Computer

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Computer

A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] In this eramechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by smallbatteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as ―computers.‖ However, the embedded

computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.
Contents
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1 History of computing

o o

1.1 Limited-function early computers 1.2 First general-purpose computers

 o o 

1.2.1 Key steps towards modern computers

1.3 Stored-program architecture 1.4 Semiconductors and microprocessors

2 Programs

o o o o

2.1 Stored program architecture 2.2 Bugs 2.3 Machine code 2.4 Programming language

  o 

2.4.1 Low-level languages 2.4.2 Higher-level languages

2.5 Program design

3 Components

o o o o o o o o 

3.1 Control unit 3.2 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 3.3 Memory 3.4 Input/output (I/O) 3.5 Multitasking 3.6 Multiprocessing 3.7 Networking and the Internet 3.8 Computer architecture paradigms

4 Misconceptions

o 

4.1 Required technology

5 Further topics

o o

5.1 Artificial intelligence 5.2 Hardware

  o o o    

5.2.1 History of computing hardware 5.2.2 Other hardware topics

5.3 Software 5.4 Languages 5.5 Professions and organizations

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History of computing

The Jacquard loom, on display at theMuseum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.

Main article: History of computing hardware The first use of the word ―computer‖ was recorded in 1613 in a book called ―The yong mans gleanings‖ by English writer Richard Braithwait I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical analog computer built by the Greeksaround 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence of programmability. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642,[9] known as Pascal's calculator, it was the first machine to better human performance of arithmetical computations[10] and would turn out to be the only functional mechanical calculator in the 17th century.[11]Two hundred years later, in 1851, Thomas de Colmar released, after thirty years of development, his simplified arithmometer; it became the first machine to be commercialized because it was strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators [12] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[13][14] and then developed.[15]Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development byIntel[16] of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.

First general-purpose computers
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

000 punched cards to create (1839). In 1837.[18] The Zuse Z3. completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. Henry Babbage. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits. . his analytical engine. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. It was only produced to order. Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer. considered the world's first working programmable. fully automatic computing machine. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910.The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing[17] This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24.[19] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed—nevertheless his son. 1941.

that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers. translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the engine. an analyst ofCharles Babbage's analytical engine. which later became the core ofIBM. Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers. Earlier uses of machine-readable media had been for control.. Alan Turing is widely regarded as the father of modern computer science. including Babbage himself. ―After some initial trials with paper tape. These notes contain what is considered the first computer program – that is. the vacuum tube (thermionic valve). Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable medium. and the teleprinter. simply calledNotes.‖[22] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator. an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. Ada Lovelace. focused only on those capabilities. punched cards and tape. providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. considered to be the first computer programmer. During the first half of the 20th century.. he settled on punched cards. which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However. Turing provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine.Ada Lovelace. which she supplemented with an elaborate set of notes of her own. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. She also developed a vision on the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others. many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies. had begun to appear: Boolean algebra.[20] Between 1842 and 1843. [21] In the late 1880s. In 1936. and the keypunch machines. not data. these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.[23] Of his role in the creation of the modern .

Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) are depicted here operating the ENIAC's main control panel. is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer. The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the world's first electronic digital computer. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine. states: ―The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard. Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.[24] Atanasoff is considered to be one of the fathers of the computer. being designed only to solve systems of linear equations.[26] the machine was not programmable. and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry.computer. The computer did employ parallel computation. which became operational in 1946. albeit not programmable.‖[23] The ENIAC. EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored-program (von Neumann) architecture. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. .[25] Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.

‖ on which he had assembled it). George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps. completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation. Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the ―Model K‖ (for ―kitchen table. which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation.[34] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically re-programmable.[29] Thus. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937. binary numbers.[30][31][32][33]  The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937.[28] Key steps towards modern computers A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s. including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability.The first program-controlled computer was invented by Konrad Zuse. an electromechanical computing machine. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench). and regenerative capacitor memory. built in 1943 by Tommy Flowers.‖ The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic. It was used for breaking German wartime codes. therefore being the world's first operational computer. a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability. Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer. Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:  Konrad Zuse's electromechanical ―Z machines.  The Harvard Mark I (1944). in 1941. but defining one point along this road as ―the first digital electronic computer‖ is difficult. who built the Z3. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.[27] The first programmable electronic computer was the Colossus. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete. since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.[35] .  The secret British Colossus computers (1943).

S. the first of which was completed in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. which came to be known as the ―stored-program architecture‖ or von Neumann architecture. and 1 rather than the . Initially. most still use the von Neumann architecture. the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or ―Baby‖). Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor(actual size: 12×6. completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources.(July 2012) Several developers of ENIAC. ENIAC had an architecture which required rewiring a plugboard to change its programming. the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. Shortly thereafter. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic. recognizing its flaws. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time. general-purpose computers of the 1940s. came up with a far more flexible and elegant design. distributed in 1945. 0. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946). was the first practical.75 mm) in its packaging Beginning in the 1950s. however. nonexperimental implementation of the stored-program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. The U. which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers. Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture. making it the single trait by which the word ―computer‖ is now defined. Stored-program architecture This section does not cite any references or sources. devices that operated on a base three numbering system of -1. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

[36] In the 1970s. They designed the Setun. integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation ofmicroprocessors. which were smaller. such as the Intel 4004. but supplanted by the more common binary architecture. and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. Semiconductors and microprocessors Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s. By the late 1970s. personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. at Moscow State University. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer.[citation needed] Programs Alan Turing was an influential computer scientist. many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers. faster. cheaper to produce.conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence. The first transistorized computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953. a functional ternary computer. With the evolution of the Internet. further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers.[citation needed] Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer. and were more reliable. required less power. and . but by the 1960s they had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines. The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union.

etc. at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence. England This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers. Similarly. These are called ―jump‖ instructions (or branches). However.it will process them. . In practical terms. move some data from one location to another. and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors. they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions. there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. the world's first stored-program computer. Program execution might be likened to reading a book. a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. send a message to some external device. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. Stored program architecture Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming Replica of the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). Furthermore. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that ―remembers‖ the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. In most cases. computer instructions are simple: add one number to another. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write.

sum add No. go back to 'loop' . add num to sum . set num to 1 .000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time. if num <= 1000.Comparatively. On the other hand. num cmp num. or to crash. a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer Errors in computer programs are called ―bugs. or have only subtle effects. stop running Once told to run this program.‖ They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program. sum mov No. the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention. For example: mov No. 0. end of program. But in some cases.[37] Bugs Main article: Software bug The actual first computer bug. set sum to 0 . compare num to 1000 . It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second. a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions.‖ becoming unresponsive to input such as mouseclicks or keystrokes. with a near certainty of making a mistake. 1. to completely fail. 1. add 1 to num . But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1. code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit. #1000 ble loop halt . they may cause the program or the entire system to ―hang. Bugs are . num loop: add num.

it can also store the instruction codes. an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler. is credited for having first used the term ―bugs‖ in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947. especially for complicated programs. architecture.[39] Machine code In most computers. bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs. While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers. each with a unique numerical code. a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on.usually not the fault of the computer. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler. such as in CPU caches. . [38] Admiral Grace Hopper. The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode. or stored program. In some cases. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions.[40] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from. each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember – a mnemonic such as ADD. individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). SUB. MULT or JUMP. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. Instead. the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on.

most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. For instance. and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. Program design This section does not cite any references or sources. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run. an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Low-level languages Main article: Low-level programming language Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. Therefore.[42] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. High level languages are usually ―compiled‖ into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler. Programming language Main article: Programming language Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Unlike natural languages.A 1970s punched card containing one line from aFORTRAN program. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources.[41] Higher-level languages Main article: High-level programming language Though considerably easier than in machine language. The card reads: ―Z(1) = Y + W(1)‖ and is labeled ―PROJ039‖ for identification purposes. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques.(July 2012) .

often made of groups of wires. and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). formal documentation. Control unit Main articles: CPU design and Control unit Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system. The control unit. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. devising or using established procedures and algorithms. the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge. As problems become larger and more complex. ALU. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. These parts are interconnected by buses. providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. the control unit. The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a ―1‖. . and when off it represents a ―0‖ (in positive logic representation). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem. the memory. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. collection of inputs. registers. Components Main articles: Central processing unit and Microprocessor A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). features such as subprograms. using the programming constructs within languages. modules.

and indeed. The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Main article: Arithmetic logic unit . 7. 3. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. 8. The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. 5. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as ―jumps‖ and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow). instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. 2. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions. in some more complex CPU designs.The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components. A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter.[43] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance.[44] The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description. and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: 1. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction. 6. which runs a microcodeprogram that causes all of these events to happen. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register. 4. Jump back to step (1). it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete. Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells. there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer. a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer.

allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously..[46] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices. etc. or might include multiplication. cosine. and square roots.The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic. any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND. Memory Main article: Computer data storage Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s. Letters. These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statementsand processing boolean logic. Therefore. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to. albeit with limited precision. However. numbers. A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. The computer can be instructed to ―put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357‖ or to ―add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595. XOR and NOT. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs. division. OR. until it was replaced by semiconductor memory. [45] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction.‖ The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. greater than or less than the other (―is 64 greater than 65?‖). Each cell has a numbered ―address‖ and can store a single number. any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers. Since the CPU does not . trigonometry functions such as sine. even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease.

therefore the CPU can only read from it. they are usually stored in two's complement notation. but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it. In almost all modern computers. as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. As data is constantly being worked on.[47] In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories. because it is notionally more like hardware than software. either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes. so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. In general. When negative numbers are required. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware. all of the required software may be stored in ROM. the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. four or eight). Other arrangements are possible. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however. two.differentiate between different types of information. reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. which frequently do not have disk drives. Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256). each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Input/output (I/O) Main article: Input/output . but ROM retains its data indefinitely. several consecutive bytes may be used (typically. To store larger numbers. which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off. In embedded computers. In a PC.

I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world.[51] Before the era of cheap computers.‖ then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second. causing a program switch each time.[49] On a typical personal computer.[48]Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception. the computer can return to that task later. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics. the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. Computer networking is another form of I/O. If several programs are running ―at the same time. peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse. I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right. it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. and output devices such as the display and printer.e. Multitasking Main article: Computer multitasking While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory. which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead.[citation needed] Modern desktop computerscontain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers. floppy disk drives andoptical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt. Hard disk drives. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed ―time sharing‖ since each program is allocated a ―slice‖ of time in turn. . This is achieved by multitasking i. with their own CPU and memory. in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously.[50] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt.

Multiprocessing Main article: Multiprocessing Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily. multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly. in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss.Seemingly. graphics rendering. and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result. Networking and the Internet Main articles: Computer networking and Internet . Multiprocessor andmulti-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard. Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration. as well as with other so-called ―embarrassingly parallel‖ tasks. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation. a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers. Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. customized high-speed interconnects. then it will not take a ―time slice‖ until the event it is waiting for has occurred. and cryptography applications.[52] They often feature thousands of CPUs. and specialized computing hardware. but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. mainframe computers and servers.

[54] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. ―Wireless‖ networking. such as peripheral devices. In time. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system. fast networking technologies likeEthernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. combined with the development of cheap. the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. In fact. stored information. Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments. The U.S. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA). which led to a number of specialpurpose commercial systems such as Sabre. Computer architecture paradigms There are many types of computer architectures:  Quantum computer vs Chemical computer . the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network. and the like.[53] In the 1970s. and the computer network that resulted was called theARPANET. has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments. often utilizing mobile phone networks.Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet. computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web.

Therefore any type of computer (netbook. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile. supercomputer. etc. correlates. or otherwise processes information.‖[57] Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer.     Scalar processor vs Vector processor Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers Register machine vs Stack machine Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture Cellular architecture The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing. distinguishing them fromcalculators. nor even ahard disk. stores.) is able to perform the same computational tasks. the modern[56] definition of a computer is literally ―A device that computes. Required technology Main article: Unconventional computing . Misconceptions Main articles: Human computer and Harvard Computers Women as computers in NACA High Speed Flight Station "Computer Room" A computer does not need to be electronic. capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. in principle. nor even have a processor. While popular usage of the word ―computer‖ is synonymous with a personal electronic computer. nor RAM. especially if the processing is purposeful. especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is. given enough time and storage capacity. cellular automaton.[55] Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms.

an often quoted example. keyboards. cables. and are able to calculate any computable function. Difference engine. Hardware Main articles: Computer hardware and Personal computer hardware The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. without regard to efficiency. For example. IBM 604. neural computers.[citation needed] More realistically. Circuits. power supplies. computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly. Further topics  Glossary of computers Artificial intelligence A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to. and quantum computers. Norden bombsight Jacquard loom. Harvard Mark I. History of computing hardware Main article: History of computing hardware Calculators First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Programmable devices Pascal's calculator. or possible errors in the code. There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology. Z3 Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer. such as optical computers. conceptually computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. printers and mice are all hardware. displays. However. DNA computers. UNIVAC 60. Analytical engine. possible shortcuts. However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems.Historically. a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer). alternative solutions. Most computers are universal. Arithmometer. and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. modern computers are made out oftransistors made of photolithographed semiconductors. UNIVAC 120 . Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligenceand machine learning.

LSIintegrated circuits) Minicomputer IBM 7090. Tablet PC. Intel 8051 Personal computer Desktop computer. CSIRAC.Optical computer. BUNCH PDP-8. MIPS. IBM System i 4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004. IBM System/32. IBM System/360. IBM 650. PowerPC. EDVAC. Motorola 6800.Programmable devices Colossus. IBM 701. IBM System/36 Minicomputer VAX. ARM architecture 64-bit microcomputer[58] Alpha. MSI. SPARC. Intel 8080. Spintronics . Z22 Mainframes Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI. PDP-11. Portable computer. Personal digital assistant (PDA). IBM 7080. EDSAC. Motorola 68000. Pentium. Ferranti Mercury. UNIVAC I. Motorola 6809. Wearable computer Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer. ENIAC. PA-RISC. WDC 65816/65802 Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) 32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386. MOS Technology 6502. Intel 4040 8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008. DNA computing. Manchester Mark 1. Laptop computer. x8664 Embedded computer Intel 8048. Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine. Zilog Z8000. IBM 702. Ferranti Pegasus. Home computer. Chemical computer. Zilog Z80 16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088.

USB Ethernet. keyboard. HP-UX. IRIX. it is sometimes called ―firmware. List of BSD operating systems GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions. webcam. Windows 8 DOS 86-DOS (QDOS). FreeDOS Mac OS Mac OS classic. Mac OS X . Solaris (SunOS). joystick. image scanner. Comparison of Linux distributions Operating system Microsoft Windows Windows 95.‖ Unix and BSD UNIX System V. PC-DOS. DR-DOS. Windows NT. ATM. SCSI. Windows Me. MS-DOS. optical disc drive. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible). data.Windows 7. loudspeaker Both Floppy disk drive. teleprinter Short range Computer busses Long range (computer networking) RS-232. Windows XP. FDDI Software Main article: Computer software Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form. printer. IBM AIX. etc. PCI.microphone Peripheral device(input/output) Output Monitor. graphics tablet. Windows 2000. protocols.based computer Other hardware topics Input Mouse. such as programs. hard disk drive. Windows 98. Windows Vista.

Kermit. Mixing. Text user interface Office suite Word processing. JPEG. Animation editor. E-mail client. Image processing Audio Digital audio editor. Standard Template Library Protocol Data File format TCP/IP. Plan 9 from Bell Labs Multimedia Library Programming library DirectX. Plant management. KDE. OpenAL C standard library. 3D computer graphics. QNX Photon. 3D modeler. FTP. Vector graphics editor. Desktop publishing. XML. Audio synthesis. HTTP. Aqua Command-line interface. PNG Graphical user interface (WIMP) User interface Text-based user interface Microsoft Windows. Computer music . Presentation program. Database management system. Mail transfer agent. Robotic manufacturing. GNOME. Audio playback. Spreadsheet. MPEG. Scheduling & Time management. Oberon/Bluebottle. Accounting software Internet Access Browser. CDE. Instant messaging Application Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design. SMTP HTML. Supply chain management Graphics Raster graphics editor.Embedded andrealtime List of embedded operating systems Experimental Amoeba.Video editing. Web server. OpenGL. Computer-aided manufacturing. GEM.

Compiler. Text editor. there are an increasing number of careers involving computers. Python. Serious game. Platform. Interactive fiction Misc Artificial intelligence. C++. Malware scanner. Pascal. Puzzle. First-person shooter. Installer/Package management systems. Assembler. Perl Professions and organizations As the use of computers has spread throughout society. Software performance analysis. Fortran. Java. Debugger. Educational game. Generational list of programming languages. Programming languages Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages. C#. List of programming languages. others useful only for highly specialized applications.File manager Languages There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose. PHP. MIPS. Interpreter. x86 Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada. COBOL. Simulation. Massively multiplayer. JavaScript. Integrated Software engineering development environment. List of programming languages by category. Revision control. BASIC. NonEnglish-based programming languages Commonly used assembly languages ARM. Arcade. Object Pascal Commonly used scripting languages Bourne script. C. . Antivirus software. Software configuration management Educational Edutainment. Lisp. Flight simulator Games Strategy. Ruby.

Information systems. Optical engineering. Information technology. Telecommunications engineering. Human–computer interaction. IEC. clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature. Video game industry. Mozilla Foundation. Computational science.Computer-related professions Hardwarerelated Electrical engineering. a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W. Organizations Standards groups ANSI. IETF. BCS Free/open source software groups Free Software Foundation. AIS. IEEE. Electronic engineering. Apache Software Foundation See also Information technology portal        Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers Pulse computation TOP500 (list of most powerful computers) Notes 1. IFIP. ^ In 1946. Computer engineering. ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. IET. Desktop publishing. By comparison. W3C Professional societies ACM. Computer engineering. Software engineering. Web design The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations. ISO. Nanoengineering Softwarerelated Computer science. nearly six thousand times .

). Great Books online.11 5. therefore. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. or Machines That Think. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". 9. ^ Babbage's Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid-1830s 13. But it does nothing which would enable us to attribute will to it. 1989. The New York Times. Thoughts 11. Giant Brains. University of Pennsylvania."Pickett Apollo Box Scans". A modern ―commodity‖ microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second.". John Wiley & Sons. ^ "The arithmetical machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought than all the actions of animals. (1916).". The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. ^ According to advertising on Pickett's N600 slide rule boxes. pp. Retrieved 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2010. Felt 10."Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer.Dorr E. 4. ^ Berkeley.edu. p. Retrieved 15 January 2008. Pensées Bartleby. 10. ^ See the paragraph Pascal's calculator#Competing designs 12. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed. Edmund (1949). whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. New York: John Wiley & Sons.C. ^ Felt.com. From 2700 to 2300 BC. Blaise Pasdcal.less. ^ "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B. 3. p. Retrieved 20 June 2009. 2. n. Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years. ^ computer. Copland. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. 19. Edmund Berkeley 6. Intel Corporation. 7. ^ ―It is reasonable to inquire. Pascal. Dorr E.udel. and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. Oxford University Press. ^ * Ifrah. Mechanical arithmetic.. 8. or The history of the counting machine. ^ "Heron of Alexandria". Retrieved 27 March 2010. 31 July 2008. Georges (2001). Retrieved 10 April 2009. as to the animals.Georges Ifrah. Chicago: Washington Institute. but we now realize that he .

Proposed automatic calculating machine.understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers‖ Faster than thought.. inventor by Maboth Moseley.‖ Howard Aiken. V. time-consuming and absurd. Charles Babbage.. and his efforts were regarded as futile. 1953.. ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage'sdifference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator. Hutchinson 15. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge. page 99. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war.‖ Foreword. Pitman publishing corporation 14. ISBN 3-540-06169-X 16. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Big deal now". ^ In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: ―Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations. edited by B. Intel. (Delve (2007).) 19. ^ ―. ^ See: Anthony Hyman.com 18. After abandoning the difference engine. Big deal then..com.. England. Selected Papers. ^ "Intel Museum – The 4004. ^ From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer. reprinted in: The origins of Digital computers. the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him . Edited by Brian Randell. the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate. London. Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine . ed. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London. 1964. page 298. Irascible Genius. 17. Bowden. 1973. Since the time of Babbage.. 1989).Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. England: Cambridge University Press. ..

^ "Inventor Profile: George R. J. National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation. 30. ^ "Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers". Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. Jack Copeland. 27.edu. Retrieved 13 June 2009. 28. Retrieved 11 December 2010. ^ "Atanasoff-Berry Computer". opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. 2003.com: "Konrad Zuse earned the semiofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer"" 34. Cs. R. doi:10. doi:10. ^ Fuegi. Google Books. 22.. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 24.iastate.edu. Annals of the History of Computing25 (4).707574. 36. October 1944.1109/85. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. ^ a b "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". ^ B. Retrieved 29 January 2012. ed. Columbia. 18– 26. 37 37. ^ Lavington 1998.1253887.edu. 29. ^ Fuegi and Francis. Inc. ^ About. Der Spiegel. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'"." 31. 2006 35. 25. Popular Science. ^ "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith".2003. 25. Time Magazine.1109/MAHC. Retrieved 20 November 2010.)German inventor of the computer" 32. ^ GermanWay: "(. ^ Monsters & Critics: "he(Zuse) built the world's first computer in Berlin" 33. pp. All the . ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of Electronic Digital Computing". p. 28 September 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 21.. Retrieved 29 January 2012. ^ "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published". ^ Rojas. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff – the father of the computer". (1998). Oxford University Press. Stibitz".. Columbia. "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". Francis. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard. 23. pp. ^ RTD Net: "From various sides Konrad Zuse was awarded with the title "Inventor of the computer". J.. 19. ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP11minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. (2003). 26.20.

Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some nonvolatile memory. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. ^ However.text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. 40. 39. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. III (16 April 1984). 43. Some minicomputers like the DECPDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. An x86-64compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2microprocessor can. this method was usually used only as part of thebooting process. Retrieved 17 February 2007. by another program called aninterpreter. "The Wizard Inside the Machine". ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. 41. EDVAC. ^ Taylor. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers. For example. However. TIME. there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. this is not always the case. while running. Alexander L. This contrasts with very early commercial computers. as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486. ^ The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. one of the .. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972) 38. the Pentium FDIV bugcaused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. For instance. which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. 42.

MIT Press. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). ^ Arpad Barna. 51. ISBN 978-1-56881128-4. p. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address. 47. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). (TOP500 2006) 53. 54. 52. there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. 46. These so-calledcomputer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. p. 45. ^ Gillian M. it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware. Introduction to the Basic Computer. 85. Porat (1976). ^ Jerry Peek. 111. 50. Systems. ISBN 978-0-8493-0949-6. and Computers. usually individual computers connected by networks. (Verma & Mielke 1988) 48. O'Reilly. ^ Agatha C.. Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. p. p. Wiley. 161. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system. Ltd. Davis (2002). ^ David J. ISBN 978-0-8247-4067-2." .ISBN 978-0-471-05051-3. p.earliest stored-program computers. Grace Todino.. Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. A K Peters. p. therefore the program counter usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction. Experts. John Strang (2002). CRC Press. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. making it less useful for heavy random access usage. Hughes (2000). 49. 130. 12. Prentice-Hall. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-262-08285-3. Dan I. ^ However. ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers. 45. p. Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. ISBN 978-0-596-00261-9. Eck (2000). 44.

Retrieved 20 September 2008. . Hans. ^ According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed. TOP500. 55. MA: Digital Equipment Corporation. ISBN 978-0-902505-01-8.com. Horst. and Francis. Erich. Swindon: The British Computer Society. Strohmaier. Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army). J. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". Claude Elwood (1940). Internet Society.  Lavington. Simon (1998).  Meuer.54. 2007). 56.  a Phillips. "The Antikythera Mechanism I". Dongarra. when it referred to ―A person who makes calculations. A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits. G. ^ "Computer architecture: fundamentals and principles of computer design" by Joseph D. Retrieved 27 November 2006. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier  a Kempf.). ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. All of the architectures listed in this table. "Architectures Share Over Time". Karl (1961). existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced. ^ "Definition of computer".. A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed. specifically a person employed for this in an observatory etc. page 340. Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps. Retrieved 29 January 2012. except for Alpha. Thefreedictionary.  a Shannon. References  Fuegi. the word computer dates back to the mid 17th century. Retrieved 5 April 2006. PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (PDF).  Verma. Simon.‖ 57. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. Mielke. ^ "A Brief History of the Internet". 58. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. Dumas 2006. American Mathematical Society. Jack (13 November 2006). Maynard. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (1988).  Digital Equipment Corporation (1972). J. N. Tony (2000). Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories.

 Felt. Stokes. or The history of the counting machine. John Wiley & Sons. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. Dorr E. Jon (2007). ISBN 0-471-39671-0. San Francisco: No Starch Press. Chicago: Washington Institute. Mechanical arithmetic. External links Find more about Computer at Wikipedia'ssister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks  A Brief History of Computing – slideshow by Life magazine [hide]    V T E . Georges (2001). (1916). Edmund (1949). Giant Brains. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6. or Machines That Think. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.  Ifrah.  Berkeley.

Computer sizes Classes of computers   Larger    Mini        Super Minisuper Mainframe Midrange Supermini Server Personal Workstation Desktop Home SFF Nettop Micro      Plug Portable Video game arcade cabinet Arcade system board Video game console .

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                                               Bân-lâm-gú Башҡортса Беларуская Беларуская (тарашке Български Boarisch བོད་ཡིག Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Чӑ ашла Cebuano Česky Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Diné bizaad Eesti Ελληνικά Emiliàn e rumagnòl Эрзянь Español Esperanto Euskara ‫ف ار سی‬ Fiji Hindi Føroyskt Français Frysk Furlan Gaeilge Gaelg Gàidhlig Galego 贛語 ગુજરાતી Hak-kâ-fa 한국어 Hausa Հայերեն हिन्दी Hrvatski Ido Igbo Ilokano а) .

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                                               Nedersaksies नेपाली 日本語 Nnapulitano Norfuk / Pitkern Norsk bokmål Norsk nynorsk Occitan Олык марий ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oʻzbekcha ਪੰ ਜਾਬੀ ‫پ نجاب ی‬ ‫پ ښ تو‬ Plattdüütsch Polski Ποντιακά Português Qırımtatarca Română Runa Simi Русиньскый Русский Саха тыла संस्कृतम ् Sardu Scots Seeltersk Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Сло ѣньскъ / Ślůnski Soomaaliga ‫وردی‬ Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохр атски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Татарча/tatarça .

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