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Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States. The vast majority of cases occur as isolated events, not as part of recognized outbreaks.
Sources Incubation Period Symptoms Duration of Illness What Do I Do?
How Do I Prevent It?
Raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water. 2-5 days Diarrhea, cramps, fever, and vomiting; diarrhea may be bloody. 2-10 days Drink plenty of fluids and get rest. If you cannot drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration or if your symptoms are severe, call your doctor. In more severe cases, certain antibiotics can be used and can shorten the duration of symptoms if given early in the illness. Always cook meat, especially poultry, to safe minimum temperatures. Keep raw meat, especially poultry, separate from other foods. Do not drink raw or unpasteurized milk.
Botulism is a rare but serious illness caused by a bacterium which occurs in soil. It produces a toxin that affects your nerves. Foodborne botulism comes from eating foods contaminated with the toxin. Sources Infants: Honey, home-canned vegetables and fruits, corn syrup Children and adults: Home-canned foods with a low acid content, improperly canned commercial foods, home-canned or fermented fish, herbinfused oils, baked potatoes in aluminum foil, cheese sauce, bottled garlic, foods held warm for extended periods of time Incubation Infants: 3-30 days Period Children and adults: 12-72 hours
perfringens cells that cause food poisoning. If you have symptoms of botulism. Use a food thermometer Keep food hot after cooking (at 140˚ F or above) Microwave reheated food thoroughly (to 165˚F or above) Refrigerate perishable foods within two hours (at 40˚F or below) Duration of Illness 2 . Cooking kills the growing C. dry mouth and muscle weakness Variable Botulism is a medical emergency. prisons. difficulty swallowing. school cafeterias.Symptoms Duration of Illness What Do I Do? How Do I Prevent It? Infants: Lethargy. poultry. poor feeding. poor gag and sucking reflex Children and adults: Double vision. C. the spores can grow and produce new cells. and gravies. weakness. poor head control. call your doctor. perfringens infections often occur when foods are prepared in large quantities and are then kept warm for a long time before serving. That’s why outbreaks of these infections are usually linked to institutions (such as hospitals. Be very careful when canning foods at home Do not let babies eat honey Get prompt medical care for infected wounds Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens (C. slurred speech. but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. According to some estimates. symptoms may last for 1-2 weeks. constipation. this type of bacteria causes nearly a million illnesses each year. Sources Beef Poultry Gravies Incubation 6-24 hours Period Symptoms Diarrhea and abdominal cramps (not fever or vomiting) 24 hours or less In severe cases. contact your doctor immediately. drooping eyelids. and nursing homes) or events with catered food. to a safe Prevent It? internal temperature. but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140˚F (the “Danger Zone”). How Do I Thoroughly cook foods. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated. This means that they grow quickly at room temperature. blurred vision. particularly meat. If you cannot drink enough fluids to prevent What Do I Do? dehydration. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States. Older adults Who’s at Risk? Infants and young children Drink plenty of fluids and get rest.
Duration of 5-10 days. Illness If HUS develops. There are many other types of STEC. coli E. The worst type of E. and some can make you just as sick as E. severe abdominal pain. little or no fever is present. Although most types of E. Antibiotics should not be used to treat this infection. call your doctor. especially undercooked ground beef. and facial pallor. If you cannot drink enough fluids to prevent dehydration or if your symptoms are severe (including blood in your stools or severe abdominal pain). Do not let them cool on the counter. coli O157:H7 makes a toxin called Shiga toxin and is known as a Shiga toxin-producing E. coli are harmless. dark or tea-colored urine. Sources Contaminated food. some types can make you sick. you could get an E. unpasteurized (raw) milk and juice. it usually occurs after about 1 week. E. soft cheeses made from raw milk. and vomiting. Divide leftovers into shallow containers and refrigerate immediately. causes bloody diarrhea and can sometimes cause kidney failure and even death. coli. Most people will be better in 6-8 days. HUS can require intensive care. E. One severe complication associated with E. soft cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. coli infection is hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). kidney dialysis. or alfalfa sprouts. especially undercooked ground beef. If you don’t wash your hands carefully after touching an animal or its environment. coli is the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines and in the intestines of animals. coli O157:H7. and goats. unpasteurized milk or juice. causing kidney injury. Usually. The infection produces toxic substances that destroy red blood cells. sheep. including drinking untreated water and swimming in contaminated water Animals and their environment: particularly cows. and transfusions. Symptoms of HUS include decreased urine production. coli infection Feces of infected people Incubation 1-10 days Period Symptoms Severe diarrhea that is often bloody. coli (STEC). 3 . What Do I Do? Drink plenty of fluids and get rest. known as E. How Can I Prevent It? Avoid eating high-risk foods. and raw fruits and vegetables (such as sprouts) Contaminated water. coli O157:H7.
or goats. Incubation Period Symptoms Duration of Illness What Do I Do? How Can I Prevent It? 4 . or their living environment . Wash hands before preparing food. fever. nausea. for travelers to certain countries. sheep. The disease is spread primarily through food or water contaminated by stool from an infected person. Hepatitis A is one of the few foodborne or waterborne illnesses that can be prevented by vaccination. For adults: Get vaccinated if you are exposed to a person infected with hepatitis A. Sources Raw or undercooked shellfish from contaminated waters. uncooked foods and cooked foods that are not reheated after contact with an infected food handler 28 days average (ranges from 15 to 50 days) Diarrhea. Use a food thermometer to make sure that ground beef has reached a safe internal temperature of 160° F. after diapering infants. from 2 weeks to 3 months See your doctor if you have signs or symptoms of hepatitis A or think you may have been exposed to the virus. and loss of appetite Variable. raw produce. and for people at high risk for infection with the virus. dark urine. jaundice. their food or treats. abdominal pain. Avoid eating raw oysters or other raw or undercooked shellfish. Tests can accurately diagnose whether you've been infected. contaminated drinking water. and after contact with cows. headache. Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. or if you are planning to travel to a country with high rates of hepatitis A For children: Get vaccinated against hepatitis A. Vaccination is recommended for all children age 12 months and older.