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Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 230235

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Construction and Building Materials


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The mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures with Recycled Concrete Aggregates


Julian Mills-Beale 1, Zhanping You *
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931-1295, United States

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
The need for sustainable asphalt highway design and construction is becoming a priority within the asphalt transportation industry. This trend is necessitated by the high diminishing rate of construction materials, pressing demand on existing landll sites, rising dumping fees, and reduced emissions into the environment. Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) as sustainable aggregates in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is therefore investigated in this research project. The objective of this study is to characterize the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates for low volume roads (herein, the equivalent standard axle load number is low). In this study, the RCA is substituted for Michigan traprock virgin aggregates (VA) in a light trafc volume HMA (control mix) at the rate of 25, 35, 50 and 75. The hybrid VA-RCA HMA is then assessed using the SuperpaveTM mix performance specications. The rutting potential using Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA), Dynamic Modulus (E*), Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) for moisture susceptibility, Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) resilient modulus and the Construction Energy Index (CEI) are determined to evaluate the eld performance suitability or otherwise of the mix. All 4 hybrid VA-RCA HMA mixes passed the minimum rutting specication of 8 mm. The master curves for the hybrid mixes showed that the dynamic stiffness of the hybrid mixes were less than that of the control 4E1 mix, and it decreased when the RCA increased in the mix. In terms of moisture susceptibility, the tensile strength ratio increased with decreasing RCA; with only the 75% of RCA in the mix failing to meet the specication criterion. The compaction energy index proved that using RCA would save some amount of compaction energy. It is recommended that a certain amount of RCA in HMA is acceptable for low volume roads. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 18 November 2008 Received in revised form 16 August 2009 Accepted 17 August 2009 Available online 15 October 2009 Keywords: Mechanical properties Asphalt mixtures Recycled Concrete Aggregates Low volume roads

1. Introduction Sustainable development in all spheres of civil transportation infrastructure is gaining prominence for obvious and pertinent reasons. Transportation agencies, State Departments of Transportation (DOTs), industry practitioners and contractors are all craving for asphalt and concrete highway projects that typify a sustainable future. In the asphalt highway industry, a considerable number of innovative materials and technologies are being explored to ascertain their suitability for the design, construction and maintenance of these pavements. Warm mix asphalt (WMA), recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), y ash, bottom ash and shingles are some of the materials that transportation researchers believe holds the future to sustainability in the asphalt highway industry. In utilizing these materials, the resulting merits are highly signicant. These benets range from natural resource conservation, optimization of landll use, waste dumping charge savings, emis* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 906 487 1059; fax: +1 906 487 1620. E-mail addresses: jnmillsb@mtu.edu (J. Mills-Beale), zyou@mtu.edu (Z. You). 1 Tel.: +1 906 487 2528. 0950-0618/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.08.046

sion reductions and energy savings. The overall gain to the taxpayer cannot be under estimated. One potential material that has seen little investigation for its recyclable use in asphalt pavements is Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA). RCA has seen promising results when utilized as ordinary aggregates, base aggregates and Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) aggregates in Texas, California, Minnesota, Michigan and Virginia. In terms of RCA use in HMA, the States of Utah, Minnesota, Michigan, Louisiana, Florida, Virginia, Illinois and Mississippi are the only ones using RCA on a limited scale. RCA is obtained after the demolition of reinforced or plain cement concrete infrastructure. The initial demolition produces large fractions of concrete which could be reduced into smaller units for diverse uses. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of RCA which are quite different from natural or virgin aggregates make it require extensive research to verify its suitability as a sustainable aggregate in HMA. The objective of this research is therefore to investigate the viability of using RCA for a typical light duty or low-trafc Michigan asphalt highway. Some research investigations in the past have dened RCA to encompass the broad range of crushed PCC from approved mix designs used for structures and pavements, PCC from

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other sources (patios, building slabs and other amounts of graded aggregate base, sand subgrade and brick. This research, however, focuses on PCC from a Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) approved mix design for a project in Detroit, Michigan. The choice of a low trafc asphalt highway is necessitated by the researchers hypothesis that RCA would perform better for low volume highways (herein, the equivalent standard axle load number is low); hence the conservatism.

2. Background RCA is being used in many transportation infrastructure applications such as in base aggregate, PCC aggregate, unbound and bound pavement layers across the United States. Nevertheless, the use of RCA in HMA has seen limited use due to minimal research investigations into its suitability. With rising transportation and disposal-related costs, depleting natural aggregate sources, and landll availability, using RCA in asphalt pavements is being studied worldwide to determine its suitability or otherwise. In studying the use of RCA in HMA, it is pertinent to understand key aspects of its interaction with asphalt such as its absorptive behavior under dynamic loading conditions. Lee et al. [1] in a Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) project in 1990 sought to establish the effect of asphalt and aggregate properties on absorption in HMA. One key conclusion was the proposition of coatings and sealants to minimize asphalt absorption by porous aggregates like RCA. A combination of reclaimed concrete building materialswaste concrete, brick, and tile has been evaluated to determine its potential for use as aggregates in HMA [2]. Shen et al. used four aggregates types for the research project namely, 100% of igneous crushed stone (control mix), 100% recycled building materials (RBM), 50% coarse and ne RBM plus 50% coarse and 50% ne igneous crushed stone (ICS) (50% RBM plus 50% ICS), and coarse RBM plus ne ICS (C-RBM plus F-ICS). The C-RBM plus F-ICS mixture was identied as the best performing mix. The project proved that the rutting failure potential was affected to a large extent by the type of aggregate irrespective of the PG binder grade and test temperature. Furthermore, the research established that the PG binder grade and aggregate types do not inuence the resilient modulus results at 25 C, but they do affect resilient modulus results at 40 C. The applicability of substituting common virgin aggregates with waste concrete aggregates (RCA) has been shown to be promising [3] in Singapore. The noticeable nding in this research, which used the Marshall Mix design method, was the fact that it is possible to use recycled concrete materials in HMA. Other research work done on RCA has shown that except for air voids%, all the volumetric properties of an RCA-based HMA, the resilient modulus, and creep values were lower for the RCA HMA than for a mix designed wholly with conventional natural aggregates [4]. The use of RCA in HMA is being considered in a project being undertaken by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Technical Advisory Group on Pavements. This project follows an earlier one-National Co-operative Highway Research Project (NCHRP) Project 598 [5] which investigated the performance-related behavior of RCA for use in unbound pavement layers. NCHRP Report 598 gave the guidelines on some, if not all, of the natural and physical properties that need attention if RCA is to be used in miscellaneous transportation infrastructural projects. In addition, another project funded by the Federation Aviation Administration (FAA) evaluated if the alkali silica reactivity (ASR) in the aggregates will be a concern, since it is not well understood if the use of ASR-affected Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) will impact the performance of HMA pavements.

Better and improved use of RCA in HMA is unattainable without the thorough understanding of some of the basic material properties like the specic gravity and absorption. Researchers at Michigan Technological University [69] have explored further automated, faster and better techniques or approaches at determining the specic gravity and absorption of special ne and coarse aggregates like RCA using the SSDetect and Vacuum Saturation methods. These methods have proved to have great potential in expediting the testing of RCA and other problematic ne and coarse aggregates like mineral ller and high angularity aggregates. The researchers are currently undertaking further work on RCA specic gravity and absorption to add to the body of knowledge in the characterization of RCA. 3. Laboratory testing program 3.1. Control mix Table 1 shows the detailed properties of the chosen 4E1 control HMA. The design gradation curve of the mix is also provided in Table 2. The choice of this 4E1 mix as a basis for designing the RCA hybrid mixes, with an Equivalent Standard Axle Load (ESAL) range of 0.31 million ESALs, was based on the assumption that RCA will perform better with low trafcked volume asphalt roads than medium or higher ones. 3.2. SuperpaveTM aggregate specication tests on RCA To ascertain the fundamental and engineering properties of the RCA, the SuperpaveTM Aggregate Specication Tests below were followed: 1. Standard method of test for specic gravity (Gsb) and absorption (Wa%) of ne/coarse aggregates (AASHTO T-84-00 and T-85-08). 2. Standard method of test for uncompacted void content% of coarse aggregate (as inuenced by particle shape, surface texture, and grading) (AASHTO T326-05).
Table 1 Control HMA properties. HMA property SuperpaveTM binder grade Asphalt content Air void Equivalent standard axle load Mix temperature Compaction temperature Design parameter PG 52-34 5.6% 4.0% 0.31 million 137143 C 126130 C

Table 2 HMA aggregate gradation. Sieve size Sieve size (mm) % Passing Coarse aggregate Aggregate gradation, % 1 in. 37.5 1 in. 25 3/4 in. 19 1/2 in. 12.5 3/8 in. 9.5 #4 4.75 #8 2.36 # 16 1.18 # 30 0.6 # 50 0.3 # 100 0.15 # 200 0.075 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.0 86.3 Fine aggregate

68.2 49.2 38.4 27.8 15.0 6.7 4.5

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J. Mills-Beale, Z. You / Construction and Building Materials 24 (2010) 230235 Table 5 Aggregate mix combination rates. VA-RCA aggregate contributions Virgin aggregates (%) 75 65 50 25 RCA aggregates (%) 25 35 50 75

3. Flat particles, elongated particles, or at and elongated particles in coarse aggregates (ASTM 4791). 4. Determining percent of fractured particles in coarse aggregate (ASTM D 5821). 5. Standard test method for resistance to degradation of large-size coarse aggregate by abrasion and impact in the los angeles machine (ASTM C535). A summary of all the relevant SuperpaveTM Aggregate Specication Tests on RCA and the results are shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively. In Table 4, it can be seen that the uncompacted void content % (UVC) of the RCA used was 41, passing the specication value of 40. To prevent the excessive use of at and elongated aggregates in the VA-RCA HMA, the SuperpaveTM specication requires a maximum 10% of the aggregates to be at and elongated. The 3.75% at and elongated value obtained satised the specication. For this 4E1 HMA control mix, a minimum criterion of 65% of fractured faces in coarse aggregates is the MDOT requirement for the preparation of an adequate HMA. The 94% and 84% of 1/more and 2/more fractured faces suggest that the MDOT specication criterion is passed for this requirement. The average LA Abrasion result of 43% failed the specication maximum value of 40 for an E1 HMA that is to be used as a surface course. Nevertheless, it is believed that in combination with the VA, the VA-RCA aggregate blend will possess adequate strength for the mix. 3.3. VA-RCA HMA preparation The VA and RCA are combined at the rates indicated in Table 5 to produce a design gradation similar to the control HMA. Using

the SuperpaveTM Gyratory Compactor (SGC), the mixes were prepared at 76 gyrations to produce a targeted 4% air void in the samples. 3.4. SuperpaveTM specication performance evaluation A summary of the relevant tests conducted to investigate the mix properties, and simulate its eld behavior is shown in Table 6. The performance tests conducted on the mixes are the rutting potential (AASHTO TP 63-03), dynamic modulus (AASHTO TP 62-03), moisture susceptibility (ASTM 4867/ASTM D 4867-M04) and indirect tensile resilient modulus (ASTM D 4123-82). 3.4.1. Rutting potential using the asphalt pavement analyzer (AASHTO TP 63-03) This test procedure was used to evaluate the rutting susceptibility of the VA-RCA mixture after 8000 cycles of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). The test was conducted at 52 C, which is the anticipated maximum in-service temperature for the PG 52-34 binder grade used. The samples tested had dimensions 150 mm (6 in.) diameter by 75 mm (3 in.) height. The APA hose pressure used was 700 35 kPa (100 5 psi), while the load cylinder pressure was set at 445 22 N (100 5 lbf). The samples tested were the ones containing 75%, 50%, 35% and 25% of RCA, respectively, and the results are shown in Fig. 1. APA tests on the HMA containing 100% of the virgin aggregates are in progress. 3.4.2. Dynamic Modulus (E*) and phase angle (d), (AASHTO T 62-03) The test was conducted to determine the Dynamic Modulus (E*) and phase angle (d) at temperatures 13.2 and 21.3 and 39.2 C, and load frequencies of 25, 10, 5, 1, 0.1 Hz, under haversine loading. It provided an insight into the mixess stiffness behavior and simulated the eld performance under dynamic trafc load. The test results are presented in Fig. 2 in the form of master curves. The master curves used to evaluate the dynamic stiffness (MPa) versus reduced frequency (Hz) relationship followed the program developed by Di Benedetto and coworker [12]. Dynamic modulus test samples had core dimensions of 150 mm height by 100 mm diameter. 3.4.3. Moisture susceptibility (ASTM D 4867/D 4867-M04) Test samples (62.5 mm thicknesses by 100 mm diameter) were used in nding the moisture damage potential of the prepared

Table 3 Aggregate specication tests on RCA. Physical property Gradation Specic gravity Absorption Uncompacted void content Flat and elongated particles Fractured faces LA abrasion Coarse aggregate ASTM C136-96a ASTM C 127-88/ AASHTO T-85 ASTM C 127-89 ASTM 4791 ASTM D5821 ASTM C535/AASHTO T96 Fine aggregate ASTM C136-96a ASTM C 128-93/ AASHTO T-84 ASTM C 128-93/ AASHTO T-84 AASHTO T 326

Table 4 Results of SuperpaveTM aggregate specication tests on RCA. Physical property Combined Gsb Dry SSD Gsa Absorption (Wa %) Uncompacted void content % Flat, elongated, and at and elongated % in coarse aggregates % of fractured particles in coarse aggregates (1 fractured face/2 fractured face) LA % Test result 2.433 2.586 2.692 2.341 41 3.75 93.8/ 84.1 43 Specication Remarks/ comments Satisfactory Passes specication Passes specication Passes specication Passes specication

None None None Minimum of 40 Maximum of 10 Minimum of 65 Maximum of 40

Table 6 Performance tests on the VA-RCA. Mix property Rutting failure Dynamic modulus (E*) Moisture susceptibility IDT resilient modulus Test standard specication AASHTO TP63-03 AASHTO TP62-03 ASTM D 4867/D 4867-M04 ASTM D4123-82 Test conditions 52 C 8000 cycles 4, 21.3 and 39.2 C 25, 10, 5, 1 and 0.1 Hz 25 C 5, 25 and 40 C 200 load repetitions

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VFA

mixtures. The test designation, ASTM D 4867/D 4867 M-04, Standard Test Method for Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete Paving Mixtures, seeks to determine the effect of water on the tensile properties of the designed VA-RCA HMA. It further ascertained the behavior of the mix under the freezethaw cycles as the temperatures uctuated between a maximum 52 C and 34 C, and with the application of a diametrical load at 50 mm/min. 3.4.4. Indirect tensile test for resilient modulus (ASTM D 4123-82) ASTM D 4123, Standard Test Method for Indirect Tension Test for Resilient Modulus of Bituminous Mixtures, was followed for the preparation and laboratory testing of the hybrid VA-RCA HMA for resilient modulus determination. At temperatures 5, 25 and 40 C, the resilient modulus was determined in order to understand insightfully the effect of temperature, loading rate and rest periods on the mix. This test served as a conrmation of the modulus properties of the HMA under varying load conditions such as shown from the E* tests. Additionally, the test mode was under an assumed Poisson ratio condition, with the 5, 25 and 40 C temperatures having Poisson ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and 0.4, respectively. The test was conducted on a 50 mm thickness by 150 mm diameter. 4. Test results and discussion 4.1. SuperpaveTM volumetric analysis The volumetric properties of the VA-RCA HMA mix was determined and compared accordingly with the SuperpaveTM Specication Standards. The SuperpaveTM Volumetric Mixture Design

% RCA vs. VFA


80 75 70 65 60 55 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 % RCA 60 70 80 90

R = 0.88

Fig. 3. Voids lled with asphalt (VFA) against RCA in HMA.

% RCA vs. VMA


20

Standards require that for the design ESAL level of 1 million ESAL, a nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) of 9.5 mm, the voids in mineral aggregates (VMA) should be 15.0% minimum while the voids lled with asphalt (VFA) specication range is between 65% and 75%. Figs. 13 show the VMA, air void, and VFA trends, respectively, with respect to the RCA percent in the HMA. The general trend indicates that as the RCA percent in the HMA increases, the VMA decreases, while the air void increases. It is believed that the increase in RCA causes absorption of some of the asphalt in the mix due to the surface pores on the RCA. This absorption thus reduces the effective asphalt content in the HMA. As the effective asphalt content reduces, the VMA also reduces. As the VMA was decreasing and the actual air void level in the HMA was not varying much with increasing RCA, the VFA was also decreasing, just like VMA. 4.2. Dynamic modulus at various temperatures and loading frequencies The characterization of the mixes using the dynamic modulus was done at 13, 21.3, and 39.2 C, and 25, 10, 5, 1 and 0.1 Hz frequencies. The mixes tested to date were the ones containing 25%, 35%, 50% and 75% of RCA. The results are provided in the form of a logarithmic master curve in Fig. 4. The master curves were drawn using the 2S2P1D model [11] and [12], for characterizing the viscoelastic behavior of HMA. As hypothesized, as more and more RCA was added to the HMA, the dynamic modulus or stiffness of the mix decreased. Although, there are no minimum criteria limits for the dynamic modulus results, further research is being undertaken to utilize the results in the newly introduced Mechanistic

18

R = 0.81

16 VMA

14

12

10 0 10 20 30 40 50 % RCA 60 70 80 90

Fig. 1. Void in mineral aggregates (VMA) against RCA in HMA.

Fig. 2. Air void against RCA in HMA.

Fig. 4. Dynamic modulus of selected VA-RCA.

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1800 1600 ResilientModulus (MPa) 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
75% RCA 50% RCA 35% RCA 25% RCA 0% RCA

5 Deg. C 25 Deg. C 40 Deg. C

Fig. 5. Resilient modulus test results.

Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) to ascertain the resistance of RCA-VA hybrid mixes to pavement rutting, low-temperature and fatigue cracking. 4.3. IDT resilient modulus The resilient modulus test results are shown in Fig. 5. Generally, resilient modulus increased with decreasing RCA for all the three temperatures. At the lowest test temperature of 5 C, the resilient is highest, indicating that the stiffest material condition under recoverable deformation behavior. To assess the effect of RCA on the resilient modulus, the ANOVA test at 5% signicance level was conducted. The analysis proved that the test temperature, i.e. 5, 25 and 40 C were responsible for the differences in results, more than the percent of RCA in the mix. According to the AASHTO 1993 pavement design guide, a higher resilient modulus is most desirable to build a less thick pavement which still maintained its structural integrity. Even though the standard is facing out, these test results provide additional information on the relationship between the stiffness behaviors of the mix. 4.4. Construction energy index The Construction Energy Index (CEI) of the VA-RCA mixes with 75%, 50%, 35% and 25% of RCA substituted for the VA is assessed using the theory proposed by Mahmoud and Bahia [10]. The hypothesis is that the CDI can be used to determine the relative amounts of energy saved by the SuperpaveTM Gyratory Compactor (SGC) equipment when a VA-RCA asphalt mixture is placed and compacted in the eld. Test results shown in Fig. 6 indicate that as RCA decreases in the mix, the CEI increases; meaning more

equipment compaction energy is expended during the initial compaction before the pavement is opened to trafc. As the RCA decreases further, the energy savings become insignicant. This could be explained by the fact that the imposed trafc loads are borne more by the stone-to-stone interlock between the stronger VA. 4.5. Moisture susceptibility (tensile strength ratio) According to the ASTM D 4867/D 4867-M04 standard, the minimum permissible tensile strength ratio should be 80% in order to have an asphalt mixture that sufciently resists moisture and water-related damage, otherwise known as stripping. At 25 C, the moisture susceptibility using the indirect tensile strength ratio test of the mix is shown in Fig. 7. It is revealed that as the RCA% increases, the degree of moisture susceptibility of the VA-RCA HMA is increased. 4.6. Rutting failure potential The results of the rutting failure potential of the APA samples are plotted in Fig. 8. The gure shows the trend as the RCA% in the VA-RCA HMA increases from 25%, 35%, and 50% to 75%, it can be seen that at all four rates of RCA substitution in the mix, the MDOT maximum specication limit for permanent deformation, which is 8 mm is satised. Additionally, as the RCA in the mix increases, there is a corresponding increase in the rutting or permanent deformation. Between 25% and 35% of RCA in the HMA, there

Minimum Specification Limit


3500
Construction Energy Index (CEI)

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 75% RCA 50% RCA 35% RCA 25% RCA 0% RCA
Fig. 7. Results of the moisture susceptibility tests.

Fig. 6. Construction energy index test results.

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10
25% VA - 75% RCA 50% VA - 50% RCA 65% VA - 35% RCA 75% VA - 25% RCA 100% VA - 0% RCA

Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the funding of this project from the United States Department of Transportation through the University Transportation Center for Materials in Sustainable Transportation Infrastructure at Michigan Technological University. This research could not have been completed without the signicant contributions of undergraduate students Kelly Heidbrier, Kari Klaboe, and John Butler in running some lab tests at Michigan Technological University. The lab tests were conducted in the Center of Excellence for Transportation Materials (Transportation Materials Research Center), which is partnered between Michigan Department of Transportation and Michigan Technological University. The authors wish to express their sincere gratitude to Jim Vivian and Ed Tulpo in the Center of Excellence for Transportation Materials at Michigan Technological University. The contents of this article do not necessarily reect the ofcial views and policies of any institution or agency. References
[1] Lee DY, Guinn JA, Kandhal PS, Dunning RL. Absorption of asphalt into porous aggregates. Report SHRP-A/UIR-90-009. National Research Council, DC; 1990. p. 129. [2] Shen D-H, Du J-C. Application of gray relational analysis to evaluate HMA with reclaimed building materials. J Mater Civ Eng 2005;17(4):4006. [3] Wong YD, Sun DD, Lai D. Value-added utilization of recycled concrete in hotmix asphalt. Waste Manage 2007;27:294301. [4] Paranavithana S, Mohajerani A. Effects of recycled concrete aggregates on properties of asphalt concrete. Resour Conserv Recycl 2006;48(009):112. [5] Saed A. Performance-related tests of recycled concrete aggregates for use in unbound pavement layers. NCHRP Report 598. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies; 2008. p. 153. [6] You Z, Mills-Beale J, Williams RC, Dai Q. Measuring the specic gravities of ne aggregates in Michigan: an automated procedure. Int J Pave Res Technol 2009;2(1):19966814. ISSN. [7] Mills-Beale J, You Z, Williams RC, Dai Q. Determining the specic gravities of coarse aggregates utilizing vacuum saturation approach. Construct Build Mater 2009;23(3):131622. [8] Mills-Beale J, You Z. Measuring the specic gravity and absorption of steel slag and crushed concrete coarse aggregates: a preliminary study. In: Proceedings of the ASCE aireld and highway pavements conference held in Bellevue, Washington, October 1518. American Society of Civil Engineers; 2008. p. 11121. ISBN 13 No. 9780784410059. [9] You Z, Mills-Beale J, Williams RC, Dai Q. Investigation of a new test procedure for measuring the specic gravities of ne aggregates in Michigan. In: Proceedings of 2008 annual transportation research board meeting (DVD). Washington, DC: National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences; 2008. January 1317. [10] Mahmoud AFF, Bahia H. Using the gyratory compactor to measure the mechanical stability of asphalt mixtures. Wisconsin Highway Research Program. WHRP 05-02 (0092-01-02); 2004. [11] Di Benedetto H, Olard F, Sauzeat C, Delaporte B. Linear viscoelastic behavior of bituminous materials: from binders to mixes. Int J Road Mater Pave Des 2004;5(special issue):163202 [European Asphalt Technology Association, Nottingham]. [12] Olard F, Di Benedetto H. General 2S2P1D model and relation between the linear viscoelastic behaviors of bituminous binders and mixes. Int J Road Mater Pave Des 2003;4(2):185224.

Rutting depth (mm)

0 0 2000 4000 6000 Nuumber of load cycles 8000 10000

Fig. 8. Rutting depth of the HMA over 8000 cycles loading.

is a permanent deformation increase of 8.1%. The percent increases further to 37.85% as RCA increases from 35% to 50% RCA, and nally 76%, as RCA increases from 50% to 75%. The control mix (0% RCA), as expected had the least rutting of 1.14 mm after 8000 cycles of load. 5. Summary of ndings and suggestions The research project was aimed at evaluating the potential of using RCA for low trafcked asphalt highways in Michigan. The test results to date indicate that: 1. RCA is capable of serving as a useful replacement in HMA roadways where trafc loads are minimal. The results show that permanent deformation on the roadway is unlikely to be a problem under this low trafc condition with RCA use of up to 75%. It is believed that a higher substitution of the VA with RCA beyond 75% will lead to a failure of the specication criterion. 2. Test temperature inuenced the resilient modulus of the VARCA HMA more than the effect of the varying amounts of RCA in the mix. 3. In using RCA in an HMA, a maximum specication limit is required to ensure that the tensile strength properties of the mix are preserved under the effects of ice, snow and other forms of precipitation. This is particularly important since the combination of RCA and VA could still satisfy the moisture damage requirements of a low volume trafc mix. 4. The dynamic modulus of the mix is increased with reduced amounts of RCA in the mix. 5. The CEI plots show that with VA being replaced by the RCA, there is the possibility of signicant energy savings during the compaction process. Nevertheless, energy savings need not be compromised with the performance properties of the mix.