This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
500 HIGH-‐YIELD NUGGETS
Copyright © 2012 USMLE Success Academy. All Rights Reserved.
This ‘500 High-‐Yield Nuggets’ book was created to give you a quick review guide for some of the most important facts you should know for the USMLE Step 2 CK examination. While this is not a complete list, it is one that contains high facts you should know before writing the Step 2 CK.
500 High-‐Yield Nuggets For The Step 2 CK .
Before surgery it is important that we stop: Aspirin. Diffuse axonal injury is stretching and/or shearing of brain tissue. The 1st step in managing increased ICP is to elevate the head of the bed (allowing gravity to pull fluids away from the head). 12. 13. Hypovolemic. Septic.Surgery 1. and Substance Abuse. 16. the 2nd MCC is ruptured Berry aneurysm. The MCC of a subarachnoid hemorrhage is trauma. 9. 10. Parental consent is not required for the following: STD. Third and Fourth degree burns affect all layers of the skin plus subcutaneous tissues. WALK. Abortion. Combining Haldol with Succinylcholine gives us the greatest risk of malignant hyperthermia. . and Warfarin. Psychiatric problems. anti-‐PLT. WOUND. Treat malignant hyperthermia with Dantrolene. The 5 MCC’s of post-‐operative fever. 2. NSAIDS. WONDER DRUGS. The 4 MCC of shock are: Cardiogenic. 7. WATER. 15. blistering. in order of most recent are: WIND. Neurogenic. 8. Pregnancy. 3. Branchial cleft cysts do not elevate when swallowing. a Thyroglossal duct cyst does. First and Second degree burns are limited to the epidermis and superficial dermis (redness. Epidural hematoma is caused by rupture of the middle meningeal artery. Subdural hematoma is caused by rupture of the bridging veins. 4. always consider the ABCDE’s. 5. 14. MCC by severe motor vehicle accidents. Myocardial infarction within the last 6 months is an absolute contraindication to surgery. 11. pain). Whenever you are seeing a trauma victim. 6.
Common findings in gastric cancer are: Virchov’s node. Fat. as we can visualize and remove an obstruction with this procedure. 23. . Achalasia is caused by loss of the relaxation ability of the lower esophageal sphincter. all increase the risk for gastric tumors. The Papillary thyroid cancer has the greatest survival rate. Patients who complain of dysphagia and regurgitation + have halitosis will most likely have a Zenker’s diverticulum. Krukenburg tumor. Forty 29. SCC is associated with smoking and alcohol use. 18. The HIDA scan is a diagnostic procedure that helps us identify stones when an ultrasound is inconclusive. the most deadly form of gastric cancer. 21. 26. 20. 24. high in salt. Indirect inguinal hernias protrude lateral to the Inferior Epigastric artery. 30. 32. Ultrasound is usually the correct test to order when looking for gallstones 31. Fertile. 27. Calcified (porcelain) gallbladder. 19. The MCC of esophageal cancer in the USA is Adenocarcinima. Water-‐bottle sign on xray is indicative of Linitis Plastica. is indicative of cancer and should warrant a removal of the gallbladder. while Rolling hiatal hernias are less common and usually require intervention. high in nitrosamines. and low in fiber. Females taking oral contraceptives are most likely to be the victims of a hepatic adenoma. 28.17. The 4 F’s of Gallstones are: Female. 22. while a direct inguinal hernia protrudes medial to the Inferior Epigastric artery. Adenocarcinoma is associated with Barrett’s esophagus. while the Anaplastic version carries the worst prognosis. and Blumer’s shelf. 25. leading to dilation of the proximal esophagus. Sister Mary-‐Joseph sign. An ERCP is a test that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. Sliding hiatal hernias are more common and associated with GERD. Diets high in fat.
41. 37. 45. which works by decompressing.33. 43. If the problem lies in the cecum. screening for colon cancer should begin at 40yr or 10 years before the onset in the family member affected. Lipase is more sensitive for acute pancreatitis. while exogenous sources of Insulin will lack c-‐peptide and thus help make a conclusive diagnosis. Alcohol. a Cecopexy can get rid of the problem. 36. Insulin-‐producing tumors will be seen by the presence of c-‐peptide. With the presence of risk factors. The MC breast tumor in teens and young adults is the fibroadenoma. Cimetidine. The MC form of polyp is the tubular adenoma 38. 44. etc). A true diverticula involves the full extent of the bowel wall. 48. Sitz baths. 49. but not before due to increased density of the breast tissue. a false diverticula is simply a herniation of the mucosa. Mammography should begin around 35yr of age. A common cause of painless lower GI bleeding in older adults is diverticulosis. but we still check both Lipase and Amylase. colon cancer screening via colonoscopy should start at 50yr. The MC surgical condition of the GI is a small bowel obstruction (SBO). 35. Digoxin. Drug-‐related causes of gynecomastia in adult men are: Spironolactone. SBO is identified on xray by visualizing multiple distended loops of small bowel and upright air-‐fluid levels. and Ketoconazole. 42. The initial management steps of hemorrhoids are: Increased fiber and water intake. 34. Villous adenomas have the highest risk of cancer because they are deeper in the GI wall. Peau d’orange is seen in Paget’s disease of the breast and is almost always an indication of underlying ductal carcinoma. Treat a volvulus with sigmoidoscopy. 39. With no risk factors (family history. A common cause of LLQ pain in older adults is diverticulitis. . 47. hemorrhoidal creams. 46. 40.
Four major signs of a basilar skull fracture are: Battle’s sign (mastoid bruising). . Pain in the anatomical snuff-‐box is indicative of scaphoid fracture. BPH is caused by excessive stimulation of the prostate tissue via DHT (due to 5-‐alpha-‐reductase enzyme). 59. 64. 51. Hip dislocation shows a shortened and internally rotated leg. Wrist splints used in carpal tunnel syndrome should be kept in a ‘slight extension’ position to best alleviate pressure on the median nerve. while arterial ulcers are more commonly on the dorsum of the foot. The first step in management of the aortic dissection is to control and/or lower the blood pressure. The greatest risk for rupture of a AAA is increasing size (increased diameter = increased risk). while a fracture to the femoral neck results in a leg position that is externally rotated. The nerve that requires injury assessment in an anterior shoulder dislocation is the axillary nerve.50. The best way to diagnose Leriche syndrome (aortoiliac disease resulting in claudication of the hip and gluteal muscles). Periorbital ecchymosis. Hemotympanum. This is not an indication for the cessation of breast feeding. 60. 58. Familial Adenomatous Polyposis is an AD disease caused by the inheritance of the APC gene. 54. In comparing testicular torsion and appendix testis. and CSF rhinorrhea. 65. ACL. a posterior shoulder dislocation is due to only two things: Lightning strike and grand-‐mal seizure. the torsion has a transverse lie while the appendix testis sits normally within the scrotum. Mastitis is an infection of the skin around the nipple.7 is indicative of claudication. 63. When carotid stenosis is >70%. 55. 53. MC due to Staph Aureus. and Medial meniscus 57. 56. as the Ankle To Brachial Index. 52. carotid vascular surgery is warranted. 62. MC when breastfeeding. Anterior shoulder dislocations occur 95% of the time. Venous ulcers are more commonly on the malleolus. 61. whereby an ABI less than 0. The unhappy triad consists of injuries to the: MCL.
should have an IVC filter placed. while on the right side it will most likely end up in the lung.66. Any patient who is seen with air under the diaphragm should be rushed into the ER first and foremost. 70. 69. . A varicocele is a tortuous dilation of the pampiniform plexus of veins that surround the spermatic cord and testes in the scrotum. 67. Violent acceleration-‐deceleration injuries are a common cause of diffuse axonal injury. Pain referred to the right shoulder may indicate an inflammatory processes to the liver or liver capsule. Penetrating chest trauma to the left side will most likely end up in the right ventricle. 71. 72. Peutz-‐Jeghers syndrome commonly shows up with freckling of the lips. 68. Any patient who is taking Warfarin for DVT yet continues to get PE’s.
and ovulation evaluation. 81. Oral contraceptives work by inhibiting the feedback mechanism on the pituitary to keep LH suppressed. The first three steps in the infertility work-‐up are: Semen analysis. Any female who fails to lactose 6-‐7 days post-‐partum should be evaluated for Sheehan’s syndrome. Term pregnancy is defined as 37-‐42 weeks. 83. Gardnerella. 75. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is the MCC of virilization in newborn females. 80. and lasts from approximately day 5-‐13 77. 86. 82. The classic triad of endometriosis is: Dysmenorrhea. The visualization of prominent blood vessels on colposcopy is the most aggressive invasive cancer finding. growth of decidua functionalis. Dyspareunia. 85. 88. Diagnosing menopause requires an FSH level >50. During the proliferative phase. The 3 MCC’s of vaginitis are: Candida. cervical mucus analysis. estrogen helps with: Ductal growth.OB/GYN 73. Nagel’s Rule: EDC = LMP + 7 days – 3 months + 1 year 74. The MOA of Clomiphene is blocking of the Estrogen receptor at the level of the hypothalamus. 84. . 89. 78. The proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle is also known as the ‘Estrogen-‐ dependent phase’. Progesterone helps prepare a uterus for implantation by increasing spiral arteries in the endometrium and thinning the cervical mucus. and cervical mucus thinning. 87. Patients with PCOS should be started on Metformin to decrease levels of blood sugar. and Infertility. 79. Management of idiopathic precocious puberty is with a GnRH analog such as Leupron. and Trichomonas. Average birth weight is 2500g-‐3500g 76.
irritation. 93. 100. 104. The MCC of a milky nipple discharge is ‘Galactorrhea’. severe pre-‐eclampsia is HTN >160/110 + proteinuria >1g/24hr. Liver.90. which is released by the placenta and antagonizes insulin. The presence of Group B Strep via anal/vaginal swab during pregnancy warrants an intrapartum shot of Penicillin. while the android shape is the most common male shape. inhibiting its negative effects. Tamoxifen works well for breast cancer because it blocks the effects of estrogen at the breast. The MC sites of breast cancer metastasis are: Lung. 96. 106. 92. When the fetus is >5. Gestational diabetes mellitus is caused by the release of human placental lactogen. 102. The first tool used in evaluating a breast mass is a fine-‐needle aspiration. The MC malignant tumor of the ovary is the ‘Serous Cystadenocarcinoma’. 91. The causes of endometrial cancer are estrogen-‐related: Unopposed estrogen replacement therapy. 109. 107. The MC cancer of the reproductive tract is cancer of the endometrium. 98. late-‐onset menopause. nulliparity. Cancer of the vagina/vulva presents with Itching. PCOS. Pre-‐eclampsia is HTN >140/90 + mild proteinuria. 105. When the fetus is >4. false is above). a c-‐section is mandatory. The MCC of ectopic pregnancy is history of PID. A persistent molar pregnancy is also known as a Choriocarcinoma. . The true pelvis and the false pelvis are separated by the linea terminalis (true is below. The classic female pelvis shape is the gynecoid shape. The MCC of a bloody nipple discharge is ‘Intraductal Papilloma’. 99.000g. and Bone 103. The first step in work-‐up for an ovarian mass is an ultrasound.500g. The first step in preventing a seizure when PIH is present is magnesium sulfate (it beats sodium to the cell and prevents depolarization). The MCC of ovarian torsion is excessive weight due to ovarian cyst. 101. estrogen-‐ secreting tumors. 108. a c-‐section is considered. 95. obesity. 97. and a burning sensation (treat with estrogen cream). which is MCC by G&C. 94.
mastitis. 116. 112. 113. Breast-‐feeding supplies the baby with all of the important vitamins except for vitamin K. Variable decelerations are caused by vagal reflex due to cord compression. 111. . Early fetal heart rate decelerations are an indicator of pressure to the fetal head. The first step in managing shoulder dystocia is McRobert’s maneuver (hyperflexion of the legs into the abdomen). Late decelerations are worrisome and are associated with uteroplacental insufficiency (this one is worrisome). 114. 117. 118. Pre-‐term labor is defined as the onset of labor between 20-‐36 weeks. Twin-‐to-‐twin transfusion syndrome is caused by a shared blood supply that leads to the shunting of blood from a donor twin to an acceptor twin. 121. 115. and a plugged duct. Three MCC of tender breasts post-‐partum are: Engorgement. elevated thyroid hormones. The MC reason for post-‐partum uterine infection (Metritis) is a history of c-‐section.110. 119. Common causes of recurrent abortions (≥ 2 consecutive or a total of 3 spontaneous abortions) are: Antiphospholipid antibodies or Anti-‐cardiolipin antibodies. elevated GI hormones. Three common causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are: High hCG levels. 120. The MCC of post-‐partum hemorrhage is uterine atony.
132. before this time it is pathologic. Epiglottitis is caused by H. 124. Infant botulism is MCC by the ingestion of spores found in raw honey. 123. The management for newborn jaundice is UV light exposure. Foreign bodies are MC located in the right bronchus. . The pathognomonic finding in Henoch-‐Schonlein purpura is palpable purpura on the buttocks and legs. 138. which breaks down bilirubin). 133. 131. 126. The pathognomonic finding of Measles is Koplik spots (but catching them is difficult because they are transient). The pathognomonic finding of otitis media is decreased tympanic membrane mobility. Varicella vesicles are infectious until they crust over. Slapped-‐cheek syndrome is caused by Parvovirus B19. 127. The unique features of Rubella is the presence of ‘Suboccipital Lymphadenopathy’. due to the angle of the anatomy. 130. the MCC of osteomyelitis is Salmonella. 125. 135. In sickle cell patients. The treatment for Kawasaki’s disease is high-‐dose aspirin (one of the only times when we give Aspirin to a child). 129. 128. Osteomyelitis is MCC by Staph Aureus. The MCC of septic arthritis is Staph Aureus. Influenza B and is a medical emergency. Physiologic jaundice is seen between 24-‐48hr after birth. 137.PEDIATRICS 122. Steeple sign is seen on xray of Croup. 134. which has the chance of suppressing the bone marrow. which is MC seen in overweight boys 8-‐17yr. Lateral movement of the femoral head in relation to the femoral shaft is known as ‘Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis’. 136.
By the end of high-‐school. The MCC of primary amenorrhea is Turner’s syndrome. 142. which is a palpable mid-‐epigastrium nodule. 141. 154. Projectile vomiting in a two-‐week to two-‐month old is a sign of congenital pyloric stenosis.139. 151. Females attempt suicide more than men. Reye syndrome causes a fatty degeneration of the liver in addition to acute encephalopathy (this is why we never give aspirin). Pre-‐ductal coarctation of the aorta is seen in 5% of Turner’s syndrome patients. 140. . The MC type of congenital heart disorder is the VSD. 148. The MCC of mental retardation in boys is fragile x syndrome. Adolescents who are of driving age are most likely to die in a MVA. 147. keep it open with prostaglandins. 150. 143. 145. but men are more likely to be successful in their attempt. Failure to thrive in the 1st year of life has the worst prognosis. The MCC of mental retardation across both genders is Down’s syndrome. fifty percent of adolescents have used an illicit drug. Close a PDA with NSAIDs. Sixty percent of males and fifty percent of females have had sex by the end of high-‐school. Ebstein’s anomaly (low implanted triscuspid valve) is caused by ingestion of Lithium during pregnancy. 144. 149. 153. Folate supplementation should begin at least 12 weeks before a patient plans on getting pregnant (to prevent NTD’s). The pathognomonic finding of Congenital pyloric stenosis is ‘Olive Sign’. 146. 152.
Always rule out cocaine use. Dopamine blockers are the first-‐line in medical management of Schizophrenia. 158. 167. SSRI’s are the mainstay in pharmacological management of PTSD. 166. 160. Medication + therapy is almost always the best choice on a psychiatric question for the USMLE CK. 161.PSYCHIATRIC MEDICINE 155. Patients with obsessive-‐compulsive disorder are aware of their problem. but is seen MC in females in their twenties. Panic disorder mimics the signs/symptoms of a myocardial infarction. 159. 156. Major depressive disorder can only be diagnosed if symptoms persist for at least two weeks. SSRI’s are the mainstay of pharmacological management in MDD. with each episode having at least two months in between. Schizophrenia. amphetamine use. 157. Watch for movement disorders as a side-‐effect of Schizophrenia medications. . The mainstay of management for panic disorder is SSRI’s. Patients are diagnosed with GAD when they worry on most days for at least six months. while patients with obsessive-‐compulsive personality disorder do not see a problem with their behavior. and the cluster B personality disorders when bipolar disorder is suspected. PTSD can only be diagnosed after four weeks of signs/symptoms (< 4 weeks is known as acute stress disorder) 169. 168. 164. An EKG should be performed the first time you encounter a panic disorder patient. 165. Bipolar 1 shows manic phases with or without depressive episodes. 163. The mainstay of management in GAD is psychotherapy. while bipolar 2 shows hypomanic phases + depressive episodes. 162.
172. fights. Anorexia is diagnosed with a BMI < 17. or anti-‐social behaviors. while Munchausen by Proxy is when symptoms are faked by someone who is caring for another. 181. 183. 177. 174. Conduct disorder is a pre-‐cursor to Anti-‐Social personality disorder. 178. the symptoms must be present before the age of seven years and they must occur in just one place. 173. Children who experience somatic symptoms during periods of separation from their primary caregiver are said to have separation anxiety. The first-‐line DOC for ADHD is Methylphenidate.5. 175. 179.170. There is no requirement for psychotherapy in cases of Tourette’s disorder because it is an involuntary disorder. irritability. Conduct disorder is a pre-‐cursor for antisocial personality disorder. 171. however there will be normal language development. Asperger’s syndrome is similar to Autism. boredom. The DOC for Tourette’s disorder is Haldol. 176. Depression in children may be seen as hyperactivity. Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that must begin before three years of age. 180. . while conduct disorder is a child who bullies. 182. aggressiveness. In order to make a proper diagnosis of ADHD. Conversion disorder is a sub-‐conscious transfer of emotional feeling to a neurological finding. and causes harm to other people and their property without any guilt. Munchausen syndrome is a factitious disorder of self. A personality disorder MUST lead to day-‐to-‐day functional impairment. 185. Oppositional defiant disorder is seen when a child acts temperamental with people they know well. Body dysmorphic disorder is managed with a combination of SSRI + Psychotherapy. 184.
The left coronary artery supplies eight-‐five percent of the myocardium.Hypertensive urgency is seen when blood pressure elevates > 200 systolic or > 110 diastolic without evidence of end-‐organ damage. 188.Prinzmetal’s angina is caused by coronary artery vasospasm. HTN. 190. 200. 196.The dominant artery is the one which supplies that SA node. 199.The P wave represents atrial depolarization. post-‐menopausal female not on HRT.The major risk factors for ischemic heart disease include: Diabetes. 189.When there is no relationship between P-‐waves and QRS complexes. we call it a 3rd degree heart block. we call it a 2nd degree. we call it a 2nd degree Mobitz heart block. while the QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization. and Homocystinuria. smoking.The minor risk factors for ischemic heart disease include: Obesity. family history. type 1 Wenckeback block.The #1 most preventable risk factor for coronary artery disease is smoking. 197. 194. 192.Essential hypertension represents ninety-‐five percent of all hypertension cases.Normal sinus rhythm with PR interval ≥ 0.INTERNAL MEDICINE 186. male sex. 198. 191. which is usually the right coronary artery).When a PR interval is prolonged from beat-‐to-‐beat until it becomes so long that it drops a beat. and age.Hypertensive emergency is seen when blood pressure elevates > 200 systolic or > 110 diastolic in addition to evidence of end-‐organ damage. 193. . hypercholesterolemia.2ms is the characteristic of a 1st degree heart block. 187.The first step in managing hypertension is lifestyle modifications for six to twelve months. 195.When there’s a fixed PR interval with regular non-‐conducted p-‐waves. which leads to a dropped beat.
dyspnea on exertion. while left-‐ sided murmurs generally get softer on inspiration.Pansystolic murmurs are those that cross both S1 and S2. orthopnea. Scleroderma. while a sub-‐acute endocarditis is MCC by Viridans Group Strep.The main types of cardiomyopathies are: Dilated.The first four drugs used in CHF patients are: ACEI’s. A-‐fib. Janeway lesions. while restrictive cardiomyopathy is a diastolic dysfunction. Glycogen storage diseases. Beta blockers. severe hypotension. 203. 208.Acute endocarditis is MCC by Staph Aureus.Rheumatic fever occurs after a Group A Strep infection. 205. Left-‐sided murmurs generally get louder on expiration. 212. 214.Dilated cardiomyopathy is a systolic dysfunction. Hemochromatosis.The MC findings of endocarditis include: Splinter hemorrhages. 204. Sarcoidosis. S3 on auscultation. and Digoxin. Splenomegaly.Left-‐sided heart failure presents with any of the following: Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.201. 213. cardiomegaly. . cyanosis. Osler’s nodes.Common causes of restrictive cardiomyopathy include: Amyloidosis. fatigue. 210. and rales.Right-‐sided murmurs generally get louder on inspiration. Mitral regurgitation. 209. 211.Ventricular fibrillations usually present with syncope. 202.The classic triad of pericardial effusion is: Muffled heart sounds + JVD + hypotension. they are: Tricuspid regurgitation. hepatic congestion. while right-‐ sided murmurs generally get softer on inspiration. and focal neuro findings. Roth spots. Conjunctival petechiae. increased JVP. Furosemide. and even sudden death – defibrillation is the best initial step in management. and Restrictive. 207.Right-‐sided heart failure presents with any of the following: Peripheral edema. Hypertrophic. and VSD. 206.
228.Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis is an AD disease that MC presents as death in young athletes. 229.The anterior lobe of the pituitary secretes: ACTH. 220. 218. SBE. GH. RVH. 222.The MCC’s of tricuspid stenosis are: Rheumatic fever and carcinoid syndrome. while Acromegaly is a GH-‐secreting tumor in adulthood. Prolactin.The MC functional tumor of the pituitary is the Prolactinoma. and MSH. and presence of a VSD. 232. 227. which leads to pre-‐excitation of the ventricles and MC presents with palpitations.The MCC of tricuspid regurgitation is Acute endocarditis (caused by use of IV drugs).The best initial test in detecting IHSS is the ECHO. 216.Prolactin can be inhibited by Dopamine (is why Psych patients taking dopamine-‐blockers often experience lactation). 226. 230.215.The MCC’s of mitral regurgitation are: MVP. LH. 223.Tetralogy of Fallot has: Over-‐riding aorta.Dystrophic calcification is the MCC of aortic regurgitation in the elderly. TSH.Gigantism is due to a GH-‐secreting tumor in childhood. 225. 221.Dystrophic calcification is the MCC of aortic stenosis in the elderly. pulmonary artery stenosis. and Collagen diseases.Wolf-‐Parkinson-‐White syndrome is caused by an accessory pathway in the ventricles (bundle of Kent). .Patient with aortic regurgitation + head-‐bobbing is known as ‘de Musset’s sign’.The MCC of mitral stenosis is Rheumatic Fever.Cyanotic congenital heart diseases are asymptomatic until the PDA closes (keep it open with prostaglandins) 219. FSH.The posterior pituitary secretes both Oxytocin and Vasopressin. 224. 231.The MC cyanotic heart disease in infants One to Twelve-‐months of age is Tetralogy of Fallot. 217.
.Addison’s disease is caused by an insufficiency of the adrenal gland in secreting cortisol. truncal obesity.Excess cortisol will lead to proteolysis + gluconeogenesis.The triad of pheocromocytoma are: Palpitations. and the zona reticularis produces sex-‐steroids.The best step in managing the sympathetic symptoms of hyperthyroidism is a beta-‐1 blocker.Too much cortisol is known as Cushing’s syndrome.Conn’s syndrome shows hypernatremia and hypokalemia. 239. which leads to excessive levels of ACTH being released from the pituitary.Maternal hypothyroidism leads to congenital hypothyroidism. 240.The zona glomerulosa produces aldosterone. 248. 246.Too much Aldosterone causes Conn’s syndrome. 244.The MCC of adrenal insufficiency is a 21-‐beta-‐OH deficiency (90% of time this is the cause). 238. 243. Headache. while too little Aldosterone leads to adrenal insufficiency.A “hot nodule” is one that can take up iodine and is indicative of a functioning nodule. 235.The MC type of thyroid cancer is Papillary.An “Addisonian crisis” warrants immediate IV glucocorticoids. 234.In hyperthyroidism. the zona fasciculate produces cortisol. 247. 242. and Intermittent spikes in BP. The most fatal type of thyroid cancer is Anaplastic. 236. 241.Exophthalmos is protrusion of the eye > 18mm. 237.233. 249.Pathognomonic findings of Cushing’s disease are: Buffalo hump. and striae (abdominal MC). in addition to metabolic alkalosis. there is elevated T3 and T4 with a lowered level of TRH and TSH. which is known as Cretinism. 245. while too little is known as Addison’s disease.
small testes. phosphate. . 262. violent behavior (may be anti-‐social behavior). 259. low testosterone/high LH:FSH. glucagon is released from alpha cells. wide hips. osteomalacia is a nutritional deficiency leading to bone softening.Insulin is released from beta cells. 251. 261. severe acne. 265.The first diagnostic test for osteoporosis is the DEXA scan.Osteopenia is a condition of decreased bone density.Osteoblasts will build bone and lower serum calcium. 254. or calcium.Bisphosphonates help osteoporosis patients by inhibiting osteoclastic activity (ie.The superior parathyroid glands develop from the fourth pharyngeal pouch.The first step in diagnosing a pheocromocytoma is to take a 24-‐hr urinary VMA and metanephrine level.Osteomalacia is bone softening due to defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate amounts of available calcium and phosphate. gynecomastia. while osteoclasts will destroy bone to increase serum calcium. 252.250.Klinefelter’s syndrome is an XXY disorder whereby males have: Increased height. female pubic hair pattern.Polycythemia + elevated erythropoietin = Hypoxia or Tumor.Polycythemia without erythropoietin elevation = BM problem.Rickets is bone softening in children due to impaired metabolism of vitamin D. Mimics calcium). 260. 263.Sulfonylureas work by increasing the amount of insulin released from the beta cells of the pancreas. 264. 255Presence of insulin without C-‐peptide is indicative of exogenous insulin administration.XXY syndrome presents as a male with mild mental retardation. 256.Glucagonoma can cause up to a 1000-‐fold increase in serum glucagon. 266.Presence of insulin + C-‐peptide is indicative of endogenous insulin. and osteosclerosis is an increase in bone density due to trauma. 258. while the inferior parathyroids develop from the third pharyngeal pouch. 257. 253.
Any patient with amenorrhea + loss of ability to smell has Kallmann’s syndrome. and Seminal Vesicle. 280.Common side-‐effects of loop diuretics are: Ototoxicity. Nephritis and Gout.A 5-‐alpha-‐reductase deficiency leads to ambiguous genitalia at birth with a masculinization of genitalia at puberty due to rise of testosterone. Vas deferens.Acetazolamide and Dorzolamide work by inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase enzyme. 274. persistent umbilical discharge.Bartter’s syndrome is a genetic mutation that results in a non-‐functional triple transporter (It looks as though they are using a Loop diuretic when they are not). an AD disorder caused by hypogonadism and anosmia. Allergy. prostatic urethra.Testicular feminization is a result of a defect on the DHT receptor. Epididymis.A cyst between the umbilicus and bladder is a Urachal Cyst. 271. and frequent UTI’s. 272. Dehydration. 273. 278.Male and Female genital differentiation begins around the eight gestational week. 276. 281. 268. 275. 270. .The lower 2/3 of the vagina is formed from the urogenital sinus. Hypokalemia. Fallopian tubes.Varicocele is most common in the left testicle because of the angle of drainage into the left renal vein. 277. Cervix. 279.The prostate. and upper 1/3 of vagina.The mullerian ducts develop into: Ovaries. which presents with: Abdominal pain. and bulbourethral glands develop from the urogenital sinus.Thiazide diuretics work by shutting down the Na/Cl co-‐transport in the distal convoluted tubule. dysuria. Uterus.Loop diuretics work by inhibiting the Na/K/2Cl co-‐transport system in the thick ascending loo.267.The Mesonephric Ducts develop into the: Testes. 269.
Taste disturbance. Uremia. Rash. 288.Desmopressin is the management of choice from central DI. Increased Renin. Post-‐intubation hypocapnia. ADH released from posterior pituitary.Hyperkalemia in DKA is actually ‘pseudohyperkalemia’ because there is a K+/H+ exchange in the cells. check to see if HC03 change matches anion gap change. determine whether compensation is appropriate. 290. DKA.The side-‐effects of ACE Inhibitors are: Cough. alpha-‐1-‐vasoconstriction. calculate the anion gap. 286. 293. check C02/HC03. Pregnancy contraindication. 294. hyperlipidemia.Any patient taking an ACEI who develops a cough should be switched to an ARB.A thiazide diuretic given to a patient with nephrogenic DI will lead to a paradoxical fluid conservation. Renal tubular acidosis. 283. 285. Salicylates. Hypotension. Ethanol/Ethylene glycol. Angioedema. Uremia. Lactate.Central diabetes insipidus is a result of lack of anti-‐diuretic hormone release from the posterior pituitary gland.Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a result of a non-‐responsive ADH receptor on the kidney. 291. Isoniazid.Causes of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis are: Methanol. 289. and hypercalcemia). 292. . Diarrhea. hyperuricemia.Common side-‐effects of Thiazide diuretics are: hyperglycemia. 287. Acetazolamide. Lower A2.The activation of renin leads to a series of events that cause the following four things to occur in hopes of increasing blood pressure: Increase circulating aldosterone. Proteinuria.The initial five steps to attacking an acid/base disturbance are: Check pH.Type 1 distal RTA is the MC form and is caused by a failure of the collecting ducts to secrete acid. Causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis are: Hyperalimentation. Paraldehyde. 284.282. thirst mechanism stimulation in the hypothalamus.
301. MCC by Cephalosporin.Fanconi’s syndrome is caused by an inability to reabsorb via the PCT.Oliguria is defined as urine output <400cc/day and Anuria is defined as urine output <100cc/day. . 312. and Aminoglycosides. The main findings of nephritic syndromes are: HTN.If the urine is positive for blood but negative for RBC’s. crystals. 308. 297. resulting in glucose. or crush injuries.Pre-‐renal azotemia is caused by any problem inhibiting the flow of fluids into the kidneys.Fat casts in the urine should make you think of nephrotic syndromes. renal artery stenosis. 299.The Gold-‐Standard for determining GFR and renal plasma flow is to measure the Para-‐Aminohippuric acid levels. 311. phosphate. hypoalbuminemia.Intra-‐renal azotemia is MCC by drugs. macroscopic/microscopic hematuria. and hyperlipidemia. 300.RBC casts in the urine should make you think of glomerular nephritis. there must be a bilateral blockage (think prostate enlargement.5g/day. Cisplatin. 309. think: Volume depletion. 304. and HC03-‐ being passed into the urine.Intra-‐renal azotemia shows a BUN:Cr of <20:1. 305. decreased oncotic pressure. pelvic tumors. look for myoglobinuria.295. 310.Bence-‐Jones proteins in the urine should tip you off to Multiple Myeloma. and edema.Pre-‐renal azotemia shows a BUN:Cr >20:1.MCC of drug-‐induced intra-‐renal azotemia are: Ampho B.The main findings of nephrotic syndromes are: Proteinuria >3. AA. uric acid. generalized edema. 298.For post-‐renal azotemia to occur. or urethral strictures). cardiovascular disease. oliguria. 303. 307.Eosinophils in the urine should make you think of drug-‐induced hypersensitivity.WBC’s and bacteria in the urine should make you think of infection. 306.Crystals in the urine should have you checking birefringence (negatively birefringent = Gout). 296. or shock. 302.
which are radio-‐opaque on xray (MCC by hypercalcemia). 317. 318. 319.Cysteine stones are caused by an AD disorder where there is a defect in the renal transport of COLA (Cysteine. . Mid-‐ureter.MCC of staghorn calculi are: Proteus. Coli and E. Lysine. 2nd – spiral CT. Waxy casts in the urine should make you think of chronic end-‐stage renal failure.We do a one-‐time ultrasound in long-‐time smokers for AAA at sixty years of age.The MC malignancy of the kidney is renal cell carcinoma. Pseudomonas.Crescent-‐shaped casts in the urine should make you think of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Medullary cystic kidney disease presenting later in life is AD.The MCC of hydronephrosis in newborns is posterior urethral valves. 329.The MCC of kidney stones is calcium stones. Goodpasture’s syndrome.The MCC of pyelonephritis are E. and Ureteropelvic junction.The MCC of urinary obstruction in adult males is BPH. 328. while if earlier in life it is AR. 327. 325. and Brucellosis.We must avoid ACE inhibitors when a patient has renal artery stenosis. 330.Horse-‐shoe kidney gets caught under the Inferior Mesenteric Artery during development. 320. Cryptococcus. Nocardia. Ornithine. Pylori. Arginine). and 3rd – IVP 326. 324. 321. and Wegener’s. Ureaplasma.The three MC areas where a kidney stone might get caught are: Hilum.The steps in diagnosing a pyelonephritis are: 1st – KUB.The presentation of kidney stones is usually radiating pain from the flank. H. Staph Saprophyticus. 314. moving anteriorly and descending into the groin. 322. Faecalis.The MCC of a small kidney is renal artery stenosis. 315. 316.TURP syndrome is hyponatremia caused by water intoxication (due to fluid overload and absorption during the TURP procedure).313. 323. seen MC in male smokers who are fifty to seventy years of age.
Fats in the stomach. while Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rupture of the esophagus. 337. 332. GU malformations.The most common renal malignancy in children is Wilm’s tumor (MC from two to four years of age). Phimosis = Foreskin scarring.The two MCC’s of urethritis are: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea.Balantitis = foreskin inflammation. type B gastritis affects the antrum.331. 340.Management for H. 344.Two main factors that slow gastric emptying are: Acid in the duodenum.Barrett’s esophagus is metaplasia of the columnar epithelium into squamous epithelium in the distal esophagus (MCC by chronic GERD). . 333. Glossitis.Type A gastritis affects the fundus. 342. 343. 341. 339. 336.Children with urge incontinence can be managed with Imipramine (has strong anti-‐cholinergic properties).Barrett’s esophagus leads to increased risk of adenocarcinoma. and Retardation). Pylori gastritis is: PPI + 2 Ab’s + Bismuth. 346. 345.Diffuse esophageal spasm is caused by un-‐coordinated contraction of the entire esophageal body (presents as severe chest pain that mimics an MI). and Iron-‐deficiency anemia. Aniridia. 334. 338.Mallory-‐Weis tears are caused by mucosal tearing at the gastroesophageal junction.Prostaglandins help protect the stomach and are inhibited when a patient uses aspirin. 335.Urge incontinence is caused by instability of the detrusor muscle. Paraphimosis = scarring of the foreskin that adheres to the base of the penis. 347.A baby who becomes cyanotic when feeding should be checked for choanal atresia (one or both nasal passages are blocked by soft/body tissue).Hypospadius is the MC GU abnormality and is associated with increased risk of UTI’s.Plummer-‐Vinson syndrome presents with the triad of: Dysphagia.Wilm’s tumor is associated with WAGR (Wilm’s.
Treat a volvulus with a barium enema.Management of choice for a pancreatic pseudocyst is drainage.Presence of Grey-‐Turner sign (flank bruising) and Cullen sign (periumbilical bruising) are caused by hemorrhagic pancreatitis. 351. . while a duodenal ulcer pain is improved during a meal.348. Hemorrhage.The mildest type of headache is the tension headache.Recurring bouts of pancreatitis-‐mimicking symptoms is likely a pancreatic pseudocyst. 360. flushing. 357. Obstruction.Twisting of a segment of bowel around its mesentery is known as Volvulus. 363. 352. abdominal cramping. 349. 353. 350. 358.Surgery is warranted for peptic ulcer disease in the following situations: Intractable pain.Up to eight-‐percent of migraine sufferers have a family member who also gets them (ie. 361. 356. 355. increased dietary fiber intake.Internal hemorrhoids are painless because they are above the pectinate line.Acute management of migraine headaches is with a Triptan drug (5-‐HT agonist leads to vasoconstriction).Telescoping of one segment of bowel into another is known as Intussusception (sausage-‐shaped mass on presentation). 354. which shows up as a kidney bean shape on xray. and bronchospasm.The main signs/symptoms of Carcinoid syndrome are: Watery diarrhea.Intussusception is treated with sigmoidoscopy and rectal tube placement.External hemorrhoids are painful because they are below the pectinate line.The best initial management for hemorrhoids are: Sitz bath. 359. 362.Gastric ulcer pain is worsened during a meal. and hemorrhoidal cream. Strong genetic component). Perforation. which has a ‘band-‐ like’ quality and is not debilitating.
intubation. 380. 370. 375. Hypoventilation. V/Q mismatch.The MCC’s of hypoxemia are: Shunts. 371. 374.Initial management of hypoxemia includes: Nasal 02.Initial management of status epilepticus is benzodiazepine.Huntington’s disease is a triplet repeat disorder characterized by choreiform movements and severe clinical depression. and/or tracheostomy. 368.Decorticate posturing is caused by cortical lesions and result in arm flexion.Parkinson’s disease is caused by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. 376. while decerebrate posturing is caused by midbrain/lower lesions and results in arm extension.Rapidly correcting hyponatremia can lead to central pontine myelinosis. 367. Diffuse impairment. 377. and is initially managed with a combination of Carbidopa + Levedopa.Diphenhydramine is the DOC for dealing with the tremor associated with Parkinson’s disease.364.MRI of a MS patient demonstrates multiple areas of focal demyelination.Cryptococcal meningitis is the MCC of meningitis is AIDS patients. CPAP.MRI of Alzheimer’s disease demonstrates diffuse cerebral atrophy. 378. .Cluster headaches present as severe unilateral headaches that are localized to the temporal/periorbital area.ALS patients should be managed with supportive measures (intubation.Pick’s disease looks like Alzheimer’s except that it mainly affects the frontal lobe and thus personality changes are more common. 379. 372. the most worrisome complication is respiratory depression.Patients seen within three to six hours of stroke should be given tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) – assuming it is an occlusive infarct. and low inspired FI02. 365. 366. 373. 369. feeding tube.AchE inhibitors can slow the progress of Alzheimer’s disease. etc).Guillain-‐Barre is a rapidly ascending demyelinating disease that affects the peripheral nerves.
and Nitrofurantoin. mild persistent.Any patient who uses their asthma inhaler more than once per day should also be started on an inhaled corticosteroid. 389. and hypercalcemia/hypercalcuria. 397. and damage to the epithelium. 392. Hypercoagulable state.Common findings of Sarcoidosis include: Bilateral hilar adenopathy on CXR. 386. 395. Phenytoin.Ground glass or honeycombing on CXR is an indication of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 394. 383. 393.CXR of a pleural effusion demonstrates costophrenic angle blunting.Positive pressure in the pleural space will collapse the ipsilateral lung and shift the mediastinum away from the PTX (known as tension PTX).The three main RF’s for a PE include: Stasis. 382. 396. The gold-‐standard diagnostic test for PE is the pulmonary angiography.Ninety-‐five percent of pulmonary embolisms come from a DVT.Chronic hypoxia tends to lead to clubbing of the digits. moderate persistent.Asbestosis leads to an increased risk of bronchogenic carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma. 387.Four drugs that commonly cause interstitial lung diseases include: Amiodarone. Bleomycin. 388.Tension PTX is a medical emergency that should be managed urgently with a large-‐bore needle inserted into the mid-‐clavicular line at the 2nd-‐3rd intercostal space.The best initial test to rule out a PE is a spiral CT of the chest + V/Q scan. 384. elevated ACE enzyme.Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease that is characterized by widespread non-‐caseating granulomas.381. 385.The initial management of mild asthma cases is a beta-‐2 agonist (Albuterol). 391. 390. and severe persistent.The four types of asthma are: Intermittent. .Acute onset of ipsilateral chest pain + decreased breath sounds is most likely a PTX.
Weight-‐Loss. 400. while secondary tuberculosis affects the upper lobes (apex). calcium deficiency.The best initial step in examining a lung mass is to check old CXR’s. 405. hypercortisolism.Patients with bleeding gums. 412. 407. 404.Patients using Isoniazid commonly encounter peripheral neuropathies. ecchymosis.Patients with facial swelling.Primary tuberculosis affects the lower lobes of the lung. and Strep species. Infection risk.Common findings of lung cancer are: Coughing. 409. 401.Pyogenic osteomyelitis is diagnosed by finding of periosteal elevation on xray. 399.Paget’s disease is managed first with Bisphosphonates and secondly with Calcitonin. which is a result of depletion of vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine).Pancoast tumor commonly leads to Horner’s syndrome (Ptosis.Signs of Rickets include: Craniotabes. 410.398. 402. bleeding from hair follicles. Anhydrosis. 408.Common causes of osteoporosis include: Decreased estrogen levels. and Pectus carinatum. cyanosis. lack of physical activity. 403.Lung cancer is the MCC of cancer-‐related deaths.Calcitonin works by inhibiting calcium absorption in the intestines and inhibiting renal tubular cell reabsorption of calcium.MCC’s of pyogenic osteomyelitis are: S. S. and + sputum sample. and is the second MC category of cancer. 406. Harrison’s groove. Hoarseness. and neck/head vein dilation should be examined for superior vena cava syndrome.Diagnosis of TB is based on three things: Clinical assessment. Aureus. and hyperthyroidism. +CXR. Rachitic rosary. 411. . and sub-‐periosteal hemorrhage should be evaluated for Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency). and Miosis). Epidermidis. Hemoptysis. Fatigue.
Codman’s triangle on x-‐ray. Vasculitis. INH.Rheumatoid arthritis is best diagnosed based on clinical findings. and Sulfonamides. and painful ulcers of the oral/genital region. 426.Osteosarcoma is seen MC in those ten to twenty years of age. 416. Phenytoin.Osteochondroma is seen in those less than twenty-‐five years of age.Anti-‐phospholipid autoantibodies can cause false positive lab test in SLE patients and a false positive RPR/VDRL for syphilis. Neurologic symptoms.”Soap Bubble” sign is an x-‐ray finding of Giant cell bone cancer. 419. Ankylosing Spondylitis. 423. MC at the distal femur/proximal tibia. mostly in males.Sjogren’s syndrome causes: Keratoconjunctivitis.First-‐line management of RA is Methotrexate.Drug-‐induced lupus is MCC by: Procainamide. Hydralazine. and Sun-‐burst sign on x-‐ray.Behcet’s syndrome will show: Arthritis. Xerostomia. 421. 415. and Psoriatic Arthritis. MC at the epiphyseal ends of long bones. Ewing’s sarcoma has the 11.The seronegative spondyloarthropathies include: Osteoarthritis. Is seen at the distal femur/proximal tibia. 424. 420.Osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis are the only two types that affect the DIP’s. 417.Drug-‐induced lupus will show the presence of anti-‐histone antibody. 418.Ewing’s sarcoma is most commonly seen in those less than fifteen years of age.413. 425.Osteosarcoma is diagnosed by finding: Increased alkaline phosphatase. 427. and Arthritis.Antinuclear antibody is 98% sensitive for SLE. 422. 429. Reiter’s syndrome. 428. and is the MC primary bone malignancy. .22 translocation and shows ‘onion skinning’ on x-‐ray.Giant cell cancer of the bone is MC seen in those twenty to forty years of age. as the lab values are not always going to be sufficient for diagnosis. 414.
441. Ankylosing spondylitis is HLA-‐B27 positive. Sclerodactyly. 442. Non-‐gonococcal urethritis.Management of MG is with Pyridostigmine (long-‐acting AchE inhibitor). while Heberden’s nodes affect the DIP’s.Acute management of Gout is Colchisine (is a microtubule inhibitor).Myasthenia Gravis is caused by autoantibodies against the post-‐synaptic Ach receptors.430. Pain and weakness in the muscles of the shoulder-‐girdle is Polymyalgia Rheumatica. and Telangiectasia.CREST syndrome = Calcinosis. 446. 436.X-‐ray of osteoarthritis demonstrates osteophytes and joint-‐space narrowing.Ankylosing spondylitis can only be diagnosed when the SI joint is affected. 432.Management of AS is NSAIDs and back-‐specific strengthening exercises. 448.Diagnose Scleroderma with ANA (is 95% +) and anti-‐centromere antibody (80% sensitive).Bouchard’s nodes affect the PIP’s.Negatively birefringent crystals = Gout. 435.Septic arthritis is MCC by gonorrhea in sexually active patients. and reactive Arthritis. 443. . 445. 447. 438. 434. 433.Reiter’s syndrome is an HLA-‐B27+ disease with the classic triad of: Conjunctivitis. 444. 431.Long-‐term Gout management is with Allopurinol (inhibits xanthine oxidase). 437. Raynaud’s phenomenon.The pathognomonic finding of psoriatic arthritis is pitting of the nails.Gout caused by under secretion of uric acid is managed by Probenecid. Esophageal dysmotility.Lambert-‐Eaton syndrome is caused by autoantibodies against the pre-‐ synaptic calcium channels. 440. 439. Diagnosis of MG is made by administration of Edrophonium (short-‐ acting AchE inhibitor). Positively birefringent crystals = Pseudogout.
460.A swollen and painful mass in the axilla or groin is likely Hidradenitis Suppurativa. which is caused by a plugged apocrine gland. caused by excessive iron absorption.Infection of the skin surrounding the nail margin is known as Paronychia.The management for Psoriasis is topical steroids and UVA light. 451.Mask-‐like hyperpigmentation of the face in pregnancy is known as Melasma. . Strawberry tongue. 463. 453.Bronze diabetes is caused by Primary Hemochromatosis. and IgE-‐mediated process.The MCC’s of contact dermatitis are: Poison Ivy. bright-‐red pharynx.The most important step before prescribing Retinoic acid to a female is to obtain a negative pregnancy test. hand/foot desquamation. Findings of Scarlet Fever include: Truncal rash. Pregnancy. Lambert-‐Eaton syndrome may be a sequelae of small cell cancer of the lung. Coccidioides Immitis). Leprae. 452. Sandpaper-‐like skin. 464.Albinism is caused by a deficiency of Tyrosinase.Urticaria is caused by mast-‐cell degranulation and histamine release. 456. 459. 454.The initial step in Necrotizing Fasciitis is surgical debridement + PCN/Clindamycin to prevent spread.449. 458. Poison Oak.Patients with Albinism should avoid the sun and use sunscreen at all times. Mycoplasma. and Infections (Chlamydia. Nickel.The MCC of Necrotizing Fasciitis is Group A Strep (pyogenes). OCP’s). and Chemicals.Scarlet fever may be caused by Group A Strep (Pyogenes). 450. 461. 457.MCC’s of Erythema Nodosum include: Drugs (Sulfonamides. M. 462. 455. circumoral pallor.
A rash that begins on the wrists and ankles and moves centrally is most likely Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. caused by deficiency of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase enzyme). 479. 469. 467.Candida is managed with a Nystatin rinse.Pemphigus Vulgaris is an autoimmune disorder against the type 1 and 3 desmoglein. and 35 = potential to cause cervical cancer. .Children with anisocoria have increased ICP until proven otherwise. 471. management with Phlebotomy. 477.Kaposi’s sarcoma is caused by HHV-‐8 and is seen mainly in AIDS patients. but can also diagnose with PCR for Borrelia DNA. 480. pituitary disorders. which destroys the connection between the epidermis and keratinocytes.Blistering of sun-‐exposed areas without any abdominal pain is characteristic of Porphyria Cutanea Tarda.Ash-‐leaf spots + thickening of the skin is indicative of Tuberous Sclerosis. 481. 470.Primary hemochromatosis is associated with cardiomyopathy. and is classically seen on the face. 18.Squamous cell carcinoma is MC seen in the elderly and looks as ulcerated/crusty nodules seen on sun-‐exposed areas. 478.The pathognomonic finding of Lyme disease is the bulls-‐eye rash. 33.Onychomycosis is managed with oral Itraconazole or Fluconazole.Malignant melanoma is MC seen in fair-‐skinned individuals who are overly exposed to the sun.Malignant melanoma has a high risk of metastasis and the most worrisome characteristic is the depth of invasion.Basal cell carcinoma is the MC skin cancer and is associated with a pearly grey ulcer-‐like appearance.Scabies is managed with Permethrin cream 5% over the entire body.HPV types 6 & 11 = anorectal and genital warts 468. 474. 476. 31. 466.HPV types 16. 475.Diagnose Primary hemochromatosis via transferrin saturation percentage. 472. 473.465. and arthropathy. 482.
A white reflex is indicative of either Cataracts or Retinoblastoma. 492.Painless loss of vision is caused MC by macular degeneration and is age-‐ related. 490. 499. and 6. 496. close-‐angle glaucoma.Amblyopia (lazy eye).483.Common causes of red-‐eye include: Conjunctivitis.Pain upon movement of the eye is known as Retrobulbar Neuritis. 495. uveitis. caused by inflammation of the optic nerve and is a common initial sign of MS.Astigmatism is the MC reason for optometrist visits and is caused by abnormal curvature of the cornea. corneal abrasion.Definitive management of macular degeneration is laser therapy. 486.Blue sclera is commonly seen in Marfan’s syndrome and Osteogenesis imperfect.The pathognomonic finding for Wilson’s disease is the Kayser-‐Fleischer ring. 498. Alport’s. and Homocystinuria. 491.Retinoblastoma is a rare retinal cancer caused by mutated RB1 gene and is associated with the 11. 494. is caused by weakening of CN’s 3. 484. 4. 497. 488.Patient who describes a curtain coming down over their eye is experiencing retinal detachment.Yellow vision is commonly caused by Digoxin toxicity. . 487.Lens dislocation is seen MC in conditions such as Marfan’s.Argyll-‐Robertson pupil is a condition whereby the pupil constricts with accommodation but not to direct light stimulation. which must be managed with surgical re-‐ attachment.Argyll-‐Robertson pupil is the pathognomonic finding for tertiary syphilis.22 translocation. keratitis.Marcus-‐Gunn pupil is due to a CN 2 defect that decreases pupillary reaction when exposed to light. xerophthalmia. 493. 485. hyphema. 489.Parinaud’s syndrome is a bilateral paralysis of the upward gaze due to a lesion of the midbrain tectum.
and central retinal artery occlusion.Cherry-‐red spots on the macula are caused by: Tay-‐Sachs disease.500. Niemann-‐Pick disease. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.