Computer

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Computer

A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] In this eramechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by smallbatteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as ―computers.‖ However, the embedded

computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.
Contents
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1 History of computing

o o

1.1 Limited-function early computers 1.2 First general-purpose computers

 o o 

1.2.1 Key steps towards modern computers

1.3 Stored-program architecture 1.4 Semiconductors and microprocessors

2 Programs

o o o o

2.1 Stored program architecture 2.2 Bugs 2.3 Machine code 2.4 Programming language

  o 

2.4.1 Low-level languages 2.4.2 Higher-level languages

2.5 Program design

3 Components

o o o o o o o o 

3.1 Control unit 3.2 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 3.3 Memory 3.4 Input/output (I/O) 3.5 Multitasking 3.6 Multiprocessing 3.7 Networking and the Internet 3.8 Computer architecture paradigms

4 Misconceptions

o 

4.1 Required technology

5 Further topics

o o

5.1 Artificial intelligence 5.2 Hardware

  o o o    

5.2.1 History of computing hardware 5.2.2 Other hardware topics

5.3 Software 5.4 Languages 5.5 Professions and organizations

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History of computing

The Jacquard loom, on display at theMuseum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.

Main article: History of computing hardware The first use of the word ―computer‖ was recorded in 1613 in a book called ―The yong mans gleanings‖ by English writer Richard Braithwait I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical analog computer built by the Greeksaround 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence of programmability. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642,[9] known as Pascal's calculator, it was the first machine to better human performance of arithmetical computations[10] and would turn out to be the only functional mechanical calculator in the 17th century.[11]Two hundred years later, in 1851, Thomas de Colmar released, after thirty years of development, his simplified arithmometer; it became the first machine to be commercialized because it was strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators [12] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[13][14] and then developed.[15]Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development byIntel[16] of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.

First general-purpose computers
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

1941.000 punched cards to create (1839). In 1837. completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. fully automatic computing machine. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. his analytical engine.[18] The Zuse Z3.The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing[17] This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24. . Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits. Henry Babbage. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910. it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. considered the world's first working programmable. Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer.[19] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed—nevertheless his son. It was only produced to order.

[21] In the late 1880s.Ada Lovelace. Turing provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies. She also developed a vision on the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others. he settled on punched cards. and the teleprinter. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company. focused only on those capabilities. which later became the core ofIBM. the vacuum tube (thermionic valve). which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation.[23] Of his role in the creation of the modern . ―After some initial trials with paper tape. Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers. simply calledNotes. and the keypunch machines.. many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers. an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine.‖[22] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator. Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable medium. In 1936. an analyst ofCharles Babbage's analytical engine.[20] Between 1842 and 1843. considered to be the first computer programmer. translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the engine. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. These notes contain what is considered the first computer program – that is.. including Babbage himself. Earlier uses of machine-readable media had been for control. punched cards and tape. Alan Turing is widely regarded as the father of modern computer science. Ada Lovelace. had begun to appear: Boolean algebra. which she supplemented with an elaborate set of notes of her own. However. not data. providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers. During the first half of the 20th century. these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the world's first electronic digital computer. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program.[24] Atanasoff is considered to be one of the fathers of the computer. Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) are depicted here operating the ENIAC's main control panel. EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored-program (von Neumann) architecture. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry. is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer.computer. being designed only to solve systems of linear equations.[26] the machine was not programmable.‖[23] The ENIAC.[25] Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff. which became operational in 1946. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine. . albeit not programmable. The computer did employ parallel computation. states: ―The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard.

but defining one point along this road as ―the first digital electronic computer‖ is difficult. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.  The Harvard Mark I (1944). Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.‖ The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete. Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer. who built the Z3. an electromechanical computing machine. binary numbers. therefore being the world's first operational computer. gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:  Konrad Zuse's electromechanical ―Z machines.The first program-controlled computer was invented by Konrad Zuse.[30][31][32][33]  The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937.[29] Thus. Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the ―Model K‖ (for ―kitchen table. including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.[35] . completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation. built in 1943 by Tommy Flowers.[28] Key steps towards modern computers A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s. which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937.[34] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically re-programmable.‖ on which he had assembled it). George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. and regenerative capacitor memory.  The secret British Colossus computers (1943). The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench). The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps.[27] The first programmable electronic computer was the Colossus. in 1941. since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.

most still use the von Neumann architecture. nonexperimental implementation of the stored-program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time.(July 2012) Several developers of ENIAC. distributed in 1945. Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic. the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or ―Baby‖). Initially. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor(actual size: 12×6. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.75 mm) in its packaging Beginning in the 1950s. Shortly thereafter. however. was the first practical. came up with a far more flexible and elegant design. and 1 rather than the .S. general-purpose computers of the 1940s. ENIAC had an architecture which required rewiring a plugboard to change its programming. 0. completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University. Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers. the first of which was completed in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946). devices that operated on a base three numbering system of -1. which came to be known as the ―stored-program architecture‖ or von Neumann architecture. the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. The U. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). Stored-program architecture This section does not cite any references or sources. recognizing its flaws. making it the single trait by which the word ―computer‖ is now defined. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics).

Semiconductors and microprocessors Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer. which were smaller. faster. With the evolution of the Internet. such as the Intel 4004. cheaper to produce.conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. required less power.[36] In the 1970s. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence. a functional ternary computer. The first transistorized computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953. They designed the Setun. but supplanted by the more common binary architecture. and were more reliable. further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers.[citation needed] Programs Alan Turing was an influential computer scientist. The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. and . and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers. personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation ofmicroprocessors. but by the 1960s they had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union. at Moscow State University. By the late 1970s.[citation needed] Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right.

Program execution might be likened to reading a book. etc. Stored program architecture Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming Replica of the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). computer instructions are simple: add one number to another. Similarly. England This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. In most cases. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. the world's first stored-program computer. In practical terms. a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions. . move some data from one location to another. However. as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. send a message to some external device. Furthermore. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write.it will process them. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that ―remembers‖ the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors. a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. These are called ―jump‖ instructions (or branches). While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event.

Bugs are . Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit. the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. end of program. to completely fail. 1. code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. On the other hand. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1. #1000 ble loop halt . or to crash. they may cause the program or the entire system to ―hang. num cmp num. add num to sum .‖ They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program. set sum to 0 .[37] Bugs Main article: Software bug The actual first computer bug. For example: mov No. sum add No. But in some cases. if num <= 1000. sum mov No. a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses.Comparatively. set num to 1 . a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer Errors in computer programs are called ―bugs. stop running Once told to run this program. 0. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second.000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time. compare num to 1000 . go back to 'loop' . add 1 to num . or have only subtle effects. 1. with a near certainty of making a mistake. num loop: add num.‖ becoming unresponsive to input such as mouseclicks or keystrokes.

each with a unique numerical code. individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). architecture. especially for complicated programs. MULT or JUMP. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers. an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler. the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. [38] Admiral Grace Hopper. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. In some cases. While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers. it can also store the instruction codes. a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given. such as in CPU caches. each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember – a mnemonic such as ADD. Instead.[39] Machine code In most computers. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler. SUB. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann. bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design. is credited for having first used the term ―bugs‖ in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947.usually not the fault of the computer. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs. . the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on. The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode. or stored program. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language.[40] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice.

This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. Programming language Main article: Programming language Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run.[41] Higher-level languages Main article: High-level programming language Though considerably easier than in machine language. Unlike natural languages. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run. High level languages are usually ―compiled‖ into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise.[42] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language.(July 2012) .A 1970s punched card containing one line from aFORTRAN program. and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. Therefore. Program design This section does not cite any references or sources. The card reads: ―Z(1) = Y + W(1)‖ and is labeled ―PROJ039‖ for identification purposes. For instance. an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Low-level languages Main article: Low-level programming language Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer.

formal documentation. registers. modules. providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. These parts are interconnected by buses. The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. the memory. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult. often made of groups of wires. features such as subprograms. As problems become larger and more complex. Components Main articles: Central processing unit and Microprocessor A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a ―1‖. devising or using established procedures and algorithms. collection of inputs.Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem. the control unit. and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor. . Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. The control unit. the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge. using the programming constructs within languages. and when off it represents a ―0‖ (in positive logic representation). ALU. Control unit Main articles: CPU design and Control unit Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system.

and indeed. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). 7. which runs a microcodeprogram that causes all of these events to happen. 3. it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions.[43] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance. instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells. 6. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register. and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: 1. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. in some more complex CPU designs. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as ―jumps‖ and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction. 5. The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program. A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter. there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete. Jump back to step (1). a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. 4. transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.[44] The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description. 8. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Main article: Arithmetic logic unit . 2.

albeit with limited precision.The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic. etc. These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statementsand processing boolean logic.[46] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices. allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously. any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. Letters.. trigonometry functions such as sine. Each cell has a numbered ―address‖ and can store a single number. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND. Since the CPU does not . XOR and NOT. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers. even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. division. [45] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to. The computer can be instructed to ―put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357‖ or to ―add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595. and square roots. numbers. Therefore. However. cosine.‖ The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs. Memory Main article: Computer data storage Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s. until it was replaced by semiconductor memory. greater than or less than the other (―is 64 greater than 65?‖). or might include multiplication. A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. OR.

which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. As data is constantly being worked on. so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). which frequently do not have disk drives. In general. but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes. In embedded computers. either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however.[47] In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories. all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. In almost all modern computers. When negative numbers are required. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. Other arrangements are possible. four or eight). because it is notionally more like hardware than software. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Input/output (I/O) Main article: Input/output .differentiate between different types of information. therefore the CPU can only read from it. but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off. often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part. To store larger numbers. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. they are usually stored in two's complement notation. reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed. two. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically. several consecutive bytes may be used (typically. In a PC. Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256). Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. but ROM retains its data indefinitely.

[citation needed] Modern desktop computerscontain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.[50] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt. I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. causing a program switch each time. it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed ―time sharing‖ since each program is allocated a ―slice‖ of time in turn. the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right. .[48]Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. the computer can return to that task later. Hard disk drives. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception. with their own CPU and memory. peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse. Computer networking is another form of I/O. and output devices such as the display and printer. If several programs are running ―at the same time. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn. This is achieved by multitasking i. floppy disk drives andoptical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead.[49] On a typical personal computer. Multitasking Main article: Computer multitasking While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory.e. in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously.Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics.[51] Before the era of cheap computers.‖ then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt.

then it will not take a ―time slice‖ until the event it is waiting for has occurred. a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers. graphics rendering. customized high-speed interconnects. multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly. and cryptography applications. Multiprocessing Main article: Multiprocessing Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss. Multiprocessor andmulti-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available. and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result. Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. and specialized computing hardware. Networking and the Internet Main articles: Computer networking and Internet .[52] They often feature thousands of CPUs.Seemingly. Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration. as well as with other so-called ―embarrassingly parallel‖ tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard. mainframe computers and servers.

Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet. computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. ―Wireless‖ networking. which led to a number of specialpurpose commercial systems such as Sabre. and the like. and the computer network that resulted was called theARPANET. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web.S. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA). the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. In time. Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. stored information. as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments. such as peripheral devices. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments.[54] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. The U. fast networking technologies likeEthernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. often utilizing mobile phone networks.[53] In the 1970s. the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. Computer architecture paradigms There are many types of computer architectures:  Quantum computer vs Chemical computer . combined with the development of cheap. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. In fact.

‖[57] Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer. Misconceptions Main articles: Human computer and Harvard Computers Women as computers in NACA High Speed Flight Station "Computer Room" A computer does not need to be electronic. given enough time and storage capacity. stores. nor even have a processor.     Scalar processor vs Vector processor Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers Register machine vs Stack machine Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture Cellular architecture The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing. in principle. especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles. cellular automaton. capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. nor RAM. Required technology Main article: Unconventional computing . etc. especially if the processing is purposeful. supercomputer. nor even ahard disk.[55] Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms. distinguishing them fromcalculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is. or otherwise processes information. correlates.) is able to perform the same computational tasks. Therefore any type of computer (netbook. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile. the modern[56] definition of a computer is literally ―A device that computes. While popular usage of the word ―computer‖ is synonymous with a personal electronic computer.

and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. or possible errors in the code. Hardware Main articles: Computer hardware and Personal computer hardware The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. conceptually computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. Circuits. cables. for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly. However. UNIVAC 120 . However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems. keyboards. an often quoted example. such as optical computers. possible shortcuts. power supplies. Arithmometer. IBM 604. There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligenceand machine learning. Analytical engine. Further topics  Glossary of computers Artificial intelligence A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to.Historically. and are able to calculate any computable function. History of computing hardware Main article: History of computing hardware Calculators First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Programmable devices Pascal's calculator. Most computers are universal. DNA computers. UNIVAC 60. a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer). alternative solutions. For example. neural computers. displays. computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. modern computers are made out oftransistors made of photolithographed semiconductors. without regard to efficiency. printers and mice are all hardware. Z3 Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer. Difference engine. and quantum computers. Harvard Mark I. Norden bombsight Jacquard loom.[citation needed] More realistically.

Optical computer. IBM System/36 Minicomputer VAX. Pentium. ARM architecture 64-bit microcomputer[58] Alpha. IBM 701. Portable computer. Motorola 68000. Intel 8051 Personal computer Desktop computer. LSIintegrated circuits) Minicomputer IBM 7090.Programmable devices Colossus. BUNCH PDP-8. Zilog Z80 16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088. Intel 4040 8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008. IBM 650. IBM 7080. MIPS. MOS Technology 6502. IBM System/32. Laptop computer. Ferranti Mercury. Wearable computer Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer. IBM System/360. Home computer. IBM 702. x8664 Embedded computer Intel 8048. Tablet PC. Motorola 6809. ENIAC. Chemical computer. Z22 Mainframes Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI. Intel 8080. DNA computing. EDVAC. SPARC. CSIRAC. Zilog Z8000. Personal digital assistant (PDA). PA-RISC. PDP-11. MSI. PowerPC. Spintronics . EDSAC. WDC 65816/65802 Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) 32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386. Motorola 6800. IBM System i 4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004. UNIVAC I. Ferranti Pegasus. Manchester Mark 1. Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine.

List of BSD operating systems GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions. PCI. Windows 98. loudspeaker Both Floppy disk drive.Windows 7. HP-UX. MS-DOS. IRIX. Mac OS X . ATM. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible). Solaris (SunOS). IBM AIX. Windows 2000. DR-DOS. hard disk drive. protocols.‖ Unix and BSD UNIX System V. joystick. Windows Me. it is sometimes called ―firmware. printer. etc. PC-DOS. data. teleprinter Short range Computer busses Long range (computer networking) RS-232. Windows Vista. Windows NT.microphone Peripheral device(input/output) Output Monitor. FDDI Software Main article: Computer software Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form. webcam. SCSI. USB Ethernet. Windows XP. keyboard. Windows 8 DOS 86-DOS (QDOS). such as programs. optical disc drive. graphics tablet.based computer Other hardware topics Input Mouse. Comparison of Linux distributions Operating system Microsoft Windows Windows 95. FreeDOS Mac OS Mac OS classic. image scanner.

MPEG. Image processing Audio Digital audio editor. GEM. 3D computer graphics. Plan 9 from Bell Labs Multimedia Library Programming library DirectX. GNOME. JPEG. Plant management. PNG Graphical user interface (WIMP) User interface Text-based user interface Microsoft Windows. Kermit. Computer music . OpenGL. Scheduling & Time management. SMTP HTML. Database management system. HTTP. KDE. Mixing. Text user interface Office suite Word processing. XML. 3D modeler. Oberon/Bluebottle. E-mail client. CDE. Robotic manufacturing.Embedded andrealtime List of embedded operating systems Experimental Amoeba. Instant messaging Application Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design. Standard Template Library Protocol Data File format TCP/IP. Accounting software Internet Access Browser. Animation editor. Mail transfer agent. Desktop publishing. Aqua Command-line interface. Computer-aided manufacturing. Web server. FTP. Vector graphics editor. OpenAL C standard library. Audio playback.Video editing. Supply chain management Graphics Raster graphics editor. Spreadsheet. Audio synthesis. QNX Photon. Presentation program.

Software configuration management Educational Edutainment. Flight simulator Games Strategy. C++. Interactive fiction Misc Artificial intelligence. Platform. there are an increasing number of careers involving computers. Installer/Package management systems. JavaScript. Debugger.Compiler. Revision control. Lisp. List of programming languages. Interpreter. Ruby. Fortran. MIPS. Java. Text editor. Educational game. PHP. others useful only for highly specialized applications. Assembler. BASIC. NonEnglish-based programming languages Commonly used assembly languages ARM. List of programming languages by category. Perl Professions and organizations As the use of computers has spread throughout society.File manager Languages There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose. C. Serious game. Puzzle. COBOL. First-person shooter. Antivirus software. Generational list of programming languages. Arcade. . Object Pascal Commonly used scripting languages Bourne script. Programming languages Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages. Pascal. Integrated Software engineering development environment. Massively multiplayer. Python. Software performance analysis. C#. x86 Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada. Simulation. Malware scanner.

By comparison. Web design The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations. AIS. ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. ^ In 1946. Software engineering. nearly six thousand times . IEC. Organizations Standards groups ANSI. BCS Free/open source software groups Free Software Foundation. clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature. Video game industry.Computer-related professions Hardwarerelated Electrical engineering. W3C Professional societies ACM. IET. Desktop publishing. Apache Software Foundation See also Information technology portal        Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers Pulse computation TOP500 (list of most powerful computers) Notes 1. Nanoengineering Softwarerelated Computer science. IEEE. Mozilla Foundation. Computer engineering. Human–computer interaction.Information systems. Computational science. Computer engineering. Optical engineering. ISO. Information technology. IETF. Telecommunications engineering. a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W. Electronic engineering. IFIP.

but we now realize that he . ^ ―It is reasonable to inquire. Pascal. 4. 19. Edmund Berkeley 6. Oxford University Press. John Wiley & Sons. n. 7. 9.".udel. Intel Corporation.. ^ Felt. Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years.Dorr E. Retrieved 20 February 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2009. 31 July 2008. therefore. (1916). ^ Berkeley."Pickett Apollo Box Scans". "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". Dorr E.com. Retrieved 20 June 2009. pp. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. 8. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Georges Ifrah. Giant Brains. Copland. ^ computer."Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". The New York Times.edu. ^ According to advertising on Pickett's N600 slide rule boxes. and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. Edmund (1949). Retrieved 15 January 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2010. whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. Georges (2001). ^ "Heron of Alexandria". Retrieved 10 April 2009. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. Mechanical arithmetic. ^ "The arithmetical machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought than all the actions of animals.". Blaise Pasdcal.less. Great Books online. 2. From 2700 to 2300 BC. Chicago: Washington Institute. Felt 10. But it does nothing which would enable us to attribute will to it. p. ^ "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B. ^ See the paragraph Pascal's calculator#Competing designs 12. 10. as to the animals. 1989. ^ Babbage's Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid-1830s 13. p.11 5. Thoughts 11. A modern ―commodity‖ microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second. or Machines That Think.C. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage.). Pensées Bartleby. ^ * Ifrah. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. 3. or The history of the counting machine. University of Pennsylvania.

Big deal then. the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate. England...understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers‖ Faster than thought. ^ ―. Irascible Genius. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war. Charles Babbage. page 298. England: Cambridge University Press. ^ See: Anthony Hyman. Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine . V.) 19. Intel. Big deal now". Retrieved 29 January 2012.‖ Foreword. (Delve (2007). ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage'sdifference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.com.. London. 1953.. ^ "Intel Museum – The 4004. Bowden. 1989). ISBN 3-540-06169-X 16.‖ Howard Aiken. . Selected Papers. and his efforts were regarded as futile.Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. After abandoning the difference engine. ^ From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge. edited by B. ^ In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: ―Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations. Pitman publishing corporation 14. Since the time of Babbage. inventor by Maboth Moseley. 1973. 1964. page 99. ed. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London.. 17. time-consuming and absurd. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer. reprinted in: The origins of Digital computers.. Edited by Brian Randell. the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him . Proposed automatic calculating machine. Hutchinson 15..com 18.

1109/85. Retrieved 29 January 2012. J. ^ Fuegi. ^ Monsters & Critics: "he(Zuse) built the world's first computer in Berlin" 33. J. Retrieved 20 November 2010. ^ "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith". Columbia. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54.2003.edu. ^ a b "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". Time Magazine. October 1944. Stibitz". Der Spiegel. 23. Retrieved 29 January 2012. ^ "Inventor Profile: George R. 21. Oxford University Press. ^ Fuegi and Francis. ^ About. Google Books. ^ Rojas. Retrieved 11 December 2010. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'".1253887. All the .1109/MAHC. 36. ^ "Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers". ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP11minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. Columbia. National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation. 25.20.707574. 26. Cs. Annals of the History of Computing25 (4).iastate. (1998). pp. 2006 35. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff – the father of the computer". 28 September 2009. ^ "Atanasoff-Berry Computer". ^ "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published". opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. pp. 18– 26. Francis.com: "Konrad Zuse earned the semiofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer"" 34. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 24. Inc. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of Electronic Digital Computing". 2003. Retrieved 11 December 2010. doi:10.. p. Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. 27. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard." 31. ^ RTD Net: "From various sides Konrad Zuse was awarded with the title "Inventor of the computer".)German inventor of the computer" 32. ^ GermanWay: "(. 29. 22. Jack Copeland. 28. (2003). 37 37. doi:10... R. ^ Lavington 1998.edu. Popular Science. 30. Retrieved 11 December 2010. "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". ^ B. Retrieved 13 June 2009.. 25. ed.edu. 19.

These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. one of the . 43. this is not always the case. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly. For example.. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. the Pentium FDIV bugcaused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. Alexander L. this method was usually used only as part of thebooting process. Some minicomputers like the DECPDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. ^ However. ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled.text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. However. TIME. ^ The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. by another program called aninterpreter. III (16 April 1984). This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972) 38. An x86-64compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2microprocessor can. "The Wizard Inside the Machine". This contrasts with very early commercial computers. 40. 41. 42. Retrieved 17 February 2007. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. while running. ^ Taylor. which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers. as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. 39. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some nonvolatile memory. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers. EDVAC. For instance.

Wiley. ^ However. The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. 44. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system. p.. Porat (1976). 45. Davis (2002). p. p. ^ Agatha C. ISBN 978-0-8247-4067-2. CRC Press. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers. 130." . ^ Jerry Peek. 54. Prentice-Hall. These so-calledcomputer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. 45. Dan I. 49. and Computers. Experts. Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. (Verma & Mielke 1988) 48. 111. John Strang (2002). it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware.. Hughes (2000). ISBN 978-0-262-08285-3. CRC Press. O'Reilly. usually individual computers connected by networks. ^ Gillian M. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. 50. Introduction to the Basic Computer. 51. 47. ISBN 978-0-8493-0949-6. 161. A K Peters.MIT Press. Systems. Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. Ltd. therefore the program counter usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address. (TOP500 2006) 53. p. p. ISBN 978-0-596-00261-9.earliest stored-program computers. 85. Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. making it less useful for heavy random access usage. p. p. 52. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). 12. ISBN 978-1-56881128-4. Grace Todino. 46. Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. ^ David J.ISBN 978-0-471-05051-3. ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out. ^ Arpad Barna. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). Eck (2000). there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years.

Simon (1998). PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (PDF).). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. TOP500.com. 58. Strohmaier. ^ "Definition of computer".  a Phillips.  Digital Equipment Corporation (1972). page 340. (1988). A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed. Retrieved 29 January 2012. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". specifically a person employed for this in an observatory etc. References  Fuegi. Hans. Dumas 2006.  a Shannon. Swindon: The British Computer Society. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. 2007). and Francis. "The Antikythera Mechanism I". ISBN 978-0-902505-01-8.  Verma. Claude Elwood (1940). Internet Society. Erich. J. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier  a Kempf.  Meuer. Dongarra. Jack (13 November 2006). existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced. A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits. when it referred to ―A person who makes calculations. 55. MA: Digital Equipment Corporation. Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps. Retrieved 5 April 2006. Retrieved 20 September 2008. All of the architectures listed in this table. Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army). IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. Simon. American Mathematical Society. Tony (2000).54. ^ According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed.  Lavington. Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories. Mielke. J.. . IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. Horst.‖ 57. G. ^ "A Brief History of the Internet". Thefreedictionary. 56. the word computer dates back to the mid 17th century. N. except for Alpha. ^ "Computer architecture: fundamentals and principles of computer design" by Joseph D. "Architectures Share Over Time". Maynard. Karl (1961).

Giant Brains.  Felt. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Mechanical arithmetic. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. Chicago: Washington Institute. John Wiley & Sons. Jon (2007).  Berkeley. Dorr E. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. (1916). Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. or Machines That Think.  Ifrah. Stokes. Georges (2001). External links Find more about Computer at Wikipedia'ssister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks  A Brief History of Computing – slideshow by Life magazine [hide]    V T E . Edmund (1949). or The history of the counting machine. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6.

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                                               Nedersaksies नेपाली 日本語 Nnapulitano Norfuk / Pitkern Norsk bokmål Norsk nynorsk Occitan Олык марий ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oʻzbekcha ਪੰ ਜਾਬੀ ‫پ نجاب ی‬ ‫پ ښ تو‬ Plattdüütsch Polski Ποντιακά Português Qırımtatarca Română Runa Simi Русиньскый Русский Саха тыла संस्कृतम ् Sardu Scots Seeltersk Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Сло ѣньскъ / Ślůnski Soomaaliga ‫وردی‬ Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохр атски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Татарча/tatarça .

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