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It is any of a large group of compounds in which hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions in which they exist in water, are combined with carbon; the formula of most of these compounds may be expressed as Cn(H2O)n. Structurally, however, these compounds are not hydrates of carbon, as the formula would seem to indicate. They are produced by green plants and by bacteria using the process known as photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is taken from the air by means of solar energy to yield the carbohydrates as well as all the other chemicals needed by the organisms to survive and grow. The carbohydrate group consists principally of sugar, starch, dextrin, cellulose, and glycogen, substances that constitute an important part of the human diet and that of many animals. Carbohydrates are classified in 3 groups namely Monosaccharides Oligosaccharide polysacchrides The simplest of them are the simple sugars, or monosaccharides, which contain either an aldehyde or a ketone group. The most important is glucose. They are simple sugars which possess a free aldehyde (- CHO) or ketone (CO) group and 2 or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Monosacchrides cannot be hydrolysed into smaller units. Two monosaccharide molecules joined together by an oxygen atom, with the elimination of a molecule of water, yield a disaccharide. Disaccharide have the following formula Cn(H2O) n-1 of which the most important are sucrose lactose, and maltose. It can be classified into: Reducing sugar such as Lactose, maltose and celluloce Non –reducing sugars such as sucrose, Trehalose. Free disaccharide is found more often in plants than animals. Sucrose is the chief constituent of sugarbeet and sugarcane. It can be hydrolysed into constituent monosaccharide by acid or by an enzyme called invertase. Polysaccharides have this formula ( C6H10O2)X, these are enormous molecules made up of one type or several types of monosaccharide units— about 10 in glycogen, for example; 25 in starch; and 100 to 200 in cellulose. Some common examples are: 1
cellulose and hemicellulose are the main structural elements. and chondroitin. In invertebrate animals. the polysaccharide chitin is the main component of the exoskeletons of arthropods. Heteropolysaccharides which include hyaluronic acid.pectin and chitin.cellulose. the cell coatings of connective tissues contain carbohydrates.C-CH3 I C=O I N-H I O-CH. Cell membranes are rich in glycoproteins. In vertebrate animals. glycogen. Glycoprotein is a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component. which include transportation of large water soluble molecules such as sugars and certain amino acids. In plants. inulin. 2 .CH I I CH C=O CH2OH I HO I CH2OH I O O OH I I OH O H I NH I C=O I CH3 Glycoprotein serves several roles in the body. Some glycoprotein is released in the blood. Those embedded in the plasma membrane carry out a variety of functions. Homopolysacchrides which include starch. Within living organisms. while others carry blood group. N-H I H-C. carbohydrates serve both essential structural and energy-storage functions. These contain oligosaccharide chains attached to polypeptide side.CH3 I C=O N-H I H.
Depending on its concentration. Cellulose ethers are used in paper sizings.1. With some exceptions among insects. Cellulose is normally combined with woody. The above segment is a recurring glycol-tripeptide unit. adhesives.Glycoprotein also serve in part to identify the cell as belonging to a unique organism. or gummy substances. such as invading bacteria. the solution yields films and threads. Their role is to provide energy and also serve as markers for cellular. enabling the immune system to detect foreign cells. They may act as receptor site for chemical signals. Sterols are composed of complicated molecules. Microorganisms in the digestive tracts of herbivorous animals break down the cellulose into products that can then be absorbed. soluble starch. true cellulose is not found in animal tissues. Rayon and cellophane are cellulose regenerated from such solutions. It is a long chain of linked sugar molecules that gives wood its remarkable strengthen. or amyloid. soaps.3 linked residuesof galactose and N – acetylgalactosamine is attached to the polypeptide chain by a glucosidic linkage to threonine residue. They are membrane components composed of lipids that are covalently bonded to monosaccharaides. Glycolipids are present ubiquitously in cell surface membranes. fatty. It is a form of starch used for the then exposed to the fumes of carbon disulfide. With are also involved in sticking the correct cells together in tissues. Each disaccharide unit. composed of β. Can also be said to be fats that have attached carbohydrate groups called glycan. 3 . Each containing 20 or more carbon atoms in an interlocking or fused ring structure. They have polar heads and non-polar tails. Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached. Cellulose is an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibbers such as cotton. as a substitute for glass. and as a molding material. sulfuric acid acts on cellulose to produce glucose. Below is a structure of one of the glycoprotein. Cellulose is insoluble in all ordinary solvents and may be readily separated from the other constituents of plants. Cellulose acetates are spun into fine filaments for the manufacture of some fabrics and are also used for photographic safety film. for the manufacture of safety glass. It is a polysaccharide. and synthetic resins. which carry different glycoproteins.
collodion. is a blood anticoagulant. A third nitrate. when the energy is needed. Starch is used in the preparation of foods for livestock and humans. is used in medicine. celluloid. Hemicellulose is used to modify paper during its manufacture. Another carbohydrate. and agar. photography. used in the production of adhesive materials. and emulsions. cells that have a limited oxygen supply. photographic film. Constituent of some laxatives is also used as a thickening agent in food and as a medium for bacterial culture. also use large amounts of glucose to generate energy dietary source include plant starch and the disaccharide. 4 . Cellulose is a popular food additive used as astabiliser. sizing materials. guncotton. cellulose forms a series of flammable and explosive compounds known as cellulose nitrates. Such as those in the eyeball. Gum arabic is also used in demulcent medicines. a With mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acids. the carbohydrates are broken down by enzymes. is a nitrate used in various lacquers and plastics. a jelling agent. It is the primary fuel for living cells. another. Carbohydrate can be converted into viscose rayon. maltose and sucrose. guncotton. and paper products. Agar. In animals . cement. is a high explosive. Galactose is necessary for synthesis a variety of biomolecules. Galactose is hexose found mostly commonly as a component of disaccharide lactose or milk sugar. acetate rayon. Chains Plants use starch and animals use glycogen to store energy. The carbohydrate dextran is a polysaccharide used in medicine as a blood-plasma-volume expander to counteract acute shock. and the manufacture of artificial leather and some lacquers. pectin. Nitrocellulose is used in the production of motion picture film. gum arabic. plastics. Carbohydrates are used in the manufacture of fabrics. heparin sulfate. also called collodion cotton. and other products. Pyroxylin. glucose is the preferred energy source of brain cells and that have few or no mitochondria such as erythrocytes. or nitrocelluloses. and similar kinds of plastics.O I o CH2OH I CH2OH o I CH2OH o I CH2OH o CH2OH I o CH2OH I OI O I O I OI CH2OH CH2OH I O I OI O I O I O I OI CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH O CH2OH Carbohydrates are important in that: Glucose is a preferred energy source of man tissue especially the brain.
Peter Raven and George Johnson by McGraw Hill Companies. 2. (2003). Biochemistry. New York NYIOO2O USA. S. 4. (1999).(1988): UNDERSTANDING BIOLOGY HARCORT JAVANOVIEL INC. chem4kids. Trudy Mickee ental. Biology. BURTON.REFERENCES 1. .com/Biochemistry/Enzymeregulation.C. by McGraw Hill Companies. New York USA 3.
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