Done by : Abdallah Khasawneh End of part 1 ___________________________ The last part of the priodontium is the alveolar bone ,which

is part of maxilla and the mandible that hold the teeth , basically the mandible and the maxilla are formed from 2 types of bone ,there is a difficult to demarcate them exactly . The first One : 1. Alveolar Bone : Embedding the root ,this basically it formed to host the roots and to be able to dynamically function to maintain the teeth in function and it disappears gradually after the tooth lost , and we find this very well in a pt who have complete denture , after 2-3 months the denture become very lose why ?! because the alveolar bone start to resorb ,by the lack of PDL function # The alveolar bone is just to hold the tooth in it’s socket and function to make it vital all the time . It’s composed basically of 2 anatomical description of the bone histologically they are the Same :

1. An external plate of cortical bone formed by haversian bone and compacted bone lamellae . 2. The inner socket wall of thin, compact bone called the alveolar proper which seen as the lamina Dura in radiographs . Histologically , it contain a series of openings (cribriform plate ) through which the neurovascular bundles like the PDL with the central component of the alveolar bone, the cancellous bone . 3. Cancellous trabeculae , between these two component layers which act as supporting alveolar bone. The intradental septum consist of cancellous supportin bone enclosed within a compact border .

Osteoblastes : The cell that produce the organic matrix of bone Osteocytes : enclosed in lacunae , they extend a process into canalicli that radiate from the lacunae and form an anastomosing system through the intercellular matrix of the bone which bring oxygen and

nutrients to the osteocytes through the blood and remove the metabolic waste products . Osteoclaste : Macrophage derived cell and it’s function to resorb . Bone consist of two-thirds inorganic matter and one third organic matter . Organic matrix consist mainly of collagen type 1 (90%) predominant type 3 collagen in cementum .

Interradicualr bone : similar to the interradicuar dentine . Interproximal Bone : bone between the teeth . # The nature of the mandibular bone is stronger than max , thicker cortical bone . Remodeling : is the major pathway of the bony changes in shape, resistance to the force, repair of wounds and calcium and phosphate hemostasis in the body . when the tooth start erupting the socket is generally formed but

more remodeling takes place because you know that when the tooth erupt the apex is not closed so more maturation after take place and this force need adaptation an response from the alveolar bone . and few years after eruption the socket is formed .

it’s similar to cementum but alveolar bone is under more remodeling function because of the normal function ,injures ,fractures nowadays we have a procedure involving placing of implant which need a continuous remodeling of the bone or sometime when we have advanced periodontal diseases . we know that the source of Ca , in the body is bone and it very important to maintain it’s concentration on the body and it’s physiological condition otherwise we will have a cases of increase or decrease Ca concentration on the blood and it’s called ( hypercalcaemia or hypocalcaemia ) and it have a direct function on MSS and heart one of the way’s to

treat hypertension is to block Ca channels to reduce the movement of Ca from inside the cell . we know “ Osteoporotic “ ladies they have a low concentration of Ca and the body drains the ca from the bone , so we have a low quality bone in children rickets is a disease of bone formation and Ca metabolism , regulated by the parathyroid hormone under the function of the parathyroid gland which regulated by pituitary gland under continues dynamic function .

# The integrity of lamina dura is indication of the health ,if this is lost

and the space between the tooth and the bone is increase cause the PDL space it reflex here a dieseas .

Fenestration & Dehiscence : variation of the anatomy of the teeth we cant call them normal . The bone lose can take place in 2 shapes some times when the lose not involve the marginal part of the bone this is called “fenestration”: part of the root is not covered by the bone is only by gingiva some times it may be due to normal position of the tooth . But when the marginal bone involved we call it “Dehiscence” (most of the time it’s pathologic ) . # when the attachment *** of the tooth weaken and the tooth start to migrate under function and occlusion this migration produce some pressure or extra function or occlusion trauma so the tooth will start to migrate to avoid the pressure and this Migration applies pressure on the marginal bone so it resorb and the tooth escape the occl forces . Done by : Heba Radaideh 

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