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**Construction and Building Materials
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

**Grey relational-regression analysis for hot mix asphalt design
**

Jia-chong Du a,⇑, Ming-Feng Kuo b,1

a b

Department of Construction Technology, Tungnan University, No. 152, Sec. 3, PeiShen Rd., ShenKeng, Taipei County 22202, Taiwan Department of Safety Health and Environment Engineering, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Before pavement construction, the optimum asphalt content (OAC) of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) must be determined by a mix design. OAC is determined by analyzing six ﬁgures developed from the mix design data. However, test data, which depend on materials and equipment, are complex that may cause unsmooth curves of the six ﬁgures and, thus, trend line of regression is needed for correction. Pavement engineers tend to agree that OAC determined is not easy and time-consuming to computerize. In this study, an algorithm of the grey relational-regression analysis (GRRA) for HMA is discussed. The concept of GRRA based on grey system theory and polynomial regression is introduced and the equation is derived as well. To identify the analysis algorithm, examples of the asphalt mixture are tested for comparison. The results show that this algorithm is very effective. The algorithm of GRRA can be considered as an alternative to HMA design analysis. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 16 April 2009 Received in revised form 28 November 2010 Accepted 7 December 2010 Available online 7 January 2011 Keywords: Grey system theory Polynomial regression analysis Hot mix asphalt

1. Introduction Pavement engineers rely on HMA mix design to determine the appropriate asphalt content to begin ﬁeld construction. Since 1940s, most asphalt concrete produced were designed by using the Marshall mix design method [1]. Although the Superpave (Superior Performing Asphalt Pavement) mix design method for asphalt concrete is new and popular, some countries like Taiwan still use the Marshall mix design method. No matter what design methods are used, the OAC must meet the mixture speciﬁcation requirements for mixture properties such as values of stability, ﬂow, and voids. The traditional analysis method that uses six ﬁgures of the asphalt contents versus the test results of unit weight, stability, ﬂow, air void (VTM), void in mineral aggregate (VMA), and void ﬁlled with asphalt (VFA) to determinate OAC is time-consuming and inefﬁcient. VMA which means that the volume of intergranular void space between the aggregate particles of a compacted paving mixture, and VFA which means the percent of the volume of the VMA that is ﬁlled with asphalt cement. Even though test materials are from the same quarry, the materials may have slightly different properties that cause error in the test data. Hence, the curves of the six ﬁgures following the test data may not be smooth and trend line of regression analysis may be used for correction. In addition, some data or properties relating to the environment and structure may not be clear, and so the materials are grey in nature. Thus, OAC

⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 930 080 595; fax: +886 2 26629583.

E-mail addresses: cctu@mail.tnu.edu.tw (J.-c. Du), mfkuo@chtai.ctc.edu.tw (M.-F. Kuo). 1 Tel.: +886 4 22391647 8350; fax: +886 4 2239 9934. 0950-0618/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.12.011

is not easy to be determined and the process of this method is difﬁcult to computerize. Based on above statements, the development of an analysis tool for OAC determination is needed. In this study, grey system theory is a technique adapted to determine the OAC. The grey system theory focuses on uncertain systems with the characteristics of partially known information [2–4]. Since the grey system theory was proposed in 1982, it has been widely utilized in many ﬁelds to deal with uncertain systems through use of the technologies of grey relational analysis (GRA) and grey modeling prediction which are two of major parts of the grey system theory. Application examples of the grey modeling prediction are grain yields [5], epidemic diseases [6], pavement performance forecasting [7], earthquake-caused vegetation recovery [8], pavement permanent deformation prediction model [9], cold inplace recycling pavement rutting prediction model [10], pavement smoothness prediction [11], and grey system for estimating the pavement international roughness index [12]. Examples that explicitly address the application of GRA in the ﬁeld of pavement are HMA with reclaimed building materials [13], gap-graded aggregate mixtures design [14], pavement materials selection by grey relational grade [15], and case study on evaluation of ﬂexible pavement [16]. All the papers using the GRA are concerned about the optimum selection or best choice of material and pavement properties. The GRA is able to determine the best value at the existing discrete data, but it cannot determine the continue function whose optimum value may occur nearby the discrete data. Generally, using GRA with second order polynomial regression analysis is one of the methods for the continue function to determine the optimum value. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a HMA analysis method by grey relational-regression method (GRRA), based on

. The properties of crushed river stone aggregate are shown in Table 1. 2. coarse Bulk speciﬁc gravity. ð0Þ ð0Þ xm ðkÞ xm ð1Þ 2 ð0Þ 3 2 ð0Þ x0 ð2Þ . Grey relational generating A reference sequence and comparative sequences can be represented as ð 0Þ and xi ðkÞ. x0 ðnÞ ð 0Þ ð0Þ 3 7 ð 0Þ ð0Þ x1 ð2Þ . For convenient computation in GRA. is deﬁned as c0i ðkÞ ¼ Dmin þ nDmax D0i ðkÞ þ nDmax ð 7Þ where n 2 [0. the GRA is to analyze the relation with incomplete information The GRA is deﬁned by quantiﬁcation all inﬂuences of various factors and their relation. 4 . .-F. The xm ðnÞ is represented by the percents of the asphalt contents in this study. GRA is a method to describe the relative variance of factors during system development. Therefore. The GRA is essentially believed to capture the relationship between the main factor and other factors in a system. . 0Þ 0Þ C0i ¼ A xð þ B xð m ðnÞ m ðnÞ þ C ð0Þ xm ðnÞ ð 0Þ Â Ã2 Â Ã ð 9Þ where A. Examples of mixture design analysis by the GRRA and traditional method are presented for comparison. 2. The purpose of the generating the each data value of the sequence between 0 and 1 is to reduce the effect of relational grade in sequences due to the great difference values between maximum and minimum. Grey relational coefﬁcient Through the GRG. During the processes of system development. . 2. where i ¼ 1. (7).6 2012 20.1. 2.5. .A. as shown in Table 2. which is called the whitening of factor relation [17]. (1) may have different scales and. generally. A normalization process is applied to transform the data into a uniform scale called data preprocessing or grey relational generating (GRG). n.53 xi ðkÞ ¼ ð 1Þ xi ðkÞ h i ð0Þ max xi ðkÞ ð0Þ ð2Þ (2) normalized by special value as ð 1Þ xi ðkÞ ð0Þ h i ð0Þ min xi ðkÞ. Then. x1 ðnÞ 7 7 ð 0Þ ð0Þ x2 ð2Þ . Properties Bulk speciﬁc gravity. the modiﬁed sequence becomes a comparable sequence. . as regardless whether this system is known or not.-c. the GRA could be used for measured approximation relationship between sequences. Thus.2628 J.2. 2. respectively.. is a polynomial function by regression analysis represented as the equation below. which is called the grade of the relation. Methodology of GRRA 2. 7 . a grey relational coefﬁcient. xi ðkÞ is the ith row and kth value of the original sequence after GRG. all of the values fall within the range of speciﬁcation. and SV is chosen by special value of ð0Þ xi ðkÞ. The original data series can be then described by the following equation: ð0Þ x0 ðkÞ Dmin ¼ min min D0i ðkÞ i k ð 6Þ Then. the weighting is set the same due to equally important of each factor. In general. a data is set for transferal from an original sequence to a comparable sequence through data preprocessing. The GRA also stands for the approximation measurement by distance between sequences in accordance with the shape of geometric curves. n) has many ways for generating. The aggregate gradation used throughout the study was developed to be at exactly the mid band of the speciﬁcation which satisﬁed the IIId coarse-graded HMA and IVb dense-graded HMA gradation speciﬁcation by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications [18]. . Grey theory deals with a system containing insufﬁcient information or incomplete information.22 0. . m. 1] is called distinguishing coefﬁcient. 2. . M. Du. 2. SV ð1Þ ð3Þ where xi ðkÞ is the ith row and kth value of original sequence. . . In other words. 6 . HMA mixture design 3. 2.67 – – Crushed river stone 2. . otherwise. optimum speciﬁc item (OSI) of the comparative sequences can be obtained by mathematical differential as following: dC 0 i dxm ðnÞ Then ð 0Þ ¼0 ð10Þ x0 ðkÞ x0 ð1Þ 6 ð0Þ 7 6 0Þ 6 x1 ðkÞ 7 6 xð 6 7 6 1 ð1Þ 6 ð0Þ 7 6 ð0Þ X ð0Þ ðkÞ ¼ 6 x2 ðkÞ 7 ¼ 6 x2 ð1Þ 6 7 6 6 . Asphalt cement of AC-10 Table 1 The properties of crushed river stone aggregate. Therefore. . GRG ð1 Þ represented as xi ðkÞ (where i ¼ 1. GRA is interpreted by the measure of absolute value of the data difference between sequences.3. Aggregate and binder Crushed river stone used as aggregate was obtained from a local quarry and hydrated lime as mineral ﬁller was from a commercial source. are not directly comparable. . respectively. . .5 and D0i(k) is the dominant of c0i(k) based on Eq. xm ðnÞ ð 0Þ ð0Þ ð1Þ 0Þ OSI ¼ xð m ðnÞ ¼ À B 2A ð11Þ As data which are set in Eq. is a grey system [17]. The difference values between the reference sequence and comparative sequences transferred by data preprocessing are represented as 1Þ ð1Þ D0i ðkÞ ¼ jxð 0 ðkÞ À xi ðkÞj ð4Þ Their maximum and minimum values are in the following manner: Dmax ¼ max max D0i ðkÞ i k ð5Þ . 7 . 2. Two types of data preprocessing are available for this study: (1) normalized by maximum value as 3. Generally. Grey relational grade A grey relational grade is obtained from a weighting-sum of grey relational coefﬁcient as described the following equation: C 0i ¼ n X k¼1 n X k ¼1 bk c0i ðkÞ ð 8Þ bk ¼ 1 The grey relational grade of C0i indicates the magnitude of correlation measurement between the reference sequence and comparative sequences. ﬁne Absorption (%) Unit weight (kg/cm3) L. . . . c0i(k).4. which takes the ranking of the relation into account. abrasion (%) Sodium soundness (5 cycles) (%) Elongated (%) Flat (%) Rounded index Shape factor (%) Speciﬁcation – – – – <40 <12 >0. As can be seen. . SV h i ¼ ð0Þ max xi ðkÞ. x2 ðnÞ 7 7 7 .. A GRA model is a kind of impact measurement model taking the measurements of relations that change in two systems or between two elements within the system in time. . 5 xm ð2Þ . B and C are constant by regression and is a speciﬁc item of the comð0Þ parative sequences. . the analysis method.67 >0. is established upon the degree of similarity or difference of the developmental trends among the elements to measure the degree of relation. wherein the trend of changes between two elements should be consistent. .52 0. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 and grey theory and polynomial regression.68 0. xi ðkÞ. . .655 2. The concept of the GRRA is introduced and the equation is derived as well. 5 4 . Grey relational analysis A system which contains insufﬁcient and sufﬁcient information called ‘‘black’’ and ‘‘white’’. therefore. . a higher grade of synchronized change can be considered to have a greater ranking. the grade of relation would be smaller. k ¼ 1.1. .69 0. . m and k ¼ 1. Polynomial regression analysis The distribution of C0i in each sequence.2 9. .516 0. set as 0. .

1 16.6 62. the procedure included in the ASTM D1559 can be performed on the mixture.2 2. from the six graphical illustrations. 13 AI MS-2 methodb 4. Du. GRRA method to determinate OAC 4.5 23. (2) asphalt content versus Marshall stability.J. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 Table 2 IIId and IVb aggregate gradation.5 40 27.30 12556.5 6. two traditional analysis methods are commonly to use.075 IIId speciﬁcation percent passing (%) 100 75–100 – 45–70 30–50 20–35 5–20 3–12 2–8 0–4 As processed (%) 100 87.3 85.5 4.05 10251. Basic hypothesis The overall procedure for mixture design always begins with acceptance tests performed on the aggregate and asphalt cement considered for the design. 1.0 Min.90 10065.1 3–5 VMA (%) 13.3% for IIId coarse-graded HMA and 5.5% Flow (1/100 cm) 21 23. the values of the stability.45 9417.2 87.0 12.2% for IIId coarse-graded and IVb dense-graded HMA.6 13.30 0. 8000 GRRM method 5.9 13. ﬂow.5 4. Asphalt cement properties AC-10 Speciﬁcation Penetration (1/100 cm) Speciﬁc gravity (25 °C) Softening point (°C) Ductility (25 °C) Viscosity (60 °C. Then. unit weight curve and 4% VTM curve for IIId coarse-graded and IVb dense-graded HMA.4 81. M. That asphalt content is then used to determine the values for Marshall stability. Each value is compared against the speciﬁcation value for that property and if all values are within the speciﬁcation range.60 0.0 5.25 Min.5 12 7 2629 (3) (4) (5) (6) asphalt asphalt asphalt asphalt content content content content versus versus versus versus Marshall ﬂow. 3.5 4. and VFA.5 5 2 IVb speciﬁcation percent passing (%) 100 100 80–100 70–90 50–70 35–50 18–29 12–23 8–16 4–10 As processed (%) 100 100 90 80 60 42. respectively.-F.6% VFA (%) 59. 70 Testing 93 1. If the acceptance tests on the aggregates and asphalt cement pass.5 9.08 81 was obtained from a commercial petroleum company. Thus.3 Min.60 Min. As shown in Fig.80 11281.03 42 112 1120 3.2% are all within the speciﬁcation range. .5 14. Table 3 Test results of asphalt cement properties. poise) Flash point (°C) Solubility (%) Loss on heating (%) Penetration of residue (%) 85–100 – 40–60 Min. are conﬁrmed. the OACs at 4.8 74.-c.75 2.5 Speciﬁcation Optimum asphalt content Unit weight (kg/m3) 2350 2355 2370 2351 2360 – NAPA methoda 4.5 5.15 0. 99.2 2. The test results and six graphical illustrations are shown in Table 4 and Fig.6% and 5.58 Min.2 17.1 3–5 VMA (%) 17.25 13537.8 3. respectively.80 12998. Mix design and analysis Following the ASTM D1559 HMA design procedure with 75 blows on each side of the cylindrical samples.3% and 5.60 0.3 3. Asphalt content IIId coarse aggregate gradation 3. Method 1 (National Asphalt Pavement Association.5 7.6% Flow (1/100 cm) 24 31 35 37 41 20–40 VTM (%) 5. NAPA method): the OAC is determined by ﬁrst ﬁnding the asphalt content which corresponds to the VTM of 4%.8 17 17.1.36 0.50 Min. AI MS-2 and GRRM method. maximum unit weight. 219 Min. 1.58 309 99.0 4. The properties of these materials are shown in Table 3. the asphalt content at 4% VTM is the optimum [19].5 12.3 70–80 Stability (N) 7749. Sieve size (mm) 25. 2. 14 AI MS-2 methodb 5.0 76. Reference (AI [20]). Method 2 (Asphalt Institute. VMA.8 70–80 Stability (N) 12066.4% determined by the average values of the asphalt contents at the peak of stability curve.2 4.7 27 29 20–40 Reference (NAPA [19]). the asphalt content at 4% VTM is 4. 8000 GRRM method 4. 4.06 10840. AI method): the asphalt contents are selected by the maximum stability. Following the procedure of the method 2. ﬂow and VFA from each of the above plots. poise) Viscosity (135 °C. and 4% VTM.2% a b VTM (%) 5.9 3.5 – 57.1 3.6 76. The three asphalt contents selected are averaged to determine the OAC. respectively.5 17. The major steps involved Table 4 OAC determined by NAPA.2% for IVb dense-graded HMA.1 12.9 77. the asphalt contents at 4.0 Max 1.0 5.3% AC IVb dense aggregate gradation 4.0 6. VTM.4% VFA (%) 69. VFA and VMA at the asphalt contents of 4.5 5. VMA.4 19.5 Speciﬁcation Optimum asphalt content Unit weight (kg/m3) 2301 2309 2322 2315 2305 – NAPA methoda 5.3% and 5.2. Following the procedure of the method 1. The properties of the mixture at average value must be evaluated to ensure that speciﬁcation requirements are met [20]. 100 1000 ± 200 Min. three samples with each asphalt content were tested and the OAC of HMA mixture were determined by six ﬁgures as described below: (1) asphalt content versus density (or unit weight).8 25. are the optimum.

and median Marshall ﬂow of the speciﬁcation. (2) and (3) for the maximum and special value. and median Marshall ﬂow of the speciﬁcation} and the comparð0Þ ative sequences xi ðkÞ. at testing ﬁve different asphalt contents. respectively. median VFA of the speciﬁcation. are determined. median void ﬁlled with asphalt (VFA) of the speciﬁcation. is partially chosen from comparative sequences and special ð0Þ value represented by x0 ðkÞ = {maximum unit weight. VFA. maximum void in mineral aggregate (VMA). 4. M. the reference sequence. ð0Þ 3 ð0Þ 2 x0 ðkÞ 2370 6 ð0Þ 7 6 x1 ðkÞ 7 6 2350 6 ð0Þ 7 6 6 x2 ðkÞ 7 6 2355 7 6 X ð0 Þ ð k Þ ¼ 6 6 xð0Þ ðkÞ 7 ¼ 6 2370 7 6 6 3 6 ð0Þ 7 4 2351 4 x4 ðkÞ 5 2360 ð0Þ x5 ðkÞ 2 4:0 5:5 4:9 3:1 3:2 2:1 14:3 13:6 13:1 12:9 13:5 14:3 75:0 59:6 62:6 76:0 76:3 85:3 10840:05 7749:90 10065:06 10840:05 10251:45 9417:60 3 30 24 7 7 31 7 7 35 7 7 37 5 41 ð12Þ 2. 4% VTM. stability. VTM. (b) Marshall specimen preparation and theoretical maximum speciﬁc gravity test. The sequences are modiﬁed by Eq. Du. and (e) OAC determination. and comparative sequences. 1. Data are pre-proceed by Eqs. 3 ð1 Þ x0 ð k Þ 6 ð1 Þ 7 6 x1 ð k Þ 7 6 ð1 Þ 7 6 x2 ð k Þ 7 ð1Þ 7 X ðkÞ ¼ 6 6 xð 1 Þ ð k Þ 7 7 6 3 6 ð1 Þ 7 4 x4 ð k Þ 5 ð1 Þ x ðk Þ 2 5 1:0000 1:0000 6 0:9916 0:7273 6 6 0:9937 0:8163 ¼6 6 1:0000 0:7750 6 4 0:9920 0:8000 0:9958 0:5250 2 1:0000 0:9510 0:9161 0:9021 0:9441 1:0000 1:0000 0:7941 0:8346 0:9872 0:9830 0:8791 1:0000 0:7149 0:9285 1:0000 0:9457 0:8688 3 1:0000 0:8000 7 7 0:9677 7 7 0:8571 7 7 0:8108 5 0:7317 3. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 in performing a mixture design analysis begin with (a) source acceptance tests in aggregate and asphalt cement evaluation. x0 ðkÞ. ð0Þ x0 ðkÞ. Reference data selection and analysis From the test.-F. The algorithm of GRRA is shown in Fig.2630 J. and Marshall ﬂow. (d) stability and ﬂow test. and the data of the IIId coarsegraded HMA presented in Table 4 are selected for demonstration as following steps: 1. where i = 1–5 is represented by the values of unit weight. the variable of each element for reference sequence is set by the maximum density. 2. VMA. maximum VMA. 4% air voids (VTM). maximum stability. Thus. The reference sequence.2. Graphical illustrations of IIId coarse-graded and IVb dense-graded HMA design data by Marshall method. (c) density and void analysis. maximum stability.-c. . respectively. Fig. ð0Þ xi ðkÞ. (4).

2 17.5% 2301 2309 2322 2315 2305 x0 ðkÞ = reference sequence. Sequence ð0Þ x0 ðkÞ Unit weight (kg/m3) k=1 2322 VTM (%) k=2 4 5.0% AC = 5.3 3. ð0Þ ð0Þ . (8).5% AC = 6. Grey relational grade is produced by Eq.8 74. C0i ¼ À0:1408ð%ACÞ2 þ 1:2912ð%ACÞ À 2:1604 Fig. c0i(k). (7).80 11281.8 25.8 3.8 Stability (N) k=5 13537. The xm ðnÞ are represented as the asphalt contents.J.25 VFA (%) k=4 75 69.50 Flow (1/100 cm) k=6 30 21 23.7 27 29 xi ðkÞ ð0Þ i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 AC = 4. 2.30 12556. Dmax ¼ max max D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:4750 i k ð15Þ ð16Þ Dmin ¼ min min D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:0000 i k c01 ðkÞ 6 c02 ðkÞ 7 7 Dmin þ nDmax 6 c0i ðkÞ ¼ ¼ 6 c03 ðkÞ 7 7 D0i ðkÞ þ nDmax 6 4 c ðkÞ 5 04 c05 ðkÞ 0:9657 6 0:9740 6 ¼6 6 1:0000 4 0:9673 0:9825 2 0:4655 0:5639 0:5135 0:5429 0:3333 0:8291 0:7389 0:7081 0:8094 1:0000 0:5357 0:5895 0:9490 0:9332 0:6627 0:4545 0:7686 1:0000 0:8139 0:6441 2 3 3 0:5429 0:8804 7 7 0:6244 7 7 0:5566 5 0:4696 ð17Þ 5. OAC found by polynomial function of the regression of equation ð0Þ from Eqs. (9)–(11).8 17 17.-F.-c. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 2631 D01 ðkÞ D02 ðkÞ 7 6 7 6 ð1 Þ ð1Þ 7 D0i ðkÞ ¼ x0 ðkÞ À xi ðkÞ ¼ 6 6 D03 ðkÞ 7 4 D04 ðkÞ 5 D05 ðkÞ 2 0:0084 0:2727 0:0490 0:2059 6 0:0063 0:1837 0:0839 0:1654 6 ¼6 6 0:0000 0:2250 0:0979 0:0128 4 0:0080 0:2000 0:0559 0:0170 0:0042 0:4750 0:0000 0:1209 2 3 0:2851 0:0715 0:0000 0:0543 0:1312 3 0:2000 0:0323 7 7 0:1429 7 7 0:1892 5 0:2683 ð14Þ 4.4 81.25 17.80 12066.0% AC = 6. Algorithm of GRRA for OAC computation. Du. xi ðkÞ = comparative sequences.5% AC = 5. M.2 4. 3 6 P c01 ðkÞ 7 6 7 6 k¼ 1 7 6 6 7 2 6P 3 7 6 0:6322 c ð k Þ 02 7 6 7 7 6 6 k¼ 1 7 6 0:7526 7 6 6 n X 7 7 6 P 16 ¼6 0:7991 7 C0 i ¼ bk c0i ðkÞ ¼ 6 c03 ðkÞ 7 7 6 7 6 6 6 k¼ 1 7 7 6 k¼ 1 7 4 0:7706 5 6 6 7 6P 6 c04 ðkÞ 7 0:6820 7 6 7 6 k¼ 1 7 6 6 5 4P c05 ðkÞ 2 k¼ 1 ð18Þ 6.80 12998.2 87. ð19Þ Table 5 Reference and comparative sequence set up for IVb dense-graded HMA.2 2.25 13537. Each element of grey relational coefﬁcient.9 77.1 16. AC = asphalt content. is created by Eq.1 VMA (%) k=3 17.

Item ð1Þ x0 ðkÞ Unit weight (kg/m3) k=1 1.88 12365. the OAC may locate between 5.8333 Flow (1/100 cm) k=6 1.0000 0. VFA and ﬂow. 8000 Flow (1/100 cm) 28 30 33 33 36 38 20–40 GRRM method 6.0698 0.5% 6% 6.9500 0. C0i ¼ 6 k¼1 6 .0% of asphalt contents. 3 and 5.9000 0.9879 0.89 2289.7037 0.-c.8487 0.-F.0000 0.0087 0.7265 0.0 74. the data used for reference sequence are selected from the comparative sequence at the maximum values of unit weight. Table 7 HMA mixture design data.96 12498. Du.49 2281.1 3–5 NAPA methoda 6. In Fig. and the median values of the speciﬁcation of the VTM.0056 0.9% a b VMA (%) 18.8223 0.0725 0. Reference (AI [20]). (2) for k = 1.4 18.2000 0.2067 0.0000 0.46 2259.0090 0.2632 J.8261 0.8769 AC = 4. 15 VFA (%) 55.9970 0. The OAC determined by the GRRA is presented in Table 5.6% Reference (NAPA [19]).3 18.8563 1.8000 0.2308 0.9913 0. The reference and comparative sequence are set up as following Fig.1433 0.0029 0. M. 2.0000 0.5% P6 k¼1 c03 ðkÞ 0.0261 0.5 5.5% P6 k¼1 c01 ðkÞ 0. Dmax ¼ max max D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:4750 c01 ðkÞ c02 ðkÞ c03 ðkÞ c04 ðkÞ c05 ðkÞ C0i 0.76 12320.7 3.9647 0. In Table 6.6 19. The maximum and minimum of the D0i(k) are represented by Dmin and Dmax.0000 0.9739 0.4419 0.7312 0. respectively.5% P6 k¼1 c01 ðkÞ 0. 3.7000 0.0030 0.4750 0.5250 VMA (%) k=3 1. 3.44 11653.7662 0. shows that the maximum values of grey relational grade occurred in between 5.7574 0. P c0i ðkÞ the grey relational grade.6192 AC = 6.7265 dC0i ¼ 2ðÀ0:1408Þð%ACÞ þ 1:2912 ¼ 0 ) OAC dð%ACÞ ¼ ð%AC Þ ¼ 4:6% ð20Þ Fig. (3) for k = 2 and 4 ð1Þ ð1Þ are represented by x0 ðkÞ for reference sequence and xi ðkÞ for comparative sequences.0000 0.7692 0. the polynomial function of the regression is calculated and the OAC located at 5.8540 Stability (N) k=5 1.0000 0.0% of asphalt contents.0698 0.0073 i k 0.9919 0.7% Stability (N) 11253. the IVb dense-graded HMA was analyzed by the GRRA method in table rather than matrixes.5429 0.48 – VTM (%) 8.0145 0.5347 0.9855 1.7933 0. To better understanding.0500 0.9701 AC = 4.6236 0.9275 0.0000 AC = 5.0 70–80 AI MS-2 methodb 6. and Eq.9601 1.2 7.0761 0.5% 7% 7.0000 0.9770 1.5% P6 k¼1 c05 ðkÞ 0.1000 0. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 Table 6 GRG (normalized by maximum value and special value) and grey relational grade for IVb dense-graded HMA.3333 AC = 5.3 18. indicate that the data preprocessing sequences as following Eq.8346 0.0000 0.5% is determined at the maximum value of grey relational grade.0% P6 k¼1 c02 ðkÞ 0. Regression of grey relational grade with asphalt contents.1460 0.9667 ð1Þ xi ðkÞ i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 0.0000 0.1 18. VMA and stability.5% Speciﬁcation Optimum asphalt content Unit weight (kg/m3) 2249.9910 0.07 2281.9981 0.44 11297.9633 0.9010 0.9692 0.4 Min.7729 0.8853 0.0% and 6. The GRRA analysis procedure and results. As can be seen.2 59.9944 1. .6860 0.8 4.92 Min.9239 0.0019 0.0000 0.0% P6 k¼1 c04 ðkÞ 0.1667 0.1087 0.8913 0.48 2287.9875 0.9302 0.7729 0.9971 0.0% and 6.0000 VTM (%) k=2 1.0000 0. shown in Table 6.9927 D0i ðkÞ ¼ jx0 ðkÞ À xi ðkÞj D01 D02 D03 D04 D05 i k ð1Þ ð1Þ 0.5072 0.7 3.3000 0.9425 1.0399 0.0308 0.8567 0.5876 AC = 6.9302 0. Thus.0333 Dmin ¼ min min D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:0000.1 84.3 80.0000 VFA (%) k=4 1. Asphalt content 5% 5.2 68.

0000 0.7874 0.7735 0.5323 AC = 5. M.7 3. Grey information: theory and practical applications. (3) Reference sequence. through the process of the calculation it can be programming and computerized. As can be seen.8% VMA.0093 0.9893 0. The GRRA method for analysis is shown in Table 8.9421 0. 2006. However.1 18.5% 0. 12998.6% for IIId coarse-graded HMA by using the GRRA is the same as the method of AI MS-2.0000 x0 ðkÞ ð1Þ xi ðkÞ ð1Þ i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 i=6 AC = 5% AC = 5. it can be determined more easily and effectively than the others. 4% VTM.9250 0.07 2281.7 (1/100 cm) ﬂow which are within the range of the speciﬁcation requirements of the values of the VTM.0000 VFA (%) k=4 75 55.9004 0. called 9. Sequence ð0Þ x0 ðkÞ 2633 Unit weight (kg/m3) k=1 2289. it is no doubt about the OAC satisﬁed by the speciﬁcation requirements.5487 0.0000 0.0515 0.0000 0.7% and 6.4% VFA. Moreover.5% 0.9993 1. and Marshall stability must be obtained. 3 shows that the OAC is 6. air void. To validate and evaluate the method.-c. The results show that all of the OACs are within the range of the speciﬁcation requirements. respectively. The HMA with 5. one HMA mixture design data.7747 0.7368 0. Systems and control letter.-F.3103 0. there are some points for attention: (1) Materials such as aggregate and asphalt cement must pass acceptance test.0 74. the reference sequence must be set in the maximum unit weight. vol.3 18.9648 0. References [1] Kandhal PS. Before using the GRRA.9% are determined by the method of the NAPA and AI MS-2.0035 0.0915 0.2 7.0637 0.7926 0.0961 Flow (1/100 cm) k=6 30 28 30 33 33 36 38 1.9039 0. the algorithm of GRRA method can be considered as an alternative to OAC determination. before using the GRRA.0933 0. 1987.76 12320.5% AC = 7% AC = 7.1564 0.9433 0.9865 0.8187 0.8% VTM.0107 0.0996 0.4 18.7886 0. stability. which will inﬂuence the results.8436 0. Conclusions An analysis algorithm deﬁned by GRRA method based on grey system theory is conducted to determine OAC.7272 AC = 7% 0. The 5. China: Huzhong University of Science and Technology Press.9433 0.8583 0.9324 0. (8) lie in between 0. Thus. shown in Table 4.7893 0.49 2281.96 12498.0175 0. The six graphics like Fig.7199 0.7360 0.5% OAC for IVb densegraded HMA is slightly higher than both of the values using the NAPA and AI MS-2 methods.7750 0.0133 0. and median Marshall ﬂow of the speciﬁcation.4521 0.49 VTM (%) k=2 4 8. Control preambles of grey systems. [2] Deng JL.6323 0.5% 2249. 16. is selected from the laboratory test in the text book [21].6897 0. the C0i calculated by the Eq. J Assoc Asphalt Paving Tech 1985.3 80.7496 5.5% AC = 6% AC = 6.9867 0.48 2287.5122 0. VFA. Compared with the NAPA and AI MS-2 methods.8361 0. Marshall mix design methods: current practices.5% AC = 7% AC = 7.1489 0. Du. 6.5% AC = 6% AC = 6. New York. to evaluate and conﬁrm validity of the method.2 68.9085 0.0567 0. Evaluation and discussion The results.2107 0.3543 0. the OACs calculated by GRRA are slightly different.9965 0. [4] Liu SF. However. Koehler WS. Wuhan.44 11297.9825 0.6% which are slightly less than the values using the NAPA and AI MS-2 methods.9363 0. [3] Deng JL.8 4.9485 0.9507 0.0007 0. (2) The data about the characteristics of specimen such as density.2250 VMA (%) k=3 19.4924 0.9361 0. Lin Y. and ﬂow.9858 1.8613 1.9313 0.5 5.7 3.0035 i k D0i ðkÞ D01 ðkÞ D02 ðkÞ D03 ðkÞ D04 ðkÞ D05 ðkÞ D06 ðkÞ i k Dmin ¼ min min D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:0000.2640 0. but all of them within the range of the speciﬁcation as shown in Table 7.4878 0.9865 AC = 5% 0.1 1. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 Table 8 GRRM method for 9.5% 0.9973 1.9843 0.0567 0.9330 0. 1982.0000 0.9473 1. Hubei. The basic method for grey system.0000 0.8009 0.0000 0.0000 0.6815 0. 1 are not necessary.9907 0.0000 0. USA: Springer Publishing Company.0750 0.89 2289.0676 0.8324 0.9965 0. as shown in Table 4.5464 AC = 7.54:284–303.5% 0.8583. selected is the most important matter.0000 0.6 19.88 11253. maximum VMA.3 18.1 84.5 mm dense-graded HMA mixture design data.44 11653.92 1.0 1. Thus.6815 and 0. indicate that the OAC of 4.0915 0.0000 0.46 2259.5 mm dense-grade HMA in this study.7329 0.2126 ð0Þ xi ðkÞ i=1 i=2 i=3 i=4 i=5 i=6 AC = 5% AC = 5.2 59. The test results are shown in Table 7 and the OACs of 6.88 12365. three different mixture design example data were tested and selected for application.9588 1.9600 0.7911 0.7368 0.9067 0.5% asphalt content has a 3.9085 0.48 1. Therefore. .5333 0. 77.7050 AC = 6. China. The regression analysis plotted in Fig.4 18.7366 0. It was desired to check the suitability of the GRRA to analyze other HMA mixture design such as different aggregate and asphalt cement type. Dmax ¼ max max D0i ðkÞ ¼ 0:5122 c0i ðkÞ c01 ðkÞ c02 ðkÞ c03 ðkÞ c04 ðkÞ c05 ðkÞ c06 ðkÞ C0i 0. median VFA of the speciﬁcation.8187 0.J.0157 0.0412 0.4667 0. if the GRRA is used.0142 0.4 1.0670 0. 5.3333 0.0000 0.0687 0.0000 0. VMA.6209 0.0000 AC = 6% 0.25(N) stability and 25.8511 0. Marshall ﬂow. maximum stability.8929 0.1071 Stability (N) k=5 12498.

J Grey Syst 1994. mixture design. [12] Yi J. Xie YF.6(6):59–68. Yang JS.17(4):400–6. Application of grey relational analysis to evaluate HMA with reclaimed building materials. Kennedy TW. Chou CH. ASCE J Mater Civil Eng 2005. Mix design methods for asphalt concrete and other hot mix types.1(1):1–24. J Grey Syst 2004.16(2):115–26. Hung C-T. Kuo MF. Lee D-Y. M.2634 J. Cold in-place recycling pavement rutting prediction model using grey modeling method. . 1982. Grey forecast method for advanced pavement performance. NAPA TAS-14. Hot mix asphalt materials. Maryland. Cross SA. Mix design techniques-part I.43:69–95. MS-2. Highway construction and maintenance manual. Grey prediction for notiﬁable diseases. Lexington. Constr Build Mater 2007. [17] Deng JL. Lanham. The selection model of pavement material via grey relational grade. IEEE Int Conf Proc: Syst Man Cyber 2000. [13] Shen DH.1990:1–9. [5] Luo JJ.21(5):921–7. Grey periodic modiﬁed prediction for grain yield. and construction. [10] Du JC. Shen DH. Du JC. Li Qiang. Peng LL. [7] Zhang MJ. 1989. Lanham. [21] Roberts FL. Du. [9] Du JC. Kuo / Construction and Building Materials 25 (2011) 2627–2634 [14] Shen DH. Chang T-C. Chi–Chi earthquake-caused landslide: grey prediction model for pioneer vegetation recovery monitored by satellite images. [19] National Asphalt Pavement Association (NAPA). [6] Wei SR. Shuo L. Non-additive grey relational model: case study on evaluation of ﬂexible pavement. Chen HS.-F. J Grey Syst 1989. J Grey Syst 1991.3(3):221–6. [20] Asphalt Institute (AI). [16] Chang J-R. Development of pavement permanent deformation prediction model by grey modelling method. 6th ed. [8] Yang CM.18(3):265–9. Civil Eng Environ Syst 2005. J Shenyang Architec Civil Eng Inst 1998. Taiwan.19(1):62–8. [18] Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MTC). Transp Res Rec 2007. Experimentation with grey theory for pavement smoothness prediction. Introduction to grey system theory. ASCE J Perform Constr Facil 2005.1:577–82. Tzeng G-H. Brown ER. Kandhal PS.5:3388–91. [15] Chang W-C. The application of grey relational analysis on gap aggregate gradation asphalt mixture design. IEEE Int Conf Proc: Fuzzy Syst 2004. Chen JC. Bot Bull Acad Sinica 2002. 1997. Du JC.22(2):109–21.-c. [11] Wang Kelvin CP. USA: Instructors Manual. Wen K-L. Taipei. USA. Zhang ZQ. Grey system model for estimating the pavement international roughness index. Maryland: NAPA Education Foundation. 1996.

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