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ENERGY CONSERVATION

AND

FIRE SAFETY
Date of creation:-22/03/2011

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IMPORTANCE OF ENERGY CONSERVATION Energy is a scarce resource and the increment in energy cost is too steep. In present scenario, competitive pricing strategy has become a vital option for survival of a commercial organization. To cut price, the cost of production needs to be reduced and with steep increase in energy cost, it has become one of the most important cost components of production in any type of industry. So, cost reduction in energy or in other words reduction in energy consumption is of prime importance for survival of an industry.

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ENERGY CONSERVATION MEASURES IN BSNL

Following measures are to be implemented which have been classified as: A. A.No No cost measures B. B.Low Low cost measures C. C.High High cost measures

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NO COST MEASURES
1. CMD rationalisation 2. Power Factor Improvement 3. Switch off Stand by Transformer 4. Thermostat Adjustment 5. Isolate nonnon-AC area 6. Reduce excess illumination 7. Switch off lights in unmanned area
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Power Factor Improvement

3/11/2011

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The diagram above indicates a beer mug or aerated drink analogy to understand power factor. While pouring the bottle in to the glass, the higher the foam content in the glass, lesser will be the amount of usable liquid / drink in the glass. The foam here indicates reactive energy and thus higher foam content implies poor power factor or inefficient utilization of the drink. Power Factor= Active Power / (Active Power + Reactive Power) = KW / (KW + KVAR) = Brink / (Brink + Foam)
3/11/2011 For internal circulation of BSNLonly

The advantages of power factor improvement are: Improvement in voltage regulation.

Higher power output can be obtained with the same transformer.

Reduction in power loss in transformer.

Reduction of current carrying rating of cables and switchgears. Reduction in power loss in distribution cables.

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LOW COST MEASURES


1. 1.Condenser Condenser stopping with compressor 2. 2.Free Free cooling 3. 3.LED LED indications in panels 4. 4.After After office hour lighting 5. 5.Temperature Temperature setting /Thermostat change

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6. Electronic Ballast 7. Energy efficient lighting 8. Condenser reorientation 9. Automatic volume control damper 10. Common area lighting 11. Use of level controllers in pumps.
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HIGH COST MEASUERS

LT to HT CONVERSION AUTOMATIC & REMOTE MONITORING

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NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY METHODS

a) a)SOLAR SOLAR WATER heating systems in all existing as well as new hostels,canteens and inspection quarters. b) Existing solar panel spared from MARR station shall be utilized for supplying lighting and all other possible loads.
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water recycling should be done by installing sewage treatment plants in all major buildings by PCE (E) / CE (E) in consultation with CGMs.

c) Waste

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ACTIVITIES FOR CREATING AWARENESS AND PROMOTING ENERGY CONSERVATION IN BSNL

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USING HIGH SENSIBLE HEAT FACTOR AC UNITS

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ENRGY CONSERVATION ACT 2001

It is a regulatory act enacted by the Government and the board objective is To promote efficient use of energy and its conservation through certain statutory measures to promote conservation of energy and facilitate its efficient use.
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ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELLING A Star rating between 1 star and 5 stars is given to equipment based on its energy efficiency and power consumption. The Five star rating is given to the most efficient equipment and One star to the least efficient. This scheme has been presently launched for Frost-free refrigerators, Window/ Split AC lamps, induction units, Fluorescent Tubular motors and transformers. More products are being covered by Star labeling .
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ENERGY AUDIT
Energy Audit is a tool to identify areas where excess energy consumption or wastage of energy is taking place.

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Unit of Electrical Energy (KWh) One unit of electricity means using one Kilo watt (KW) or 1OOO Watt for one hour. 1 UNIT= 1 KW x 1 HOUR = 1 KWh = 1OOO W x 1 HOUR
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EER of an Air-conditioner
EER is the Ratio between Cooling Capacity of AC Unit (in BTU/hr or Kcal/Hr) and Power input to AC Unit in Watts EER = Cooling Output / Power input in Watts

The conversion factor for calculating cooling capacity is 1 TR (or 1 Ton) = 12OOO BTU/Hr = 3O24 Kcal/Hr For a 1.5 Ton AC consuming 2OOO Watts power, EER will be calculated as:

EER (BTU/Hr-W)= (1.5 x 12OOO) / 2OOO = 9.O EER (Kcal/Hr-W)= (1.5 x 3O24) / 2OOO = 2.27

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FIRE SAFETY

FIRE TAKES PLACE DUE TO 3 INGREIENTS

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3 Factors are essential for combustion namely: i) The presence of fuel, or combustible substances. ii) ii)The The presence of OXYGEN. iii) iii)Attainment Attainment and maintenance of a certain minimum temperature.
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FIRE EXTINCTION
FIRE EXTINCTION consists in the limitation or elimination of one or more of these factors and the methods of extinguishing fire may be classified under the following headings: i) Starvation (Removal of fuel). ii) ii)Smothering/ Smothering/ Blanketing (or removal of the oxygen) iii) iii)Cooling Cooling
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CLASSES OF FIRE & EXTINGUISHING AGENT

CLASS A FIRE CLASS B FIRE CLASS C FIRE CLASS D FIRE ELECTRICAL FIRE

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CLASS A FIRE
Fires involving solid combustible materials of organic nature such as wood, paper plastics etc. Here cooling effect of water is essential for extinction of fires. Effective extinguishing agent is generally water in the form of jet or spray.
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CLASS B FIRE
FIRES involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids. Here blanketing effect is necessary. Extinguishing Agents : foam , dry powder,and carbon dioxide.

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CLASS C FIRE
Fires involving flammable gases under pressure including liquefied gases. Here it is essential to inhibit the burning gas at fast rate. Extinguishing Agents :foam , dry powder and carbon dioxide

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CLASS D FIRE
FIRES involving combustible metals such as magnesium , aluminum , zinc ,sodium. Dry Powder for metal fire are the special extinguishing agent .

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ELECTRICAL FIRE
For this type of fire nonnon-conductivity of the extinguishing media is of utmost importance and only extinguishers expelling dry powder , carbon dioxide should be used.

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FIRE PREVENTION & SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS

A committee was formed for thorough examination of cases of fires in telecom buildings and to suggest measures to avoid such incidents in future. Subsequently detailed instructions have been issued on precautions against fire incidents in telephone exchanges / buildings.

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MAJOR CAUSES OF FIRE


1. 1.Short Short circuit in switching racks 2. 2.Overloading Overloading in DC power cables 3. 3.Storage Storage of hazardous materials. 4. 4.Improper Improper maintenance of electrical safety devices.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Automatic fire detection system and alarm. Fire extinguishers Wet risers in building more than 15mtr in height. Follow fire protection manual.

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PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Automatic fire detection system and alarm Fire extinguishers Wet risers in building more than 15 mtr in height. Disposal of unusable furnitures . To create awareness , fire safety day should be observed. A non exchange line to the nearest fire station should be provided.

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THANK YOU

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