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Animal Cell Structure
The cell membrane is located around the outside of the cell. It is a protein lipid bilayer. The hydrophilic heads of the lipids point outwards while the hydrophobic tails occupy the space between the two lipid layers. Several types of proteins are imbedded in the membrane: channel, transport, recognition, receptor, and electron transfer. Channel proteins provide passageways through the membrane for small substances to diffuse through. Transport proteins are involved in the active transport of substances across the membrane.
Recognition proteins recognize other cells. Receptor proteins are receptor sites for hormones and other chemicals. Electron transfer proteins are involved in the transfer of electrons in processes like photosynthesis and cellular
respiration. Because the proteins constantly shift throughout the cell membrane, it is referred to as a fluid mosaic model. The functions of the cell membrane include: holding cellular material, regulating the movement of materials across the cell to the body's immune system.
the membrane, providing a surface for many chemical reactions, and identifying Cell junctions connect one cell to another. Gap junctions are found in animals and are very, very small channels that allow various ions and other small substances to pass from one cell to another. Tight junctions are seals around acids. Desmosomes are spot welds that hold cells together.
cells to prevent leakage. They are important for containing liquids like stomach The nucleus controls the cell's activities and contains all the genetic material (46 chromosomes in humans). inside the nucleus. The nucleolus is involved in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA. It is a dark body The nuclear membrane keeps DNA inside the nucleus but allows mRNA and proteins through. It is a double membrane with large pores. Ribosomes assemble proteins from RNA codes. They are found free-floating in the cytoplasm throughout the cell or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is a series of long canals running throughout the cell. It detoxifies the cell and converts foodstuffs.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a series of long canals running throughout the cell with ribosomes attached. It transports proteins to the golgi bodies for
Golgi bodies (also apparatus or complex) store and package cellular secretions for export out of the cell (usually through the use of vacuoles). Salivary, oil, and digestive glands have very active golgi bodies.
Lysosomes digest and remove worn out cell organelles. In essence, they are vacuoles filled with digestive enzymes. Mitochondria produce most of the cell's energy. They are composed of two membranes (an outer and a folded inner membrane) and are common in muscle cells.
Centrioles anchor spindle fibers during cell division. They are composed of microtubules and are only found in animal cells. The cell's cytoskeleton provides the cell with shape and support. It is involved in cell movement (cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, ameboid intermediate filaments, and microtubules. movement, and cell division). The cytoskeleton is composed of actin filaments,
Vacuoles are "bubbles" of material in the cell. Usually vacuoles hold water. They can, howeve and solid material as well. Some cells have microvilli to aid in movement or absorption.
The Cell membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. Cell membranes can be artificially reassembled. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm comprises cytosol — the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane — and the organelles — the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of
the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 70% to 90% water and usually colorless. Cytoplasmic Organelles Organelles (literally "little organs"), are usually membrane-bound, and are structures inside the cell that have specific functions. Some major organelles that are suspended in the cytosol are the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, and in plant cells chloroplasts. Nucleus In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome. The function of the nucleus is to maintain the integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression — the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell. The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear membrane, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nucleoskeleton (which includes nuclear lamina), a mesh work within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole. Movement of large molecules such as proteins and RNA through the pores is required for both gene expression and the maintenance of chromosomes. Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required that regulate Nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. Parts of Cell Nucleus The cell nucleus consists of a nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope), nucleoplasm, present inside the nucleus. Let's discuss in brief about the several parts of a cell nucleus. Cell Nucleus Diagram Nuclear Membrane
nucleolus and chromosomes. Nucleoplasm, also known as karyoplasm, is the matrix
The nuclear membrane is a double-layered structure that encloses the contents of the nucleus. The outer layer of the membrane is connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. A fluid-filled space or perinuclear space is present between the two layers of a nuclear membrane. The nucleus communicates with the remaining of the cell or the cytoplasm through several openings called nuclear pores. Such nuclear pores are the sites for exchange of large molecules (proteins and RNA) between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Chromosomes
Chromosomes are present in the form of strings of DNA and histones (protein
molecules) called chromatin. The chromatin is further classified into heterochromatin and euchromatin based on the functions. The former type is a highly condensed, transcriptionally inactive form, mostly present adjacent to the nuclear membrane. On which is found abundantly in a transcribing cell. Nucleolus
the other hand, euchromatin is a delicate, less condensed organization of chromatin,
The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is a dense, spherical-shaped structure present inside the nucleus. Some of the eukaryotic organisms have nucleus that contains up to four nucleoli. The nucleolus plays an indirect role in protein synthesis by producing are transported to the cytoplasm, which are then attached to the endoplasmic
ribosomes. These ribosomes are cell organelles made up of RNA and proteins; they reticulum. Ribosomes are the protein-producing organelles of a cell. Nucleolus division.
disappears when a cell undergoes division and is reformed after the completion of cell
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVIGN ORGANISM Growth: The permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in number of cells, cell size, or both. Irritability
Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. The term is used for both the sensitivity to stimuli; It is usually used to refer to anger or frustration.
physiological reaction to stimuli and for the pathological, abnormal or excessive
An adaptation, also called an adaptive trait, in biology is a trait with a current
functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection. Adaptation refers to both the current state of being adapted and to the dynamic evolutionary process that leads to the adaptation. Adaptations contribute to the fitness and survival of individuals. Metabolism
Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change" or Greek: μεταβολισμός
metabolismos, "outthrow") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within
the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. Reproduction Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new "offspring"
individual organisms are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual. Organization
feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction.
An organization is a social entity that has a collective goal and is linked to an from the better-known word ergon which means "organ" – a compartment for a particular task. Movement
external environment. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived
This allows them to change their position in their environment to obtain essential mate.
requirements such as water, air and food as well as to protect themselves, or locate a