Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

13/07/13 17:14

Karl Marx Quotes

130 Karl Marx Quotes & 30 Frederick Engels Quotes
The only genuine source of Marx quotes on the internet, in which every quote is sourced by a link to the oroginal context.

If we have chosen the position in life in which we can most of all work for mankind, no burdens can bow us down, because they are sacrifices for the benefit of all; then we shall experience no petty, limited, selfish joy, but our happiness will belong to millions, our deeds will live on quietly but perpetually at work, and over our ashes will be shed the hot tears of noble people. Marx, Letter to His Father (1837)

History calls those men the greatest who have ennobled themselves by working for the common good; experience acclaims as happiest the man who has made the greatest number of people happy. Marx, Letter to His Father (1837)

As Prometheus, having stolen fire from heaven, begins to build houses and to settle upon the earth, so philosophy, expanded to be the whole world, turns against the world of appearance. The same now with the philosophy of Hegel. Marx, Notebooks on Epicurean Philosophy, 1839)

Real talers have the same existence that the imagined gods have. Has a real taler any existence except in the imagination, if only in the general or rather common imagination of man? Bring paper money into a country where this use of paper is unknown, and everyone will laugh at your subjective imagination. Marx, Doctoral Thesis, Appendix (1841)

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Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

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Greek philosophy seems to have met with something with which a good tragedy is not supposed to meet, namely, a dull ending. Marx, Doctoral Thesis, Chapter 1 (1841)

What is genuine is proved in the fire, what is false we shall not miss in our ranks. The opponents must grant us that youth has never before flocked to our colours in such numbers, ... in the end, one will be found among us who will prove that the sword of enthusiasm is just as good as the sword of genius. Engels, Anti-Schelling (1841)

The representation of private interests ... abolishes all natural and spiritual distinctions by enthroning in their stead the immoral, irrational and soulless abstraction of a particular material object and a particular consciousness which is slavishly subordinated to this object. Marx, On the Thefts of Wood, in Rheinische Zeitung (1842)

“atheism” ... reminds one of children, assuring everyone who is ready to listen to them that they are not afraid of the bogy man. Marx, Letter to 30 November 1842

In the year 1842-43, as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung , I first found myself in the embarrassing position of having to discuss what is known as material interests. ... the debates on free trade and protective tariffs caused me in the first instance to turn my attention to economic questions. ... When the publishers of the Rheinische Zeitung conceived the illusion that by a more compliant policy on the part of the paper it might be possible to secure the abrogation of the death sentence passed upon it, I eagerly grasped the opportunity to withdraw from the public stage to my study. Marx, Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859)

Political economy came into being as a natural result of the expansion of trade, and with its appearance elementary, unscientific huckstering was replaced by a developed system of licensed fraud, an entire science of enrichment. Engels, Outlines of Political Economy (1844)

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Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

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The bureaucracy is a circle from which no one can escape. Its hierarchy is a hierarchy of knowledge. Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right (1843)

The bureaucrat has the world as a mere object of his action. Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right (1843)

This is a kind of mutual reconciliation society... Actual extremes cannot be mediated with each other precisely because they are actual extremes. But neither are they in need of mediation, because they are opposed in essence. Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right (1843)

All forms of the state have democracy for their truth, and for that reason are false to the extent that they are not democracy. Marx, Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right (1843)

We develop new principles for the world out of the world’s own principles. We do not say to the world: Cease your struggles, they are foolish; we will give you the true slogan of struggle. We merely show the world what it is really fighting for, and consciousness is something that it has to acquire, even if it does not want to. Marx, Letter from the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher to Ruge (1843)

Reason has always existed, but not always in a reasonable form. Marx, Letter from the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher to Ruge (1843)

But, if constructing the future and settling everything for all times are not our affair, it is all the more clear what we have to accomplish at present: I am referring to ruthless criticism of all that exists, ruthless both in the sense of not being afraid of the results it arrives at and in the sense of being just as little afraid of conflict with the powers that be. Marx, Letter from the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (1843)

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for each is a specific estrangement of man and focuses attention on a particular field of estranged essential activity. But at the same time. Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. propaganda. and it demonstrates ad hominem as soon as it becomes radical. . the brotherhood of man is no mere phrase with them.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 The weapon of criticism cannot. My political economic ethics and religion have nothing to reproach you with. for man. at one and the same time. but see what Cousin Ethics and Cousin Religion have to say about it.. etc. the root is man himself. negative activities Marx. It is the opium of the people. Introduction (1843) The state is based on this contradiction. For this reason. the state must confine itself to formal.htm Página 4 de 35 . Critical Notes on the Article ‘The King of Prussia and Social Reform. But. Marx. By a Prussian’ (1844) When communist artisans associate with one another. work. between universal and particular interests. sobriety — but political economy promises to satisfy my needs. material force must be overthrown by material force. as a result of this and the nobility of man shines upon us from their work-hardened bodies. .. and the soul of soulless conditions. It stems from the very nature of estrangement that each sphere applies to me a different and opposite yardstick — ethics one and political economy another.. https://www. To be radical is to grasp the root of the matter. the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering.. Marx. It is based on the contradiction between public and private life.. — Then the political economist replies to me: You do not transgress my laws. is their first end. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature. but — But whom am I now to believe. Human Needs & the division of Labour (1844) Do I obey economic laws if I extract money by offering my body for sale. political economy or ethics? — The ethics of political economy is acquisition.. theory.. but theory also becomes a material force as soon as it has gripped the masses.marxists. Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. and each stands in an estranged relation to the other. but a fact of life. the heart of a heartless world. thrift. they acquire a new need — the need for society — and what appears as a means becomes an end. Marx. Theory is capable of gripping the masses as soon as it demonstrates ad hominem . of course. Introduction (1843) Religious suffering is. replace criticism of the weapon..

By one side it would be recognised and felt as being a request. Private Property and Communism (1844) But also when I am active scientifically. Not only is the material of my activity given to me as a social product (as is even the language in which the thinker is active): my own existence is social activity. Wages of Labour (1844) Communism is the riddle of history solved. an entreaty. Human Needs & the division of Labour (1844) The only intelligible language in which we converse with one another consists of our objects in their relation to each other. like a horse. and therefore a humiliation Marx. We would not understand a human language and it would remain without effect. and it knows itself to be this solution. It does not consider him. religion. – an activity which I can seldom perform in direct community with others – then my activity is social. Comment on James Mill (1844) Political Economy regards the proletarian .Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Marx.. therefore. as a human being. Comment on James Mill (1844) Our mutual value is for us the value of our mutual objects. Private Property and Communism (1844) https://www. as simply communism’s actual act of genesis — the birth act of its empirical existence — is. he must receive enough to enable him to work. doctors. during the time when he is not working. and therefore that which I make of myself. I make of myself for society and with the consciousness of myself as a social being. It leaves this to criminal law. Marx. and the beadle. Marx. statistical tables.htm Página 5 de 35 . Marx.marxists. etc. because I perform it as a man. Hence for us man himself is mutually of no value. Private Property and Communism (1844) The entire movement of politics. Marx. for its thinking consciousness the comprehended and known process of its becoming.

just as the science of man will incorporate into itself natural science: there will be one science. . conditioned and limited creature. vital powers — he is an active natural being. Marx... Marx. Private Property and Communism (1844) Natural science has invaded and transformed human life all the more practically through the medium of industry.. although its immediate effect had to be the furthering of the dehumanisation of man. so as thereby to find satisfaction of his own selfish need. Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy in General (1844) A few days in my old man’s factory have sufficed to bring me face to face with this beastliness.htm Página 6 de 35 . like animals and plants. . it is impossible to carry on communist https://www. Human Requirements and Division of Labour (1844) Under private property .> Marx.. even though in an estranged form. <The nature which develops in human history — the genesis of human society — is man’s real nature. historical relationship of nature. .. Private Property and Communism (1844) In general it is always empirical businessmen we are talking about when we refer to political economists..marxists... corporeal. These forces exist in him as tendencies and abilities — as instincts. Human Requirements and Division of Labour (1844) Man is directly a natural being . and has prepared human emancipation. hence nature as it develops through industry. Each tries to establish over the other an alien power. and plays no part in the system of nature. is true anthropological nature. Industry is the actual .org/archive/marx/works/subject/quotes/index.. as a natural.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Natural science will in time incorporate into itself the science of man.. (who represent) their scientific creed and form of existence. which I had rather overlooked. As a natural being and as a living natural being he is on the one hand endowed with natural powers. The increase in the quantity of objects is therefore accompanied by an extension of the realm of the alien powers to which man is subjected. A being which has no object outside itself is not an objective being. A being which does not have its nature outside itself is not a natural being. and every new product represents a new potentiality of mutual swindling and mutual plundering. On the other hand. Marx. sensuous objective being he is a suffering . Marx.

Marx. religion. Marx. the science of history. One can look at history from two sides and divide it into the history of nature and the history of men. but men. society regulates the general https://www. We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. German Ideology (1845) The premises from which we begin are not arbitrary ones. German Ideology (1845) Morality. called natural science. along with this their real existence.htm Página 7 de 35 . however. since almost the whole ideology amounts either to a distorted conception of this history or to a complete abstraction from it. Ideology is itself only one of the aspects of this history. These premises can thus be verified in a purely empirical way. metaphysics. inseparable. but real premises from which abstraction can only be made in the imagination. Marx. not dogmas.marxists. all the rest of ideology and their corresponding forms of consciousness. does not concern us here. They have no history.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 propaganda on a large scale and at the same time engage in huckstering and industry. their activity and the material conditions under which they live. January 20 1845) Communism is for us not a state of affairs which is to be established. Letter to Marx. their thinking and the products of their thinking. Engels. The two sides are. alter. thus no longer retain the semblance of independence. German Ideology (1845) In communist society. German Ideology (1845) We know only a single science. The history of nature. where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes. an ideal to which reality [will] have to adjust itself. The conditions of this movement result from the premises now in existence. developing their material production and their material intercourse. both those which they find already existing and those produced by their activity. the history of nature and the history of men are dependent on each other so long as men no development. but we will have to examine the history of men. Marx. They are the real individuals.

and as far as he considers history he is not a materialist. is compelled. without ever becoming hunter. the dominant material relationships grasped as ideas. but also because the class overthrowing it can only in a revolution succeed in ridding itself of all the muck of ages and become fitted to found society anew. merely in order to carry through its aim. Marx. necessary. is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. Thus the first fact to be established is the physical organisation of these https://www.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow. a revolution. . this revolution is necessary. fisherman.marxists. the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it. just as I have a mind. to hunt in the morning. to represent its interest as the common interest of all the members of society. Marx.. universally valid ones. so that thereby. German Ideology (1845) Both for the production on a mass scale of this communist consciousness. therefore. the class which is the ruling material force of society. that is.. The ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of the dominant material relationships. German Ideology (1845) For each new class which puts itself in the place of one ruling before it. of course. and . the existence of living human individuals.e. Marx. German Ideology (1845) The first premise of all human history is. herdsman or critic. has control at the same time over the means of mental production. and represent them as the only rational. rear cattle in the evening. expressed in ideal form: it has to give its ideas the form of universality. generally speaking. German Ideology (1845) As far as Feuerbach is a materialist he does not deal with history. Marx. Marx. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal. the alteration of men on a mass scale is. German Ideology (1845) The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas.htm Página 8 de 35 . criticise after dinner. fish in the afternoon.. not only because the ruling class cannot be overthrown in any other way.. Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 individuals and their consequent relation to the rest of nature. This doctrine must.. ‘history’ is not. living man who does all that. the point is to change it.. Marx. Chapter 6 (1846) https://www. Marx. By producing their means of subsistence men are indirectly producing their actual material life Marx.Men can be distinguished from animals by consciousness. real. Marx. so they were bound to make language into an independent realm. Chapter 3 (1846) History does nothing . It is man.. The Holy Family. Marx. Just as philosophers have given thought an independent existence. a step which is conditioned by their physical organisation..marxists. Marx. Language is the immediate actuality of thought. who possesses and fights.htm Página 9 de 35 . it ‘wages no battles’. divide society into two parts. German Ideology (1845) The question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Theses On Feuerbach: Thesis 2 (1845) The materialist doctrine concerning the changing of circumstances and upbringing forgets that circumstances are changed by men and that it is essential to educate the educator himself. as it were. Theses On Feuerbach: Thesis 3 (1845) The philosophers have only interpreted the world. it ‘possesses no immense wealth’. German Ideology. a person apart. Theses On Feuerbach: Thesis 11 (1845) One of the most difficult tasks confronting philosophers is to descend from the world of thought to the actual world. by religion or anything else you like. They themselves begin to distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence. in various ways. using man as a means to achieve its own aims. one of which is superior to society. history is nothing but the activity of man pursuing his aims.

has merely to put into order these thoughts. Poverty of Philosophy (1847) Economists explain how production takes place in the above-mentioned relations. they have only to take note of what is happening before their eyes and to become its mouthpiece. but that energy is in turn circumscribed by the conditions in which man is placed by the productive forces already acquired. taking these relations for Marx. 1846 Letter to Annenkov (1846) The hand-mill gives you society with the feudal lord. they no longer need to seek science in their minds. the historical movement which gave them birth. M. which is the product of the preceding generation. but what they do not explain is how these relations themselves are produced. Marx. From this moment. subversive side. https://www. which he does not create. categories. Poverty of Philosophy (1847) Machines were. which is a product of the historical movement. Marx. and with it the struggle of the proletariat assumes clearer outlines. Poverty of Philosophy (1847) The working class. they see in poverty nothing but poverty. the steam-mill society with the industrial capitalist. will substitute for the old civil society an association which will exclude classes and their antagonism. so long as they are at the beginning of the struggle. has associated itself consciously with it. the weapon employed by the capitalist to quell the revolt of specialized labor. that is.htm Página 10 de 35 . Poverty of Philosophy (1847) But in the measure that history moves forward. Marx. Marx. by the form of society which exists before him. it may be said. has ceased to be doctrinaire and has become revolutionary. science. since political power is precisely the official expression of antagonism in civil society. and there will be no more political power properly so-called.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 The productive forces are the result of man’s practical energy. which will overthrow the old society.marxists. Proudhon. without seeing in it the revolutionary. So long as they look for science and merely make systems. in the course of its development.

. Wage Labour and Capital (1847) What is a Negro slave? A man of the black race. It is a commodity that he has auctioned off to another.. Is that to say that we are against Free Trade? No. The liberation of Germany cannot therefore take place without the liberation of Poland from German oppression.. What is the proletariat? The proletariat is that class in society which lives entirely from the sale of its labor and does not draw profit from any kind of capital. and because from the uniting of all these contradictions into a single group. Principles of Communism (1847) What is Communism? Communism is the doctrine of the conditions of the liberation of the proletariat. will result the struggle which will itself eventuate in the emancipation of the proletarians. A Negro is a Negro. whose sole existence depends on the demand for labor.marxists. will act upon a larger scale. Engels.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Marx. whose weal and woe. Only under https://www. . He works that he may keep alive. Engels. Engels... the proletarian can free himself only by abolishing private property in general . Engels.. He does not count the labor itself as a part of his life. Poverty of Philosophy (1847) The slave frees himself when. because by Free Trade all economical laws. Speech on Poland (1847) Under the freedom of trade the whole severity of the laws of political economy will be applied to the working classes. Principles of Communism (1847) A nation cannot become free and at the same time continue to oppress other nations. we are for Free Trade. with their most astounding contradictions. whose life and death.. of all the relations of private property. upon the territory of the whole earth. Marx.htm Página 11 de 35 . To Free Trade Congress at Brussels (1847) And this life activity [the worker] sells to another person in order to secure the necessary means of life. where they stand face to face. he abolishes only the relation of slavery and thereby becomes a proletarian.. upon a greater extent of territory. it is rather a sacrifice of his

Marx.. It breaks up old nationalities and pushes the antagonism of the proletariat and the bourgeoisie to the extreme point. while the free trade system is destructive. But. In bourgeois society capital is independent and has individuality.. It is in this revolutionary sense alone. in general. Marx & Engels. https://www. .. Wage Labour and Capital (1847) What is free trade. gentlemen. Torn away from these conditions. the past dominates the present. or sugar is the price of sugar Marx.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 certain conditions does he become a slave. Marx & Engels. fast frozen relations. all that is holy is profaned . as long as the neighboring houses are likewise small. A cotton-spinning machine is a machine for spinning cotton. in Communist society. Wage Labour and Capital (1847) A house may be large or that I vote in favor of free trade. it satisfies all social requirement for a residence.htm Página 12 de 35 . the protective system of our day is conservative. Communist Manifesto (1848) In bourgeois society. therefore.. what is free trade under the present condition of society? It is freedom of capital. Communist Manifesto (1848) All fixed. while the living person is dependent and has no individuality. All that is solid melts into air. are swept away. When you have overthrown the few national barriers which still restrict the progress of capital. all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. The little house now makes it clear that its inmate has no social position at all to maintain. with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions. the free trade system hastens the social revolution. it is as little capital as gold is itself money. the present dominates the past. But let there arise next to the little house a palace.marxists. Marx & Engels. In a word. Only under certain conditions does it become capital. On Free Trade (1848) A spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of communism. you will merely have given it complete freedom of action. and the little house shrinks to a hut.

not by its immediate tragicomic achievements but by the creation of a powerful. Marx. When our turn comes. and in both respects disreputable.. Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution. The petty bourgeoisie will hesitate as long as possible and remain fearful. They have a world to win. will carry within it the seeds of its own destruction. Editorial in Final edition of Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1849) It will be the workers. Marx & Engels. irresolute and inactive. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains . we shall not make excuses for the terror.htm Página 13 de 35 . . the rule of the bourgeois democrats. Unite! Marx & Engels. and it will exclude the proletariat from the fruits of victory. Marx. resolution and self-sacrifice. from the very first. are in practice brutal. But the royal terrorists. in theory cowardly. Class Struggle in France (1850) https://www. disdainful. Marx. but when victory is certain it will claim it for itself and will call upon the workers to behave in an orderly fashion. an opponent in combat with whom the party of overthrow ripened into a really revolutionary party. and deceitful. with its classes and class antagonisms. Working Men of All Countries. who will be chiefly responsible for achieving victory. the terrorists by the grace of God and the law. Address of the Central Committee to the Communist League (1850) The revolution made progress. and mean. with their courage. we shall have an association in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all. and its subsequent displacement by the proletariat will be made considerably easier. united counter-revolution. Communist Manifesto (1848) The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims...Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Marx & Engels. Communist Manifesto (1848) In place of the old bourgeois society. Communist Manifesto (1848) We have no compassion and we ask no compassion from you..marxists.

but they do not make it as they please. . Marx. Marx. and partly by the transference of as much employment as possible to the state. Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) https://www. they hope to bribe the workers .. Class Struggle in France (1850) The worst thing that can befall a leader of an extreme party is to be compelled to take over a government in an epoch when the movement is not yet ripe for the domination of the class which he represents and for the realisation of the measures which that domination would imply . Marx. above all. the democratic petty bourgeois want better wages and security for the workers. but under circumstances existing already. the second time as farce .org/archive/marx/works/subject/quotes/index. they do not make it under self-selected circumstances. partly by a curtailment of the right of inheritance.. is definite: they are to remain wage labourers as before. Marx & Engels.. given and transmitted from the past. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy . only aspire to make the existing society as tolerable for themselves as possible. far from wanting to transform the whole society in the interests of the revolutionary proletarians. The rule of capital is to be further counteracted. The tradition of all dead generations weighs like an nightmare on the brains of the living. The Peasant War in Germany (1850) The democratic petty bourgeois. Address to the Central Committee of the Communist League (1850) Hegel remarks somewhere that all great world-historic facts and personages appear. However.htm Página 14 de 35 .. twice. Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) Men make their own history.. much as potatoes in a sack form a sack of potatoes.. so to speak. in short.marxists.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Revolutions are the locomotives of history. Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) the great mass of the French nation is formed by the simple addition of homologous magnitudes. As far as the workers are concerned one thing. Engels.

What I did that was new was to prove: (1) that the existence of classes is only bound up with the particular. they follow pastoral or agricultural occupations only . However. Marx. no credit is due to me for discovering the existence of classes in modern society or the struggle between them. Long before me bourgeois historians had described the historical development of this class struggle and bourgeois economists.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 But the revolution is thoroughgoing.htm Página 15 de 35 . on closer https://www. which is the foundation and the subject of the entire social act of production. the population. hardy. Marx. The Grundrisse (1857) It seems to be correct to begin with the real and the concrete. the proletarian.. (2) that the class struggle necessarily leads to the dictatorship of the proletariat.g. With them. Letter to Weydemeyer (1852) History is the judge — its executioner. Production by an isolated individual outside society . Marx. but an animal which can individuate itself only in the midst of society. It is still traveling through old mole! Marx. is as much of an absurdity as is the development of language without individuals living together and talking to each other. historical phases in the development of production.. It does its work methodically. in economics.. . Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1852) And now as to myself. On Afghanistan (1857) The human being is in the most literal sense a political animal not merely a gregarious animal. Engels..marxists.. with e. Speech at Anniversary of The People’s Paper (1856) The Afghans are a brave.. and independent race. the economic anatomy of classes. war is an excitement and relief from the monotonous occupation of industrial pursuits. (3) that this dictatorship itself only constitutes the transition to the abolition of all classes and to a classless society. thus to begin. with the real precondition. Europe will leap from its seat and exult: Well burrowed. And when it has accomplished this second half of its preliminary work.

based on the universal development of individuals and on their subordination of their communal.marxists... the other only the substance destined for immediate consumption. of universal relations. Free individuality. but this time not as the chaotic conception of a whole. social productivity as their social wealth. and thus creates the material elements for the development of the rich individuality which is as all-sided in its https://www. Marx. The Grundrisse (1857) Society does not consist of individuals. Marx. Marx. the former is the general form of wealth.. but as a rich totality of many determinations and relations. From there the journey would have to be retraced until I had finally arrived at the population again. move analytically towards ever more simple concepts. The Grundrisse (1857) Human anatomy contains a key to the anatomy of the ape. The Grundrisse (1857) Relations of personal dependence are the first social forms in which human productive capacity develops only to a slight extent and at isolated points. The Grundrisse (1857) In all forms of society there is one specific kind of production which predominates over the rest. The population is an abstraction if I leave out. Personal independence founded on objective dependence is the second great form. Marx. and I would then. Marx. by means of further determination. the classes of which it is composed. of all-round needs and universal capacities is formed for the first time. is the third stage. if I were to begin with the population. . in which a system of general social metabolism.htm Página 16 de 35 .Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 examination this proves false. but expresses the sum of interrelations. for example. from the imagined concrete towards ever thinner abstractions until I had arrived at the simplest determinations. .. the relations within which these individuals a general illumination which bathes all the other colours and modifies their particularity. The Grundrisse (1857) Capital and labour relate to each other here like money and commodity. Capital’s ceaseless striving towards the general form of wealth drives labour beyond the limits of its natural paltriness. this would be a chaotic conception of the whole.

. The Grundrisse (1857) For example.marxists. indicates the degree to which the real community has constituted itself in the form of capital. The Grundrisse (1857) The separation of public works from the state. garden work etc. the capitalist posits himself as capitalist. and their migration into the domain of the works undertaken by capital itself. through private consumption. 1The Grundrisse (1857) The pay of the common soldier is also reduced to a minimum — determined purely by the production costs necessary to procure him. — belongs under this rubric. It ceases to exist as such only where the development of these productive forces themselves encounters its barrier in capital itself. https://www. But it does not occur to anyone to think that by means of the exchange of his revenue for such services. Rather. The difference between previous. In bourgeois society itself. within this category. up to and including all of the unproductive classes. By means of their services — often coerced — all these workers. at one time in the perfect and at another in the present. of the capitalist’s revenue . This is why capital is productive. because natural need has been replaced by historically produced need. It does not change the nature of the relation that the proportions in which revenue is exchanged for this kind of living labour are themselves determined by the general laws of production.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 production as in its consumption. Marx. but as the full development of activity itself. obtain for themselves a share of the surplus product. but for the revenue of the state. in which natural necessity in its direct form has disappeared. and whose labour also therefore appears no longer as labour. he thereby spends the fruits of his But he exchanges the performance of his services not for capital . cooking.. an essential relation for the development of the social productive forces. from the least to the highest. of the kind that existed in times past. all exchange of personal services for revenue — including labour for personal consumption. . when the peasant takes a wandering tailor. he gives it in the form of activity.e. and gives him the material to make clothes with. Marx. All menial servants etc. I give him a completed use value. i.. scholars etc. he completes another for me. lawyers. present labour here appears as a merely formal difference between the different tenses of labour.htm Página 17 de 35 . objectified labour and living. physicians. Marx. sewing etc. i..e. But instead of giving it directly in objective form. The man who takes the cloth I supplied to him and makes me an article of clothing out of it gives me a use value. into his house. civil servants.

which can be determined with the precision of natural science. The Grundrisse (1857) In the social production of their existence. the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. ideological forms in which men become conscious of this conflict and fight it out. on the contrary. on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. since closer examination will always show that the problem itself arises only when the material conditions for its solution are already https://www. which are independent of their will. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Marx. It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being. men inevitably enter into definite relations. artistic or philosophic – in short. Marx. Marx. and the legal. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) The mode of production of material life conditions the social. and new superior relations of production never replace older ones before the material conditions for their existence have matured within the framework of the old society. political. namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. political and intellectual life process in general. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) No social order is ever destroyed before all the productive forces for which it is sufficient have been developed. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society. Mankind thus inevitably sets itself only such tasks as it is able to solve.htm Página 18 de 35 . The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. Marx. but.marxists. the real foundation. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) In studying such transformations it is always necessary to distinguish between the material transformation of the economic conditions of production. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) At a certain stage of development. Then begins an era of social revolution.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Marx. their social being that determines their consciousness.

could regard 20 years as more than a day where major developments of this kind are concerned. and the relations obtaining in this branch accordingly determine the relations of all other branches as well. in its pure form. Marx To Engels (9 April 1863) https://www. we shall rid ourselves of many prejudices. Marx. By party. Marx. 29 February 1860 (1860) A philosopher produces ideas.marxists. Theories of Surplus Value (1861) All economists share the error of examining surplus-value not as such. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) There is in every social formation a particular branch of production which determines the position and importance of all the others. Marx. a poet poems. I meant the party in the broad historical sense. It is as though light of a particular hue were cast upon everything. and with this also the professor who gives lectures on criminal law and in addition to this the inevitable compendium in which this same professor throws his lectures onto the general market as “commodities”.htm Página 19 de 35 . Marx. though these may be again succeeded by days into which 20 years are compressed. Preface to the Critique of Political Economy (1859) I have tried to dispel the misunderstanding arising out of the impression that by ‘party’ I meant a ‘League’ that expired eight years ago. tingeing all other colours and modifying their specific A criminal produces crimes. If we take a closer look at the connection between this latter branch of production and society as a whole. or an editorial board that was disbanded twelve years ago. Marx.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 present or at least in the course of formation. a clergyman sermons. Theories of Surplus Value (1863) Only your small-minded German philistine who measures world history by the ell and by what he happens to think are ‘interesting news items’. but in the particular forms of profit and rent. a professor compendia and so on. Letter to Freiligrath. The criminal produces not only crimes but also criminal law. Marx.

consequently. until the notion of human equality has already acquired the fixity of a popular prejudice. consequently. ie of the use-values it produces. Marx. that all kinds of labour are equal and equivalent.. at first sight. Chapter One (1867) The different proportions in which different sorts of labour are reduced to unskilled labour as their standard. namely. because. and easily understood. Chapter One (1867) https://www. Its analysis shows that it is. not the only source of material wealth. is that of owners of commodities. Capital. Chapter One (1867) The secret of the expression of value.. Volume I. Capital.htm Página 20 de 35 . Volume I. presents itself as "an immense accumulation of commodities. I cannot go to Geneva. the earth is its mother.marxists. Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity. . in which. appear to be fixed by custom. are established by a social process that goes on behind the backs of the producers.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 I do not think I shall be able to deliver the manuscript of the first volume to Hamburg before October. Capital. cannot be deciphered. Chapter One (1867) A commodity appears." its unit being a single commodity. Capital.. This. in reality.. Capital. and so far as they are human labour in general. abounding in metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties. Volume I. the dominant relation between man and man. labour is the father of material wealth. and. Marx. I consider that what I am doing through this work is far more important for the working class than anything I might be able to do personally at any Congress. As William Petty says. Volume I. however. Volume I. is possible only in a society in which the great mass of the produce of labour takes the form of commodities. Chapter One (1867) Labour is . Marx. a very trivial thing. Marx. a very queer thing. Marx. Letter to Kugelmann (1866) The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails.

. also. Capital. take a course directly opposite to that of their actual historical development. This I call the Fetishism . such formulae appear to the bourgeois intellect to be as much a self-evident necessity imposed by Nature as productive labour itself. Volume I. his scientific analysis of those forms. Capital. Since he comes into the world neither with a looking glass in his hand. and has discovered what lies beneath these forms. of commodities. man first sees and recognises himself in other men. historically determined mode of production.. Volume I. And thereby Paul. vanishes therefore. Marx. Volume I. Chapter One (1867) Political Economy has indeed analysed. nor as a Fichtean philosopher. He begins. They are forms of thought expressing with social validity the conditions and relations of a definite. which bear it stamped upon them in unmistakable letters that they belong to a state of society. so soon as we come to other forms of production. viz. But it has never once asked the question why labour is represented by the value of its product and labourtime by the magnitude of that value. with the results of the process of development ready to hand before him. These formulae. Capital.. post festum . however incompletely. the production of commodities. Chapter One (1867) Man’s reflections on the forms of social life. Chapter One (1867) The categories of bourgeois economy consist of such like forms. just as he stands in his Pauline personality. to whom ‘I am I’ is sufficient. instead of being controlled by him. Capital. The whole mystery of commodities. in which the process of production has the mastery over man.. Marx.. . Marx. Peter only establishes his own identity as a man by first comparing himself with Paul as being of like kind. and the value-relation between the products of labour which stamps them as commodities.htm Página 21 de 35 .marxists. that assumes. all the magic and necromancy that surrounds the products of labour as long as they take the form of commodities. the fantastic form of a relation between things. have absolutely no connection with their physical properties and with the material relations arising therefrom. https://www. There it is a definite social relation between men. value and its magnitude. Chapter One (1867) It is with man as with commodities. becomes to Peter the type of the genus homo .Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 the existence of the things qua commodities. Volume I. in their eyes. and consequently.

Marx. Volume I.. Capital. Chapter 3 (1867) Modern society. He opposes himself to Nature as one of her own forces.. Chapter One (1867) The price or money-form of commodities is. Volume I. Volume I. Chapter 7 (1867) As capitalist. Capital. lays golden eggs. But capital has one single life impulse. as the glittering incarnation of the very principle of its own life. it has acquired the occult quality of being able to add value to itself. Because it is value. the capitalist is a rational miser. Marx. it is.htm Página 22 de 35 . . a purely ideal or mental form Marx. a process in which both man and Nature participate. the means of production. . therefore. Chapter 3 (1867) While the miser is merely a capitalist gone mad. which. It brings forth living offspring. and controls the material re-actions between himself and Nature. the tendency to create value and surplus-value. Capital. Chapter 10 (1867) https://www. at the least.marxists. greets gold as its Holy Grail. Marx. a form quite distinct from their palpable bodily form. Volume I. Marx. only lives by sucking living labour. Chapter 4 (1867) Capital is money: Capital is commodities. Volume I. soon after its birth. Chapter 4 (1867) Labour is. and lives the more. he is only capital personified.. in the first place.. the more labour it sucks. vampire-like. absorb the greatest possible amount of surplus-labour. Marx. regulates. Capital. His soul is the soul of capital. to make its constant factor.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Marx. Capital is dead labour. Capital. pulled Plutus by the hair of his head from the bowels of the earth. like their form of value Capital. Volume I. Volume I. that. Capital. or. and in which man of his own accord starts..

Chapter 15 (1867) a schoolmaster is a productive labourer when. that. Capital. is in fact not labour. Volume I. [Marx. it can therefore no longer be sold by him. Capital.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Capital is dead labour. only by sapping the original sources of all wealth-the soil and the labourer. and lives the more. Marx. but the labourer. Chapter 15 (1867) Capitalist production. instead of in a sausage factory.htm Página 23 de 35 . after he himself has caught the shower of gold and placed it in safety. Chapter 10 (1867) In every stockjobbing swindle every one knows that some time or other the crash must come. he works like a horse to enrich the school proprietor. vampire-like. Capital. develops technology. Capital. the more labour it sucks. Volume I. simple mounds look like hills. and the immanent https://www. Labour is the substance. therefore. and the imbecile flatness of the present bourgeoisie is to be measured by the altitude of its great intellects. Hence Capital is reckless of the health or length of life of the labourer.marxists. and the combining together of various processes into a social whole. but every one hopes that it may fall on the head of his neighbour. As soon as his labour actually begins. What the latter sells is his labour-power.. is the time during which the capitalist consumes the labour-power he has purchased of him. Volume I. Capital. Marx. only lives by sucking living labour. it has already ceased to belong to him. Chapter 16 (1867) That which comes directly face to face with the possessor of money on the market. unless under compulsion from society. Chapter 16 (1867) On the level plain. The time during which the labourer works. Marx. Volume I. Chapter 10 (1867) machinery has greatly increased the number of well-to-do idlers. Volume I. in addition to belabouring the heads of his scholars. Volume I. Après moi le déluge! is the watchword of every capitalist and of every capitalist nation. does not alter the relation. Marx. Capital. That the latter has laid out his capital in a teaching factory.

to the less developed. Marx. Chapter 25 (1867) Centralization of the means of production and socialization of labor at last reach a point where they become incompatible with their capitalist integument. from which the evolution of the economic formation of society is viewed as a process of natural history. That in their appearance things often represent themselves in inverted form is pretty well known in every science except Political Economy Marx. but has itself no value.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 measure of value. The knell of capitalist private property sounds. Preface to First German Edition of Capital (1867) The country that is more developed industrially only shows. allow of a relaxation of the tension of it. Capital. My standpoint.. Capital. Marx.htm Página 24 de 35 . that the length and weight of the golden chain the wage-worker has already forged for himself. can less than any other make the individual responsible for relations whose creature he socially remains. however much he may subjectively raise himself above them.marxists. the image of its own future. only means. Letter to Kugelmann (1868) Everyone who knows anything of history also knows that great social revolutions are impossible without the feminine ferment. in fact. Social progress may be measured precisely https://www. as a consequence of accumulation of capital. Thus integument is burst asunder. Capital. Marx. embodiments of particular class-relations and class-interests. Preface to First German Edition of Capital (1867) Is your wife also active in the German ladies' great emancipation campaign? I think that German women should begin by driving their husbands to self-emancipation. Volume I. Marx. . Volume I. Volume I. Chapter 19 (1867) A rise in the price of labour. The expropriators are expropriated Chapter 32 (1867) here individuals are dealt with only in so far as they are the personifications of economic categories. Marx.

Confidential Communication on Bakunin (1870) But the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery. if such there be at all. reproach it for not having used it freely enough? https://www. Letter to Kugelmann (1868) The English have at their disposal all necessary material preconditions for a social revolution. to which they may bear a certain likeness. Marx. The Paris Commune (1871) In German: ‘Statt einmal in drei oder sechs Jahren zu entscheiden. and even defunct... Marx. Marx. welches Mitglied der herrschenden Klasse das Volk im Parlament ver.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 by the social position of the fair sex (plain ones included).. Engels’ German translation (1891) It is generally the fate of completely new historical creations to be mistaken for the counterparts of older. it must maintain this rule by means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionists. everywhere . and thus accelerate a truly revolutionary movement here and.htm Página 25 de 35 .org/archive/marx/works/subject/quotes/index.marxists. Would the Paris Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the armed people against the bourgeois? Should we not. universal suffrage was to serve the people. Only the General Council [of the International] can provide them with this. What they lack is the spirit of generalization and revolutionary passion. it is the act whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of rifles. The Paris Commune (1871) Instead of deciding once in three or six years which member of the ruling class was to misrepresent the people in Parliament. bayonets and cannon — authoritarian means. forms of social life. and if the victorious party does not want to have fought in vain.. The Paris Commune (1871) A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is. . Marx. in consequence.und zertreten soll .. Marx. and wield it for its own purposes. on the contrary.

Only after this work is done. the bad conscience and the evil intent of It was thenceforth no longer a question. the classstruggle. to trace out their inner connexion. Marx. defects are inevitable in the first phase of communist society as it is when it has just emerged after prolonged birth pangs from capitalist society. In France and in England the bourgeoisie had conquered political power. expedient or inexpedient. practically as well as theoretically. but is its direct opposite. If this is done successfully. . politically dangerous or not. Marx.htm Página 26 de 35 . On Authority (1872) My dialectic method is not only different from the Hegelian.. It sounded the knell of scientific bourgeois economy.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Engels. Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital (1873) The bourgeoisie is just as necessary a precondition for the socialist revolution as is the proletariat itself. in place of genuine scientific research. It must be turned right side up again... took on more and more outspoken and threatening forms. With him it is standing on its head. Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) https://www. if you would discover the rational kernel within the mystical shell.marxists. but whether it was useful to capital or harmful. Marx. Thenceforth. if the life of the subject-matter is ideally reflected as in a mirror... Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital (1873) Political Economy can remain a science only so long as the class-struggle is latent or manifests itself only in isolated and sporadic phenomena.. there were hired prize fighters. then it may appear as if we had before us a mere a priori construction.. The latter has to appropriate the material in detail. On Social Relations in Russia (1874) . In place of disinterested inquirers. whether this theorem or that was true. can the actual movement be adequately described. to analyse its different forms of development. Marx. Marx. . Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital (1873) Of course the method of presentation must differ in form from that of inquiry. Right can never be higher than the economic structure of society and its cultural development conditioned thereby.

they had no inkling that by doing so they were cutting at the roots of the dairy industry in their region. but.marxists.. ‘in form’. never dreamed that by removing along with the forests the collecting centres and reservoirs of moisture they were laying the basis for the present forlorn state of those countries. . with flesh. and exist in its midst. the working class must organize itself at home as a class and that its own country is the immediate arena of its struggle — insofar as its class struggle is national. When the Italians of the Alps used up the pine forests on the southern slopes. For each such victory nature takes its revenge on us. Thus at every step we are reminded that we by no means rule over nature like a conqueror over a foreign people. The people who. so carefully cherished on the northern slopes. flatter ourselves overmuch on account of our human victories over nature. and that all our https://www. not in substance. Marx.. Greece.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 In a higher phase of communist society. and making it possible for them to pour still more furious torrents on the plains during the rainy seasons. Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) Every step of real movement is more important than a dozen programmes. but in the second and third places it has quite different. Letter to Bracke (1875) Let us not. like someone standing outside nature – but that we. — only then then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on its banners: From each according to his ability. unforeseen effects which only too often cancel the first. Marx. it is true. belong to nature. in Mesopotamia. Asia Minor and elsewhere. Corresponding to this is also a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) Between capitalist and communist society there lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other. to each according to his needs! Marx. Those who spread the potato in Europe were not aware that with these farinaceous tubers they were at the same time spreading scrofula. Each victory. however. as the Communist Manifesto says. Critique of the Gotha Program (1875) It is altogether self-evident that. they had still less inkling that they were thereby depriving their mountain springs of water for the greater part of the year. blood and brain. in the first place brings about the results we expected. to be able to fight at all.htm Página 27 de 35 . Marx. destroyed the forests to obtain cultivable land.

its nature. The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man (1876) When we consider and reflect upon nature at large or the history of mankind or our own intellectual activity. in the homely realm of his own four walls. constantly coming into being and passing away. does not suffice to explain the details of which this picture is made up. is constantly changing. naive but intrinsically correct conception of the world is that of ancient Greek philosophy. Engels. for everything is fluid.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 mastery of it consists in the fact that we have the advantage over all other creatures of being able to learn its laws and apply them correctly. Anti-Dühring (1877) https://www. we have not a clear idea of the whole picture. at first we see the picture of an endless entanglement of relations and reactions in which nothing remains what. but everything moves. which supplies it with the material that it converts into wealth. we have to say that labour created man himself. the political economists assert. And it really is the source — next to nature. in a sense. It is the prime basic condition for all human existence. This primitive. and so long as we do not understand these. Engels. and this to such an extent that. effects. Anti-Dühring (1877) Nature is the proof of dialectics. correctly as it expresses the general character of the picture of appearances as a whole. and was first clearly formulated by Heraclitus: everything is and is not. Engels. where and as it was. The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man (1876) Labour is the source of all wealth.htm Página 28 de 35 .marxists. respectable fellow that he is. Anti-Dühring (1877) Only sound common sense. has very wonderful adventures directly he ventures out into the wide world of research. comes into being and passes away. changes. But this conception. and it must be said for modern science that it has furnished this proof with very rich materials increasing daily. Engels. In order to understand these details we must detach them from their natural or historical connection and examine each one separately. But it is even infinitely more than this. Engels. special causes.

Anti-Dühring (1877) Freedom does not consist in any dreamt-of independence from natural laws. Engels. it is not nature and the realm of man which conform to these principles. natural science enters the field of theory and here the methods of empiricism will not work. But theoretical thinking is an innate https://www. That is the only materialist conception of the matter. In doing so. save with an occasional snub. behind these noisy scenes on the stage. Marx.marxists. Let me cite one proof of this: such was my aversion to the personality cult that at the time of the International. The Theory of Force (1877) Neither of us cares a straw for popularity. they are not applied to nature and human history. grand performances of state. when plagued by numerous moves – originating from various countries – to accord me public honour. When Engels and I first joined the secret communist society. we did so only on condition that anything conducive to a superstitious belief in authority be eliminated from the Rules. Engels. I never allowed one of these to enter the domain of publicity. but in the knowledge of these laws.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 all past history was the history of class struggles. Letter to Blos (1877) It is becoming equally imperative to bring the individual spheres of knowledge into the correct connection with one another. but abstracted from them. are decisive in history is as old as written history itself. in the background. nor did I ever reply to them. here only theoretical thinking can be of assistance. Engels. Engels. but the principles are only valid in so far as they are in conformity with nature and history. but its final result. that these warring classes of society are always the products of the modes of production and of exchange. and in the possibility this gives of systematically making them work towards definite ends. Anti-Dühring (1877) the principles are not the starting-point of the investigation.htm Página 29 de 35 . Anti-Dühring (1877) The idea that political and is the main reason why so little material has been preserved for us in regard to the really progressive evolution of the peoples which has taken place quietly. however.

htm Página 30 de 35 . inter-connections in general. On Dialectics (1878) Dialectics constitutes the most important form of thinking for present-day natural science. for it alone offers the analogue for.. On Dialectics (1878) For nearly 40 years we have raised to prominence the idea of the class struggle as the immediate driving force of history. improved. . Herein lies the inadequacy of Greek philosophy. that she does not move in the eternal oneness of a perpetually recurring circle. and for its improvement there is as yet no other means than the study of previous analyse nature — nature is still viewed as a whole. next to production. Engels. we expressly formulated the battle cry: The emancipation of the working class must be the work of the working class itself . Nature works dialectically and not metaphysically. Socialism: Utopian & Scientific (1880) The materialist conception of history starts from the proposition that the production of the means to support human life and. But herein also lies its superiority over all its subsequent metaphysical opponents. and particularly the class struggle between bourgeois and the proletariat as the great lever of the modern social revolution.marxists. Strategy and Tactics of the Class Struggle (1879) Nature is the proof of dialectics. Engels. Engels. to the Greeks it is the result of direct contemplation.. . in the last resort. If in regard to the Greeks metaphysics was right in particulars.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 quality only as regards natural capacity. but goes through a real historical evolution. Marx and Engels. Engels. and thereby the method of explaining. On Dialectics (1878) The Greeks were not yet advanced enough to dissect. This natural capacity must be developed. in general. and it must be said for modern science that it has furnished this proof with very rich materials increasingly daily.. in regard to metaphysics the Greeks were right in general. the evolutionary processes occurring in nature. At the founding of the International. and transitions from one field of investigation to another. and thus has shown that. the exchange of things https://www. The universal connection of natural phenomena is not proved in regard to particular.

etc. Engels. hitherto concealed by an overgrowth of ideology. that mankind must first of all eat. of the people concerned have been evolved. as had hitherto been the case. Roman. (2) the causes of their decline stem from economic facts which prevented them from passing a certain stage of development Engels. a fortiori. art.Necessary and Superfluous (1881) Just as Darwin discovered the law of development or organic Social Classes . societies. how it is produced. a Russian revolution is needed. art. Speech at the Graveside of Karl Marx (1883) https://www. therefore. Letter To Vera Zasulich (1881) Not only can we manage very well without the interference of the capitalist class in the great industries of the country.htm Página 31 de 35 . these historical forms contain a whole series of primary. as in geological formations. the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are to be sought. the legal conceptions. so Marx discovered the law of development of human history: the simple fact. form the foundation upon which the state institutions.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 produced. not in men’s better insights into eternal truth and justice. the manner in which wealth is distributed and society divided into classes or orders is dependent upon what is produced. be explained. and how the products are exchanged. but in changes in the modes of production and exchange. but that their interference is becoming more and more a nuisance. before it can pursue politics.marxists. Socialism: Utopian & Scientific (1880) To save the Russian commune. Letter To Vera Zasulich (1881) The history of the decline of primitive communities (it would be a mistake to place them all on the same level. and in the light of which they must. and. and even the ideas on religion. Engels. etc. and consequently the degree of economic development attained by a given people or during a given epoch.) has still to be written. But in any event the research has advanced far enough to establish that: (1) the vitality of primitive communities was incomparably greater than that of Semitic. religion. not in men’s brains. From this point of view. Greek. etc.. tertiary types. is the basis of all social structure. All we have seen so far are some rather meagre outlines. Marx. that of modern capitalist societies. drink. that in every society that has appeared in history. Engels. science. secondary. that therefore the production of the immediate material means. have shelter and clothing. instead of vice versa.

which have so far played no role or only a contemptible one in the writing of history. generalized it to the effect that. it is not the state which conditions and regulates the civil society at all. And indeed they can be reduced in the main to three: The law of the transformation of quantity into quality and vice versa. Capital Volume II (1885) It was Marx who had first discovered the great law of motion of history. but https://www. and thus of all political history. a decisive historical force. of the aggregate social capital. from the history of nature and human society that the laws of dialectics are abstracted. in the countries where they have become fully developed. thanks to large-scale industry. too. therefore. that these class antagonisms. Dialectics of Nature (1883) Every individual capital forms. Engels. whether they proceed in the political. are in fact only the more or less clear expression of struggles of social classes.htm Página 32 de 35 . at least in the modern world. This law. philosophical or some other ideological domain. Marx had not only arrived at the same view.marxists. religious. just as every individual capitalist is but an individual element of the capitalist class. je ne suis pas Marxiste. are. but an individualised fraction.’ [If anything is certain. are in their turn the basis of the formation of political parties and of party struggles. however. The law of the negation of the negation. For they are nothing but the most general laws of these two aspects of historical development. Marx. and that the existence and thereby the collisions. in the Deutsche-Französische Jahrbücher (1844). a fraction endowed with individual life. the law according to which all historical struggles. but had already. Engels. which has the same significance for history as the law of the transformation of energy has for natural science. The law of the interpenetration of opposites.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 What is known as ‘Marxism’ in France is. it is that I myself am not a Marxist] Engels. speaking generally. as it were. that they form the basis of the origination of the present-day class antagonisms. hence especially in between these classes are in turn conditioned by the degree of development of their economic position. Letter to Eduard Bernstein (1882) It is. by the mode of their production and of their exchange determined by it. Preface to The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1885) The economic facts. an altogether peculiar product — so much so that Marx once said to Lafargue: ‘Ce qu’il y a de certain c’est que moi. as well as of thought itself. indeed.

The answers which the philosophers gave to this question split them into two great camps. Ludwig Feuerbach & the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886) The great basic question of all philosophy. On the History of the Communist League (1885) The doctrine of Hegel. assumed world creation in some form or other — and among the philosophers. Whoever placed the chief emphasis on the Hegelian system could be fairly conservative in both spheres. Engels. Engels. On the History of the Communist League (1885) Communism now no longer meant the concoction. Engels. especially of more recent philosophy. both in politics and religion. taken as a whole. that policy and its history are to be explained from the economic relations and their development. Hegel. belong to the various schools of materialism . who regarded nature as primary.htm Página 33 de 35 . therefore. whoever regarded the dialectical method as the main thing could belong to the most extreme opposition. for example. this creation often becomes still more intricate and impossible than in Christianity — comprised the camp of idealism . Engels. . Engels. by means of the imagination. Those who asserted the primacy of spirit to nature and.. Ludwig Feuerbach & the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886) https://www. of an ideal society as perfect as possible. or the means of attaining them are insufficient. And in the theoretical Germany of that time. the conditions and the consequent general aims of the struggle waged by the proletariat. and not vice versa. The others. Ludwig Feuerbach & the End of Classical German Philosophy (1886) That which is willed happens but rarely. or these ends themselves are from the outset incapable of realisation..Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 civil society which conditions and regulates the state. in the majority of instances the numerous desired ends cross and conflict with one another. thus the conflicts of innumerable individual wills and individual actions in the domain of history produce a state of affairs entirely analogous to that prevailing in the realm of unconscious nature. left plenty of room for giving shelter to the most diverse practical party views. in the last instance.marxists. two things above all were practical: religion and politics. is that concerning the relation of thinking and being. consequently. but insight into the nature.

it should be conceived in a state of constant flux and change. Letter to J Bloch (1890) To my mind. chemists. That our workers are capable of it is borne out by their many producer and consumer cooperatives which. whatever the frightened bourgeois say. It’s crucial difference from the present order consists naturally in production organized on the basis of common ownership by the nation of all means of production. Marx. etc. the so-called ‘socialist society’ is not anything immutable. Like all other social formations.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 The only war left for Prussia-Germany to wage will be a world war. whenever they’re not deliberately ruined by the police. senseless phrase. as much among teachers. Introduction to Borkheim (1887) According to the materialist conception of history. what the French army did instinctively in not firing on the people will be repeated in our country quite consciously. Yes. a world war. To begin this reorganization tomorrow. as among the workers. it is my conviction that we would have a good many of them behind us already. the universal lapse into barbarism. we are able to calculate the moment when we shall have the majority of the people behind lawyers. disease. Volume III (1894) https://www. agronomists. our ideas are making headway everywhere. moreover of an extent the violence hitherto unimagined. Engels. doctors. he transforms that proposition into a meaningless. are equally well and far more honestly run than the bourgeois stock companies. Eight to ten million soldiers will be at each other’s throats and in the process they will strip Europe barer than a swarm of locusts. If we had to start wielding power tomorrow. In five or ten years we shall have more of them than we need. Interview with Le Figaro (1893) All science would be superfluous if the outward appearance and the essence of things directly coincided. published by Engels Capital. abstract. the ultimately determining element in history is the production and reproduction of real life. Letter to Otto Von Boenigk (1890) The day when we are in the majority. famine. Hence if somebody twists this into saying that the economic element is the only determining one. seems to me quite feasible. The depredations of the Years’ War compressed into three to four years and extended over the entire continent. Engels. Well.htm Página 34 de 35 . Other than this neither Marx nor I have ever asserted. we should need engineers.marxists. but performing it gradually. [Engels. Engels.

and worthy of. quotes from Marx. But it nonetheless still remains a realm of necessity. their human nature. so if you can’t find a quote on this site.marxists. The shortening of the working-day is its basic prerequisite. The Marxists Internet Archive contains almost all the writings of the founders of Communism. the associated producers. this technique also determines the method of exchange and. Lenin and other Marxists are invariably unsourced and in very many cases they are deliberately-propagated misinformation.htm Página 35 de 35 . unthinkingly copied form one site to the next. instead of being ruled by it as by the blind forces of Nature. Freedom in this field can only consist in socialised man. Letter to Starkenburg (1894) On most of the many “Famous Quotes” pages on the Internet. Engels.Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels 13/07/13 17:14 Just as the savage must wrestle with Nature to satisfy his wants. Write us if you are in doubt. According to our conception. and achieving this with the least expenditure of energy and under conditions most favourable to. Marxists Internet Archive | Subject Index https://www. so must civilised man. however.. . Thus the entire technique of production and transport is here included. to maintain and reproduce life. can blossom forth only with this realm of necessity as its basis. Beyond it begins that development of human energy which is an end in itself. the division of products. Marx. further. the true realm of freedom. the forces of production which satisfy these wants also increase. rationally regulating their interchange with Nature. With his development this realm of physical necessity expands as a result of his wants. then it is probably bogus. published by Engels but. at the same time. and he must do so in all social formations and under all possible modes of production. bringing it under their common control. Volume III (1894) What we understand by the economic conditions which we regard as the determining basis of the history of society are the methods by which human beings in a given society produce their means of subsistence and exchange the products among themselves (in so far as division of labour exists).. which. Engels.

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