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Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Chapter 2, Solution 1. Design a problem, complete with a solution, to help students to
better understand Ohms Law. Use at least two resistors and one voltage source. Hint,
you could use both resistors at once or one at a time, it is up to you. Be creative.

Although there is no correct way to work this problem, this is an example based on the
same kind of problem asked in the third edition.

Problem

The voltage across a 5-kO resistor is 16 V. Find the current through the resistor.

Solution



v = iR i = v/R = (16/5) mA = 3.2 mA
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Solution 2

p = v
2
/R R = v
2
/p = 14400/60 = 240 ohms
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

For silicon, = 6.4x10
2
O-m. A = t r
2
. Hence,


2 2
R =
L
=
L

r
2
=
L
=
6.4x10
x4x10
= 0.033953
A t r
2
t R t x240

r = 184.3 mm
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Solution 4

(a) i = 40/100 = 400 mA
(b) i = 40/250 = 160 mA
n = 9; l = 7; b = n + l 1 = 15
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Chapter 2, Solution 6
n = 12; l = 8; b = n + l 1 = 19


Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Chapter 2, Solution 7
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

6 branches and 4 nodes

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Solution 8. Design a problem, complete with a solution, to help other students
to better understand Kirchhoffs Current Law. Design the problem by specifying values
of ia, ib, and ic, shown in Fig. 2.72, and asking them to solve for values of i1, i2, and i3.
Be careful specify realistic currents.

Although there is no correct way to work this problem, this is an example based on the
same kind of problem asked in the third edition.

Problem

Use KCL to obtain currents i1, i2, and i3 in the circuit shown in Fig. 2.72.



Solution

12 A

a
i1

8 A
b

i2





i3

12 A
c
9 A
d


At node a, 8 = 12 + i1 i 1 = - 4A
At node c, 9 = 8 + i2 i 2 = 1A
At node d, 9 = 12 + i3 i 3 = -3A
Chapter 2, Solution 9
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

At A, 1+6i1 = 0 or i1 = 1+6 = 7 A



At B, 6+i2+7 = 0 or i2 = 67 = 1 A



At C, 2+i37 = 0 or i3 = 72 = 5 A
Chapter 2, Solution 10
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


2
8A
4A


i2
1
i
1
3



6A


At node 1, 8i16 = 0 or i1 = 86 = 14 A

At node 2, (8)+i1+i24 = 0 or i2 = 8i1+4 = 8+14+4 = 10 A
Chapter 2, Solution 11
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

V
1
+1+ 5 = 0
5 + 2 + V
2
= 0


V
1
= 6 V
V
2
= 3 V
Chapter 2, Solution 12
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

+ 30v





50v +


+ 20v
loop 2
+ v2


+
40v
-
+
loop 1 v
1


+
loop 3 v3




For loop 1, 40 50 +20 + v1 = 0 or v1 = 40+5020 = 70 V

For loop 2, 20 +30 v2 = 0 or v2 = 3020 = 10 V



For loop 3, v1 +v2 +v3 = 0 or v3 = 7010 = 60 V
Chapter 2, Solution 13
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


2A




I2 7A I4
1 2 3 4
4A
I1
3A I3





At node 2,
3 + 7 + I
2
= 0
At node 1,
I
1
+ I
2
= 2
At node 4,
2 = I
4
+ 4
At node 3,
7 + I
4
= I
3

Hence,














I
2
= 10 A


I
1
= 2 I
2
= 12 A


I
4
= 2 4 = 2 A


I
3
= 7 2 = 5 A

I
1
= 12 A, I
2
= 10 A, I
3
= 5 A, I
4
= 2 A
Chapter 2, Solution 14
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual





+ + -
3V V1 I4 V2
- I3 - + 2V - +



- + V3 - + +
4V
I2 -
V
4
I1
5V

+ -


For mesh 1,
V
4
+ 2 + 5 = 0
For mesh 2,
+4 +V
3
+V
4
= 0
For mesh 3,
3 +V
1
V
3
= 0
For mesh 4,
V
1
V
2
2 = 0
Thus,














V
4
= 7V


V
3
= 4 7 = 11V
V
1
= V
3
+ 3 = 8V
V
2
= V
1
2 = 6V
V
1
= 8V , V
2
= 6V , V
3
= 11V , V
4
= 7V
Chapter 2, Solution 15
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Calculate v and ix in the circuit of Fig. 2.79.


12 O + 16 V





+
10 V
_

+ v
ix
+
4 V
_



+
3 ix
_





Figure 2.79
For Prob. 2.15.



Solution




For loop 1, 10 + v +4 = 0, v = 6 V

For loop 2, 4 + 16 + 3ix =0, ix = 4 A
Chapter 2, Solution 16
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Determine Vo in the circuit in Fig. 2.80.

16 O 14 O

+
10 V
+

_
+
Vo
_


_

25 V


Figure 2.80
For Prob. 2.16.



Solution



Apply KVL,
10 + (16+14)I + 25 = 0 or 30I = 1025 = or I = 15/30 = 500 mA
Also,
10 + 16I + Vo = 0 or Vo = 10 16(0.5) = 10+8 = 18 V
Chapter 2, Solution 17
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Applying KVL around the entire outside loop we get,

24 + v1 + 10 + 12 = 0 or v1 = 2V

Applying KVL around the loop containing v2, the 10-volt source, and the
12-volt source we get,

v2 + 10 + 12 = 0 or v2 = 22V

Applying KVL around the loop containing v3 and the 10-volt source we
get,

v3 + 10 = 0 or v3 = 10V
Chapter 2, Solution 18
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual




Applying KVL,

-30 -10 +8 + I(3+5) = 0
8I = 32 I = 4A
-Vab + 5I + 8 = 0 Vab = 28V
Chapter 2, Solution 19
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
p
O

Applying KVL around the loop, we obtain

(8) 12 + 10 + 3i = 0 i = 2A

Power dissipated by the resistor:

= i
2
R = 4(3) = 12W
3

Power supplied by the sources:
p12V = 12 ((2)) = 24W
p10V = 10 ((2)) = 20W

p8V = (8)(2) = 16W
Chapter 2, Solution 20
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Determine io in the circuit of Fig. 2.84.
i
o
22 O




54V
+ +
5io






Figure 2.84
For Prob. 2.20

Solution

Applying KVL around the loop,

54 + 22io + 5io = 0 io = 4A
Chapter 2, Solution 21
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Applying KVL,
-15 + (1+5+2)I + 2 Vx = 0
But Vx = 5I,
-15 +8I + 10I =0, I = 5/6
Vx = 5I = 25/6 = 4.167 V
Chapter 2, Solution 22
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Find Vo in the circuit in Fig. 2.86 and the power absorbed by the dependent
source.


10 O
V
1




10 O
+
V
o



25A


2Vo





Figure 2.86
For Prob. 2.22

Solution

At the node, KCL requires that [Vo/10]+[25]+[2Vo] = 0 or 2.1Vo = 25

or Vo = 11.905 V

The current through the controlled source is i = 2V0 = 23.81 A
and the voltage across it is V1 = (10+10) i0 (where i0 = V0/10) = 20(11.905/10)
= 23.81 V.

Hence,

pdependent source = V1(i) = 23.81x((23.81)) = 566.9 W

Checking, (2523.81)
2
(10+10) + (23.81)(25) + 566.9 = 28.322 595.2 + 566.9
= 0.022 which is equal zero since we are using four places of accuracy!

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Chapter 2, Solution 23

8//12 = 4.8, 3//6 = 2, (4 + 2)//(1.2 + 4.8) = 6//6 = 3
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.

ix 1 O



+ vx



20A 2O 3O





Applying current division,

ix = [2/(2+1+3)]20 = 6.667 and vx = 1x6.667 = 6.667 V

i =
2
(6 A) = 2 A,
x
2 + 1 + 3

v
x
= 1i
x
= 2V
The current through the 1.2- O resistor is 0.5ix = 3.333 A. The voltage across the
12- O resistor is 3.333 x 4.8 = 16V. Hence the power absorbed by the 12-ohm
resistor is equal to



(16)
2
/12 = 21.33 W
Chapter 2, Solution 24
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
3
1
4
3


(a) I0 =
V
s

R
1
+ R
2



V
0
= o I0 (R

R ) =
oV
s

-
R
3
R
4




V
0
=
oR
3
R
4

R
1
+ R
2

R
3
+ R
4

Vs (R + R
2
)(R + R
4
)

(b) If R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R,

V
0
=

o

R
=
o
= 10

o = 40
V
S
2R 2 4
Chapter 2, Solution 25
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

V0 = 5 x 10
-3
x 10 x 10
3
= 50V

Using current division,


I
20
=

5
5 + 20

(0.01x50) =

0.1 A

V20 = 20 x 0.1 kV = 2 kV

p20 = I20 V20 = 0.2 kW
Chapter 2, Problem 26
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

For the circuit in Fig. 2.90, io = 3 A. Calculate ix and the total power absorbed by
the entire circuit.


i
x
10 O
i
o



8 O 4 O 2 O 16 O



Figure 2.90
For Prob. 2.26.

Solution

If i16= io = 3A, then v = 16x3 = 48 V and i8 = 48/8 = 6A; i4 = 48/4 = 12A; and
i2 = 48/2 = 24A.

Thus,


ix = i8 + i4 + i2 + i16 = 6 + 12 + 24 + 3 = 45 A

p = (45)
2
10 + (6)
2
8 + (12)
2
4 + (24)
2
2 + (3)
2
16 = 20,250 + 288 + 576 +1152 + 144

= 20250 + 2106 = 22.356 kW.
Chapter 2, Problem 27
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Calculate I o in the circuit of Fig. 2.91.

8 O


+
I
o

10V



3 O 6 O




Figure 2.91
For Prob. 2.27.

Solution

The 3-ohm resistor is in parallel with the c-ohm resistor and can be replaced by a
[(3x6)/(3+6)] = 2-ohm resistor. Therefore,

I o = 10/(8+2) = 1 A.

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Solution 28 Design a problem, using Fig. 2.92, to help other students better
understand series and parallel circuits.

Although there is no correct way to work this problem, this is an example based on the
same kind of problem asked in the third edition.

Problem

Find v1, v2, and v3 in the circuit in Fig. 2.92.



Solution

We first combine the two resistors in parallel

15 10 = 6 O

We now apply voltage division,


v1 =
14
14 + 6

(40) = 28 V


v2 = v3 =
6
14 + 6

(40) = 12 V

Hence, v1 = 28 V, v2 = 12 V, vs = 12 V

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Solution 29



All resistors in Fig. 2.93 are 5 O each. Find Req.






R
eq




Figure 2.93
For Prob. 2.29.

Solution



Req = 5 + 5||[5+5||(5+5)] = 5 + 5||[5+(5x10/(5+10))] = 5+5||(5+3.333) = 5 +
41.66/13.333

= 8.125

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
Chapter 2, Problem 30.

Find Req for the circuit in Fig. 2.94.





25 O 180 O

60 O

R
eq

60 O







Figure 2.94
For Prob. 2.30.

Solution

We start by combining the 180-ohm resistor with the 60-ohm resistor which in
turn is in parallel with the 60-ohm resistor or = [60(180+60)/(60+180+60)] = 48.

Thus,


Req = 25+48 = 73 .
Chapter 2, Solution 31
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


R
eq
= 3 + 2 // 4 //1 = 3 +
1
1/ 2 +1/ 4 +1

= 3.5714

i1 = 200/3.5714 = 56 A

v1 = 0.5714xi1 = 32 V and i2 = 32/4 = 8 A

i4 = 32/1 = 32 A; i5 = 32/2 = 16 A; and i3 = 32+16 = 48 A
Chapter 2, Solution 32
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Find i1 through i4 in the circuit in Fig. 2.96.

60 O i4 i2
200 O


40 O 50 O

i
3 i1
16 A






Figure 2.96
For Prob. 2.32.

Solution

We first combine resistors in parallel.


40 60 =
40x60
=

100

24 O and

50 200 =
50x200
=

250

40 O

Using current division principle,

i
1
+ i
2

=
24
24 + 40

(16) = 6A,i
3


+ i
4

=
40
(16) = 10A
64

i =
200
(6) = 4.8 A and i
1
250
2

=
50
250

(6) = 1.2 A


i
3
=
60
(10) =
100

6 A and i
4

=
40
(10) = 4 A
100
Chapter 2, Solution 33
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Combining the conductance leads to the equivalent circuit below
i 4S i
+
9A
v

-
1S 4S


+
9A v 1S
2S

-



6S 3S =
6x3
= 2S and 2S + 2S = 4S
9

Using current division,

i =
1

1 +
1

2

(9) =

6 A, v = 3(1) = 3 V
Chapter 2, Solution 34
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

160//(60 + 80 + 20)= 80 O,
160//(28+80 + 52) = 80 O

Req = 20+80 = 100

I = 200/100 = 2 A or p = VI = 200x2 = 400 W.
Chapter 2, Solution 35
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
-



i

70 O
+

V1



30 O

200V
+

i1
-
Io
a b
+
20 O
i2
V
o 5 O
-


Combining the resistors that are in parallel,


70 30 =
70x30
= 21O ,

100

20 5 =
20x5
= 4 O

25

i =
200
21 + 4

= 8 A

v1 = 21i = 168 V, vo = 4i = 32 V
v
1
v
o

i1 = = 2.4 A, i2 = = 1.6 A
70 20

At node a, KCL must be satisfied

i1 = i2 + Io 2.4 = 1.6 + Io Io = 0.8 A

Hence,


vo = 32 V and Io = 800 mA
Chapter 2, Solution 36
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


20//(30+50) = 16, 24 + 16 = 40, 60//20 = 15
Req = 80+(15+25)40 = 80+20 = 100

i = 20/100 = 0.2 A

If i1 is the current through the 24-O resistor and io is the current through the 50-O
resistor, using current division gives

i1 = [40/(40+40)]0.2 = 0.1 and io = [20/(20+80)]0.1 = 0.02 A or
vo = 30io = 30x0.02 = 600 mV.
Chapter 2, Solution 37
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Applying KVL,
-20 + 10 + 10I 30 = 0, I = 4


10 = RI


R =
10
= 2.5 O
I
Chapter 2, Solution 38
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

20//80 = 80x20/100 = 16, 6//12 = 6x12/18 = 4
The circuit is reduced to that shown below.


2.5 O 4 O



15 O 16 O
60 O




R
eq

(4 + 16)//60 = 20x60/80 = 15

Req = 2.5+15||15 = 2.5+7.5 = 10 and
io = 35/10 = 3.5 A.
Chapter 2, Solution 39
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

(a) We note that the top 2k-ohm resistor is actually in parallel with the first 1k-ohm
resistor. This can be replaced (2/3)k-ohm resistor. This is now in series with the second
2k-ohm resistor which produces a 2.667k-ohm resistor which is now in parallel with the
second 1k-ohm resistor. This now leads to,




Req = [(1x2.667)/3.667]k = 727.3 .



(b) We note that the two 12k-ohm resistors are in parallel producing a 6k-ohm resistor.
This is in series with the 6k-ohm resistor which results in a 12k-ohm resistor which is in
parallel with the 4k-ohm resistor producing,

Req = [(4x12)/16]k = 3 k.
Chapter 2, Solution 40
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Req = 8 + 4 (2 + 6 3) = 8 + 2 = 10 O
I =
15
R
eq

=
15
=

10

1.5 A
Chapter 2, Solution 41
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Let R0 = combination of three 12O resistors in parallel

1
=
1
R
o
12
+
1
+
1
12 12
Ro = 4
R
eq
= 30 + 60 (10 + R
0
+ R) = 30 + 60 (14 + R)
50 = 30 +
60(14 + R)
74 + R
74 + R = 42 + 3R
or R = 16 O
Chapter 2, Solution 42
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
(a) Rab = 5 (8 + 20 30) = 5 (8 + 12) =
5x20
25
= 4 O
(b) Rab = 2 + 4 (5 + 3) 8 + 5 10 4 = 2 + 4 4 + 5 2.857 = 2 + 2 + 1.8181 = 5.818 O
Chapter 2, Solution 43
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
+
1
+ =
1
(a) Rab = 5 20 + 10 40 =
5x20
+

25
400
50
= 4 + 8 = 12 O
(b) 60 20 30 =
| 1 1

| 60
|
= 10O
\ 60 20 30 . 6
Rab = 80 (10 + 10) =
80 + 20
100
= 16 O
Chapter 2, Solution 44
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

For the circuits in Fig. 2.108, obtain the equivalent resistance at terminals a-b.




5 O 20 O
a

2 O 3 O

b



Figure 2.108
For Prob. 2.44

Solution

First we note that the 5 and 20 resistors are in parallel and can be replaced by
a 4 [(5x20)/(5+20)] resistor which in now in series with the 2 resistor and
can be replaced by a 6 resistor in parallel with the 3 resistor thus,

Rab = [(6x3)/(6+3)] = 2 .
Chapter 2, Solution 45
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


(a) 10//40 = 8, 20//30 = 12, 8//12 = 4.8

R
ab
= 5 + 50 + 4.8 = 59.8O



(b) 12 and 60 ohm resistors are in parallel. Hence, 12//60 = 10 ohm. This 10 ohm
and 20 ohm are in series to give 30 ohm. This is in parallel with 30 ohm to give
30//30 = 15 ohm. And 25//(15+10) = 12.5. Thus,

R
ab
= 5 + 12.8 + 15 = 32.5O
Chapter 2, Solution 46
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Req = 12 + 5||20 + [1/((1/15)+(1/15)+(1/15))] + 5 + 24||8
= 12 + 4 + 5 + 5 + 6 = 32

I = 80/32 = 2.5 A
Chapter 2, Solution 47
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


5 20 =



6 3 =
5x20
= 4O

25

6x3
= 2O

9


10 O 8 O
a b
4 O
2 O





Rab = 10 + 4 + 2 + 8 = 24 O
Chapter 2, Solution 48
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


(a) Ra =
R
1
R
2
+ R
2
R
3
+ R
3
R
1

=
100 + 100 + 100

= 30
R
3
10
Ra = Rb = Rc = 30 O
(b)
R =
30x 20 +30x50 +20x50
=
3100
= 103.3O


a
30
R =
3100
= 155O,
b
20
30
R =
3100
= 62O
c
50
(a) R1 =
R
a
+ R
b
+ R
c

36
R1 = R2 = R3 = 4 O
Chapter 2, Solution 49

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
R
1
=
60 + 30 + 10
R =
60x10
= 6O

R =
30x10
= 3O

Ra = 103.3 O, Rb = 155 O, Rc = 62 O
R
a
R
c

=
12 *12
= 4O
Chapter 2, Solution 50

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
(b)
60x30 = 18O
2
100
3
100
R1 = 18O, R2 = 6O, R3 = 3O

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
2.50 Design a problem to help other students better understand wye-delta transformations using
Fig. 2.114.

Although there is no correct way to work this problem, this is an example based on the same
kind of problem asked in the third edition.

Problem

What value of R in the circuit of Fig. 2.114 would cause the current source to deliver 800 mW to
the resistors.

Solution

Using R
A
= 3RY = 3R, we obtain the equivalent circuit shown below:






30mA
R
3R
3R
3R

R



30mA 3R



3R/2





3R R =
3RxR
=
3
R

4R 4


3Rx
3
R
3R
3
R +
3
R | = 3R
3
R =
2
= R
| |
\ 4 4 .
2
3R +
3
R
2

P = I
2
R 800 x 10
-3
= (30 x 10
-3
)
2
R
R = 889 O
Chapter 2, Solution 51
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual



(a) 30 30 = 15O and 30 20 = 30x20 /(50) = 12O

Rab = 15 (12 + 12) = 15x24 /(39) = 9.231 O


a



30 O





30 O




30 O
30 O

a
20 O


20 O





15 O


12 O


12 O
b b


(b) Converting the T-subnetwork into its equivalent A network gives

Ra'b' = 10x20 + 20x5 + 5x10/(5) = 350/(5) = 70 O
Rb'c' = 350/(10) = 35O, Ra'c' = 350/(20) = 17.5 O

Also 30 70 = 30x70 /(100) = 21O and 35/(15) = 35x15/(50) = 10.5
Rab = 25 + 17.5 (21 + 10.5) = 25 + 17.5 31.5
Rab = 36.25 O



30 O
30 O

25 O 70 O
25 O
a
10 O


5 O
20 O


15 O
a
a b

17.5 O 35 O 15 O
b
b
c c
Chapter 2, Solution 52
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Converting the wye-subnetwork to delta-subnetwork, we obtain the circuit below.

3 O 9 O


9 O
3 O 9 O

3 O
3 O
3 O
3 O 6 O



3//1 = 3x1/4 = 0.75, 2//1 =2x1/3 = 0.6667. Combining these resistances leads to the
circuit below.
3 O


2.25 O




3 O
9 O
2.25O


3 O 2 O



We now convert the wye-subnetwork to the delta-subnetwork.

Ra = [(2.25x3+2.25x3+2.25x2.25)/3] = 6.188

Rb = Rc = 18.562/2.25 = 8.25

This leads to the circuit below.

3 O




8.25

3 O
6.188 9 O
8.25
2 O

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

R = 9||6.188+8.25||2 = 3.667+1.6098 = 5.277
Req = 3+3+8.25||5.277 = 9.218 .
Chapter 2, Solution 53
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

(a) Converting one A to T yields the equivalent circuit below:




20 O
a


b
30 O
a

4 O

60 O
5 O
b



20 O



c

80 O




R
a'n
=

40x10
40 + 10 + 50

= 4O,

R
b'n
=
10x50
100

= 5O,

R
c'n
=
40x50
100

= 20O
Rab = 20 + 80 + 20 + (30 + 4) (60 + 5) = 120 + 34 65
Rab = 142.32 O

(b) We combine the resistor in series and in parallel.

30 (30 + 30) =
30x60
= 20O
90

We convert the balanced A s to Ts as shown below:

a


30 O

b








30 O


30 O




30 O



30 O

20 O


30 O

a






10 O



10 O


10 O 10 O

10 O

b
10 O 20 O


Rab = 10 + (10 + 10) (10 + 20 + 10) + 10 = 20 + 20 40
Rab = 33.33 O
Chapter 2, Solution 54
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

(a) R
ab
= 50 + 100 / /(150 + 100 + 150) = 50 + 100 / /400 = 130 O

(b) R
ab
= 60 + 100 / /(150 + 100 + 150) = 60 + 100 / /400 = 140O
Chapter 2, Solution 55
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

We convert the T to A .








24 V
+
-
I0












R
eq


a

20 O
40 O


10 O
20 O
b





60 O


50 O







24 V
+
-


I0












R
eq




a




35 O




b





140 O





70 O







60 O


70 O

Rab =
R
1
R
2
+ R
2
R
3
+ R
3
R
1

=
20x40 + 40x10 + 10x20
=
1400

= 35O
R
3
40 40
Rac = 1400/(10) = 140O, Rbc = 1400/(20) = 70O
70 70 = 35 and 140 160 = 140x60/(200) = 42

Req = 35 (35 + 42) = 24.0625O
I0 = 24/(Rab) = 997.4mA
Chapter 2, Solution 56
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

We need to find Req and apply voltage division. We first tranform the Y network to A .

30 O 30 O




+
100 V
-







R
eq

16 O


35 O

15 O


12 O

10 O



20 O



+
100 V
-







R
eq
16 O
a


35 O
37.5 O
b


30 O
45 O

c



20 O


Rab =
15x10 + 10x12 + 12x15
=

12
450
12

= 37.5O
Rac = 450/(10) = 45O, Rbc = 450/(15) = 30O

Combining the resistors in parallel,

30||20 = (600/50) = 12 O,

37.5||30 = (37.5x30/67.5) = 16.667 O

35||45 = (35x45/80) = 19.688 O

Req = 19.688||(12 + 16.667) = 11.672O

By voltage division,



v =
11.672
11.672 + 16




100




= 42.18 V
Chapter 2, Solution 57
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

4 O
a





18 O

b
d
2 O

27 O



36 O


7 O




1 O


c
e


14 O

10 O
28 O

f


Rab =
6x12 + 12x8 + 8x6
=

12
216
12

= 18 O
Rac = 216/(8) = 27O, Rbc = 36 O

Rde =
4x2 + 2x8 + 8x4
8
=
56
7 O
8
Ref = 56/(4) = 14O, Rdf = 56/(2) = 28 O

Combining resistors in parallel,

10 28 =
280
= 7.368O,
38
27 3 =
27x3
= 2.7O
30



36 7 =
36x7
= 5.868O
43


4 O






7.568 O



18 O


5.868 O



2.7 O


14 O

4 O
1.829 O
3.977 O
0.5964 O
7.568 O 14 O


R =
18x 2.7
=
18x 2.7
= 1.829 O

an
18 + 2.7 + 5.867 26.567

R
bn


R
cn
=
18x5.868
= 3.977 O

26.567
=
5.868x2.7
= 0.5904 O

Chapter 2, Solution 58

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
26.567

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
R
eq
= 4 + 1.829 + (3.977 + 7.368) (0.5964 + 14)
= 5.829 + 11.346 14.5964 =
i = 20/(Req) = 1.64 A
12.21 O
Chapter 2, Solution 58
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

The resistance of the bulb is (120)
2
/60 = 240O

40 O 2 A 1.5 A



+
VS
-


+ 90 V -
0.5 A

240 O

+
120 V
-


80 O




Once the 160O and 80O resistors are in parallel, they have the same voltage
120V. Hence the current through the 40O resistor is equal to 2 amps.

40(0.5 + 1.5) = 80 volts.

Thus

vs = 80 + 120 = 200 V.
Chapter 2, Solution 59
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Three light bulbs are connected in series to a 120-V source as shown in Fig.
2.123. Find the current I through each of the bulbs. Each bulb is rated at 120
volts. How much power is each bulb absorbing? Do they generate much light?
















Figure 2.123
For Prob. 2.59.

Solution

Using p = v
2
/R, we can calculate the resistance of each bulb.
R30W = (120)
2
/30 = 14,400/30 = 480
R40W = (120)
2
/40 = 14,400/40 = 360

R50W = (120)
2
/50 = 14,400/50 = 288

The total resistance of the three bulbs in series is 480+360+288 = 1128 .
The current flowing through each bulb is 120/1128 = 0.10638 A.
p30 = (0.10638)
2
480 = 0.011317x480 = 5.432 W.

p40 = (0.10638)
2
360 = 0.011317x360 = 4.074 W.

p50 = (0.10638)
2
288 = 0.011317x288 = 3.259 W.

Clearly these values are well below the rated powers of each light bulb so we
would not expect very much light from any of them. To work properly, they need
to be connected in parallel.
Chapter 2, Solution 60
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

If the three bulbs of Prob. 2.59 are connected in parallel to the 120-V source,
calculate the current through each bulb.

Solution

Using p = v
2
/R, we can calculate the resistance of each bulb.
R30W = (120)
2
/30 = 14,400/30 = 480
R40W = (120)
2
/40 = 14,400/40 = 360

R50W = (120)
2
/50 = 14,400/50 = 288

The current flowing through each bulb is 120/R.
i30 = 120/480 = 250 mA.
i40 = 120/360 = 333.3 mA.

i30 = 120/288 = 416.7 mA.

Unlike the light bulbs in 2.59, the lights will glow brightly!
Chapter 2, Solution 61
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

There are three possibilities, but they must also satisfy the current range of 1.2 +
0.06 = 1.26 and 1.2 0.06 = 1.14.

(a) Use R1 and R2:
R = R
1
R
2
= 80 90 = 42.35O
p = i
2
R = 70W
i
2
= 70/42.35 = 1.6529 or i = 1.2857 (which is outside our range)
cost = $0.60 + $0.90 = $1.50

(b) Use R1 and R3:
R = R
1
R
3
= 80 100 = 44.44 O
i
2
= 70/44.44 = 1.5752 or i = 1.2551 (which is within our range),
cost = $1.35

(c) Use R2 and R3:
R = R
2
R
3
= 90 100 = 47.37O
i
2
= 70/47.37 = 1.4777 or i = 1.2156 (which is within our range),
cost = $1.65

Note that cases (b) and (c) satisfy the current range criteria and (b) is the
cheaper of the two, hence the correct choice is:

R1 and R3
Chapter 2, Solution 62
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

pA = 110x8 = 880 W, pB = 110x2 = 220 W

Energy cost = $0.06 x 365 x10 x (880 + 220)/1000 = $240.90
Chapter 2, Solution 63
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
n
m

Use eq. (2.61),


Rn =
I
m
R

2x10
3
x100
=

= 0.04O
I I
m

5 2x10
3

In = I - Im = 4.998 A
p = I
2
R = (4.998)
2
(0.04) = 0.9992


~ 1 W
Chapter 2, Solution 64
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


When Rx = 0, i
x
= 10A
R =
110
10

= 11 O



110
When Rx is maximum, ix = 1A

i.e., Rx = 110 - R = 99 O
Thus, R = 11 O, Rx = 99 O
R + R
x
=
1
= 110 O
Chapter 2, Solution 65
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
n


R =
V
fs
I
fs

R
m


=
50
10mA

1 kO =

4 kO
Chapter 2, Solution 66
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
f
s
n
n


20 kO/V = sensitivity =

1
1
I
fs
i.e., Ifs = kO / V = 50 A
20
V
The intended resistance Rm =
fs
I
fs
= 10(20kO / V) = 200kO

(a)
R =
V
fs
i
fs

R
m

=
50 V
50 A

200 kO = 800 kO
(b) p = I
2
R = (50 A)
2
(800 kO) = 2 mW
Chapter 2, Solution 67
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
i
v
i
0
=
0
=

(a) By current division,

i0 = 5/(5 + 5) (2 mA) = 1 mA
V0 = (4 kO) i0 = 4 x 10
3
x 10
-3
= 4 V

(b) 4k 6k = 2.4kO. By current division,
'
5
0
1 + 2.4 + 5

(2mA) = 1.19 mA
'
= (2.4 kO)(1.19 mA) = 2.857 V


v v
'


1.143
(c) % error =
0 0
x 100% =
v
0

x100 = 28.57%
4
(d) 4k 36 kO = 3.6 kO. By current division,
'
5
0
1 + 3.6 + 5

(2mA) = 1.042mA
v
'
(3.6 kO)(1.042 mA) = 3.75V

% error =
v v
'

0
x100% =
v
0


0.25x100
4

= 6.25%
Chapter 2, Solution 68
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

(a) 40 = 24 60O
i =
4

16 + 24

= 100 mA

(b) i
'
=
4
16 + 1 + 24

= 97.56 mA

(c) % error =
0.1 0.09756
x100% = 2.44%

0.1
Chapter 2, Solution 69
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
V

With the voltmeter in place,

V
0
=
R
2
R
m

S
R
1
+ R
S
+ R
2
R
m

where Rm = 100 kO without the voltmeter,
R
2

V
0
=
V
S
R
1
+ R
2
+ R
S



(a) When R2 = 1 kO, R
m


100
R =
100
kO
2
101
V0 =
101
100
+ 30

101
1

(40) =

1.278 V (with)
V0 =
1 + 30
(40) = 1.29 V (without)

1000
(b) When R2 = 10 kO, R
2


9.091
R
m
=
110
= 9.091kO
V0 =
9.091 + 30
10
(40) = 9.30 V (with)
V0 =
10 + 30
(40) = 10 V (without)
(c) When R2 = 100 kO, R
2
R
m
= 50kO

V
0
=
50
50 + 30
100

(40) = 25 V (with)
V0 =
100 + 30
(40) = 30.77 V (without)
Chapter 2, Solution 70
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


(a) Using voltage division,
v =
12
(25) = 15V
a
12 + 8
v =
10
(25) = 10V
b
10 + 15
v
ab
= v
a
v
b
= 15 10 = 5V


(b) c



+ 8k O 15k O
25 V
a b

12k O 10k O




va = 0; vac = (8/(8+12))25 = 10V; vcb = (15/(15+10))25 = 15V.

vab = vac + vcb = 10 + 15 = 5V.
vb = vab = 5V.
Chapter 2, Solution 71
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
V
i 1

R
1


i
L


+
s

R
L




Given that vs = 30 V, R1 = 20 O, IL = 1 A, find RL.



v = i

( R + R )


R =
v
s
R =
30
20 = 10O
s L 1 L L 1
L
Chapter 2, Solution 72
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Converting the delta subnetwork into wye gives the circuit below.

1



1





+
10 V
_


Z
in
1







Z =
1
+ (1+
1
) //(1+
1
) =
1
+
1
(
4
) = 1 O
in
3 3 3 3 2 3


V
o
=
Z
in
1+ Z
in


(10) =
1
1+1

(10) = 5 V
Chapter 2, Solution 73
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

By the current division principle, the current through the ammeter will be
one-half its previous value when

R = 20 + Rx
65 = 20 + Rx Rx = 45 O
Chapter 2, Solution 74
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

With the switch in high position,

6 = (0.01 + R3 + 0.02) x 5 R3 = 1.17 O

At the medium position,

6 = (0.01 + R2 + R3 + 0.02) x 3 R2 + R3 = 1.97

or R2 = 1.97 - 1.17 = 0.8 O

At the low position,

6 = (0.01 + R1 + R2 + R3 + 0.02) x 1 R1 + R2 + R3 = 5.97
R1 = 5.97 - 1.97 = 4 O
Chapter 2, Solution 75
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Converting delta-subnetworks to wye-subnetworks leads to the circuit below.
1

1

1
1


1 1

1




1






1
+ (1+
1
) //(1+
1
) =
1
+
1
(
4
) = 1
3 3 3 3 2 3
With this combination, the circuit is further reduced to that shown below.




1 1
1

1
1 1





Z = 1+
1
+ (1+
1
) //(1+
1
) = 1+1 = 2 O
ab
3 3 3

Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
1
Chapter 2, Solution 76
Zab= 1 + 1 = 2 O
Chapter 2, Solution 77
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


(a) 5 O = 10 10 = 20 20 20 20

i.e., four 20 O resistors in parallel.

(b) 311.8 = 300 + 10 + 1.8 = 300 + 20 20 + 1.8
i.e., one 300O resistor in series with 1.8O resistor and
a parallel combination of two 20O resistors.

(c) 40kO = 12kO + 28kO = (24 24k ) + (56k 56k)
i.e., Two 24kO resistors in parallel connected in series with two
56kO resistors in parallel.

(a) 42.32kO = 42l + 320
= 24k + 28k = 320
= 24k = 56k 56k + 300 + 20
i.e., A series combination of a 20O resistor, 300O resistor,
24kO resistor, and a parallel combination of two 56kO
resistors.
Chapter 2, Solution 78
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

The equivalent circuit is shown below:

R



VS
+
-
+
V
0
(1-o)R
-



V0 =
(1 o)R
V
R + (1 o)R
S


=
1 o
V
2 o
S



V
0
=
1 o
V
S
2 o
Chapter 2, Solution 79
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual


Since p = v
2
/R, the resistance of the sharpener is
R = v
2
/(p) = 6
2
/(240 x 10
-3
) = 150O
I = p/(v) = 240 mW/(6V) = 40 mA
Since R and Rx are in series, I flows through both.
IRx = Vx = 9 - 6 = 3 V
Rx = 3/(I) = 3/(40 mA) = 3000/(40) = 75 O
Chapter 2, Solution 80
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual
2
2 1

The amplifier can be modeled as a voltage source and the loudspeaker as a resistor:



V + V +
-
R1
-
R2

Case 1 Case 2


Hence p =
V
, p
2
=
R
1
p =
R
1
p =
10
(12) =

30 W
R p
1
R
2
R
2
4
Chapter 2, Solution 81
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

Let R1 and R2 be in kO.

R
eq
= R
1
+ R
2
5 (1)

V
0
=

V
S

5 R
2

5 R
2
+ R
1


(2)


From (1) and (2), 0.05 =
5 R
1


2 = 5 R
2
=
5R
2


or R2 = 3.333 kO
40
From (1), 40 = R1 + 2 R1 = 38 kO
5 + R
2


Thus,

R1 = 38 kO, R2 = 3.333 kO
Chapter 2, Solution 82
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

(a)
10 O




10 O
40 O

80 O

1 2


R
12

50
R12 = 80 + 10 (10 + 40) = 80 +
6

= 88.33 O

(b)




10 O


3
20 O

40 O
10 O
R
13



80 O

1

R13 = 80 + 10 (10 + 40) + 20 = 100 + 10 50 = 108.33 O

(c)
4

R
14
20 O
10 O






40 O
10 O


80 O

1


R14 = 80 + 0 (10 + 40 + 10) + 20 = 80 + 0 + 20 = 100 O
Chapter 2, Solution 83
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits Alexander 5th Edition Solutions Manual

The voltage across the fuse should be negligible when compared with 24
V (this can be checked later when we check to see if the fuse rating is
exceeded in the final circuit). We can calculate the current through the
devices.


I1 =
p
1
=

45mW

= 5mA


I2 =
V
1

p
2
=

V
2

9V
480mW
24


= 20mA








+
24 V
-

I
fuse


R1


R2



i
R1

i1 = 5 mA
i2 = 20 mA

i
R2



Let R3 represent the resistance of the first device, we can solve for its value from
knowing the voltage across it and the current through it.

R3 = 9/0.005 = 1,800

This is an interesting problem in that it essentially has two unknowns, R1 and R2 but only
one condition that need to be met and that the voltage across R3 must equal 9 volts.
Since the circuit is powered by a battery we could choose the value of R2 which draws
the least current, R2 = . Thus we can calculate the value of R1 that give 9 volts across
R3.

9 = (24/(R1 + 1800))1800 or R1 = (24/9)1800 1800 = 3 k

This value of R1 means that we only have a total of 25 mA flowing out of the battery
through the fuse which means it will not open and produces a voltage drop across it of
0.05V. This is indeed negligible when compared with the 24-volt source.