Methods. I. Academie Royal des Sciences par divers sans. Fairhurst. Papamichos. Developments in Triaxial Testing Technique. Mellor. Plasticity and Geomechanics. Brown. F. (1952).6 (1996): 573-84. R. 1971. Dehler. J. D. 1980. Hoek. W. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics. C. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 133. and M.0 References Borja. R. Selvadurai. Labuz. J. pp. Dai. November 1961). 7 (1773). Matsuoka. and Nakai. 2002. Labuz. Cook. N. Engineering Geology 4. Brown.

Murrell. A. Mogi. Welche Umstande Bedingen die Elastizitatsgrenze und den Bruch eines Materials . B. A modification of the Coulomb-Mohr Theory of Fracture. (1968b).... Academic Press. The Effect of Triaxial Stress Systems on the Strength of Rocks at Atmospheric Temperatures. Effect of the Intermediate Principal Stress on Rock Failure. F. K. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. Carlson. H. IngersollRand Research.. Holcomb.5 (1971): 1255-269.3-4 (1997) 67 . Pariseau. Geophysical Journal International 10. B. pp. Nadai.20 (1967): 5117. Paul. D. B. J.. 44 (1900). 259 – 268. Generalized Pyramidal Fracture and Yield Criteria. Paul. B. Macroscopic Criteria for Plastic Flow and Brittle Fracture. Treatise on Fracture (ed. Pincus HJ. Fracture and Flow of Rocks under High Triaxial Compression. Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure. Journal of Geophysical Research 72. S. W. Paul. N.4 (2007): 637-46. New Method for True-triaxial Rock Testing. International Journal of Solids and Structures 4. W. O. Journal of Geophysical Research 76. L. Closed-form/least-squares failure envelopes for rock strength. New York. New York. 1950.3 (1965): 231-81. pp. Mogi. A three-dimensional stress Fracture Criterion based on Microscopic Flaws. 313 – 496. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 34. and R. Princeton. A.2 (1968c): 175-96. Williams. 1524 – 1530.Mohr. NY: McGraw-Hill. Liebowitz). II (1968a). International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 44. Paul. Journal of Applied Mechanics 28 (1961). Inc. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics 37 (2000): 763-785 Wawersik. Fitting Failure Criteria to Laboratory Strength Tests. K.

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