This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Sixteenth Century Journal, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer, 1992), pp. 205-234 Published by: The Sixteenth Century Journal Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2541887 . Accessed: 05/04/2013 09:42
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com.
The Sixteenth Century Journal is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Sixteenth Century Journal.
This content downloaded from 18.104.22.168 on Fri, 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Sixteenth Journal Century XXIII, No. 2 (1992)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder and the Matter of Italy
JanetenBrinkGoldsmith* Center forAdvanced Studyin theVisualArts NationalGallery ofArt inrelationship Pieter theElder's arediscussed Bruegel landscape paintings to latesixteenth-century arttheory. the Italian humanists Among during stoodas a paradigm forNetherlandish Renaissance, landscape painting oflandscape both itsstrengths andweaknesses. Discussion art, exemplifying intothe Paragone in Italianarttheory, also entered whereit painting stoodas a paradigm for and of the as an such, waysin painting, example whichpainting to Italianart surpassed Bruegel's sculpture. relationship and hislandscape needto be understood in relationship to one paintings another. thestatus ofpainting as "craft," Bruegel's Upholding landscapes, with their truth tonature andincorporation ofItalian unsurpassed principles of his native of painting, are a celebration Netherlandish tradition. His in ushering as a landscape was in thisrespect in a crucial activity painter of cultural self-definition in theNetherlands thesixteenth during period century. and publisher stayin Italy and began an associationwith the printmaker seemsto have alreadyestablished Cock.1By thistimetheartist Hieronymus as a landscapepainter, in thisto a nativepictorial himself tradition. adhering This tradition, which had origins in early Netherlandishcalendar art, part in the religious art of Jan van Eyck and his played an important of painting followers and emergedduringthe 1520s as a separatecategory
IN 1555, PIETERBRUEGELTHE ELDER returnedto Antwerp froman extended
*I thankProfessor Walter Gibson forhaving kindlymade the manuscript of his book of Bruegel'slandscapes on theworldlandscapeavailablepriorto publication. My interpretation owes much to Gibson's thoughtful of theworkof Bruegeland his predecessors. interpretation of work are: Pieter 'The standard FritzGrossmann, catalogues Bruegel's Bruegel: Complete Editionof thePaintings, 3d rev. ed. (London/New York: Phaidon, 1973); Ludwig Munz, Edition(London: Phaidon Press, 1961); and Louis Lebeer, : The Drawings:Complete Bruegel de Pierre l'Ancien(Brussels: desestampes raisonne Ir, Bibliotheque RoyaleAlbert Catalogue Bruegel association seeespecially Grossmann, ibid.,7-20. On Bruegel's 1969). Foran account life, ofBruegel's and Publisher withHieronymus Cock, see Timothy Cock, Printmaker (New Riggs,Hieronymus und Seine York/London: Garland, 1977); idem, "Bruegel and his Publisher,"Pieter Bruegel fromHieronymus Welt(Berlin:Mann, 1979); Walter Gibson,"Some FlemishPopular Prints ArtBulletin Cock and his Contemporaries," 60 (December 1978): 673-81.
This content downloaded from 22.214.171.124 on Fri, 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
The Sixteenth Journal XXIII/2 (1992) Century
in the work ofJoachimPatinir.2 Notably,Bruegel's associationwith Cock as a revivalof Netherlandish art of with what be understood began may This revival the form of for the earlysixteenth took century. designs prints the mannerof Hieronymus Bosch and designsfora set of twelve imitating in the artof which renew the world landscapeas exemplified large prints Patinir.3 It is well establishedthat Bruegel's associationwith Cock markeda activities.4 Cock had also spent time in turningpoint in Cock's printing and founded his establishment on Italianmodels. During the Italy printing first halfofthe 1550s,hisprinting had a Italianorientation activity decidedly in its concentration on Italian Renaissancepainting,in the productionof Flemish Romanistartists, and in the production designsby contemporary of setsof Roman ruins.Bruegel'sassociation withCock usheredin a change fromthis Italian orientation to a focuson nativeart. It would be an incorrect assessment of Bruegel's art to thinkthat he left the matter of aside. attention has been given Italy Justifiably, simply to Italian art.5 to his relationship Not only are quotationsof classical art to be foundin Bruegel's work,but it is also generally acknowledgedthat his monumental the in of his late as well as portrayal peasant paintings, the more sweepingsense of space and compositionthat informs both his areinspired late peasantpaintings and his late landscapes, Italian by pictorial tradition. While the assumptionhas been that throughthe adoption of Italian principlesof paintingthe artistimparteda feelingof grandeur to both peasant and landscape, little considerationhas been given to his to Italian artwith respectto broaderculturalissues. relationship
20n the history of Netherlandish landscapepaintingpriorto Bruegel,see Ludwig von von Patinir bis Bruegel." Jahrbuch der Baldass, "Die NiederlandischeLandschaftsmalerei 34 (1918): 111ff.See also H. G. Kunsthistorischen des Allerhichsten Kaiserhauses Sammlungen imZeitalter desManierismus DruckFranz,Niederlindische (Graz: Akademische Landschaftsmalerei u. Verlagsanstalt, 1969). The most recentstudyon Flemish landscape paintingis Walter World Gibson, "Mirror (Princeton: oftheEarth":The Flemish Landscape oftheSixteenth Century Press, 1989). princetonUniversity 3While considerable has been givenin the modernliterature attention to Bruegel'sprints, his setofLarge has notreceivedthe kindof attention it deserves. The mostextensive Landscapes and most recentdiscussionof these designsis in Gibson, "Mirror of theEarth,"chap. 5. See also Lebeer,Catalogue 29-48. TheLargeLandscapes were publishedby Cock sometime Raisonne, in the late 1550s. The first printin the series,Viewof Tivoli,is relatedto an earlierprint published by Cock. Most of the landscapes in this series returnto the world landscape; a new typeof forested introduce however,severalof the designssuch as the Pagus Nemerosus, landscape,which has been said to evoke Bruegel's nativeterrain. Cock,49ff. 4Riggs,Hieronymus 50n Bruegel and Italian art,see FritsLugt, "PieterBruegel und Italien,"Festschrift fir "PeterBruegheltheElder MaxJ. Friedldnder (Leipzig: Seemanm,1927), 11ff; GustavGliuck, and Classical Antiquity," 6 (Summer1943): 167ff.;FritzGrossmann, ArtQuarterly "Bruegel's Woman Taken in Adulteryand other Grisailles,"Burlington Magazine 94 (August 1952): 218ff; Fritz Grossmann,"Bruegel's Verhaltniszu Raffaelund zur RaffaelNachfolge," in KurtBadt (Berlin: DeGruyter,1961), 135ff;Carl Stridbeck, "Bruegel und der Festschriftfirr Niederlandische Studien Romanismus," (Soest, Holland: Davaco, 1977),266 ff. Bruegel
This content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Fri, 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
it might be added. The Waning (quoted from ofthe Ages[New York: Doubleday Anchor Books. 9Fordiscussion see Gibson. This content downloaded from 95.the widow of thelate Hieronymus Cock published a Netherlandish counterpart to Vasari. 1. da Giorgio VasariPittore Aretino.9 On the one were admired for the vast distances hand. painting.1572).neitherchoice of values nor grandeur. Vasall.Pieter & Italy 207 Bruegel It is my intention here to considerBruegel's relationship to Italywith to a sense of a Netherlandish school of painting regard newly emerging thatoccurredduringthe second halfof the sixteenth in century both Italy and the Netherlands.which the Flemishseem to have rather than the Italian.on the other variety portrayed hand. 2d ed. Con unasuautile& necessaria introduzzione e le artiloro.1st ed.sense of Netherlandish paintingis in factexpressedin some commentsthat Lampsoniusmade in the verseshe wrote about the Dutch painter Jan van Aemstel. becauseone becomesattracted by theirpleasantview and theworkingof depth. it aims at rendering minutelymany thingsat the same time. includeda sectionon Netherduringthe peak of Bruegel'scareer.and followingBruegel's death.8 The questionI wish to addressis: How do we understand as a landscape painter.7Just fouryearslater. the second edition of Vasari's Lives. taking up a type of paintingwhich for Italians epitomized Netherlandish art . De PinturaAntigua ): "But mostof the time theypaint what are called landscapeswith plentyof figures. Notably. in the form of a volume of portraits of Dutch and Flemish painters accompanied by Latin verses composed by the Netherlandish humanist Domenicus Lampsonius. "Mirror oftheEarth. Though the eye is agreeablyimpressedthese pictureshave neitherart nor reason. (Florence:Apressoi Giunti. Ampliate VasariPit.as well as his career Bruegel's to Italian as a of art. and. (Rome. Netherlandish they landscapes and forthe infinite of detailtheyincluded.6 published in 1568. relationship part thisbroaderculturaldevelopment? When Bruegel embarked he was. Nostri: Descritte in linguaToscana. Et Archit.of which a singleone would have sufficed to call forth a whole man's application" Middle JohannHuizinga. of the Italianreception of Netherlandish landscapepainting.where he 6Le ViteDe Pii Eccelenti Et Scultori InsinoA'Tempi Architetti. theywere slightedfor lacking the elevated concernsof Italian art.1550). praisesFlemish fortheireffects of space. Giorgio Aretino.both its strengths and its shortcomings. humanist. Scultori. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .however.addingthatthere"is no cobbler'shouse without landscapepaintings itslandscape.In short. neither nor proportion. 1954]. 8Pictorum Germanicae aliquotcelebrium inferioris effigies (Antwerp.(Florence: Lorenzo Torrentino. landishpainters. Scritte Pittori. Italiani.which was first in conceives of the of of Italian 'history art' as the history published 1550. & di nuovo da M.Da Cimabue Pittori. writes is needed for[rendering] near and distantlandscape. 1509). in a letterto BenedettoVarchi of 1547.' Vasari'sLives." The negativeview of Flemish landscape is exemplified in the comment allegedly made by Michelangelo (according to Francesco da Holanda. 265). 1568).wherethe idea of a nationalschool of painting was closelywedded to the notionof a nationalcultural'rebirth. upon a careeras a landscapepainter." Francesco Tratto di Pittura that"a certain talent and discretion Lanciolotti. to be sure.224. 7Le ViteDe'Pii Eccelenti Et Architettori.99.this is an art symmetry withoutpower and withoutdistinction. in the Netherlands The emergence itself of a national in self-consciousness vis-a-vis fact be in understood may painting relationship to Italy. This Italian.73 on Fri."chap.
".Bilderaus 1000Jahren (Berlin: Rembrandt-Verlag. 1498-1578:His Lifeand Works Hessink."and the factthatClovio was well knownin his own lifetime forhis interest in arttheory. hominespingere."PieterBruegel's Tower of 45 (1982): 43-56.because the Italians have their is in theirhands." However. points out. Ausonius.while noted that.73 on Fri.13 Bruegel's Italianarttradition in considvis-a-vis self-consciousness becomesapparent ering a work such as his Towerof Babel (fig. 11:1-9. that the two artists and we can assume collaborated. The last will and inventory of Clovio were both publishedin A."Anmerkungen Babel.TheArtofDescribing: DutchArtin theSeventeenth (Chicago: Century of Chicago Press. Otto von Simson Bruegel und MatthiasWinner (Berlin: Mann." in Norm and Form (London/New York: Phaidon Press.. the paintingis a responseto the preoccupation in his own Netherlandish l?This is quoted in full by E. esp. Bradley. way to one of Bruegel as a more sophisticated and princes." This content downloaded from 95. Mansbach. (Modena: Vincenzi e Nipoti. manu/Maluit ergo manus Jani bene pingere rura/Quam caput. the Netherlanders the Italiansexcel in the representation of men and gods. 14Fora discussionof the various interpretations of Bruegel's treatment of the Towerof see Gibson. mani). ofthePaintings. 115. fora discussionof"craft"in Netherlandish University painting. had asserted silk betterthan other paintersbecause they are betterin affairs not requiringdrawing. H.while the geniusof Netherlanders And so. as Gibson "Mirror of theEarth. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .99.sive deos/Nec "PropriaBelgarumlaus est bene pingererura/Ausoniorum. safely strongly suggests thatthis collaborationtook the formof Bruegel providinglandscapesfor Clovio's figure scenes."11 In recentyears."10 brainsin theirheads. See also. GiulioClovio.. 48-77.224.. Christian Tumpel. 1:42). 16.". however.12 More important is Vasari'sdescription here. Edition 12OnBruegel's associationwith Clovio.Johann-Christian zu PieterBruegel'sBabel-Darstellungen. Antonio FrancescoDoni.however. 1966).1983). Bertolotti.. 1882).5. steight Altumer des FlaviusJosephus 1960). 1."chap. Earth." in Pieter undseineWelt. of Clovio as "un piccolo e nuovo Michelangelo. 1979). aut homines aut male scire deos . 3. Pieter Bruegel: Complete 3d ed. 1. executed in 1563.Van Mander's image of "peasant" Bruegel has given now known to have artist. already in 1549.or hence the proverb. see Grossmann.. und 17.. Jahrhunderts. dei miniatori Giulio Clovio.see JohnW. (Amsterdam: Giorgio 1971). Miniaturist. Gombrich. In capites sedBelga cerebrum/Non temere in gnavafertur habere mirum. chap. StevenA. ed. principe 13For discussionof Giulio Clovio withinthe contextof his artistic milieu. Aus demNebel Babel.".Bruegel'sconnectionin Rome with associatedwith humanists that his association the Croatian miniaturist Giulio Clovio demonstrates in withtheworldof Renaissance humanism Evidence began early his career.. "Die RezeptionderJudischen in der HollandischenHistoriendarstellungen in Wort undBild des 16. ofthe chap. (gl'hanno il cervellonelle "theyhave theirbrainsin theirfingers" disegno." Lampsoniusthen remarkedthat this was only natural. Gen. a Florentine thatthe Flemishpaintvelvetand living in Venice. a distinctionarose between Italian painting as "learning" and Flemish art as "craft."The RenaissanceTheory of Art and the Rise of Landscape." Zeitschriiftfirr Kunstgeschichte derVergangenheit derTurmzu Babel. Jewish Antiquities.208 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Journal Century win praise fortheirlandscapes.14More specifically. Josephus."Mirror Klamt. Helmut Minkowsky. 11. "See SvetlanaAlpers.
Pieter & Italy 209 Bruegel of thisbiblical subject culturewith Italian models. .see Charles de Tolnay. bypermission Reprinted ed. "FurtherMiniaturesby Pieter Bruegel the Elder. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .e. Pieter Bruegel Vienna.224. (114 x 155 cm). While the illustration rare. R. _-y its v'L. since one of the mostpeculiaraspectsof thispaintingis the way thatBruegel deviatesfrompictorialtradition.Bruegel may well was not new at the time.1977)."Die Darstellungen derDeutschen des Turmbauszu Babel in der Bildenden Kunst. ivorydepictingThe Tower ofBabel is listedin the inventory This content downloaded from 95.it was still considerably with illustrations of the themein theFarnese Hoursand have been familiar in the GrimaniBreviary. this themein Italy.A paintingby Bruegel on 16Bruegel appearsto have alreadytreated of Clovio. undJustus Miller Hofstede(Erftstadt Lukassen. some yearsbeforeBruegel's associationwith Clovio in Rome. ^ . One would like to thinkthatthiswere the case.Bruege(New York: Oxford University Press. the artist of the text in a highly meaningfuland has modernizedthe illustration originalway.99.Kunsthistorisches Museum.. Fritz. Jahrhunderts.. Gibson. 177-81.44-1/2x 61 in.throughClovio.1984).. und 17. states thatBruegel cannothave paintedthesepages since theFarese Hourswas completedin 1546. Oil theElder. TheTower Signed ofBabel. Fig. More specifically."Mitteilungen Orientgesellschaft 71 (1932): 15 if l5It has been suggestedthatBruegel collaborated with Clovio on the Farnse Hours." Burlington Magazine 122 (1980): 616-23. 28.16 .73 on Fri. Hermann Vekeman in Niederandischen Kunst und Literatur des 16.1 He would have had access to both illustrated volumes in Italy.. fA-- :. anddated1563. on panel. 1.
Leon Battista Universal Man of theEarlyRenaissance Alberti: of Chicago Press.210 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) CenturyJournal The most originalaspectof Bruegel's treatment of the Tower ofBabel is thathe modeled the edificeon the Roman Colosseum. nos. thus asserting the earlier commitment of Netherlandishart to religious In the later of the artist.Hieronymus cat. 98-130. opere che nel modo miglioresi adattinoai piu importanti dell'uomo. only compare by painting to 1532 paintingof Saint Luke Painting the Virgin (fig.to contradict the status of Netherlandish paintingas craft.17 thatCock hadpublished The Colosseum in a quite significant enteredinto Cock's ruinproduction way. primadi procedere oltre. this is the necessary everything businessof thatcomprehensive genius. in fact.. encounter 20QuotedfromJoan Gadol. painting.credo (Chicago: The University Giacche non prender6 utile chiarire che cose. While thismay be relatedto his own travelsto Italy.73 on Fri. They include nine views of the Colosseum. who assumesa strikingly self-conscious as he out at the viewer gazes pose and asserts his commitment to classicalculture. attraverso lo spostamentodei pesi e mediantela riunione e la bisogni congiunzionedei corpi.19 Van Heemskerck's painting setsout.it is more closely connectedto sets ofRomanruins in theearly1550s. self-portraits in the remains 19Thefirst to travelto Rome and become interested Netherlandish painter of classicalantiquity was Jan Gossaert. '8It is not clear whetherthe artist The of Van Heemskerck. discipline: rispetto chiamer6colui che con me todo sicuroe perfetto razionalmente Architetto sappia progettare e realizzare praticamente. purposes. In his De re aedificatoria (1453-70). Cock. secondo me. who was in Rome from1508 to 1511. esponentidelle altre per paragonarlo il lavorodel carpentiere infatti non e che strumentale a quello dell'architetto.but to raise an edificewhich is to be completein everypart.and to consider and providebeforehand forsuch a work." This content downloaded from 95.1969).155ff. is not so much the businessof the architect as of a commonworkman. 256-66 and nos. in Romanruins The wayin whichCock's interest informed thementality of Netherlandish painters at mid-centuryis evident in Maerten van Heemskerck's witha ViewoftheColosseum.2).though again it is not absolutelycertainthat these include of the painters. si debba intendere per architetto. ai pii qualificati certoin considerazione un carpentiere. 1-25. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 3) appreciatethe of sense that Netherlandish had themselves newly emerging by painters the mid-1550s. we see a self-portrait however. Leon BattistaAlberti made a firm distinction between the architect as craftsman and as genius:"To run up that is for anything immediately necessary any particular purpose .18 In the earlierpaintingvan Heemskerckshows the artist in the traditional Netherlandish guise of Saint Luke paintingthe Virgin.. is a self-portrait portrayed themewas previously such as Rogier van Netherlandish artists depictedby otherprominent der Weyden and Jan Gossaert. "Ma. SelfPortrait completedin 1552 We need Van with his this Heemskerck (fig. 291-306.99.."20 17SeeRiggs.224. The relationshipof Bruegel's painting to Van Heemskerck'swork fullclarification receives onlyin the lightof ItalianRenaissancearttheory. 134. It appearsthat self-consciousness on the part of Netherlandishartistswas closely connected to a direct with Italy.
.Reprinted bypermission This content downloaded from 95. Museum. (168 x 235 cm).Pieter Bruegl & Italy 211 9if' Behind. ~ gitL e a cmkrk ~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~E . 6 . Harlem. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . '. (42. 235 cm)..224. 16.Haarlem. Frans LukeAltarpiece. -1/ . Fig.99. Maerten Hals Oil on panel.2 x 54 cm).Signed and dated 1555.1/2 x 21..'.~. 3.(18x25c. :..-"* ' : ' Oil on panel. 3. Cambridge. io Luke Al~~~~~~~~~~~taie. Reprinted by permission z! e.::.Oionpel66x9-2i. FramH Museum. ?16 . ? . Fitzwilliam Museum.:~.Merc Fig.73 on Fri.66 x 92-1/2in. .. Oil on panel.. ? ~ 'i. Sigmd larpiecc LIrirrd FRy'..T~ h an h .1/4 in.~!' : .~/. Reprinted by permission~~~~~~~~~ The Saint from theVirgin LukePainting Saint vanHeemskerck.
Alberti.n. See also Gadol.in 1539 and 1550. examplesof classicalarchitecture in the building is clearlydemonstrated His interest by the factthat in a slightlylaterversion(fig. 105 ff.". itself. Arthur ofthe American 238."The Role of Disegnoin Mid-Sixteenth CenturyFlorence. formby Bruegel's alleged teacher. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . For a discussionof the importance of the conceptof disegno in Italian art theory. as well as some of Serlio's writings. no. 22Fora discussionof Alberti'srelationship see Gadol. 3 "Bruegel the Elder as a Guide to 16th-Century Technology.99. See also H. Ind. the artist towercan mostcertainly be explainedby the narrative itself. which duringthe Renaissancewas one of the most hallowed and and an exampleof Vitruvian theory. Coecke La Renaissance d'Alost(Brussels:Finck. 24Thisis pointedout by Gibson.224. chap. 10 above.Y. This content downloaded from 95. may have selected the theme partlyfor what it allowed in portraying the Colosseum.23 of the Tower One of the mostinnovative aspectsof Bruegel'streatment This ofBabel is the emphasishe gives to the mechanicsof construction.see GeorgesMarlier. 1978): 134-40. translated and publishedin summary PieterCoecke van Aelst. Flamande.and Binghamton.N.22 Notably. Leon Battista 132 ff." of Notre Dame in The Age of Vasari(Notre Dame. drawingin Italian arttheorydid exemplify disegno. LeonBattista to Vitruvius.21 werefundamentally in hisDe reaedificatoria The viewsputforth byAlberti made betweencreative the he and indeed distinction Vitruvius. Pierre 23OnPieterCoecke van Aelst. by inspired endeavor and manual work goes back to Vitruviushimself. 21Cf.: University and University of New York. and which be thatpartof artistic was to which considered learned.24 was a part of the narrative thatwas generallyignoredor downplayedby While Bruegel's concern in the actual construction of the other artists.73 on Fri. While this is clearlynot a reference which is to say. "Mirror Earth. Klein. Alberti. had been Vitruvius's De Architectura. 1970). see Maurice Poirier."Scientific (March.212 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century Journal It is in thiscontext thatbehindhisown self-portrait ofsomesignificance an artist before theColosseumand drawing van Heemskerck seated portrays to the designingof the structure it. 1966). 4) the artistremovedthe historical personages and let the architecture itselfportray the text. activity also servedas a unifying bond among the visual arts. 5.
? ill :a-ia- - Datablec.5 cm). 91. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. 1564. .224.25 however.it was by way of painted that Alberti 5It was primarily by virtueof the bond between paintingand literature claimed a humaniststatusfor painting. Bruegel Fig. 1966). (60 x 74. and geometry. eager to learnthan to acquirewealth will learnfromour poets more and morethingsuseful on Paintingrev.published in 1435-36 with poets. the case forthe humaniststatusof paintingwas made by way of the mathematical This content downloaded from 95.rhetoricians Albertiadvised that. Oil on TheTower theElder. paintingin Italycould and did virtue of itsconnection to mathematics status claim a humanist by primarily More fundamentally. the poet. ed.Museum Rotterdam.99. panel. In the sixteenth century.Phidias.Lan Battista that Press. Thus we who are more fromHomer.. They will give new inventions beautifully throughwhich the painterwill surelyacquire much praise composingthe istoria thathe had learned confessed and renownin his painting. bypermission Reprinted has to do Yet it may be asked what all this concernwith architecture with painting?In the Renaissancetheredid exist a veryclear connection betweenthe two. It was only in the sixteenth century Haven/London: Yale University sciences.quoted fromJohn R.73 on Fri. each paintershould make himselffamiliar or at least aid in and othersequally well learned in letters. how to paintJove with much divine majesty. 4.23-1/2x 29-1/4in. (New Alberti to painting". ofBabel.In his treatiseon painting. Spencer.morefamousthanpainters.Pieter & Italy 213 Bruegel . Pieter Boymans-van Beunigen.
The Italian Renaissanceconcernwith Alberti. WarmanWelliver. and Amphritite 27See.28 architecture Raphael'spainted into a in effect measured sense of visible as reality stipulated Renaissance puts and geometry art theory." in Artand Beauty in the MiddleAges(New Haven: Yale University Press.for instance. eds. Bramantesuggerisce in prospettive in Florenz un'architettura desKunsthistorischen Institutes armonica. ofJob ofthe theAltarof theUnknown Brussels).See Gadol. Musee de l'ArtWallon.enteredinto theirart. of the were realizedwithinpaintings. A curiousfeature of all theseworksis thatthe artistsoffertheir own freelyinventedversionsof classical buildings. While case accomplished one of the most prominent aspectsof Romanistpaintingin the painters. Holland: Davaco.1986).See also un nuovo metodoper costruire SimonetteValtieri. e realita discusses Bramante's L'architettura 1984)." percezione influenceon Raphael and the importanceof architecture in Raphael's paintings.214 Journal The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century architecture thatone-point as well as proportionate relationships. tendsto faithfully render in his paintings Amongall of theso-called specific antiquebuildings. Die romischen Skizzenbucher (Soest.73 on Fri.224.26 Notably. Romanist Van Heemskerck was mostconcerned witharchitecture. High Raphael this was not the with Netherlandish architects.off to the right behind the mathematicians not of a with is without The Ptolemy. Raphael includes location in the foreground and himselfin the fresco. 1 (1972): 63-72. This content downloaded from 95.Mathematics are illustrated in the personagesof ofharmonies in the left who demonstrates his Pythagoras system foreground. 28ff. and mathematics in relationship in the Middle Ages. in the Netherlands.all threeleadingpainters also and were Renaissance Leonardo.. Michelangelo.and LambertLombard'sSaint Denis and Saint Paul Before God (c. StaatlicheMuseen zu Jan Gossaert'sNeptune van Orley'sAltarpiece Ordeals Berlin). Leon Battista 28ff.see Christian von Martenvan Heemskerck Hulsen and Hermann Egger. 1540. Notably. ofarchitecture 28For a discussion in Raphael'spaintings. "picta. to architecture was anticipated geometry see UmbertoEco. Spagnesi (Rome: Multigrafica. 4 (1972): Art Quarterly Meaning in Leonardo's and Raphael's Painted Architecture. These two groups are given prominenceby their of the painting. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Paolo Morachiello. art. Liege). MuseesRoyauxdes Beaux-Arts. (1516. painters of his drawingsin Rome were done afterarchitectural The majority edifices." Mitteilungen 16 no.draws a circle on a tablet. see Gianfranco Raffaello: Spagnesi. 1975).99.27 to make a claim forthe paintersused the Italian paradigmof architecture LiberalArtsstatusof painting. Ptolemy significance coupling painter architecture itself was viewed as an imitative naturein 26Moreover. "The Aesthetics of Proportion."Measure and Light."in The Gothic Cathedral (New York: Harper & Row. 1962). is the extentto which classicalarchitecture. Vitruvio e Raffaelo: il "De architectura" di Vitruvio traduzione inedita di Fabia Calvoravennate (Rome: Officina. in Italian art about the relationship The classical statement between The and architecture is made in School Athens.Bernard (1521. Netherlandish and completedstate. 21ff. of painting painting Raphael's is at one levela tour-de-force in terms ofarchitectural construction. perspective."La Scuola d'Atene.and Otto von Simpson. perspective and surely was intended as suchby theartist." 343-74. in both a ruined Netherlands In this way. 1975).and Euclid on the right."Symbolic 35 no. This appears to be of the way in which classical architecture entersinto most sixteenth-century characteristic Netherlandish Maertenvan Heemskerck is unusualin thatthe classicalarchitecture paintings.who in the guise of Bramante.which rendered her ideal state. on a slate.
26-35. For a discussion University to sixteenth-century see 11-57.see Maurice Piquard. learning." 130.Hieronymus Cock. 1550-1700 (Princeton: Princeton ofthisin relationship Press. who was also to become one of Bruegel's patronsin the 1560s. Giorgio Ghisi."he applied geography painting: must firstput the larger wrote.99. 30QuotedfromGadol.Picturing Art in Antwerp." This content downloaded from 95. 31This in fact is demonstrated in Zirka Zaremba Filipczak. .Florismade a setof designsof theSeven LiberalArts. to AntwerpfromItaly. "we [geographersand chorographers] and afterward those detailedfeatures which portraits and pictures features. who states. did a large and impressive printafterRaphael's SchoolofAthens (fig. Alberti.267-69.: "The Seven Liberal Artsseems to have been an especiallypopular theme in Antwerp."Le Cardinalde Granvelle. Leon Battista Alberti. which Cock published as printsin 1551.1987). paintingin Antwerp.6).32In 1550."ArtBulletin 43 (September 1981): 434ff. . .73 on Fri.Pieter & Italy 215 Bruegel in thattheancient had indicated thattheidea ofproportionality philosopher to both "As and in an entirepainting.the By the mid-1550s. soon illustrating to becomeBruegel'smaecenas. referred to above. those personswere truearchitects "who fromboyhood have mountedby the stepsof thesevariousstudiesand sciences. 29Quoted comparison between a pictureand a map was a loose one.LeonBattista 71.In his writings.Hieronymus for Cock 33Thiswas one of five large engravings thatGhisi did afterItalian paintings in the 1550s. designed a setof paintings the LiberalArtsforNiclaes Jonghelinck. may require to give them proportionin relationto one anotherso that of Bramante's architecture and Raphael'spaintedarchitecture underpinnings are metaphorically into the conveyedin the stepsthatfigureprominently Vitruvius statedthatonly painting'sarchitectural setting. Albertitrnsformed the relationinto a strict. done in the late 1550s as partof a set of prints the VirtuesforHieronymus illustrating their correct measure .31 FransFloris. technicalconnection. et les ecrivains.33This printwas dedicatedto Perrenot.wherePtolemy's Gadol. 340n Granvelleas a patronof the arts."30 Not only is a connectionmade betweenartand but also architecture standsas a paradigmforall the visual arts. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Artists and Rederijkers in theAge of Bruegel. les artistes RevueBelge17 (1947-48): 133-47.In addition to the picturecycle that he [FransFloris] executed forJonghelinck.47ff. Florisalso provideddesignsfora setofprints the Liberal Artsfor HieronymusCock.29The Vitruvian from ". cat.have reachedthe templeof architecture at the top. the Italian illustrating engraver.Bruegel's leading Romanistcontemporary. nos.224. 32SeeGibson.when Bruegel returned between paintingand the Liberal Artswas a concernamong relationship artists. 5) for Cock. can be seen by examining them. See Riggs. 4Riggs.34 In his design fora printillustrating Temperance(fig." Cock..
99. (22.2 National in.? . 5.224.Museum Boston. Washington. 20-1/4x Engraving. Temperancefrom of x 29. .73 on Fri. 32 in.Rosenwald Collection. 6. The Seven Fig. Reprinted This content downloaded from 95. Fig.?w . Ghisi. Giorgio Raphael. of FineArts.2 8-3/4 11-1/2 Engraving.4 x 81. afterPieterBruegel the Elder.216 The Sixteenth Journal XXIH/2 (1992) Century ME after TheSchol ofAthens. permission by Reprinted _. by permission Art. Gallery cm). 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Philip Gall. C. x Virtues. (51.D.3 cm).
but also addressesitself to the meaning of Raphael's painting.38 More architect. geographer. Here. Leon Battista 76. 1958). 37The illustration of Temperance with the Liberal Arts is entirelynew here.which themselvesare a substitute for Raphael's "ancient schools of learning." in Festschrift (Berlin: De Gruyter. See Grossmann.the visual artsin particular in RenaissanceItaly. This content downloaded from 95."Die Tugenden.but of Temperanceas "measure. 278 ff. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . paletteand mahlstick in hand. of Italian arttheory. joined the painter but he has then undermined this learnedsense of the artist by portraying themathematicians themselves as money-changers. and James Hall. a sculptor works on a figureand a paintersits at his easel. 1961). "measure"is intendedto be understoodin this printin terms important. 35ff. Bruegel respondedto these developments thereis any questionregarding the matter of theoretical concernsentering into Bruegel's TowerofBabel." maybe explainedby Bruegel's interpretation Measureis in thisprint manifest in thegroupofmeasuring figures illustrating and surveyor. The print is not only based on Raphael's fresco. 38During See Gadol. 1979). Bruegel has includedthe visual arts with the Liberal Arts.For discussion Dictionary ofSubjects of the illustration of the Virtues.This undermining ofRaphael's composition constructed setsthe agenda forthe restof theprint. There is some significance in Bruegel's having located Alberti.For a discussionof"Art as Virtu" in RenaissanceItaly.Bruegel has.99.with a Virtuewas.and was morespecifically commonamonghumanists a topicofdiscussion among those makinga humanistclaim forthe visual arts.Bruegel'sZeven Deugden en Zeven Hoofzondon De Spieghel.in a very forthright 35See J. Benedetto "Due Lezzione"and Varchi's Art Theory..see Hall. 1939). see E. idem. with mathematics. classically composition At issue in Bruegel's print. At the same time. van Gelderand JanBorms.35 Cock.36 What initially ourrecognition obliterates of Raphaelas theunderlying sourceofinspiration for Bruegel's design is the artist'shaving turnedthe frontally organized ofRaphaelintoan obliqueview.his treatment of "Temperance"should allay such doubts.butneglected 36Grossmann to deal with the meaning of the print in relationshipto the painting. "Allegories of the Virtuesand Vices in Medieval Art. 140."37 An architectscales a column. Cinquecento the Renaissancein Italythe methods of the surveyor were adoptedby sculptors. Geometry: sculptor.224. 47-52.as in Raphael's painting. 1978). Male. astronomer.73 on Fri. Bruegel noticed therelationship betweenBruegel'sdesignand Raphael. For a of the illustration of the LiberalArtsin the Middle Ages. Katzenellenbogen. The illustration of Temperancewith the LiberalArtsis unusual.the painteris excluded fromthe businessof measuring.It is of some significance thatwhile the sculptor and architectare doing what is dictatedby Italian art theory. and Symbols (New York: Harper & Row. and Carl Stridbeck.is the statusof the visual arts. in accordancewith Italianarttheory.Pieter & Italy 217 Bruegel in his artistic If milieu. fir Kurt Badt "Bruegel's Verhaltniszu Raffaelund zur RaffaelNachfolge."Studies 10 (London: 1939). however. 297 and A. This joining of the LiberalArts.paintingin particular." in The GothicImage(New York: Harper & Row. (Ann Arbor:UMI ResearchPress. G." (Amsterdam/Antwerp: Studien (Stockholm:Almquist& Wiksell. Institute oftheWarburg .Paragone. 1956).see LeatriceMendelsohn. 162-70. "The Mirror discussion of Instruction. the surveyor just behind the sculptor.
of chap. landscapepaintings Met de Bles. and as such.landscapepaintingdid in factcontribute to the thrivingcommercialeconomy of sixteenth-century significantly of 1604 anticipates While Carel van Mander's Het Schilderboek Antwerp. 219r.and landscapeas a category who with the help of a workshopproduceda large quantity of landscape paintings. as theydid. This content downloaded from 95. 3rd printing. predecessors nor did he mass-produce as his have a largeworkshop. 1956).39 to Italian humanist art also to another not but theory significant only speaks of Flemish Giventhenotionthatpersisted painting. Unlike much of immediate predecessor."Bruegel presenting (Stockholm:Almquist& Wiksell. and upon the modernDutch edition. aspectof Netherlandish paintingas an art of landscape. 1968). 41See Gibson.99.".40 is made about an artistwho first It is no accidentthat such a statement established of art. its commerce. since artflourishes where thereis wealth. 8. "Mirror the 1.who had a large workshop.218 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century Journal is asserting as craft. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . back to Netherlandishtraditionof the sixteenthcentury. of Dutch paintingof the seventeenth it also looks the flowering century.It is firmlyestablishedthat Bruegel's landscapeswere executedfora limitedand exclusiveclienteleof patrons. categories appearsthento have been one of the morelucrative As a major exportitem to Italy. Bruegel did not. Patinir(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress. is entirelyin keeping with the conditions according to which they of this drawingas but not veryconvincinginterpretation 39SeeStridbeck's interesting Studien a learned image of the painterin "Der Maler und der Kenner. because of propserous attracted the mosteminentartists frommanyparts.73 on Fri.as something way. seemsto have done. 40Quoted from Robert Koch. Such a connectionis made again in the 1560s and theConnoisseur in his drawing of The Artist (fig. Earth. van Carel van Mander.it is worth pointing out that landscape of painting. Joachim is based upon the first editionofHetSchilderboek (Haarlem: 1604). where we see a him and next to a connoisseur witha prominently at his easel.7).which follows the second editionof 1618. he did in fact produce his landscapes different fromthose of his two leading accordingto conditionsentirely Patinirand Henri Met de Bles. the production of his predecessors. and in large numbers. when in the opening lines of the life of Patinir. 15ff. anticipated paintings. and inventiveness evidentin Bruegel'slandscape The extraordinary variety by the set of twelvelandscapesthathe did forCock. (Amsterdam. standing painter of the The forthby Bruegel money image put painter displayed purse. Koch's translation fol. 68.theartist activity pictorial directedat financialgain.41 While landscape was a prevailingconcernin Bruegel's art fromthe startof his careeruntil his death.224. Het Schilder-Boek 1946). Bruegel's landscapeswere not done for export nor for an open market.the authorstates: The famousand imposingcityof Antwerp.
. _ &: -:i S X _........... i!"'.~:. ::/::: . ..... * I :......"EC .. __E_.~ i.. .' :":'"':' ":... . .. .. ..... :~....99... ~~.:: ? ? ......?~~~~~....:': :. :... ....'~~>''... .-.~~:". ... Yig. p-~~~~~~ .. andink on paper.::~~". .. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..~s I . .. .73 on Fri... \...... .i :'C'~':" . ... .~.:....t . .8?2.' .: .GahceSmln e na.. _?.(9.? :'~.. :~ ." ~~~'~~~~~.--.... " ~ "I I I 7. ~ .t.... ?~~~"'~ "LP'pzl ----~ ~ '....... .. ? ~...::'.' P .... .L . -rmt-l Vienn b~?~ Vienna pemissio by pem ssion l~ r .......... .. . :"?...i"~ ..............':' ~. : ~~~~~~*~..~ .~.. . :.. " ..... 5568 m. :.::%1-s .~:..... .. Rprined This content downloaded from 95. . . ~ ~Pi t~~~~~~~?.... ... ~........ ' ' '' . .....i' . 11-3/4? 8-1/2 ~~~~~~~~~? X in. ~h'... . . I?~ .. . .'.. ' .Pider Brwl & Italy 219 ? ::.~'~:'.... ~ r~~~~~~~..."'.... Pi~"t :Bmegd be EiL~~E?.:~.224....
220 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century Journal a lowlyimageof theNetherlandish wereproduced.224. Jahrhundert "Weltlandschaft": Studien undMaterialen (Frankfurt a. On Patinir and the world landscape. different Raisonne. which Fall ofIcarusand his Landscape bearsa farcloserresemblance is signedand dated1557. 44.which the artist has. Raisonne. 1980.1974). and which were done eitheron his painterin such an important sense inspired from)Italy.as popularized in the attachment The firstquarterof the sixteenthcenturyin the paintingsof Patinir. 44Theattribution CharletonLecture byJohnE.however.Bruegel sets forth The agenda vis-a-visboth Italian and Netherlandish pictorialtraditions.73 on Fri. the otherdepictsa River Landscapewith Mercury AbductingPsyche. to theApostles on the withChrist The Patiniresque Landscape Appearing no longerappearsto have been executedby Bruegel. 42Thiswork was previously thoughtto have been executedby Bruegel in Italy. 9). landscapepainterarguesprecisely painter pictures to the contrary. Recent laboratoryexaminationof the painting stronglysuggests. Catalogue Romae 1554/Excused:Houf: cum prae Caes. La Chutd'Icare (Fribourg: Bruegel.One printdepictsa River Landscapewith the Fall of Icarus.yet it Sea of Tiberias of his careerwith a strong is clearthatBruegelemergedin Italyat the start to the Netherlandish world landscape. "PieterBruegeland the Fall of theArtHistorian. as it were. which was repeated Antwerpis his Landscape invention version. C.are in a quite fundamental journeyto (or return at the rock the same time fantastic formations so nature. 45The Icarus theme appears to have had a particular appeal for Bruegel. reinvented." on Art Delivered in the Universityof Newcastle on Tyne. see Detlef Zinke. withthe A usefulcomparison can be made betweenBruegel'sLandscape withtheParableoftheSower(fig. For discussionof the Officedu livre.who it appearsalso added the classical subjectmatter. See Lebeer.45 underlying conceptionof the paintingis the world landscape. by typicalof the with this the sourceof Bruegel's fascination world landscapeare certainly to of What has done here is Bruegel landscape.42 into which as a figured Bruegel's reputation landscape Alpine drawings way. White./Bern/LasVegas: Peter Lang. 1977). They were engravedbyJorisHoefnaegel. that it is not of the sixteenth century.43 One of Bruegel's earliest extant paintingsfollowing his returnto withtheFall ofIcarus(fig. The earlier landscape which gives a sense to the world landscape in the bird's-eye perspective. illustrating typesof ships. While theartist putforth in his career as a of him.Catalogue This content downloaded from 95.44 to hisown artistic in a second. mostrecently ofthispainting to Bruegelhas occasionally been doubted.nearly identical Returning his artistic in his Landscape withtheFall ofIcarusprint. simply particulartype submitpictorialconventionto the experienceof natureherself. T.These printsare signed and dated: PetrusBreugel 43Lebeer. painting. Patinir's zur Landschaftsmalerei im 16.177ff. Bruegel's to the world landscape of Patinir is also evident in two commitment landscapeprintsforwhich he produceddesignswhile in Italy. no. Bruegel also included this episode in one of his printsof a ship that formedpart of a series of prints cat.M. see PhilippeRoberts-Jones. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .99. 8).
:-~:~ . 9. 4 ~~~~~~~~~~ Fig..Signed and dated 1557. Oil on canvas..:~. PieterBruegel the Elder. .Reprinted by permission :r I ? ~ ~~~~~~ .7 x ~112.Landscape 1558.224. ~ in.".. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .-.& Italy 221 Pieter Bruegel Si. Reprinted by permission This content downloaded from 95. . . Timken Art Gallery San Diego.l _~ Oil on . (74 x 102 cm).:. .. 8.. Fig.29 x 40 in.~:. ."'.Landsape wit theParableoftheSower.~(73.. PieterBruegel the Elder.' _ :::~.. Beaux-Artsde Belgique.3 cm). ~ Muses ~ Royaux ~ des canvas.99.73 on Fri. Brussels. . : withtheFall f IcarusDatable c. . 29 x 44-1/8 2-r.
in the ViewofNaples is that the actual port of 11).The impactof Italianart is also evident in thedominant role givento thefigures withinthelandscape setting.the peasant and the natureof his with respectto issues regarding the natureof activity may be understood artistic endeavor.While thismaybe contradicted somewhat by the view down on to the peasant. The crescent-shaped contemporaries. retaining and so admiredby the Italians. deviatesfromthe mannerin which the port of Naples was depictedby otherartists.see Gadol. an Italian sense of picture-making.73 on Fri. fact. What is noteworthy is in buttrapezoidal. portvisible in the distanceof Bruegel's Icarusis laterrepeatedin his ViewofNaples (fig.Breakwaters. 48For a discussionof the peasantin Bruegel'sFall ofIcarus.Bruegelnow attempted to physically locate the viewerwithinthe work of art.No longeraccommodating physically itselfto the "rovingeye of God. Still Bruegel has done no less than introducean Italian sense of space. It is not merelyRenaissancepaintingthatentersinto Bruegel'sFall of Icarus. observation in fact be made the workers in about might Bruegel's Tower who are the natural rock of the earth foundations transforming ofBabel. 12.. 47SeeMorrisHicky Morgan. This content downloaded from 95. The Ten BooksofArchitecture (New York: Dover.46 the sense of vast distance.224.99. historicalnarrative vs. 46Fora discussionof the different of Italian and Flemishpaintingin spatialconceptions the Renaissance. The introduction of thisnew spatial sense to the world landscape formulamay be understoodon one level as the desireto depictnaturein a more convincingmanner. and Ethan Imageryand Bruegel's Fall ofIcarus. done for his Antwerpmaecenas. chap." the world landscapehas been adjusted to thehumanscaleof theviewer. 10). see RobertBaldwin.be understood in relationship to Vitruvius.characteristic of the world landscape. Alberti.222 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century Journal of distance to foreground as well as background. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."Jahrbuch Antwerpen (1986): 83-98. Vitruvius. however.In the Fall of Icarus. Niclaes Jonghelinck.e. Bruegel'sinaccuracy Naples not. "Pieter Bruegel's Fall of Icarusand the Noble Peasant.He did thisby providinga foreground which corresponds in scale to the viewer outsidethe painting. and Shipyards. who recommended thatportsbe rounded. the mundane). The same hence.but also the concern with classical architecture among Bruegel's touched upon above."Peasant 55 (1986): 101-14.it is at the same timealso an adaptation fromItalian art.this spatialambivalenceis resolved in Bruegel'smonumental set of landscapesof the 1560s (fig.48 What we see hereis a peasantwho is literally submitting natureto geometry. "Harbors. crescent-shaped. His reconstruction of the port of Naples may. Leon Battista 163 ff."Konsthistorisk Tijdskrift Matt Kavaler." 1914). and which also functionsas a ledge fromwhich the viewer may position himself as he gazes out to the worldbeyond.47 While the emphasisgiven to the peasantin Bruegel'sportrayal of the classical text is his characteristic reversalof conventionalpriorities (i.
99. (117 x 162 cm). Bruegel Fig. (39. Pieter panel. and dated1565. 11. Galeria Doria.224.5 cm). bypermission Reprinted -.Oil on Bruegel Fig. Hunters Snow.Reprinted bypermission This content downloaded from 95.Pieter & Italy 223 Bruegel _r - in the theElder. - -_ theElder.46 x 63-3/4in.Viw ofNales. Datable1562-63.73 on Fri. 10.Vienna. Pieter Signed Oil on panel.8 x 69. Kunsthistorisches Museum. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .15-1/2x 27-1/4in.Rome.
as it is that Understood such. 8 (1977): 346-98. on "The Exercise of Fantasia. .73 on Fri.the notion of the artistas God was closely connectedwith the andfantasia. At the same time. the image of the artistas one who fabricates the in relationship to sixteenth-century worldmaybe understood Italiannotions In additionto the connectionmade in Italyduring about artistic creativity.50 Oddly enough. University Michelangelo ofArt(Princeton:Princeton on which Italianarttheory 33-284.Mass. as defined in Italianarttheory. esp. theRenaissance betweenthevisualartsand learning. experienceand with the of knowledge-based or sensory And while mimesis. landscape. Fantasiais also discussedin David Summers.the conceptof 'elevatedimagination' which Leonardowould have known fromhis fantasia . acquisitionand manipulation experience. of the greatest the exerciseoffantasia was a matter therefore. pt.49 Given Bruegel's preoccupation with landscapethroughout his career.224 The Sixteenth Journal XXIII/2 (1992) Century In a more fundamental into a Colosseum-likestructure.1981).224. where century a premiumwas put on the way in which artisticcreativity surpassed nature.Like Dante's alta . 1.which is to say "perfect" imitation. noteworthy painter relationship attentionis given again. duringthe sixteenth thisconcernwas replacedby thenotionoffantasia. artistic endeavorcame in the sixteenth to be associatedwith the creativepowersof God century himself. 50Further discussion of fantasia is Martin Kemp's "From Mimesis to Fantasia: The QuattrocentoVocabularyof Creation. 49InRenaissanceItaly. forcreativeeffort. was fullyrealizedin painting. both the narratives of the TowerofBabel and the Fall of Significantly. was now used as an instancein which artists in re-fabricating could be like God the creator the world accordingto theirown conditions.1981). to manual labor . sense."Viator.as it were. ofNature See chap. Icarus deal withincidents related to thisPromethean senseofartistic endeavor."At the highestlevel.: HarvardUniversity The Marvelous Works Press.at least by way of landscape.a paradigm. Whereas mimesiswas the primary foundation "Fantasy.. century was closelyassociatedin the fifteenth with history century paintingand didacticconcernsin fantasiawas associatedwith sensory painting(i. moral elevation).Quoting fromthe writingsof Leonardo.e. consequence. as in the Towerof Babel.fantasia was neverfullyrealized in Italianart."' Kemp goes on to say. real one" (162). da Vinci: This is fullydiscussedin MartinKemp.99. andRenaissance Studies Medieval and theLanguage Press. it is perhaps of somerelevance thatthePromethean senseof artistic creativity that arose during the sixteenthcenturywas associated with landscape Italian art was at one level committed painting.the peasant to the to the landscape land be understood as a reference may givingshape in to nature." While mimesis was founded. which throughoutthe Renaissance stood as livingevidenceof the power of artas imitation." 162ff.Leonardo conceptsof invenzione and Man (Cambridge. This content downloaded from 95. God: painting'is not only Kemp states". 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Inspirationand Genius in the Visual Arts.the visual artist'sfaculty of inventiongave and Convivio readingof the Divinia commedia him a 'divine' power to fabricate a universewhich existedparallel to the his own universe. the painteris in the positionof a microcosmic a matter of sciencebut also a divinity. the name of which should be duly reveredand which repeatsthe worksof God and the most high.not even in the landscapesof Leonardo himself. in the sixteenth mimesiscame to be replacedbyfantasia. .While fifteenth-century to the notion of mimesis.
if not to say the realityof artistic in thathe alludesto boththegeniusand craft of artistic creativity.99. and this came at a time when painters in the Netherlands were tradition. 14) of the same theme. ci6. . 185. and indeed to an tradition. this two-foldsense is acknowledgedby Leonardo. the fatherof Icarus. A Comparison Irma A. Bruegel looks back to the "old Netherlandish" "anti-classical" unaffected tradition. In Bruegel's Fall ofIcarusthis point is broughthome itselfgives way to the mundaneand to by the way in which the narrative the non-significance of Icarus in the landscape. Handbook 51SeeEdward Tripp. byLeonardo esso l'ha primanella mente. of his own Bruegel's art is notjust an affirmation. Interestingly both craftsman enough. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1969).Pieter & Italy 225 Bruegel In both works the texts depicted describeprotagonists who attemptto exceed theirlimitsas humanbeings.73 on Fri. turningto the of artisticcreativity thatwhich is in theuniverse instance of landscape." chap. Crowell's (New York: Thomas Y.as partof the sixteenth-century of self-consciousness of the Netherlandish school of painting. we may understand on paintingas Bruegel's insistence craft. This content downloaded from 95. in effect.52 So much forLampsonius'distinction between Italian and Netherlandish painting. both erect a tower that instances. . signed Frans Floris' earlier Bosch. 1970).Icarusattempts and theIsraelites flight In to human limits.It is in thisway thatwe to Calvary. signedand dated 1564.' 53SeeGibson. which encapsulates painting of the fifteenth centuryand the firsthalf of the sixteenthcenturyin combininga Met de Bles landscapewith a quotationfromRoger van der Rebel So also maywe understand Weyden'sDeposition. 13). and thenin his hands . and is surelyintendedas a "comparison"to (1554) Michelangelesqueversion(fig. And it may be noted that Daedalus. 52QuotedfromLeonardo'sParagone. production. . who. of ClassicalMythology Crowell Company. e poi nelle mani . may in fact understand paintingssuch as Bruegel's Procession Netherlandish (fig. by Italianart.224. 52.12). has it first in "thishead he [theartist] by essence. . 5.presentia o'immaginatione.was known as and inventor. to elevateNetherlandish artby attaching themselves to Italian attempting art and Italian notionsabout painting. development but also a celebration. oftheArts Paragone: da Vinci. At one level. In his returnto the world-landscapeand in his revival of Bosch. just as this adherenceto landscape.(London/New York: Oxford University Press.53 Bruegel'sFall ofthe and dated which is done in the manner of 1562. ch'e nel' universoper essentia..presenceor imagination.. beyond goes attempt these protagonists are put in theirplace by the God or gods whom they in effect challenge. Richter. Bruegel submitsto the paradox.comments ". Angels(fig.. 'Et ineffetto. "Mirror ofNature.
-' . Reprinted by permission -d Jr Fig. 46 x 63-3/4 in.73 on Fri. the Elder. 13.. .Signe and dated 1562. Vienna.Procession Fig. (117 x 162 cm). 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. . . 48-3/4 x 67 in. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Muses Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique.. Brussels. PietcrBruegel the Elder. to CalvarySigned and dated 1564. PieterBrueggd Oil on panel.226 The Sixteenth Journal XXIII/2 (1992) Century r! . bypermission Reprinted This content downloaded from 95.. 12.99.224. Oil on panel. . . Fall ofte Rebe Angds. (124 x 170 cm).
& Italy 227 Pieter Bruegel x 86 Fall ofte Rebel Ands. York.4 cm).--' i :' ' . Koninklijk Museum voorSchoneKunsten. Oil on TheHarveers..224. Reprinted This content downloaded from 95. Fig. '~: ' anddated1565.Rogers bypermission (19.. Museum x 160. Frans in.Metropolitan 1919 Fund. . theElder. (307. 1554 Oil on panel. Signed Bruegel Fig.164)... Picter New ofArt.99.73 on Fri. bypermission Reprinted "i. (118 panel.7 46 1/2x 63 in. 14.-~_t' .3 x 218.120-3/4 Floris. cm).: . 15. ~.. Antwerp. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .
For discussionof humanistattitudes towardspaintingin relationship to the work of Frans Floris.Picturing Art.224."In Detail: PieterBruegel's The Harvesters. is foundin Leonardo's Treatise he arguesthe superior rankof paintingwith respect and poetry as well as music. "'The Labours of Hercules': A Lost Seriesof Paintings by FransFloris.57 1547.54 Combiningthesixteenth-century a monumental decoraNetherlandish calendar art. 1981): 40-45.58-72.For discussion ofpaintings depicting the kunstkabinet. on "BenedettoVarchi: The Scholar and his Milieu.1982).fromwhich it takes its name.p. Seventeenth-century paintings depictingprivate artcollections thisissue. whicharein a fundamental This couplingof two leadingpictorial trends. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . or the"comparison betweenthe arts.demonstrates paintings painting. Paragone or "comparison"refersto the debate on the relativestatusof the arts.99." was in the forefront of Italianarttheory of the sixteenth In Varchi delivered his lecture on theParagoni Benedetto century. xx. 56On The Laborsof Hercules by Frans Floris. 3 (May/June 54SeeWalter Gibson. issue sense opposed to one another. theParagone.thoughit seemsthatsuchpaintings maybe of some help in addressing are not entirely accuraterecords of particular collections. 15).is literallytrue in that the paintingshung in the company of two decorative sets of paintingsby the leading Romanist artistin worksby Floris at thetime. comparison individuals. scale and its locationwith the Italianate cycle.see Filipczak.suggestsa relationship to a prevailing in sixteenth-century arttheory.A. "Due lezzione"and Cinquecento Art Theory (Ann Arbor:UMI ResearchPress.56 Taken together. see Filipczak.Bruegel'slandscape century." Burlington Magazine107 (1965): 114-15. just worldlandscapewithfifteenth10. Benedetto 57SeeIrma A. Richter. TheParagone. century Bruegelproduced tive ensemblesurelyintendedto stand on equal footingwith Italian art.55 Notably. in fact. elevatedsubjectmatter. makes the point thatparagoni techniqueof which may selectas subjectmatter stylesor even any two of severaldisciplines." 58SeeMendelsohn. wherein example. (Vienna:FranzDeutiacke.Picturing Art.FransFloris. 55There has been littlesubstantive discussionover what kindof meaningful relationship betweenpaintings as theywere hung in private mayhave existedin the physicalrelationship in picturecollections the sixteenth century.Paragone. and in he it.58This was printer.. finallyarrived. and FritzNovotny.228 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century Journal set of decorativepaintingsthat Bruegel Turning to the magnificent we may Niclaes Jonghelinck.Paragone. illustrated The LiberalArts and The Laborsof Hercules.23-45. published Notablythis textwas publishedin the same yearas Vasari'sLives. This content downloaded from 95. beforethe Florentine 1550 Academy. Bruegel's 1948).producedby the same and printedfor the same patron." 3-33.Cosimo d'Medici I. as exemplified had by landscape. to sculpture " .. The most famous on Painting.Paragone." Portfolio Die monatsbilder Pieter D.thedecorative Antwerp which is to say. Varchi's also LeatriceMendelsohn. see Carl van de Velde. This. to the literary refers Mendelsohn. did in the 1560s forhis Antwerpmaecenas.73 on Fri. this was what kind of statement ensemble now appreciate making(figs.by virtueof its monumental the way in whichNetherlandish of Floris. the Italianatepaintingsof Floris and the landscapes of Bruegel embodied the "avant garde" of Netherlandish paintingin the At secondhalfof the sixteenth the same time.
che mostrano dopo se li nuvolicon montie valli egli le polvere. thingsin theirvaryingintensity The sculptor without showsyou theshapesofnatural objects simply further artifice. regarding painting Paragone of of the status in to sculpture." effetti. penetrano egli le pioggie.per le quali con ficicultade le spetiedelli obbietti.the colors of all sculpturewith its limitations and the transparency of objects. Earlier.Paragone.and does not. cioe: li colori di tuttele cose e loro e lo scultoreti mostrera le naturalisenza suo figurale cose trasparenti mininutioni.che mostrano in se et dopo se li combattenti d'essa motori. streams of dust whirlingabout.59 wheretosculpture as a landscapepainterwas One of Bruegel's major accomplishments to portraya living sense of nature.questa il pittore ti mostrera varie distantie con variamento del color de l'aria interposta fra artefizio. It is therefore of a paradox amonghumanists something that the example of landscape paintingwas duringthe Renaissance not but as such enteredinto the to the notion offantasia. "e tale arte abbracciae ristringe in se tuttele 59QuotedfromRichter. More important is the contemporaries the sense of a world affected the earth's effect. e cose altriinnumerabili alli quali la sculturanon aggionge. li obbiettie l'occhio egli le nebbie. innumerable water and its bottom.224. .the combatants fishesat play betweenthe surface of the of varyingtransparency.Leonardo writes: If a painterwishes to see beautieswhich will enamorhim.. He can depictmiststhrough rain the shapes of thingscan only be discernedwith difficulty. The paintercan suggestto you various distances and intervening by a change in color producedby the atmosphere which betweentheobjectand theeye. of paintingover poetry. a of climatethatconstitute as Bruegel's accomplishment landscapepainter. landscapesof PieterBruegel the Elder thatcome to mind.il che farnon pub la povertadella scultura. superior Speaking painting relationship Leonardo commentsthat: The art of paintingincludesin its domain all visible things. by atmospheric physical conditions by seasonal conditions.and by the accompanying atmosphere. .some of the negative notions about landscape that prevailed weretouchedupon. unmatchedby any of the artist's or those who came before him. As one readsthrough madeby Leonardoon landscape manyof the remarks it is first and foremost the painting. questa ti mostrera li pesci scherzanti infrala superfitie d'ell' acqua et il fondo suo . namely. only fundamental of the merits relative to poetryand sculpture.& Italy 229 Pieter Bruegel the artisticmilieu to which Giulio Clovio belonged when Bruegel was associatedwith him in Rome. cose visibili. This content downloaded from 95. and valleysshowingthrough.egli li fiumepiui o men densi. .and again using Speaking of the superiority the paradigmof landscape. things 104.. He will represent effects cannot aspire. withcloud-cappedmountains clouds who raisedthem. he is and if he wishes to see monstrous lord of theirproduction.73 on Fri. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .99.
and if he wishes afterwards to see the horizon of the sea he is lord of them. he wishesto generate compassionate or shadyand cool places in hotweather. che spaventino. ch'& nel' universoper essentia. esso li figura. generaresiti e deserti. risibilio veramente bufonesche. bring to mind his landscapesas a whole. the ofPieter their and mostlegitimate fullest BruegeltheElderreceive landscapes definition.And. esso l'ha primanelle mente. se vol valli (al simile).et in effetto. to the artist'sdepictingseasons bringsto mind the Leonardo's reference set of paintings and the seasonaleffects Bruegel did forJonghelinck.egli n'e signore.. We have observedabove that in the Renaissancethe art of landscape stood as the paradigmof Netherlandish painting. from 51-52.Italian paintingwas in a quite fundamental this conquestby virtueof its classical sense of "measuredreality. similarly places cold if he wishes afterwards to see the horizon of the mountains. Within the context of this cultural issue. the Boschian paintings of Bruegel come to mind. Leon Battista 63ff. This content downloaded from 95.et se vole dopo quelle uederel'orizzontedel mare. similarlyif he wishes to see high mountainsfrom low And. e poi nelle mani . byessence. imaginain his mind and then in his hands. ei n'& signoreet dio (creatore). as a key element in theParagone.224.230 The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) CenturyJournal which frighten and laughable or or those which are buffoonish their lord And if he is and god. them.99. it was ultimately by virtueof landscapethatpaintingcould.while the artist creating what is laughable or compassionatebrings to mind Bruegel's peasants. bellezze.e se vol e cosi lochi ombrosio' foschi(freschi)ne' tempi caldi.e compassionevoli. presence. and hot in weather. o che sieno egli n'& signoredi generale.61 landscapethat"realism"reachedits peak in Renaissanceart. he portrays scenes. which is in the that universe or effect. forpaintingin general.che lo innamorino.it maybe said that landscape exemplifies the highestattainment that art had reachedat the time. classical architecture and the denial of atmospheric effects that it effects.. 'Sel pittore vol vedere Richter.' 6See Gadol.deserts. ci6. Alberti. e se delle grancampagne. At a timewhen manyNetherlandish were aspiringto painters in their thestandards of sculpture and architecture by theinclusion paintings of classical sculpture. he has it first As one reads about the artistcreatingmonstrous and buffoonish things. in valleys.For one of the primarygoals of both Italian and the Renaissancewas the conquestof visible Netherlandish artthroughout in sense constrained reality.This landscapebecomesa paradigm was entirelyfitting.presentia o'immaginatione.or low valleysand seashorefromhigh mountains." while Netherlandish Because it was in paintingwas freefromthis constraint. 6?Quoted Paragone.now declare its own special uniqueness. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Here. If he wantsvalleys.o' delli alti montile basse valli e spiaggie.et se vol vedere cose mostruose. once having declaredits bond with the othervisual arts. basse valli vol vedere gli altrimonti. Bruegel turnedto landscapeand all the "painterly" afforded.se vole delle alte cime de' montiscoprire lochi caldi ne'tempeifreddi.73 on Fri.60 tion.
monumentalscale. Descrittione 62Bruegel tutti i Paesi Bassi (1537). in as if deliberate contrast to the size.Ortelius contrasts the artist'sapproachwith that of other who by tryingto make theirfiguresmore gracefuldeviate from artists.thatis. peasant primarily extensionof the landscape.99. Cambridge). large sweeping sense of composition. painterby marvelouslyand geographer. and by Domenicus Lampsonius. On Bruegel and Ortelius. means withinthe contextof sixteenth-century what such a statement art. inferioris effigies scultori e Architettori Pittori.224. fittingly Commentingon Bruegel's up painter's in a to nature somewhat rhetorical extraordinary fidelity way. 17). went down in the sixteenth Bruegel centuryas a "second Hieronymus Bosch. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .and broad handling of Bruegel's Months(fig.This paintingwas done in grisailleand Orteliushad it reproduced In hisAlbumamicorum in engraving forpresentation to his friends. by Vasari in the second edition of his Vitede'piueccelenti in which short notes on the artistsof the Netherlandsare derived from Guicciardini's Descrittione and fromcommunications sentby Lampsonius. Popham.who owned at least one painting(The Death of theVirgin) by the artist. we realize Retrospectively.Orteliushonoredhis dead friend bya memorial (preserved notice he composed in the formof a fictitious epitaph. nature and beauty being understoodin the Renaissance as one. theirmodels as well as "true" beauty."Speaking of Bruegel's truthto naturein his portrayal of the human figure.Orteliuscalls "the of our Bruegel age.64 While Bruegelbecame preoccupiedin his paintings of the 1560s with the peasant on a new.Surelythe geographeris referring here to Bruegel's Romanist contemporaries. ways. a human metaphorfornature.73 on Fri. This content downloaded from 95. di was celebratedas a "second Bosch" by Ludovico Guicciardini.see A. 63Itis well established thatBruegel was acquaintedwith Ortelius. Bruegel is also coupled with Bosch. Alpers refutesmodern interpretations being exclusivelymoral sermons. (1568). his peasantshave been interpreted in a varietyof but at a fundamental the is in his art an level. 163-76. it is notjust Bruegel's"realism" that ought to commandour attention."Burlington 640n Bruegel's peasants see Svetlana Alpers. (fig."63 Though appropriate giventhesignificance Apelles of his achievement as touchedupon above. Pictorum Germaniae alquotcelebrium confused (1572).16) following Magpie completed the setof monumental This landscapesthathe did forNiclaes Jonghelinck.Pieter & Italy 231 Bruegel Because much of his reputation was foundedon his designsforprints.we are leftwith a mostfitting epitaphon the the which Abraham Ortelius. but also what we may referto as his "truth. The artistis understoodhere as being more attentive to naturethan art. in PembrokeCollege. In the literature on Bruegel. his interestin landscape was sustainedand on occasion combinedwith the peasant."62 At the same time. E. sums the achievement. jewel-like painting. Magazine59 (1931): 188 ff. "PieterBruegel and AbrahamOrtelius. thoughin a rather way.His Landscape with was in his the in the late Gallows career. "Bruegel's Festive Peasants." Simiolus of Bruegel's peasant picturesas (1972/73).
46 x 62-1/2 in. Hessisches Darmstadt. 16. Kunsthistorishes Museum.TheMagp in the Gallows Signed Bruegel Fig. Pieter 1568.99. 17. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (117 x 159 cm). TheReturn Signed ofthe Brege theElder. Pieter 1565. Reprinted by permission This content downloaded from 95.232 The Sixteenth Journal Century XXIII/2 (1992) anddated theElder.9 x 50. Oil on panel. (45. Fig.224. Vienna.17-3/4x 20 in.73 on Fri.8 cm). Oil on panel. Landesmuseum bypermission Reprinted anddated Herd.
Bruegel's aims and accomplishments his relationship to both Netherlandish and Italianpictorialtraditions. pictorial to the tradition of Jan van Eyck. Van Heemskerckderived both his interest in classical art and his conceptionof landscape fromJan van Scorel with whom he studiedbetween1527-29.but looked to principle natureherself. giving visual embodimentto a heightenedstate of sensoryperception.Bruegel's speaks and to thetruth ofNetherlandish In tradition. 1988). 9: "In his will he bequeathed to his wife a paintingof the Magpie in theGallows.67 The literary to the "magpiein the gallows" in the foreground reference of thepainting is a reference to the unpleasantness of gossip. completed 1535/36. It is therefore that not surprising faculty discussesfantasia in classical antiquity.73 on Fri. The artisthas in this landscape depicted many of the actual sites he saw while in Rome.". may be understood in relationship to whatareunderstood as mannerist historically 65See catalogue entryin Eric M.68 Again.chap."Whereas in Italybeautystood fortruth.Fifty Old MasterPaintings Art in the Walters Gallery(Baltimore:Trusteesof the Walters Art Gallery. fantasiaand paintingwere closely associatedwith each other. Zafran.as defined Gallows. in In to 18). as useful in theacquisition defense Drawingupon theancient offantasia Leonardoinsisted was knowledgeoperating in a specialcapacity. probably fora Roman patron. 5. which in at least did not look at naturesecond hand in art.thuscombining itwithhumanreasonand intellect. he kepthouse with a servant her but for girl. she was in the habitof lying. imitating higher order.65 opposition the classicalsubjectmatter. 66Discussion of thispaintingwithinthe contextof Netherlandish can pictorialtradition be foundin Gibson.66 Bruegel reverts in Bruegel's in the exists as a metaphor Nature. This painting was done while he was in Rome.By the magpiehe meantthe gossipswhom he would deliverto the gallows. putfantasia in the third. and the artificially of Van constructed sense ofnature antique architecture Heemskerck's work to both truth of the nature landscape." greatly This content downloaded from 95. that Most important. that is.. "As long as he was in Antwerp. see Grossmann. in the Italian of a art but artist rather the sense. Having dividedthe brain in the first.224. the face of Romanism.Nearly fivefeethigh by twelve feetwide. A majordevelopment occurred in the sixteenth when Leonardorelocated century in thesecondventricle ofthebrain. Bruegel.and memory Aristotle intellect up into threeventricles. it mightbe observed here thattruth to naturestandsforbeauty.a thinghe disliked. Magpie for"truth. "Mirror oftheEarth. At the same time. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .99. to truth.ed.as opposed Paintingand sensoryexperiencehad since antiquity of knowledge."The image of the artist as one who was devotedto "truth" is also evidentin Van Mander'saccountof how.is nothingless than a painting. in the second. offantasia 68Thispaintingis mentioned Pieter 3d rev. we find a metaphorfor Bruegel's art.Pieter & Italy 233 Bruegel reverts to the small size and vibrant richness characteristic of earlyNetherlandishart.He would have married the factthathavinga markeddistaste forthe truth. as the image-making of the mind.This is not truth. fantasia been equated with illusion. it is signedand datedin two places.fantasia rankedas the lowestformof humanperception. by Van Mander. in book 3 of De anima Aristotle 67Sensory experiencewas an essentialaspectoffantasia.Such a workstands in marked contrast witha landscapepainting such as Maertenvan Heemskerck'sLandscape withtheRape ofHelen (fig. fantasia the concreteembodiment so defined. as well as as a landscapepainter. secondhand information.
224.99.69 that the artistmay have died so young because natureput an statement ofBruegel's end to himforfearthathe would outdo her. a rebellionagainstsuch in effect on truthto natureconstituted insistence intoBruegel'sartin Ortelius' While thereis indeeda real insight artifice. of late and in a way that is entirelyin keeping with the self-conscious to the attends artistic vis-a-vis art convention. Bruegel sixteenth-century the truthof as a means of addressing of both pictorialtraditions artifice his own.73 on Fri." Penguin Books. Gallery. Fig.5 cm). manipulationof whose as one then may appreciateBruegel an artist pictorialknowledge. (1473 x 383. seeJohnShearman. 1967). If we understand trendsin late-sixteenth-century as well as a sophisticated conscious display of artifice. but at the same time that issue must be understood the relationship with regardto the discoursethat surrounded historically in theRenaissance.234 Journal The Sixteenth XXIII/2 (1992) Century - t and van Heemskerck. Oil on canvas. traditions thetwo leadingpictorial between Paradoxically. 69n thisin-rprttion of'nnerism. 58 x 160 in. 18. bypermission Reprinted as a "mannerism" art. Manneris (Hamondsworth This content downloaded from 95. Maerten Landpe wit te RapeofHen.The issue of "realism"in Bruegel's art is a genuine issue. Signed dated1535.Walters Art Baltimore. 5 Apr 2013 09:42:58 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .suchan estimation truthto naturemustbe qualified.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.