Race Essay Notes | Ethnic Groups | Immigration

Race essay Notes: ` ‘This analysis [Durkheim 1961, elementary forms of the religious life] of the social significance

of religion is akin to any conventional understanding of the function of ethnic groups. Social cohesion, social solidarity and the drawing of a boundary between the group of believers and non-believers are characteristics that, which with the substitution of ‘co-ethnics’ for ‘believers’ and ‘others’ for ‘non-believers’, could easily be assigned to ethnic groups. – p. 198 ‘Another perspective focuses on the role that religion plays in supporting ethnicity. Here, religion is not merely a marker of ethnicity identity, but a powerful constructor of ethnic difference.’ -199 ‘However, it is equally clear that many Australians, friendly and hostile alike , practice a popular form of Orientalism; that is, they regard Muslims as a homogenous group and Islam as a singular practice. This is as much a misunderstanding as the assumption that all those of ‘Middle Eastern appearance’ are Muslim, and only whites are ‘real Australians’ –p212 race and ethnic relations – fozdar, wilding and Hawkins

Hamf 1994 – religion and rites are far more resistant to social change than other markers of identity (not a quote)

‘In Nepal, religion, a system of ritualized beliefs in powers that are obeyed and worshipped, is inherently related to the ethnic cultural structure of caste, the hierarchical social system based on Hindu religion principles.’ –p.145 visa-versa ‘First, the dynamics of believing refers to both the structure and agency of religion. Individual religious agency emphasizes individual’s beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and values as they relate to the larger cultural elements of the overarching structure. From an individual’s perspective, religion can be viewed as the attempt to accommodate and contend with one’s desires, as well as fears, by subordinating them to a conception of absolute good.’ –p.150 ‘the collective experience of the believer is the way in which religion is practiced by a group of individuals. This may be experienced in the formal setting of a religious instution or the informal setting of the home.’ - 152

then we can get sad. Bankstown. M. That’s why we have to do this. It is our ancestor’s custom. and keeps no religious symbols or traditional shrine. Min suggests that migrant Korean Christians is more religious than migrant American Indian Hind.5-Second generation male Korean migrant who turned Christian once immigrating who regularly attends Church and is part of the ‘praise team’. Relatively small numbers live in other state and territory capitals. the first is a 1. I prepare the food If we don’t give him puja. as well as outside the capital cities. outweighs the ethnic identity. The author claims that while traditional literature on similar ethnic migrant’s religious practices would conclude that the more religiously involved group would have a stronger ethnic identity. Lakemba and Punchbowl. The second is an Indian woman.in ‘Daughters of the Tharu’. – p vi ‘The vast majority of Muslims live in Sydney and Melbourne. an interview with two small boys: ‘We do puja for the houshold god. In Sydney the most popular suburds are Auburn. due to the active participation. and only marginally maintains traditional Hindu ritual. NYU Press ‘more than 36 per cent of Australian Muslims are born and bred in this country and that their experience of Islam is within the Australian context – many are converts to Islam from European and other backgrounds. 2003. Min proposes that the strength of the religious identity. suggesting that the migrant Koreans who have converted to Christianity will have less ethnic identity than their migrant Indian Hindu counterparts. for example in Shapparton in northern Victoria. who migrated to Detroit at the age of three. and the Education of Nepali Girls. while others are second. Presently they offer food for puja]. Noble Park and Coburg. -pg 2 Min. it is actually the opposite. In Meelbourne. now they offer a Prasad plate of food. Ethnicity. they give us sadness in our house. Pyong Gap. From the beginning. A. She attends temple three times a year. third and even fourth generation Muslim Australians for whom there is no other ‘home’. Preserving Ethnicity through Religion in America : Korean Protestants and Indian Hindus across Generations. Crows Nest.’ –p153 - Maslak. If we don’t respect duota. Reservoir. We must respect duota [spirit]. Daughters of the Tharu : Gender. Muslims tend to live in Meadow Heights. 2010. Dallas. [This family used to use clay sculptures to represent the duota. Saeed. Greenacre. New South Wales . Allen & Unwin. Religion. Islam in Australia. 2003. RoutledgeFalmer Min presents two young Americans. our ancestors they used the duota.

’ -103 ‘Parsons refers to these historical factors in terms of the ‘neutralisation of religion’ (such as the separation of church and state). 2011. such as Sai Baba. including Anglo-Australian followers. Canberra Lupp. Cambridge University Press.’-p50 ‘Interestingly. 300 Aboriginal people identified Hinduism. In 1991 there were 43580 declared Hindus. the ‘decentralisation of politics’ (such as the separation of powers and federalism) and finally the neutralisation of ethnicity since the founders were from a relatively homogenous cultural background. Cambridge Notes that: There are a large number of devout Hindus.’ – 259 Turner. and states have become involved in the management of religions. Cambridge University Press ‘Racial exclusiveness was one way of asserting the superiority of the ‘white race’ and its presumed supporting religious base. such as Vedanta or Hare Krishna. Secularisation and the State. J. . 2009. Buddhism or Judaism as their religion’ (from 1991 census data) – p51 Bilimoria. Religion and Modern Society: Citizenship. Islam. B. whose large colourful poster-images adorn the petalled mandap or makeshift altar and walls of their homes. There were probably equivalent numbers of Indian Muslims and Sikhs.’ – p11 ‘In 1911 there was no more than 1000 Hindus in Australia – the census registered only 414. Ramakrishna or other Godmen or Amma (Mother). Encyclopaedia of Religion in Australia.‘religion has often emerged as the principal site of ethnic and cultural contentation. late in the twentieth centiury. thereby inevitably departing from the traditional separation of state and religion in the liberal framework. The Hindus and Sikhs in Australia. S. namely Christianity. P. who form small community groups and meet regularly to chant kirtans or bhajans (‘devotional songs’) to their guru. Commonwealth of Australia. This figure includes people of European decent who have converted to one or other sect or guru-based group. and was repeated by many leaders in Australia over several decades. the picture is very different. 1996. However.

Note that ‘plural’ in this sense simply means diverse and is to be distinguished from pluralism. There are also Australians who participate in and identify with more than one religious group’ –p64 ‘Migration brought people who were more religious than they would been had they stayed where they were raised. Muslims. the sermon’ for these immigrants. retaining the children and grandchildren of these immigrants has proven to be a major challenge.-333 ‘the catholic church was transformed by the immigration of large numbers of Italianswho brought forms of Marian devotion and veneration of saints not as prevalent in the Irish-dominated chuch that received. One Reformed pastor claimed that the ‘coffee and speculaas was as important as. We live in a religiously diverse society with substantial religious communities of quite different faith groups. mosques and shrines. 2004). and shopping centres catering for not only ethnic foods but also religious supplies and such food as required by religious requirements and schools. It now takes more groups to include half the population than it did in 1947. if not more than. Cahill et al. 1994. Hindus and other religious groups.’ –p56 ‘As a result of migration and conversion Australia has become demographically a religiously plural society. The global movement of people carries with it the global movement of spiritualities as well as religions and cultures. These are not just ethnic communities but religious communities focused on religious centres. Their religions were new to Australia or promoted rapid growth in religions that had previously attracted few adherents. a threat or a promise (Beckford 2003: 73-102). which is a set of ideas or ideologies about plourality adopting positions on whether it is desirable. The list of religious groups Australians call their own is much longer. and the degree of difference is greater than it was in 1947. them (Lewins 1978). if not welcomed. problematic. religions not previously found in Australia or not found in significant numbers have come either through migration or conversion (Bouma. ‘ – p7 ‘Through a process of religious settlement. However. This example is critical because it demonstrates that ethnicity is associated with forms of religion and spirituality. With the increase in their numbers cam the establishment of well-organized communities of Buddhist. The next . such as temples. The adults may have found social solidarity with other immigrants and assistance in settling into Australia as well as a context that used their mother tongue. 1995.

6th ed. which serve to sharpen and maintain culturally established boundaries’ -633 race : ‘groupings of people believed to share common descent. ‘unintelligent’ and so on. all encompassing and supernatural (Durkheim. G. it is a purely social phenomenon that is produced and reproduced over time. mid-week opportunities for Mass. A. Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the Twenty-first Century. Through socialization.Ethnic differences are wholly learned. Catholics appear to have been more successful in retention. prayer and study in addition to weekly worship. Sociology. 2009. welfare agencies. the ethnic mix of Australia has been changed beyond recognition bringing significant communities of Asian. Members of ethnic groups see themselves as culturally distinct from other groups and are seen by them.generation speaks English and is less interested in maintaining ‘old ways’. as different…. religious orders. a point that seems self-evident until we remember how often some groups are regarded as ‘born to rule’ or ‘naturally lazy’. and beliefs of ethnic communities. in return. young people assimilate the lifestyles.’ Bouma. Cambridge University Press ‘Sociologists define religions as a cultural system of commonly shared beliefs and rituals that proviedes a sense of ultimate meaning and purpose by creating an ideal of reality that is sacred. 2005 . what marks out ethnic groups is often the use of ‘exclusionary devices’ such as the prohibiting of intermarriage. 2006. norms. In fact there nothing innate about ethnicity. With them came religious communities not previously strong in Australia but which now eclipse some of Australia’s former standard-brad Christian groups as Buddhists outnumber Baptists and Muslims outnumber Lutherans. clubs and societies. Polity Press. based on perceived innate physical similaries’ – Morning. Moreover. 1912) in Giddens. However. Middle Eastern and African immigrants to our cities and towns. the old middle class is being taken over by a new and different middle class – a middle class that is more ethnically and religiously diverse (Megalogenis 2003: 7-49) ‘ – p73 ‘Following seven decades of enforced ‘White Australia’ immigration policy.. Cambridge ‘Ethnicity refers to the cultural practices and outlooks of a given community of people which sets them apart from others. probably due to the wider array of organisational support provided to their people: schools.

Weber in his sociology of religion examined the ways in which religion regulates and shapes behaviour as an aspect of ‘rationalization’. and ‘religions’. 5th ed.. S. M. Turner.S. 2006. the specific and heterogeneous institutions in societies that are concerned with the sacred. Abercrombie. Durkheim (1912) defined religion in terms of its social functions: religion is a system of beliefs and rituals with reference to the sacred which binds people together in social groups. London . B. In contrast. N. Penguin Group. Dictionary of Sociology. E. Hill.“Religion and religions: It is conceptually useful to distinguish between ‘religion’. a generic phenomenon with reference to the ‘sacred’.

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