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Semestral project

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Table of Contents

1. Task....................................................................................................................................................3

1.1 Problem.......................................................................................................................................4

1.2 Drawings.....................................................................................................................................5

2. Geometric model...............................................................................................................................6

3. FE model...........................................................................................................................................7

3.1 Element description....................................................................................................................7

3.2 Meshing (FE model)...................................................................................................................8

4. Boundary conditions..........................................................................................................................9

4.1 Displacement boundary conditions.............................................................................................9

4.2 Pressure.....................................................................................................................................10

5. Results.............................................................................................................................................11

6. The file package description............................................................................................................13

6.1 Macro description.....................................................................................................................13

6.2 Checklist of files attached.........................................................................................................13

7. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................14

8. References.......................................................................................................................................15

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1. Task

Tasks

1. Structural analysis

• geometric model

• FE model

• boundary conditions application

• summarizing the analysis in conclusion

• results presentation

• a short presentation

• reasonable structured macro file of the performed analysis

• solid model file

• FEA model + boundary conditions + results files

3

1.1 Problem

The chosen problem is vessel flange and its behavior toward pressure inside (p). The material is

aluminium alloy. The main task of the analysis will be static structural analysis.

Material:

Aluminium alloy

Yield Strength 280 Mpa

Ultimate Strength 310 MPa

Input values:

v= 0.33 ! Poisson's ratio – aluminium

t=10 mm ! thickness of the vessel

t2=8 mm ! thickness of the vessel at the bottom

r=20 mm ! the fillet radius

p=10 mm ! minor height parameter at the bottom of the vessel

l1=40 mm ! the flange thickness

dm2=30 mm ! bolt washer outer diameter (needed for defining loads)

dm1=17 mm ! bolt washer inner diameter and the hole diameter at the same time

(needed for defining loads)

sp=2 mm ! space between the fillet radius and the beginning of the bolt washer

e=10 mm ! space left from dm2 to the outer flange edge

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1.2 Drawings

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2. Geometric model

The geometry model was simply made by cross section of the flange. Then the area was rotated around

the axis of symmetry for angle that represents needed symmetry. The section of the flange is created

automatically by the macro file depending on number of bolts set by user. The volumes (figure 2.1 and

2.2 marked with different colors) were divided with regard to boundary conditions application.

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3. FE model

Software used for the analysis was Ansys 11. Used element in Ansys was SOLID186. It is a higher

order 3-D 20-node solid element. Supports various analysis types. It was chosen because its propriate

for irregular meshes modeling (e.g. produced by various CAD/CAM systems). Therefore automatic

smart size meshing method can be applied.

As the picture below shows the element may appear in different forms – tetrahedral, pyramid or prism-

shaped element. For instance by defining the same node numbers for nodes M, N, O, P, U, V, W, and X

a pyramid-shaped element is formed.

There are similar elements such as SOLID185 (lower order version of 186) or SOLID187 (10 node

version)

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3.2 Meshing (FE model)

Mesh errors

At first smart-size mesh tool was used. Shape testing revealed that some element violate shape warning

limits. All the irregular elements were near the axis of symmetry at the top because of very small angle.

This would not occur if small number of bolts would be chosen . This problem is negligible as long as

it will not cause critical errors in the calculation that would stop the calculation.

Figure 3.2 Elements near vessel symmetry axis violating shape limits

Mesh refining

After processing the analysis first time some areas

with very high energy error estimation were found.

The errors appeared because of the boundary

conditions as will be mentioned further.

The errors appeared within the area of interest

therefore the elements in both most affected areas

were refined. Shown mesh on figure 3.3 was refined

at lines where highest error estimation appeared (for

errors estimation see fig.5.3)

Second mesh refinement was done on the vessel

because more than one element along vessel

thickness is desirable. Refinement applied on the

inner vessel area did the job well.

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4. Boundary conditions

Symmetry

Size of the model was cut down on the necessary symmetry section. The symmetry is applied on the

area (fig.4.1)

Figure 4.1 Applied symmetry area Figure 4.2 Washer contact area

This displacement applied on the washer contact area (fig.4.2) is derived from the bolt that keeps the

flange and the other part of a vessel together. Zero displacement is applied in the direction

perpendicular to the surface (Y axis). There is a notice in the conclusion about this particular boundary

condition.

This displacement in Y axis direction

(fig.4.3) represents contact with the

other part of vessel. Only the edge

instead of whole bottom surface was

chosen since it keeps the set together

but still allows the flange to be pushed

up by the pressure.

Figure 4.3 bottom flange edge with the b.c. applied

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Radial displacement solution

The area on the picture (fig.4.4) shows

where radial displacement is applied since

there is a grip at the bottom part (fig.1.2).

Zero displacement is applied in radial

direction. As a matter of fact there would be

some displacement depending mostly on the

other part stiffness but for simplicity let's

suppose there is none.

4.2 Pressure

Inner vessel pressure is applied at the inner surface and can be seen on the figure 4.5 below.

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5. Results

As for the stress results (fig.5.2 and fig.5.3) there are areas with high stress due to applied boundary

conditions. Such stress results near the singularity are not valid and were removed from certain plots

(dark gray area).

Maximum stress is about 236 Mpa which ,comparing with Yield Strength (280 MPa), is not

acceptable value although if we neglect the singularity then average von Mises stress at the sphere

(where results are valid) is about 40 Mpa.

Figure 5.1 von Mises stress Figure 5.2 von Mises stress (singularity

removed from the plot)

Sum of displacement in all directions as shown above (fig.5.5) is highest on the sphere surface and is

0.168 mm.

First condition for results validity is validity of Hooke's law of elasticity. Figure 5.3 shows elastic strain

(again the most irrelevant area of the results was removed). Reasonable maximum elastic strain is about

0.1% which is acceptable.

As for the result accuracy energy error estimation has to be taken in count because one can learn

whether are the results valid or not. The plot below (fig.5.4) shows the areas with highest energy errors.

Speaking of the washer edge and outer flange edge, these are the singularities as direct implications of

applied boundary conditions. Therefore solution on edges of mentioned areas are not valid. If one

decides to apply such boundary conditions it is very important to keep in mind validity of obtained

results.

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Figure 5.3 Elastic strain - Von Mises (singularity removed from the plot)

Figure 5.4 Structural error energy Figure 5.5 Vector plotted DOF transition solution

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6. The file package description

Inseparable part of this report is the file package as described in the beginning of this report.

Macro includes modeling, BC application, meshing and setting of desired view and plot. All the

variables (dimensions, pressure) are at the beginning and changing them within reasonable limits

should work fine.

• Solid model (.db)

• FE model + boundary conditions + results (.db, .rst)

• macro file (.mac)

• presentation (.ppt for Microsoft Office and .odp for Open Office)

• this report (.pdf)

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7. Conclusion

The problem has been chosen rather simple one since the aim of the project was rather finite element

analysis than solution of real problem or modeling issue. On the contrary the simplicity provided

opportunity to experience different variations of possible solutions (and quickly receive results).

The chosen boundary conditions seem to be best fitting to the limitations of the course and knowledge I

possess.

Different BC - At first I prevented the whole bottom area of the flange to move in Y axis direction but

this would not be proper because the flange could not pull away due to inner pressure and that would

lead in false results in much larger area than the chosen BC.

Much more accurate and simpler solution could be achieved by using contacts. It could simulate the

stiffnesses and would make solution more accurate. Unfortunately contact application issue is not part

of the FEM course for what was this project created.

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8. References

Literature

[1] Release 11.0 Documentation for ANSYS

[2] Metoda konečných prvků – MKP I (Návody do cvičení) – VSB TUO, Department of Mechanics of

Materials

Software used

➢ licensed

➢ Ansys (ANSYS Academic Teaching Advanced, VSB TUO license)

➢ Open Office (report and presentation)

➢ Gimp (plot results editing)

➢ Inkscape (drawings)

➢ PSPad (macro editing)

15

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