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Andres Bonifacio Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897), a Philippine revolutionary hero, founded the Katipunan, a secret society which spearheaded the uprising against the Spanish and laid the groundwork for the first Philippine Republic. Andres Bonifacio was born in Tondo, Manila, on Nov. 30, 1863. He grew up in the slums and knew from practical experience the actual conditions of the class struggle in his society. Orphaned early, he interrupted his primary schooling in order to earn a living as a craftsman and then as clerk-messenger and agent of foreign commercial firms in Manila. Absorbing the teachings of classic rationalism from the works of José Rizal, Victor Hugo's Les Miserables, Eugène Sue's The Wandering Jew, books on the French Revolution, and the lives of the presidents of the United States, Bonifacio acquired an understanding of the dynamics of the socio-historical process. This led him to join the Liga Filipina, which Rizal organized in 1892 for the purpose of uniting and intensifying the nationalist movement for reforms. When the Liga was dissolved upon the arrest and banishment of Rizal, Bonifacio formed the Katipunan in 1892 and thus provided the rallying point for the people's agitation for freedom, independence, and equality. The Katipunan patterned its initiation rites after the Masonry, but its ideological principles derived from the French Revolution and can be judged radical in its materialistic-historical orientation. The Katipunan exalted work as the source of all value. It directed attention to the unjust class structure of the colonial system, the increased exploitation of the indigenous population, and consequently the need to affirm the collective strength of the working masses in order to destroy the iniquitous system. When the society was discovered on Aug. 19, 1896, it had about 10,000 members. On August 23 Bonifacio and his followers assembled at Balintawak and agreed to begin the armed struggle. Two days later the first skirmish took place and a reign of terror by the Spaniards soon followed. Conflict split the rebels into the two groups of Magdiwang and Magdalo in Cavite, on Luzon. Bonifacio was invited to mediate, only to be rebuffed by the clannish middle class of Cavite. Judging Bonifacio's plans as divisive and harmful to unity, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the elected president of the provisional revolutionary government, ordered the arrest, trial, and execution for "treason and sedition" of Bonifacio and his brothers. On May 10, 1897, Bonifacio was executed.
Sa Mga Kababayan Ko (To My Countrymen) and Ang Kasalanan ni Cain (Sin of Cain). To avoid capture by the Spanish military authorities. His parents. the “Brains of the Katipunan”.net/documents/philippine-society-and-revolution II. Source: http://www. He became Bonifacio’s right hand man and adviser. Emilio finished his college education at the San Juan de Letran College and University of Santo Tomas through diligence. the correlation of class forces and the adventurist tendency of Bonifacio's group led to his isolation and subsequently to Aguinaldo's compromises with the American military invaders. He was taken to the Church of Santa Cruz where a Spanish surgeon kindly ministered to his wound. Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. under the pen name of Pingkian. the Katipunan launched its first attack on a Spanish garrison at San Juan del Monte. Rather. 1875. By that time. Jacinto used a pass that belonged to a Filipino spy named Florentino Reyes who was captured before the battle in Maimpis. Pahayag (Manifesto). thrift and perseverance.Contrary to the popular view. 1896. Rizal refused to the rescue for reasons that are still the subject of debates. . He was born in Tondo on December 15. Rizal had been sentenced to exile in Dapitan and the vessel. Jacinto wrote Liwanag at Dilim (Light and Darkness). the cause of Bonifacio's tragic death at the hands of other Filipino rebels cannot be solely attributed to his own personal pride. On February 1898. Aside from the Kartilla. He became the youngest member of the Katipunan when he joined the organization at the age of 18. Laguna and was taken to the Catholic Church of Magdalena. Jacinto was assigned to rescue Rizal who was then confined aboard a Spanish warship to Cuba. Jacinto disguised himself as a Chinese coolie and succeeded in boarding On August 30. were able to send Emilio to school in the midst of poverty. Emilio Jacinto Another great Filipino who had very humble beginnings was Emilio Jacinto. He was called the “Brains of Katipunan” because he wrote the Kartilla (Primer of the Katipunan) and other articles which guided the actuations of the members of the Katipunan.philippinerevolution. he was wounded in the thigh during a skirmish with the Spanish cazadores (riflemen) in Maimpis.
The La Liga was dissolved following Dr. Benguet. del Pilar. Source: http://www. the first Supremo of the Kataastaasan. was born on July 26. 1899. started his close association with Del Pilar and his reformist and. Mariano Ponce. Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK). Don Deodato immediately joined. Jose P. 1899. sister of Marcelo H. Don Deodato Arellano selflessly served the Motherland. His comrades buried him in the town’s cemetery. lack of rest.com/print. in La Trinidad. He died of this disease on October 7.abc-clio. He later worked as an assistant clerk at the arsenal of the artillery corps of the colonial army in Manila.ph/node/85117 . del Pilar’s Bulacan Brigade and became its Commissary Officer. 1892. notably in the battles in Bulacan against the Americans. He was elected its first Supremo. A true patriot. Ladislao Diwa. Bulacan. 1844. and revolutionary hero.mb.aspx?isbn=9781851099757&id=A1730C-4480 III. He also fought in the frontlines. and others established La Propaganda.Heeding the urgent appeal of the Katipuneros in Laguna who asked Jacinto to lead them. Deodato Arellano Deodato Arellano. His parents changed the family surname in compliance with the Claveria Decree of 1849. Don Deodato joined General Gregorio H. he established his secret headquarters in the hills of Majayjay where he died on April 16. From July 1882. Rizal founded the La Liga Filipina on July 2. to Juan de la Cruz and Mamerta de la Cruz of Bulacan. His marriage to Hilaria. Rizal’s deportation to Dapitan. first Supremo of the KKK. Teodoro Plata. founded the Katipunan. revolutionary activities. later. When Del Pilar. and others. Don Deodato finished bookkeeping at the Ateneo Municipal. Source: http://ebooks. and the many deprivations he bore in fighting for the country led him to contract tuberculosis. Don Deodato actively helped his brother-in-law disseminate his writings calling for reforms in the country. Hunger. Don Deodato also joined and was elected its secretary. at the age of 24. When Dr. Don Deodato together with Andres Bonifacio. when Del Pilar founded and published the newspaper Diariong Tagalog until 1896 when Del Pilar died. When the revolution broke out on August 1896. Soon after.com.
Mariano Gil. They served as couriers of sensitive Katipunan documents. They camouflaged Katipunan meetings by pretending to hold a social gathering. Under the directorship of Emilio Jacinto. the Katipunan Supreme Council was reorganized and Don Roman Basa was elected Supremo of the Katipunan. was established. mentions Diwa as Included in the “list of provincial chiefs of provinces subject to the revolutionary government. It was also during Don Roman Basa’s term that the Katipunan newspaper. and Angelica Lopez were the first members. Diwa ceased to be politico-military governor of Cavite when the Philippine-American War broke out on . Then. Cavite. Source: http://www. The discovery led to mass arrests. the Kalayaan spread the ideals of the Katipunan.ph/node/9002 V. He initiated the establishment of a women’s section of the Katipunan. The colonial authorities learned of the existence of the Katipunan on August 19.mb. Ladislao Diwa Ladislao Diwa was the third and last politico-military government of Cavite during the Philippine Revolution.” At that time the Malolos Congree was still in session.com. It was during his term as Supremo that the Katipunan underwent radical changes. He is one of the unsung heroes of the 1896 Philippine Revolution. Gregorio de Jesus. On February. Don Roman Basa was shot at Bagumbayan (now Rizal Park) in September.IV. curate of Tondo. 1896. Roman Basa Don Roman Basa was born in San Roque. Kalayaa n. 1898. A historical document dated October 7.000 members. 1892. On the eve of the revolution. 1893. Marina Dizon. deportations and the execution of many Filipinos. the Katipunan had grown to some 30. He became an employee at the headquarters of the colonial navy in Cavite. Pedro Manalak. 1848. The women’s section performed many valuable roles. on February 28. Don Roman Basa made the ultimate sacrifice for the country. when Teodoro Patino revealed it to Fr. 1896. Summary trials were held by the colonial authorities. he joined the Katipunan and took the name "Liwanag" (Light). on November 9. Don Roman overcame his poverty and finished his studies under Fr. Josefa Rizal. chaplain of the Spanish garrison in Cavite. Don Roman Basa was incarcerated and tortured at Fort Santiago.
saw the futility of achieving reforms by peaceful means. on July 17. 1899. Fr. while Diwa was designated clerk of court in Cavite. a position which he held continuously until his death on March 12. Diwa. Released from Fort Santiago in June 1897. Diwa was elected fiscal. Ladislao was born on June 27. and Plata decided to set up a secret society. He broached the idea to Andres Bonifacio and Teodoro Plata. was to apprise the Filipinos of their deplorable conditions. It is not true. recommended him for admission in the San Juan de Letran College in Manila where he obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree. It was he who initiated the organization of the secret revolutionary society. Reacting to some insulting remarks made by Spanish priest against Filipino women. as stated in some historical accounts. a reformist but open society. Abandoning the study of theology. according to Diwa. Diwa came to board in the house of Andres Bonifacio in Tondo. Bonifacio became Katipunan Supremo in 1895. the Katipunan. Trias wa s appointed civil governor of Cavite. a position next to that of Bonifacio who was elected interventor or comptroller. the most aggressive of the trio. the day the Spanish government announced the plan to deport Rizal to Dapitan. his brother-inlaw. 1930. Bonifacio. However. with the three of them forming the first triumvirate. It was Diwa who first conceived the idea of establishing a secret society patterned after the patriotic “Black Capes” of Italy. This was in contrast to the Liga Filipina formed by Rizal. he did not finish the law course because of the outbreak of the Revolution. one year before the outbreak of the Revolution. their surrender. he transferred to the University of Sto. The third of 10 children of Mariano Diwa and Cecilia Nocom. that Diwa was the “first civil governor of Cavite. Tomas to take up law. But following the arrest of Rizal by the Spanish authorities. His military experience served him . Bonifacio. in San Francisco de Malabon. and rally them in order to obtain reforms. Diwa joined the revolutionary forces of General Trias. He was working as clerk of court in Pampanga when arrested by the authorities for engaging in propaganda work for the Katipunan. A priest. 1892.February 4.” Shortly after. 1901. a municipality of Cavite. The society. Perfecto Mañalac. He joined General Mariano Trias. In the election of the Most Supreme Council of the Katipunan. commander-in-chief of all revolutionary forces in Southern Luzon. Trias and Diwa surrendered to the Americans on May 13. 1863 in San Roque. He was promoted to the rank of colonel after securing the surrender of the Spaniards in San Francisco de Malabon in 1898.
cavite.in good stead when he was appointed politico-military governor of Cavite. succeeding General Emiliano Riego de Dios.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=123&Itemid= 99 . Source: http://www.gov.ph/index.