Computer

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Computer

A computer is a general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a finite set of arithmetic or logical operations. Since a sequence of operations can be readily changed, the computer can solve more than one kind of problem. Conventionally, a computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit that can change the order of operations based on stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved. The first electronic digital computers were developed between 1940 and 1945. Originally they were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PCs).[1] In this eramechanical analog computers were used for military applications. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable than the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the space.[2] Simple computers are small enough to fit into mobile devices, and mobile computers can be powered by smallbatteries. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as ―computers.‖ However, the embedded

computers found in many devices from MP3 players to fighter aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are the most numerous.
Contents
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1 History of computing

o o

1.1 Limited-function early computers 1.2 First general-purpose computers

 o o 

1.2.1 Key steps towards modern computers

1.3 Stored-program architecture 1.4 Semiconductors and microprocessors

2 Programs

o o o o

2.1 Stored program architecture 2.2 Bugs 2.3 Machine code 2.4 Programming language

  o 

2.4.1 Low-level languages 2.4.2 Higher-level languages

2.5 Program design

3 Components

o o o o o o o o 

3.1 Control unit 3.2 Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) 3.3 Memory 3.4 Input/output (I/O) 3.5 Multitasking 3.6 Multiprocessing 3.7 Networking and the Internet 3.8 Computer architecture paradigms

4 Misconceptions

o 

4.1 Required technology

5 Further topics

o o

5.1 Artificial intelligence 5.2 Hardware

  o o o    

5.2.1 History of computing hardware 5.2.2 Other hardware topics

5.3 Software 5.4 Languages 5.5 Professions and organizations

6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

History of computing

The Jacquard loom, on display at theMuseum of Science and Industry in Manchester, England, was one of the first programmable devices.

Main article: History of computing hardware The first use of the word ―computer‖ was recorded in 1613 in a book called ―The yong mans gleanings‖ by English writer Richard Braithwait I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number. It referred to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations.[3]

Limited-function early computers

The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies, automated calculation and programmability. However no single device can be identified as the earliest computer, partly because of the inconsistent application of that term. A few devices are worth mentioning though, like some mechanical aids to computing, which were very successful and survived for centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator, like the Sumerian abacus, designed around 2500 BC[4] of which a descendant won a speed competition against a modern desk calculating machine in Japan in 1946,[5] the slide rules, invented in the 1620s, which were carried on five Apollo space missions, including to the moon[6] and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient astronomical analog computer built by the Greeksaround 80 BC.[7] The Greek mathematician Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when.[8] This is the essence of programmability. Blaise Pascal invented the mechanical calculator in 1642,[9] known as Pascal's calculator, it was the first machine to better human performance of arithmetical computations[10] and would turn out to be the only functional mechanical calculator in the 17th century.[11]Two hundred years later, in 1851, Thomas de Colmar released, after thirty years of development, his simplified arithmometer; it became the first machine to be commercialized because it was strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. The mechanical calculator was at the root of the development of computers in two separate ways. Initially, it was in trying to develop more powerful and more flexible calculators [12] that the computer was first theorized by Charles Babbage[13][14] and then developed.[15]Secondly, development of a low-cost electronic calculator, successor to the mechanical calculator, resulted in the development byIntel[16] of the first commercially available microprocessor integrated circuit.

First general-purpose computers
In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom by introducing a series of punched paper cards as a template which allowed his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.

[18] The Zuse Z3. Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer. it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. 1941. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. . In 1837. considered the world's first working programmable.000 punched cards to create (1839). his analytical engine. Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits. Henry Babbage. fully automatic computing machine. He gave a successful demonstration of its use in computing tables in 1906.The Most Famous Image in the Early History of Computing[17] This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24. This machine was given to the Science museum in South Kensington in 1910. completed a simplified version of the analytical engine's computing unit (the mill) in 1888.[19] Limited finances and Babbage's inability to resist tinkering with the design meant that the device was never completed—nevertheless his son. It was only produced to order.

‖[22] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator. Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine-readable medium. Earlier uses of machine-readable media had been for control. many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers. these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers. In 1936. punched cards and tape. and the teleprinter. considered to be the first computer programmer.Ada Lovelace. which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. not data. translated an article by Italian military engineer Luigi Menabrea on the engine.. By the end of the 19th century a number of ideas and technologies. Ada Lovelace. an analyst ofCharles Babbage's analytical engine. and the keypunch machines. [21] In the late 1880s. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Turing provided an influential formalization of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. which she supplemented with an elaborate set of notes of her own. ―After some initial trials with paper tape. Alan Turing is widely regarded as the father of modern computer science. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the 1890 United States Census by Hollerith's company. an algorithm encoded for processing by a machine. However. which later became the core ofIBM. he settled on punched cards. simply calledNotes. had begun to appear: Boolean algebra. During the first half of the 20th century. She also developed a vision on the capability of computers to go beyond mere calculating or number-crunching while others. focused only on those capabilities. the vacuum tube (thermionic valve). including Babbage himself. that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers.[23] Of his role in the creation of the modern . These notes contain what is considered the first computer program – that is. Lovelace's notes are important in the early history of computers. providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer.[20] Between 1842 and 1843..

states: ―The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program.‖[23] The ENIAC. is considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer. . albeit not programmable.[24] Atanasoff is considered to be one of the fathers of the computer. The Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) was the world's first electronic digital computer. Time magazine in naming Turing one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine. which became operational in 1946. The computer did employ parallel computation. A 1973 court ruling in a patent dispute found that the patent for the 1946 ENIAC computer derived from the Atanasoff–Berry Computer.[26] the machine was not programmable.[25] Conceived in 1937 by Iowa State College physics professor John Atanasoff.computer. EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored-program (von Neumann) architecture. Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) are depicted here operating the ENIAC's main control panel. and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford Berry. being designed only to solve systems of linear equations.

binary numbers. which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation.[30][31][32][33]  The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (commenced in 1937. Zuse is often regarded as the inventor of the computer.  The secret British Colossus computers (1943). but defining one point along this road as ―the first digital electronic computer‖ is difficult.‖ on which he had assembled it). While working at Bell Labs in November 1937. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps. completed in 1941) which used vacuum tube based computation. therefore being the world's first operational computer. gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability.[34] which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically re-programmable.[27] The first programmable electronic computer was the Colossus.The first program-controlled computer was invented by Konrad Zuse. Shannon 1940 Notable achievements include:  Konrad Zuse's electromechanical ―Z machines.‖ The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic. Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the ―Model K‖ (for ―kitchen table. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability. in 1941. built in 1943 by Tommy Flowers. and regenerative capacitor memory. who built the Z3. The use of regenerative memory allowed it to be much more compact than its peers (being approximately the size of a large desk or workbench). since intermediate results could be stored and then fed back into the same set of computation elements. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.[28] Key steps towards modern computers A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s. an electromechanical computing machine.[35] .  The Harvard Mark I (1944).[29] Thus. George Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete. a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.

was the first practical. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor(actual size: 12×6. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC). Shortly thereafter.75 mm) in its packaging Beginning in the 1950s. ENIAC had an architecture which required rewiring a plugboard to change its programming. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.(July 2012) Several developers of ENIAC. Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture. the first of which was completed in 1948 at the University of Manchester in England. most still use the von Neumann architecture. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946). and 1 rather than the . recognizing its flaws. the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. The U. Initially. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. however. general-purpose computers of the 1940s. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic. Soviet scientists Sergei Sobolev and Nikolay Brusentsov conducted research on ternary computers.S. the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or ―Baby‖). 0. nonexperimental implementation of the stored-program design and was put to use immediately for research work at the university. devices that operated on a base three numbering system of -1. came up with a far more flexible and elegant design. completed a year after the SSEM at Cambridge University. making it the single trait by which the word ―computer‖ is now defined. distributed in 1945. which came to be known as the ―stored-program architecture‖ or von Neumann architecture. which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Stored-program architecture This section does not cite any references or sources.

[citation needed] Modern smartphones are fully programmable computers in their own right. They designed the Setun. integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation ofmicroprocessors. faster.[citation needed] Programs Alan Turing was an influential computer scientist. By the late 1970s. and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence. further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. With the evolution of the Internet. at Moscow State University. but supplanted by the more common binary architecture. such as the Intel 4004. cheaper to produce. a functional ternary computer. personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. but by the 1960s they had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines. The first transistorized computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in 1953. which were smaller. That is to say that some type of instructions (the program) can be given to the computer. and were more reliable. many products such as video recorders contained dedicated computers called microcontrollers.[36] In the 1970s. and . The 1980s witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. Semiconductors and microprocessors Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s.conventional binary numbering system upon which most computers are based. The device was put into limited production in the Soviet Union. required less power. The defining feature of modern computers which distinguishes them from all other machines is that they can be programmed. and they started to appear as a replacement to mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines.

a computer may sometimes go back and repeat the instructions in some section of the program over and over again until some internal condition is met. In practical terms. and due to the complexity of the task almost certainly contain errors. as do the programs for word processors and web browsers for example. While a person will normally read each word and line in sequence. . there are usually specialized instructions to tell the computer to jump ahead or backwards to some other place in the program and to carry on executing from there. This is called the flow of control within the program and it is what allows the computer to perform tasks repeatedly without human intervention. Many computers directly support subroutines by providing a type of jump that ―remembers‖ the location it jumped from and another instruction to return to the instruction following that jump instruction. a computer program may be just a few instructions or extend to many millions of instructions. A typical modern computer can execute billions of instructions per second (gigaflops) and rarely makes a mistake over many years of operation. However. send a message to some external device. Program execution might be likened to reading a book. England This section applies to most common RAM machine-based computers. Stored program architecture Main articles: Computer program and Computer programming Replica of the Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM). computer instructions are simple: add one number to another. These instructions are read from the computer's memory and are generally carried out (executed) in the order they were given. jump instructions may be made to happen conditionally so that different sequences of instructions may be used depending on the result of some previous calculation or some external event. they may at times jump back to an earlier place in the text or skip sections that are not of interest.it will process them. Large computer programs consisting of several million instructions may take teams of programmers years to write. Furthermore. at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. Modern computers based on the von Neumann architecture often have machine code in the form of an imperative programming language. etc. the world's first stored-program computer. move some data from one location to another. In most cases. These are called ―jump‖ instructions (or branches). Similarly.

code designed to take advantage of a bug and disrupt a computer's proper execution.[37] Bugs Main article: Software bug The actual first computer bug. For example: mov No. set sum to 0 . a person using a pocket calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation such as adding two numbers with just a few button presses. But to add together all of the numbers from 1 to 1. Otherwise benign bugs may sometimes be harnessed for malicious intent by an unscrupulous user writing an exploit. go back to 'loop' .‖ becoming unresponsive to input such as mouseclicks or keystrokes.Comparatively. num loop: add num. 1. #1000 ble loop halt . num cmp num. or have only subtle effects. a moth found trapped on a relay of the Harvard Mark II computer Errors in computer programs are called ―bugs. sum add No. if num <= 1000. the computer will perform the repetitive addition task without further human intervention.‖ They may be benign and not affect the usefulness of the program. Bugs are .000 would take thousands of button presses and a lot of time. to completely fail. But in some cases. stop running Once told to run this program. 1. end of program. or to crash. with a near certainty of making a mistake. set num to 1 . a computer may be programmed to do this with just a few simple instructions. 0. add num to sum . compare num to 1000 . add 1 to num . sum mov No. It will almost never make a mistake and a modern PC can complete the task in about a millionth of a second. they may cause the program or the entire system to ―hang. On the other hand.

While it is possible to write computer programs as long lists of numbers (machine language) and while this technique was used with many early computers. Instead. The simplest computers are able to perform any of a handful of different instructions. These mnemonics are collectively known as a computer's assembly language. an American computer scientist and developer of the first compiler. each basic instruction can be given a short name that is indicative of its function and easy to remember – a mnemonic such as ADD. each with a unique numerical code. a computer might store some or all of its program in memory that is kept separate from the data it operates on. SUB. . This leads to the important fact that entire programs (which are just lists of these instructions) can be represented as lists of numbers and can themselves be manipulated inside the computer in the same way as numeric data. such as in CPU caches. The fundamental concept of storing programs in the computer's memory alongside the data they operate on is the crux of the von Neumann. MULT or JUMP. individual instructions are stored as machine code with each instruction being given a unique number (its operation code or opcode for short). [38] Admiral Grace Hopper. The command to add two numbers together would have one opcode. or stored program. Modern von Neumann computers display some traits of the Harvard architecture in their designs. it can also store the instruction codes.usually not the fault of the computer. especially for complicated programs. architecture. the command to multiply them would have a different opcode and so on.[39] Machine code In most computers. In some cases. Converting programs written in assembly language into something the computer can actually understand (machine language) is usually done by a computer program called an assembler. Since the computer's memory is able to store numbers. This is called the Harvard architecture after the Harvard Mark I computer. bugs are nearly always the result of programmer error or an oversight made in the program's design.[40] it is extremely tedious and potentially error-prone to do so in practice. Since computers merely execute the instructions they are given. the more complex computers have several hundred to choose from. is credited for having first used the term ―bugs‖ in computing after a dead moth was found shorting a relay in the Harvard Mark II computer in September 1947.

It is therefore often possible to use different compilers to translate the same high level language program into the machine language of many different types of computer. Unlike natural languages.[42] High level languages are less related to the workings of the target computer than assembly language. most practical programs are written in more abstract high-level programming languages that are able to express the needs of the programmer more conveniently (and thereby help reduce programmer error). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This is part of the means by which software like video games may be made available for different computer architectures such as personal computers and various video game consoles. The card reads: ―Z(1) = Y + W(1)‖ and is labeled ―PROJ039‖ for identification purposes. Program design This section does not cite any references or sources. Low-level languages Main article: Low-level programming language Machine languages and the assembly languages that represent them (collectively termed low-level programming languages) tend to be unique to a particular type of computer. an ARM architecture computer (such as may be found in a PDA or a hand-held videogame) cannot understand the machine language of an Intel Pentium or the AMD Athlon 64 computer that might be in a PC.(July 2012) . Programming language Main article: Programming language Programming languages provide various ways of specifying programs for computers to run. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. programming languages are designed to permit no ambiguity and to be concise. or translated directly at run time by an interpreter. writing long programs in assembly language is often difficult and is also error prone. Sometimes programs are executed by a hybrid method of the two techniques. High level languages are usually ―compiled‖ into machine language (or sometimes into assembly language and then into machine language) using another computer program called a compiler.A 1970s punched card containing one line from aFORTRAN program. They are generally either translated into machine code by a compiler or an assembler before being run. They are purely written languages and are often difficult to read aloud. For instance. and more related to the language and structure of the problem(s) to be solved by the final program. Therefore.[41] Higher-level languages Main article: High-level programming language Though considerably easier than in machine language.

The task of developing large software systems presents a significant intellectual challenge. Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor. Control unit Main articles: CPU design and Control unit Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system. and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). the academic and professional discipline of software engineering concentrates specifically on this challenge. . the control unit. devising or using established procedures and algorithms. providing data for output devices and solutions to the problem as applicable. modules. collection of inputs. As problems become larger and more complex. Components Main articles: Central processing unit and Microprocessor A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). ALU. Each circuit represents a bit (binary digit) of information so that when the circuit is on it represents a ―1‖. often made of groups of wires. Large programs involving thousands of line of code and more require formal software methodologies. formal documentation. and new paradigms such as object-oriented programming are encountered. using the programming constructs within languages. the memory. registers. and when off it represents a ―0‖ (in positive logic representation). These parts are interconnected by buses. features such as subprograms. The circuits are arranged in logic gates so that one or more of the circuits may control the state of one or more of the other circuits.Program design of small programs is relatively simple and involves the analysis of the problem. The control unit. Producing software with an acceptably high reliability within a predictable schedule and budget has historically been difficult. Inside each of these parts are thousands to trillions of small electrical circuits which can be turned off or on by means of an electronic switch. and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU).

instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. 4. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register. Jump back to step (1).[44] The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description. 7. a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as ―jumps‖ and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow). Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Main article: Arithmetic logic unit . Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction. 2. it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. 5. A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter. The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code.[43] Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance. Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. 3. 6. 8.The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components. in some more complex CPU designs. The sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. which runs a microcodeprogram that causes all of these events to happen. Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete. it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. and indeed. and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: 1.

numbers. until it was replaced by semiconductor memory. any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. However. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to.The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic. albeit with limited precision. allowing them to process several instructions simultaneously. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs. and square roots. OR. These can be useful for creating complicated conditional statementsand processing boolean logic.[46] Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often contain ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.. The computer can be instructed to ―put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357‖ or to ―add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595. or might include multiplication. Letters.‖ The information stored in memory may represent practically anything. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers. Each cell has a numbered ―address‖ and can store a single number. even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND. [45] The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to addition and subtraction. any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. XOR and NOT. cosine. division. greater than or less than the other (―is 64 greater than 65?‖). Since the CPU does not . etc. Therefore. Memory Main article: Computer data storage Magnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s. trigonometry functions such as sine.

ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. When negative numbers are required. as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random-access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it. they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part. so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. Other arrangements are possible.differentiate between different types of information. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. several consecutive bytes may be used (typically. In general. but ROM retains its data indefinitely. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM. As data is constantly being worked on. because it is notionally more like hardware than software. In almost all modern computers. the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off. therefore the CPU can only read from it. which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. To store larger numbers. Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers (2^8 = 256). each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. all of the required software may be stored in ROM. reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed. two. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically. but ROM is preloaded with data and software that never changes. four or eight). It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. Input/output (I/O) Main article: Input/output . In a PC. In embedded computers. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. which frequently do not have disk drives.[47] In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories. either from 0 to 255 or −128 to +127. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware.

[50] One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt.‖ then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second. in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. Hard disk drives. floppy disk drives andoptical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. If several programs are running ―at the same time. the principal use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer. which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. I/O devices are often complex computers in their own right. peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse.[51] Before the era of cheap computers. and output devices such as the display and printer. it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant.[48]Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed ―time sharing‖ since each program is allocated a ―slice‖ of time in turn. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception. I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn. with their own CPU and memory. This is achieved by multitasking i. causing a program switch each time. Multitasking Main article: Computer multitasking While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory.e.[citation needed] Modern desktop computerscontain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.[49] On a typical personal computer. Computer networking is another form of I/O.Hard disk drives are common storage devices used with computers. the computer can return to that task later. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt. .

Seemingly. customized high-speed interconnects. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard. multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly. mainframe computers and servers. and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation. Multiprocessing Main article: Multiprocessing Cray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily. and specialized computing hardware. and cryptography applications.[52] They often feature thousands of CPUs. Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. Multiprocessor andmulti-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available. but most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. as well as with other so-called ―embarrassingly parallel‖ tasks. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run simultaneously without unacceptable speed loss. graphics rendering. Networking and the Internet Main articles: Computer networking and Internet . then it will not take a ―time slice‖ until the event it is waiting for has occurred. Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration. a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers.

such as peripheral devices. as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. stored information. The U. combined with the development of cheap. has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. often utilizing mobile phone networks.Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet. In time.[53] In the 1970s.S. In fact. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments. ―Wireless‖ networking. The effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA). Computer architecture paradigms There are many types of computer architectures:  Quantum computer vs Chemical computer . the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. which led to a number of specialpurpose commercial systems such as Sabre. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system. and the like.[54] The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved. and the computer network that resulted was called theARPANET. computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. fast networking technologies likeEthernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network. but in the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web.

The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a minimum capability (being Turing-complete) is. Therefore any type of computer (netbook.     Scalar processor vs Vector processor Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) computers Register machine vs Stack machine Harvard architecture vs von Neumann architecture Cellular architecture The quantum computer architecture holds the most promise to revolutionize computing. stores. nor RAM. etc. While popular usage of the word ―computer‖ is synonymous with a personal electronic computer. nor even have a processor. Required technology Main article: Unconventional computing . Misconceptions Main articles: Human computer and Harvard Computers Women as computers in NACA High Speed Flight Station "Computer Room" A computer does not need to be electronic. the modern[56] definition of a computer is literally ―A device that computes. capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. or otherwise processes information. cellular automaton. supercomputer.) is able to perform the same computational tasks. correlates. nor even ahard disk. distinguishing them fromcalculators. The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile.[55] Logic gates are a common abstraction which can apply to most of the above digital or analog paradigms.‖[57] Any device which processes information qualifies as a computer. in principle. especially if the processing is purposeful. especially a programmable [usually] electronic machine that performs high-speed mathematical or logical operations or that assembles. given enough time and storage capacity.

without regard to efficiency. Most computers are universal. printers and mice are all hardware. Norden bombsight Jacquard loom. and are able to calculate any computable function. For example. neural computers. UNIVAC 60. or possible errors in the code. alternative solutions. cables.[citation needed] More realistically. an often quoted example. Arithmometer. for example quantum computers can potentially break some modern encryption algorithms (by quantum factoring) very quickly. displays. Z3 Second generation (vacuum tubes) Calculators Atanasoff–Berry Computer.Historically. History of computing hardware Main article: History of computing hardware Calculators First generation (mechanical/electromechanical) Programmable devices Pascal's calculator. keyboards. Harvard Mark I. and quantum computers. Further topics  Glossary of computers Artificial intelligence A computer will solve problems in exactly the way it is programmed to. There is active research to make computers out of many promising new types of technology. computers evolved from mechanical computers and eventually from vacuum tubes to transistors. Circuits. such as optical computers. However. Difference engine. DNA computers. Computer programs that learn and adapt are part of the emerging field of artificial intelligenceand machine learning. UNIVAC 120 . Hardware Main articles: Computer hardware and Personal computer hardware The term hardware covers all of those parts of a computer that are tangible objects. power supplies. IBM 604. Analytical engine. However different designs of computers can give very different performance for particular problems. modern computers are made out oftransistors made of photolithographed semiconductors. conceptually computational systems as flexible as a personal computer can be built out of almost anything. a computer can be made out of billiard balls (billiard ball computer). and are limited only by their memory capacity and operating speed. possible shortcuts.

ARM architecture 64-bit microcomputer[58] Alpha. Home computer. Pentium. PowerPC. IBM 702. IBM System/32. MSI. WDC 65816/65802 Fourth generation (VLSI integrated circuits) 32-bit microcomputer Intel 80386. Manchester Mark 1. Laptop computer. Motorola 68000. Z22 Mainframes Third generation (discrete transistors and SSI. ENIAC. IBM 650. Motorola 6809. EDSAC. Intel 8080. Ferranti Mercury. LSIintegrated circuits) Minicomputer IBM 7090. Ferranti Pegasus. MOS Technology 6502. Chemical computer. PA-RISC. CSIRAC. PDP-11. SPARC. BUNCH PDP-8. Zilog Z8000. Intel 8051 Personal computer Desktop computer. EDVAC. IBM System/360. IBM System i 4-bit microcomputer Intel 4004. Personal digital assistant (PDA). x8664 Embedded computer Intel 8048. Spintronics . DNA computing. Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine. IBM 7080. Tablet PC. Wearable computer Theoretical/experimental Quantum computer. Portable computer.Programmable devices Colossus. Zilog Z80 16-bit microcomputer Intel 8088. IBM 701. IBM System/36 Minicomputer VAX. MIPS. Intel 4040 8-bit microcomputer Intel 8008. Motorola 6800. UNIVAC I.Optical computer.

optical disc drive. loudspeaker Both Floppy disk drive. IRIX. Windows NT. protocols. Solaris (SunOS). DR-DOS. Comparison of Linux distributions Operating system Microsoft Windows Windows 95.based computer Other hardware topics Input Mouse. Mac OS X . joystick. PCI. Windows 2000. Windows XP. such as programs.Windows 7. printer. When software is stored in hardware that cannot easily be modified (such as BIOS ROM in an IBM PC compatible).microphone Peripheral device(input/output) Output Monitor. Windows Me. etc. ATM. Windows 8 DOS 86-DOS (QDOS). MS-DOS. teleprinter Short range Computer busses Long range (computer networking) RS-232. SCSI. Windows 98. PC-DOS. FDDI Software Main article: Computer software Software refers to parts of the computer which do not have a material form. HP-UX.‖ Unix and BSD UNIX System V. USB Ethernet. Windows Vista. hard disk drive. List of BSD operating systems GNU/Linux List of Linux distributions. webcam. IBM AIX. graphics tablet. image scanner. it is sometimes called ―firmware. FreeDOS Mac OS Mac OS classic. data. keyboard.

SMTP HTML. 3D modeler. GEM. Animation editor. Plan 9 from Bell Labs Multimedia Library Programming library DirectX. FTP. Web server. GNOME.Video editing. Presentation program. Accounting software Internet Access Browser. Audio playback. Standard Template Library Protocol Data File format TCP/IP. Kermit. Spreadsheet. Instant messaging Application Design and manufacturing Computer-aided design. Robotic manufacturing. OpenAL C standard library. 3D computer graphics. Database management system. Computer music . Audio synthesis. Desktop publishing. Oberon/Bluebottle. Aqua Command-line interface. E-mail client. Supply chain management Graphics Raster graphics editor.Embedded andrealtime List of embedded operating systems Experimental Amoeba. XML. QNX Photon. Text user interface Office suite Word processing. Scheduling & Time management. Plant management. JPEG. HTTP. Mail transfer agent. CDE. Vector graphics editor. Mixing. Computer-aided manufacturing. KDE. Image processing Audio Digital audio editor. PNG Graphical user interface (WIMP) User interface Text-based user interface Microsoft Windows. MPEG. OpenGL.

Perl Professions and organizations As the use of computers has spread throughout society. Object Pascal Commonly used scripting languages Bourne script. List of programming languages. Puzzle. Software configuration management Educational Edutainment. NonEnglish-based programming languages Commonly used assembly languages ARM. C#. Java. Revision control. Fortran. Programming languages Lists of programming languages Timeline of programming languages. Debugger. MIPS. x86 Commonly used high-level programming languages Ada. C. BASIC. First-person shooter. Platform.File manager Languages There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose. there are an increasing number of careers involving computers. Interactive fiction Misc Artificial intelligence. Python. Interpreter. Malware scanner. PHP. Arcade. Simulation. . Integrated Software engineering development environment. JavaScript.Compiler. Educational game. Lisp. Serious game. Installer/Package management systems. C++. Text editor. Flight simulator Games Strategy. COBOL. Software performance analysis. Antivirus software. Pascal. Ruby. Massively multiplayer. List of programming languages by category. Generational list of programming languages. others useful only for highly specialized applications. Assembler.

Desktop publishing. Nanoengineering Softwarerelated Computer science. ISO. Electronic engineering. ^ In 1946. IEC. Optical engineering. Human–computer interaction. Information technology.Information systems. W3C Professional societies ACM. IET. IFIP. Organizations Standards groups ANSI. Computational science. Web design The need for computers to work well together and to be able to exchange information has spawned the need for many standards organizations. Telecommunications engineering. Computer engineering. AIS. BCS Free/open source software groups Free Software Foundation. By comparison.Computer-related professions Hardwarerelated Electrical engineering. Apache Software Foundation See also Information technology portal        Computability theory Computer insecurity Computer security List of computer term etymologies List of fictional computers Pulse computation TOP500 (list of most powerful computers) Notes 1. a modern laptop computer may use around 30 W. IEEE. IETF. Computer engineering. clubs and societies of both a formal and informal nature. nearly six thousand times . ENIAC required an estimated 174 kW. Mozilla Foundation. Software engineering. Video game industry.

Babbage's ideas have only been properly appreciated in the last ten years. 3. The first suggestion that such a machine could be made came more than a hundred years ago from the mathematician Charles Babbage. ^ "Discovering How Greeks Computed in 100 B.11 5. Retrieved 27 March 2010. Great Books online. Thoughts 11. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. A modern ―commodity‖ microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second.C. p. 1989. 31 July 2008. ^ Felt.Dorr E. therefore.edu. 19. ^ * Ifrah. 10.".Georges Ifrah. Edmund (1949). whether it is possible to devise a machine which will do for mathematical computation what the automatic lathe has done for engineering."Pickett Apollo Box Scans". Mechanical arithmetic. 9. or The history of the counting machine. 2. Edmund Berkeley 6. 4. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 20 June 2009. ^ See the paragraph Pascal's calculator#Competing designs 12. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. Retrieved 20 June 2009. ^ Babbage's Difference engine in 1823 and his Analytical engine in the mid-1830s 13. University of Pennsylvania. ^ Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. Retrieved 10 April 2009. (1916).". Retrieved 15 January 2008. n. ^ "The arithmetical machine produces effects which approach nearer to thought than all the actions of animals. Intel Corporation. but we now realize that he . Oxford University Press. ^ Berkeley. as to the animals.udel. ^ According to advertising on Pickett's N600 slide rule boxes. Giant Brains. Pensées Bartleby. Chicago: Washington Institute. 8. The New York Times.less. Retrieved 20 February 2010. Pascal. Georges (2001).com. "Approximate Desktop & Notebook Power Usage". But it does nothing which would enable us to attribute will to it. Felt 10. ^ computer. Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed. ^ ―It is reasonable to inquire. pp. p. or Machines That Think. Copland. ^ "Heron of Alexandria". John Wiley & Sons.. From 2700 to 2300 BC."Intel Core2 Duo Mobile Processor: Features". Blaise Pasdcal. 7. Dorr E.).

‖ Howard Aiken. 1989).understood clearly all the fundamental principles which are embodied in modern digital computers‖ Faster than thought. He understood more about the logic of these machines than anyone else in the world had learned until after the end of the last war. ^ ―.com. ed. reprinted in: The origins of Digital computers. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (Cambridge. ^ "Intel Museum – The 4004. Since the time of Babbage. Irascible Genius.) 19.. England. ^ From cave paintings to the internet HistoryofScience. Edited by Brian Randell. Big deal then. the notable exceptions being those of Charles Babbage and others who followed him . page 298. London. Proposed automatic calculating machine. ^ In the proposal that Aiken gave IBM in 1937 while requesting funding for the Harvard Mark I we can read: ―Few calculating machines have been designed strictly for application to scientific investigations. ^ See: Anthony Hyman... Retrieved 29 January 2012. 1973. 1953. ^ The analytical engine should not be confused with Babbage'sdifference engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator.‖ Foreword. ISBN 3-540-06169-X 16. page 99. Intel. .. the development of calculating machinery has continued at an increasing rate. England: Cambridge University Press.. Pitman publishing corporation 14. 17. Hutchinson 15. Charles Babbage.Among this extraordinary galaxy of talent Charles Babbage appears to be one of the most remarkable of all. time-consuming and absurd. Selected Papers. In the last decade or so we have learnt how his ideas can be embodied in a modern digital computer. Big deal now".com 18. Most of his life he spent in an entirely unsuccessful attempt to make a machine which was regarded by his contemporaries as utterly preposterous. inventor by Maboth Moseley. edited by B. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London. V. and his efforts were regarded as futile. (Delve (2007).. Bowden. 1964.. Babbage devoted his energy to the design and construction of an analytical engine of far higher powers than the difference engine . After abandoning the difference engine.

edu. Francis. 26. Cs. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 December 2010.. ^ GermanWay: "(. Google Books. Inc. ^ "Inventor Profile: George R. 25. (2003).edu.2003. (1998). J.)German inventor of the computer" 32.com: "Konrad Zuse earned the semiofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer"" 34. ^ Fuegi.20. ^ Lavington 1998. Retrieved 29 January 2012. ^ About. ed. 19. Retrieved 11 December 2010. ^ a b "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". pp. ^ Monsters & Critics: "he(Zuse) built the world's first computer in Berlin" 33. 2006 35.edu. ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff – the father of the computer". 2003. 29.1109/MAHC. 23. Der Spiegel. Popular Science.. ^ This program was written similarly to those for the PDP11minicomputer and shows some typical things a computer can do.. 27. ^ "Atanasoff-Berry Computer". Retrieved 29 January 2012. Jack Copeland. Time Magazine. 37 37. "How to make Zuse's Z3 a universal computer". is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine" 24. 36. 30. ^ Fuegi and Francis..1109/85. doi:10. ^ "Robot Mathematician Knows All The Answers". 22. ^ "Spiegel: The inventor of the computer's biography was published". Retrieved 13 June 2009. 28 September 2009. p." 31. Colossus: The Secrets of Bletchley Park's Codebreaking Computers. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation. opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program. 25. Retrieved 20 November 2010. ^ Rojas. 28.707574.1253887. ^ RTD Net: "From various sides Konrad Zuse was awarded with the title "Inventor of the computer". Stibitz". ^ "John Vincent Atanasoff and the Birth of Electronic Digital Computing". Annals of the History of Computing25 (4). pp. Columbia. 18– 26. R. ^ "Columbia University Computing History: Herman Hollerith". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 20 (3): 51–54. ^ B. Columbia. All the . doi:10. October 1944. "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 21. J.iastate.

(Digital Equipment Corporation 1972) 38. An x86-64compatible microprocessor like the AMD Athlon 64 is able to run most of the same programs that an Intel Core 2microprocessor can. which were often one-of-a-kind and totally incompatible with other computers. the Pentium FDIV bugcaused some Intel microprocessors in the early 1990s to produce inaccurate results for certain floating point division operations. TIME. These have no significance to the computer and are ignored. 43. ^ High level languages are also often interpreted rather than compiled. by another program called aninterpreter. 39. "The Wizard Inside the Machine". as well as programs designed for earlier microprocessors like the Intel Pentiums and Intel 80486.text after the semicolons are comments for the benefit of human readers. III (16 April 1984). 42. there is sometimes some form of machine language compatibility between different computers. Alexander L. while running. However. ^ Taylor. 40. ^ It is not universally true that bugs are solely due to programmer oversight. For instance.. this method was usually used only as part of thebooting process. EDVAC. For example. one of the . ^ The control unit's role in interpreting instructions has varied somewhat in the past. This was caused by a flaw in the microprocessor design and resulted in a partial recall of the affected devices. Interpreted languages are translated into machine code on the fly. Many computers include some instructions that may only be partially interpreted by the control system and partially interpreted by another device. This is especially the case with specialized computing hardware that may be partially self-contained. Computer hardware may fail or may itself have a fundamental problem that produces unexpected results in certain situations. this is not always the case. 41. Although the control unit is solely responsible for instruction interpretation in most modern computers. Some minicomputers like the DECPDP-8 could be programmed directly from a panel of switches. This contrasts with very early commercial computers. ^ However. Retrieved 17 February 2007. Most modern computers boot entirely automatically by reading a boot program from some nonvolatile memory. ^ Even some later computers were commonly programmed directly in machine code.

52. All of the arithmetic-related instructions were passed on to its arithmetic unit and further decoded there. ^ Jerry Peek. ^ Arpad Barna. O'Reilly. ^ Donald Eadie (1968). used a central control unit that only interpreted four instructions. Grace Todino. p.MIT Press. usually individual computers connected by networks. Dan I. 161. ISBN 978-0-262-08285-3. ^ Agatha C. ^ Gillian M. Ltd. "The experience of SAGE helped make possible the first truly large-scale commercial real-time network: the SABRE computerized airline reservations system. 12. ISBN 978-0-8247-4067-2. Noise Reduction in Speech Applications. John Strang (2002). Davis (2002). (Verma & Mielke 1988) 48. While custom architectures are still used for most of the most powerful supercomputers. A K Peters. ISBN 978-0-8493-0949-6. ISBN 978-0-596-00261-9. 47. 54. ^ Instructions often occupy more than one memory address. Handbook of Parallel Computing and Statistics. 85." . Introduction to Microcomputers and the Microprocessors. CRC Press. Hughes (2000). making it less useful for heavy random access usage. ^ Erricos John Kontoghiorghes (2006). p. Learning the UNIX Operating System: A Concise Guide for the New User. 111. ^ Flash memory also may only be rewritten a limited number of times before wearing out. p. Porat (1976). ISBN 978-1-56881128-4. 51. therefore the program counter usually increases by the number of memory locations required to store one instruction. and Computers. 130. ^ However. it is also very common to construct supercomputers out of many pieces of cheap commodity hardware. ^ David J. Experts. 50.ISBN 978-0-471-05051-3. Prentice-Hall. CRC Press. Systems. 46.earliest stored-program computers. p. 44. 45.. there has been a proliferation of cluster computers in recent years. These so-calledcomputer clusters can often provide supercomputer performance at a much lower cost than customized designs. (TOP500 2006) 53.. The Most Complex Machine: A Survey of Computers and Computing. Wiley. Introduction to the Basic Computer. p. Eck (2000). p. p. 49. 45.

page 340. Simon. Karl (1961). (1988).com. Tony (2000). Maynard. 2007). PDP-11/40 Processor Handbook (PDF). G. Horst. "The Antikythera Mechanism I". when it referred to ―A person who makes calculations. Reliability performance of ETOX based flash memories. ^ Most major 64-bit instruction set architectures are extensions of earlier designs. A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits. American Mathematical Society. All of the architectures listed in this table. Simon (1998). ISBN 978-0-902505-01-8. "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". the word computer dates back to the mid 17th century.. Mielke. except for Alpha.‖ 57. IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 55. ^ "A Brief History of the Internet". N. Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States Army). Retrieved 5 April 2006. existed in 32-bit forms before their 64-bit incarnations were introduced.  Lavington. Hans. and Francis. 4 (October–December 2003): Digital Object Identifier  a Kempf.  Meuer.). Jack (13 November 2006). MA: Digital Equipment Corporation. J. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 25 No. Thefreedictionary. 56. Swindon: The British Computer Society. 58. specifically a person employed for this in an observatory etc. ^ "Definition of computer". Dumas 2006. ^ According to the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (6th ed. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Claude Elwood (1940). TOP500. Retrieved 20 September 2008. "Architectures Share Over Time". .  a Phillips. Retrieved 27 November 2006. ^ "Computer architecture: fundamentals and principles of computer design" by Joseph D. Dongarra. Strohmaier.  a Shannon.  Digital Equipment Corporation (1972).  Verma. Erich.54. Internet Society. References  Fuegi. A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed. J. Historical Monograph: Electronic Computers Within the Ordnance Corps.

Jon (2007).  Felt. Dorr E. Giant Brains. Mechanical arithmetic. ISBN 0-471-39671-0. New York: John Wiley & Sons. or Machines That Think. San Francisco: No Starch Press.  Ifrah. or The history of the counting machine. (1916). External links Find more about Computer at Wikipedia'ssister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks  A Brief History of Computing – slideshow by Life magazine [hide]    V T E . Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture.  Berkeley. Edmund (1949). Stokes. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6. John Wiley & Sons. The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. Georges (2001). Chicago: Washington Institute.

Computer sizes Classes of computers   Larger    Mini        Super Minisuper Mainframe Midrange Supermini Server Personal Workstation Desktop Home SFF Nettop Micro      Plug Portable Video game arcade cabinet Arcade system board Video game console .

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                                               Bân-lâm-gú Башҡортса Беларуская Беларуская (тарашке Български Boarisch བོད་ཡིག Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Чӑ ашла Cebuano Česky Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Diné bizaad Eesti Ελληνικά Emiliàn e rumagnòl Эрзянь Español Esperanto Euskara ‫ف ار سی‬ Fiji Hindi Føroyskt Français Frysk Furlan Gaeilge Gaelg Gàidhlig Galego 贛語 ગુજરાતી Hak-kâ-fa 한국어 Hausa Հայերեն हिन्दी Hrvatski Ido Igbo Ilokano а) .

                                               Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua ᐃᓄᒃ ᑎᑐᑦ /inuktitut IsiXhosa IsiZulu Íslenska Italiano ‫עברית‬ Basa Jawa ಕನ್ನಡ Kapampangan Къарачай-малкъар ქართული /‫ر‬ Қазақша Kernowek Kiswahili Kongo Kreyòl ayisyen Kurdî Кыргызча Ladino Лезги ລາວ Latina Latviešu Lëtzebuergesch Lietuvių Limburgs Lingála Lojban Lumbaart Magyar Македонски Malagasy മലയാളം Malti मराठी მარგალური ‫م صرى‬ ‫ما ر ی‬ Bahasa Melayu Mirandés Монгол မမမမမမမမမမ Nāhuatl Nederlands .

                                               Nedersaksies नेपाली 日本語 Nnapulitano Norfuk / Pitkern Norsk bokmål Norsk nynorsk Occitan Олык марий ଓଡ଼ିଆ Oʻzbekcha ਪੰ ਜਾਬੀ ‫پ نجاب ی‬ ‫پ ښ تو‬ Plattdüütsch Polski Ποντιακά Português Qırımtatarca Română Runa Simi Русиньскый Русский Саха тыла संस्कृतम ् Sardu Scots Seeltersk Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Сло ѣньскъ / Ślůnski Soomaaliga ‫وردی‬ Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохр атски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் Татарча/tatarça .

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