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A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] In this eramechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by smallbatteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as ―computers.‖ However, the embedded

computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.

1 History of computing

o o

1.1 Limited-function early computers 1.2 First general-purpose computers

 o o 

1.2.1 Key steps towards modern computers

1.3 Stored-program architecture 1.4 Semiconductors and microprocessors

2 Programs

o o o o

2.1 Stored program architecture 2.2 Bugs 2.3 Machine code 2.4 Programming language

  o 

2.4.1 Low-level languages 2.4.2 Higher-level languages

2.5 Program design

3 Components

o o o o o o o o 

3.1 Control unit 3.2 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 3.3 Memory 3.4 Input/output (I/O) 3.5 Multitasking 3.6 Multiprocessing 3.7 Networking and the Internet 3.8 Computer architecture paradigms

4 Misconceptions

o 

4.1 Required technology

5 Further topics

o o

5.1 Artificial intelligence 5.2 Hardware

  o o o    

5.2.1 History of computing hardware 5.2.2 Other hardware topics

5.3 Software 5.4 Languages 5.5 Professions and organizations

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History of computing

The Jacquard loom, on display at theMuseum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.

Main article: History of computing hardware The first use of the word ―computer‖ was recorded in 1613 in a book called ―The yong mans gleanings‖ by English writer Richard Braithwait I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical analog computer built by the Greeksaround 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence of programmability. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642,[9] known as Pascal's calculator, it was the first machine to better human performance of arithmetical computations[10] and would turn out to be the only functional mechanical calculator in the 17th century.[11]Two hundred years later, in 1851, Thomas de Colmar released, after thirty years of development, his simplified arithmometer; it became the first machine to be commercialized because it was strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators [12] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[13][14] and then developed.[15]Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development byIntel[16] of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.

First general-purpose computers
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

1941. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906. . fully automatic computing machine.[18] The Zuse Z3. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits. It was only produced to order.000 punched cards to create (1839). Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer.[19] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed—nevertheless his son.The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing[17] This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888. his analytical engine. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910. it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. considered the world's first working programmable. Henry Babbage. In 1837.

many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers. the vacuum tube (thermionic valve). translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the engine. an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. an analyst ofCharles Babbage's analytical engine. which she supplemented with an elaborate set of notes of her own. Turing provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. including Babbage himself. However. and the keypunch machines. and the teleprinter. In 1936.. considered to be the first computer programmer. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies. These notes contain what is considered the first computer program – that is. Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers. Alan Turing is widely regarded as the father of modern computer science.[23] Of his role in the creation of the modern . which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. [21] In the late 1880s. he settled on punched cards. Earlier uses of machine-readable media had been for control. had begun to appear: Boolean algebra. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company.[20] Between 1842 and 1843. simply calledNotes. that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers. During the first half of the 20th century.Ada Lovelace. punched cards and tape. She also developed a vision on the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others.‖[22] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator. ―After some initial trials with paper tape. not data. Ada Lovelace. these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable medium. focused only on those capabilities.. which later became the core ofIBM.

The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the world's first electronic digital computer. Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) are depicted here operating the ENIAC's main control panel. being designed only to solve systems of linear equations. and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry.[26] the machine was not programmable.[24] Atanasoff is considered to be one of the fathers of the computer. which became operational in 1946. states: ―The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard. EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored-program (von Neumann) architecture.‖[23] The ENIAC.[25] Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff. Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine. .computer. is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer. albeit not programmable. The computer did employ parallel computation.

therefore being the world's first operational computer. binary numbers. While working at Bell Labs in November 1937. Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:  Konrad Zuse's electromechanical ―Z machines. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete. in 1941.[30][31][32][33]  The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps.[34] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically re-programmable. Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer. including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers.[28] Key steps towards modern computers A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s. It was used for breaking German wartime codes. George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.‖ on which he had assembled it). who built the Z3.  The secret British Colossus computers (1943).[27] The first programmable electronic computer was the Colossus. which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench).[29] Thus. Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the ―Model K‖ (for ―kitchen table. since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements.The first program-controlled computer was invented by Konrad Zuse.  The Harvard Mark I (1944). completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation.‖ The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability. and regenerative capacitor memory. an electromechanical computing machine.[35] . built in 1943 by Tommy Flowers. but defining one point along this road as ―the first digital electronic computer‖ is difficult.

recognizing its flaws. the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. Shortly thereafter. Initially. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946). A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time. the first of which was completed in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England. most still use the von Neumann architecture. Stored-program architecture This section does not cite any references or sources. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor(actual size: 12×6. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic. Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers. Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). general-purpose computers of the 1940s. The U. making it the single trait by which the word ―computer‖ is now defined.75 mm) in its packaging Beginning in the 1950s. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). devices that operated on a base three numbering system of -1. however. and 1 rather than the . came up with a far more flexible and elegant design. 0. ENIAC had an architecture which required rewiring a plugboard to change its programming.S. the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or ―Baby‖). was the first practical. which came to be known as the ―stored-program architecture‖ or von Neumann architecture. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. nonexperimental implementation of the stored-program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University.(July 2012) Several developers of ENIAC. distributed in 1945.

and were more reliable.[citation needed] Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right. personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation ofmicroprocessors. further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. and . at Moscow State University. The first transistorized computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953. many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers. The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. such as the Intel 4004. required less power. but supplanted by the more common binary architecture.[citation needed] Programs Alan Turing was an influential computer scientist.conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. Semiconductors and microprocessors Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union. which were smaller. cheaper to produce. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer. With the evolution of the Internet. and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. By the late 1970s. but by the 1960s they had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines. The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence. They designed the Setun. faster. a functional ternary computer.[36] In the 1970s.

However. These are called ―jump‖ instructions (or branches). Furthermore. a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence. Similarly. there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest. Stored program architecture Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming Replica of the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that ―remembers‖ the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. England This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers. Program execution might be likened to reading a book. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of will process them. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write. a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. . In most cases. etc. computer instructions are simple: add one number to another. as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. send a message to some external device. In practical terms. the world's first stored-program computer. move some data from one location to another.

‖ They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program. to completely fail. a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer Errors in computer programs are called ―bugs. if num <= 1000. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second. stop running Once told to run this program. num cmp num. set num to 1 .000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time. a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. end of program. with a near certainty of making a mistake. sum add No. or to crash. But in some cases. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1. compare num to 1000 . num loop: add num. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit. code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution.[37] Bugs Main article: Software bug The actual first computer bug. a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. #1000 ble loop halt . they may cause the program or the entire system to ―hang. sum mov No. add num to sum . add 1 to num . 0. On the other hand. go back to 'loop' . set sum to 0 . Bugs are . the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention.‖ becoming unresponsive to input such as mouseclicks or keystrokes. For example: mov No. or have only subtle effects. 1. 1.Comparatively.

[40] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler.[39] Machine code In most computers. especially for complicated programs. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs. each with a unique numerical code. In some cases. bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design. . the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from. it can also store the instruction codes. is credited for having first used the term ―bugs‖ in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given. each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember – a mnemonic such as ADD. Instead. individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. such as in CPU caches. MULT or JUMP. While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers. [38] Admiral Grace Hopper. This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. or stored program.usually not the fault of the computer. an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler. The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann. SUB. architecture. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions. the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers.

For instance. Unlike natural languages. programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. High level languages are usually ―compiled‖ into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run.[42] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language.(July 2012) . Low-level languages Main article: Low-level programming language Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC. Program design This section does not cite any references or sources. Therefore.[41] Higher-level languages Main article: High-level programming language Though considerably easier than in machine language. most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. Programming language Main article: Programming language Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. The card reads: ―Z(1) = Y + W(1)‖ and is labeled ―PROJ039‖ for identification purposes.A 1970s punched card containing one line from aFORTRAN program.

The control unit. and when off it represents a ―0‖ (in positive logic representation). the memory. often made of groups of wires. using the programming constructs within languages. features such as subprograms. modules. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult. devising or using established procedures and algorithms.Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem. the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge. Control unit Main articles: CPU design and Control unit Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system. Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor. ALU. and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. These parts are interconnected by buses. . Components Main articles: Central processing unit and Microprocessor A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). As problems become larger and more complex. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). collection of inputs. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a ―1‖. The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits. and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). registers. the control unit. The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. formal documentation.

The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program. 4. 5.The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.[43] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance. in some more complex CPU designs. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: 1. A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter. 2. and indeed. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction. which runs a microcodeprogram that causes all of these events to happen. 7. Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells. it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Main article: Arithmetic logic unit . Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as ―jumps‖ and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow). it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. 3. The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code. a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. 8. Jump back to step (1). there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete.[44] The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. 6.

Since the CPU does not . any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. cosine. trigonometry functions such as sine. Memory Main article: Computer data storage Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s. etc. OR.The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic. or might include multiplication. The computer can be instructed to ―put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357‖ or to ―add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595. Therefore. Letters.[46] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to. even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease.‖ The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs. These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statementsand processing boolean logic. A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND. division. numbers. and square roots. XOR and NOT.. until it was replaced by semiconductor memory. greater than or less than the other (―is 64 greater than 65?‖). However. albeit with limited precision. [45] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction. Each cell has a numbered ―address‖ and can store a single number.

In general. but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes. because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however. so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. Input/output (I/O) Main article: Input/output . but ROM retains its data indefinitely.differentiate between different types of information. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off. it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. therefore the CPU can only read from it. which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it. In embedded computers. several consecutive bytes may be used (typically. Other arrangements are possible. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically. each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). In almost all modern computers. all of the required software may be stored in ROM. which frequently do not have disk drives. either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. To store larger numbers. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware. When negative numbers are required. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256). two. In a PC.[47] In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories. As data is constantly being worked on. four or eight). they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part. the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM.

Hard disk drives. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt. in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. .Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers. and output devices such as the display and printer. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn.[48]Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. Computer networking is another form of I/O.[49] On a typical personal computer. If several programs are running ―at the same time. Multitasking Main article: Computer multitasking While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory.[51] Before the era of cheap computers. causing a program switch each time.e. floppy disk drives andoptical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse. the computer can return to that task later. which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed ―time sharing‖ since each program is allocated a ―slice‖ of time in turn.[50] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt. This is achieved by multitasking i. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics.[citation needed] Modern desktop computerscontain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O. I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right. with their own CPU and memory.‖ then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second. the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception.

then it will not take a ―time slice‖ until the event it is waiting for has occurred. but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. and specialized computing hardware. Networking and the Internet Main articles: Computer networking and Internet . Multiprocessor andmulti-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available. graphics rendering. and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result. Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation.Seemingly. customized high-speed interconnects. multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly. in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. mainframe computers and servers. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration.[52] They often feature thousands of CPUs. and cryptography applications. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss. as well as with other so-called ―embarrassingly parallel‖ tasks. Multiprocessing Main article: Multiprocessing Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily.

In fact. but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web. combined with the development of cheap. In time. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments.S. often utilizing mobile phone networks. Computer architecture paradigms There are many types of computer architectures:  Quantum computer vs Chemical computer .Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system. the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. stored information. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer.[53] In the 1970s. as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. ―Wireless‖ networking. which led to a number of specialpurpose commercial systems such as Sabre. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA). computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology.[54] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. and the like. such as peripheral devices. has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network. and the computer network that resulted was called theARPANET. fast networking technologies likeEthernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. The U. Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s.

Therefore any type of computer (netbook. supercomputer. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is.) is able to perform the same computational tasks. in principle. the modern[56] definition of a computer is literally ―A device that computes. nor even ahard disk.     Scalar processor vs Vector processor Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers Register machine vs Stack machine Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture Cellular architecture The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing. correlates. especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles. cellular automaton. or otherwise processes information. nor RAM. nor even have a processor. capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. given enough time and storage capacity. Misconceptions Main articles: Human computer and Harvard Computers Women as computers in NACA High Speed Flight Station "Computer Room" A computer does not need to be electronic. stores. While popular usage of the word ―computer‖ is synonymous with a personal electronic computer. especially if the processing is purposeful. Required technology Main article: Unconventional computing . etc. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile.[55] Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms. distinguishing them fromcalculators.‖[57] Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer.

IBM 604. Hardware Main articles: Computer hardware and Personal computer hardware The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. printers and mice are all hardware. keyboards. Harvard Mark I. possible shortcuts.[citation needed] More realistically. UNIVAC 60. or possible errors in the code. Analytical engine. and quantum computers. DNA computers. Further topics  Glossary of computers Artificial intelligence A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to. power supplies. an often quoted example. modern computers are made out oftransistors made of photolithographed semiconductors. cables. Norden bombsight Jacquard loom. and are able to calculate any computable function. Arithmometer.Historically. without regard to efficiency. alternative solutions. neural computers. For example. History of computing hardware Main article: History of computing hardware Calculators First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Programmable devices Pascal's calculator. for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly. There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology. However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems. Circuits. a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer). Difference engine. and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. UNIVAC 120 . conceptually computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. However. such as optical computers. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligenceand machine learning. Z3 Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer. Most computers are universal. computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. displays.

BUNCH PDP-8. IBM System/32. Zilog Z80 16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088. ARM architecture 64-bit microcomputer[58] Alpha. Wearable computer Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer. Home computer. EDVAC. Intel 8051 Personal computer Desktop computer. Tablet PC. DNA computing. PowerPC. Portable computer. IBM 702. Ferranti Mercury. Intel 4040 8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008. SPARC. MIPS. Pentium.Programmable devices Colossus. x8664 Embedded computer Intel 8048. Motorola 68000. Laptop computer. IBM 701. Intel 8080. CSIRAC. EDSAC. Zilog Z8000. Motorola 6809. IBM System/360. PA-RISC. MSI. Ferranti Pegasus. Chemical computer.Optical computer. IBM System/36 Minicomputer VAX. IBM System i 4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004. MOS Technology 6502. Z22 Mainframes Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI. PDP-11. Motorola 6800. Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine. ENIAC. WDC 65816/65802 Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) 32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386. Spintronics . UNIVAC I. LSIintegrated circuits) Minicomputer IBM 7090. IBM 650. Personal digital assistant (PDA). IBM 7080. Manchester Mark 1.

ATM. IRIX. Windows 98. Mac OS X .Windows 7. USB Ethernet. FreeDOS Mac OS Mac OS classic. DR-DOS. Comparison of Linux distributions Operating system Microsoft Windows Windows 95. SCSI. List of BSD operating systems GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions. image scanner. loudspeaker Both Floppy disk drive. Windows 2000. protocols.based computer Other hardware topics Input Mouse. joystick. Windows Me. hard disk drive. Windows XP. Windows Vista. Windows 8 DOS 86-DOS (QDOS). FDDI Software Main article: Computer software Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible). PCI. Solaris (SunOS). printer. optical disc drive. Windows NT. keyboard. etc. IBM AIX.‖ Unix and BSD UNIX System V. MS-DOS.microphone Peripheral device(input/output) Output Monitor. it is sometimes called ―firmware. teleprinter Short range Computer busses Long range (computer networking) RS-232. such as programs. webcam. HP-UX. data. PC-DOS. graphics tablet.

Audio playback. Aqua Command-line interface. MPEG. Vector graphics editor. Desktop publishing. FTP. CDE. Spreadsheet. Plan 9 from Bell Labs Multimedia Library Programming library DirectX. 3D modeler.Video editing. 3D computer graphics. OpenGL. Computer music . Kermit. SMTP HTML. Animation editor. OpenAL C standard library. Mail transfer agent. Standard Template Library Protocol Data File format TCP/IP. Text user interface Office suite Word processing. Accounting software Internet Access Browser. Supply chain management Graphics Raster graphics editor. JPEG. Scheduling & Time management. Audio synthesis. KDE. Oberon/Bluebottle. Robotic manufacturing. XML. Mixing. E-mail client. PNG Graphical user interface (WIMP) User interface Text-based user interface Microsoft Windows. Computer-aided manufacturing. GNOME. Instant messaging Application Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design. Plant management. Presentation program. GEM. Database management system.Embedded andrealtime List of embedded operating systems Experimental Amoeba. QNX Photon. Web server. Image processing Audio Digital audio editor. HTTP.

List of programming languages by category. Revision control. Perl Professions and organizations As the use of computers has spread throughout society. List of programming languages. Flight simulator Games Strategy. Pascal. NonEnglish-based programming languages Commonly used assembly languages ARM. Arcade. Simulation. MIPS.File manager Languages There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose. BASIC. Ruby. C. Generational list of programming languages. COBOL. Interactive fiction Misc Artificial intelligence. others useful only for highly specialized applications. Antivirus software. Python. Lisp. Software configuration management Educational Edutainment. Installer/Package management systems. Serious game. x86 Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada. Fortran. Puzzle.Compiler. Integrated Software engineering development environment. C++. there are an increasing number of careers involving computers. Platform. Massively multiplayer. . Text editor. First-person shooter. Programming languages Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages. Debugger. Java. JavaScript. Assembler. C#. Educational game. Interpreter. Object Pascal Commonly used scripting languages Bourne script. PHP. Software performance analysis. Malware scanner.

IETF. W3C Professional societies ACM. a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W. By comparison. Human–computer interaction. IEEE. Web design The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations. IET. Telecommunications engineering. Mozilla Foundation. Apache Software Foundation See also Information technology portal        Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers Pulse computation TOP500 (list of most powerful computers) Notes 1. ^ In 1946. Organizations Standards groups ANSI. Optical engineering. IEC. Computer engineering. BCS Free/open source software groups Free Software Foundation.Computer-related professions Hardwarerelated Electrical engineering. Nanoengineering Softwarerelated Computer science. clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature. Electronic engineering. ISO. ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. Video game industry.Information systems. IFIP. Computer engineering. Desktop publishing. Computational science. AIS. nearly six thousand times . Software engineering. Information technology.

Copland.11 5. John Wiley & Sons. 31 July 2008. ^ See the paragraph Pascal's calculator#Competing designs 12.. pp. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. Great Books Intel Corporation. Oxford University Press. (1916). Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed. 4. 10.Georges Ifrah. therefore. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. ^ "The arithmetical machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought than all the actions of animals. Retrieved 15 January 2008.". or Machines That Think.". Retrieved 20 February 2010. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". ^ Berkeley. Retrieved 20 June 2009. A modern ―commodity‖ microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second. Pensées Bartleby. Edmund (1949). but we now realize that he .Dorr E. p. ^ "Heron of Alexandria".). Blaise Pasdcal. University of Pennsylvania. 8."Pickett Apollo Box Scans". 2. ^ According to advertising on Pickett's N600 slide rule boxes. Retrieved 10 April 2009. p.less. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering. Thoughts 11. Edmund Berkeley 6. ^ * Ifrah. and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. ^ "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B. ^ Babbage's Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid-1830s 13. 3."Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". or The history of the counting Chicago: Washington Institute. ^ ―It is reasonable to inquire. Pascal. 7. Dorr E. as to the animals. The New York Times. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. ^ Felt.C. Georges (2001). 19. Mechanical arithmetic. Felt 10. From 2700 to 2300 BC. Retrieved 20 June 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 1989. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Giant Brains. 9. ^ computer. n.udel. But it does nothing which would enable us to attribute will to it.

Proposed automatic calculating machine. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war. page 99.. the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate. the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him . It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London. Hutchinson 15. Pitman publishing corporation 14. inventor by Maboth Moseley. ^ "Intel Museum – The 4004. 1973. 17. ^ In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: ―Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations.‖ Foreword. ISBN 3-540-06169-X 16.. reprinted in: The origins of Digital computers. page 1989). Selected Papers. V. .‖ Howard Aiken. time-consuming and 18. ^ ―. Irascible Genius.. England. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer..) 19. Since the time of Babbage. Bowden.understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers‖ Faster than thought. ed. Big deal then. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Charles Babbage. ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage'sdifference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator. London. edited by B. Intel. England: Cambridge University Press. 1964. ^ From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience. 1953..Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. and his efforts were regarded as futile.. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous. Big deal now". Edited by Brian Randell. ^ See: Anthony Hyman. After abandoning the difference engine. Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine . (Delve (2007).

p. R. doi:10.. Jack Copeland. Francis.. J. Retrieved 29 January 2012. J. 30. ^ B. ^ "Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers". ^ Monsters & Critics: "he(Zuse) built the world's first computer in Berlin" 33. ^ "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith". Columbia. Retrieved 13 June Stibitz". National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. Der Spiegel. (2003). ^ "Konrad Zuse earned the semiofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer"" 34. Retrieved 11 December 2010. "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". ^ Rojas. 27. Time Magazine. 21. Google Books. ^ "Atanasoff-Berry Computer". ^ "Inventor Profile: George R.1253887. ^ "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published". Retrieved 11 December 2010. pp.707574. ^ About. doi:10. 36. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff – the father of the computer". "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard.. 29. ed. 25. Cs. (1998). Annals of the History of Computing25 (4).)German inventor of the computer" 32. 2006 35.1109/85.iastate. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 19. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". Popular Science. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. ^ GermanWay: "(. Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. ^ Lavington 1998. 22. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of Electronic Digital Computing". pp. 23. 2003. ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP11minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do. ^ RTD Net: "From various sides Konrad Zuse was awarded with the title "Inventor of the computer". 26. October 1944. 28. Retrieved 20 November 2010.1109/MAHC. All the .. 25." 31. 18– 26. Oxford University Press. Inc. Retrieved 29 January 2012. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" ^ Fuegi and Francis. ^ a b "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". 37 37. 28 September 2009.2003.

Alexander L. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers. 42. ^ The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. III (16 April 1984). However. (Digital Equipment Corporation 1972) 38. Retrieved 17 February 2007. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly. This contrasts with very early commercial computers. while running.. For instance. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. the Pentium FDIV bugcaused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. "The Wizard Inside the Machine". Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. Some minicomputers like the DECPDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. EDVAC. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. 39. ^ Taylor. as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486.text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code. ^ However. 40. this method was usually used only as part of thebooting process. 41. this is not always the case. one of the . by another program called aninterpreter. 43. TIME. An x86-64compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2microprocessor can. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some nonvolatile memory. For example.

p. (Verma & Mielke 1988) 48. there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years.MIT Press. 111. used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. Introduction to the Basic Computer. 47. Systems. 161. ^ However. 45. ISBN 978-0-596-00261-9. 44. 50. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address. p. Porat (1976). ISBN 978-0-262-08285-3. p. Davis (2002). Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. ^ Agatha C. usually individual computers connected by networks. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers. p. CRC Press. Prentice-Hall. Ltd.ISBN 978-0-471-05051-3. 49. p. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system. ^ Arpad Barna. p. The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. ^ David J. Hughes (2000). ISBN 978-0-8493-0949-6.. Wiley. and Computers. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). 51. making it less useful for heavy random access usage. Eck (2000). Experts. Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. O'Reilly. John Strang (2002). ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out. Grace Todino. Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. Dan I. ^ Gillian M. 85.earliest stored-program computers. p. These so-calledcomputer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. 12. ISBN 978-0-8247-4067-2. ^ Jerry Peek." . therefore the program counter usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction. 45. it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware. ISBN 978-1-56881128-4. (TOP500 2006) 53. 54. Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. 46. A K Peters. 52. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). 130.. CRC Press.

2007). A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed. ISBN 978-0-902505-01-8.  a Phillips. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25  Verma. All of the architectures listed in this table. Simon (1998). 56.  a Shannon. J. References  Fuegi. Strohmaier. ^ "Computer architecture: fundamentals and principles of computer design" by Joseph D. (1988). N. A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits.).  Meuer. Swindon: The British Computer Society. ^ "Definition of computer". Hans. Dongarra.. Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories. Karl (1961). Maynard. MA: Digital Equipment Corporation. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (PDF). Internet Society. ^ "A Brief History of the Internet". J. G. . 55. Tony (2000). TOP500. Retrieved 20 September 2008. Mielke. page 340. ^ According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army).  Lavington. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier  a Kempf. Dumas 2006. the word computer dates back to the mid 17th century. specifically a person employed for this in an observatory etc. American Mathematical Society.‖ 57. Jack (13 November 2006). Retrieved 27 November 2006. Horst. except for Alpha.54. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Architectures Share Over Time". 58. Simon. Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Erich. ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. Claude Elwood (1940). "The Antikythera Mechanism I". and Francis. Thefreedictionary. when it referred to ―A person who makes calculations. existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.  Digital Equipment Corporation (1972). Retrieved 5 April 2006.

(1916). Edmund (1949). ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6. Mechanical arithmetic. San Francisco: No Starch Press.  Felt.  Ifrah. External links Find more about Computer at Wikipedia'ssister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks  A Brief History of Computing – slideshow by Life magazine [hide]    V T E . or The history of the counting machine. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. Chicago: Washington Institute. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Dorr E. Georges (2001). John Wiley & Sons.  Berkeley. Jon (2007). Stokes. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. Giant Brains. Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. or Machines That Think.

Computer sizes Classes of computers   Larger    Mini        Super Minisuper Mainframe Midrange Supermini Server Personal Workstation Desktop Home SFF Nettop Micro      Plug Portable Video game arcade cabinet Arcade system board Video game console .

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                                               Nedersaksies नेपाली 日本語 Nnapulitano Norfuk / Pitkern Norsk bokmål Norsk nynorsk Occitan Олык марий ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oʻzbekcha ਪੰ ਜਾਬੀ ‫پ نجاب ی‬ ‫پ ښ تو‬ Plattdüütsch Polski Ποντιακά Português Qırımtatarca Română Runa Simi Русиньскый Русский Саха тыла संस्कृतम ् Sardu Scots Seeltersk Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Сло ѣньскъ / Ślůnski Soomaaliga ‫وردی‬ Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохр атски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Татарча/tatarça .

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