Table of Contents

Middle School Chemistry Workshop Dujiangyan, China
Preface Activity 1: Discussion: Activity 2: Discussion: Activity 3: Discussion: Activity 4: Discussion: Activity 5: Discussion: Discussion: 2 3 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 21 21 22 22

Observing a Simple Redox Reaction Activity 1: Laboratory Report Measuring Conductivity of Solutions Activity 2: Laboratory Report Making Electrochemical Cells Activity 3: Laboratory Report Determining the Activity Series of Metals Activity 4: Laboratory Report Electrolysis of Water Activity 5: Laboratory Report A Test on Redox Reactions Part 1 Lab Practical Test Part 2 Multiple Choice Part 3 Balancing Equations Part 4 Essay Questions

Preface
Over the years I have found that students who don’t like science usually are those who have not had successful experiences in science. For the last 10 years of my teaching I have developed a way to help them learn the work that they thought they could not understand. I did not water down the contents, and they appreciated that when they found out they could do as well as any of their classmates. What I did was to teach them how to learn science. I did not teach them science. They learned it on their own. To begin a unit of study I would introduce a topic by asking them to do an investigation in the lab. They would make critical observations, ask about apparent contradictions in their work, and draw conclusions from their observations. Inevitably, their work led them to ask more questions in other areas of studies, and they had to read books, search the Internet, or go to the lab to find the answers. I acted as a facilitator or advisor and not the teacher who was the ultimate source of all knowledge. When they finished the unit of work, they learned a lot more than I could teach them by lecturing. What they have done is much more than learning the facts. They have learned how to learn. In preparing for this workshop I have re–created some of my lessons on Oxidation–Reduction and would like to share them with you. Keep in mind that I have not explained what kind of work I expected from them and, most importantly, how I graded them. As they are an important part of learning, I will discuss them with you after each lesson.

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions
Concepts to be learned: 1. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 2. Oxidation half reaction 3. Reduction half reaction Skills to be learned: 1. Making electrolytic cells 2. Electrolysis of water 3. Electroplating 4. Identifying anode and cathode 5. Balancing redox reactions by half reactions

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Activity 1 Problem: To learn to identify an oxidation from a reduction in a Redox reaction Materials: 150–ml beaker 1 M HCl (hydrochloric acid) Mossy Zinc Method: 1. Add about 100 ml of HCl solution to a beaker. Feel the outside of the beaker. Does it feel warm? Record your observations in Data/Observation section. 2. Add the pieces of zinc into the acid. Do you see any changes when the zinc is added to the acid? Feel the outside of the beaker. Does the temperature change? Record them in your Observations. 3. Light a long wooden splint and put the flame over the acid in the beaker. Record what you see. Data/Observations: Conclusions: 1. You have observed an Oxidation–Reduction reaction in this activity. Is it an exothermic or endothermic reaction? What evidence do you have to back up your explanation? 2. In this chemical reaction between HCl and Zn, two products are formed. Can you identify one product based on what you did in Step 3 in the Method? 3. Write the balanced equation for the reaction between zinc (Zn) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) 4. HCl at room conditions is a gas. When it dissolves in water, it forms ions with water. Write a balanced equation showing the dissociation of HCl molecules into ions. These ions are responsible for the conduction of electric current in Activity 1. 5. The reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid may be written as follows: Zn (s) + 2 H+1 (aq) + 2 Cl–1 (aq) (g) (a) Define oxidation and write the balanced oxidation half reaction of the above reaction. (b) Define reduction and write the balanced reduction half reaction of the zinc–HCl reaction. (c) Add the oxidation half reaction to the reduction half reaction as you would with two algebraic equations. Do you now have a balanced chemical reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid? Why or why not? Explain. Zn+2 (aq) + 2 Cl–1 (aq) + H2

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A Sample Report Chemistry Activity 1 Problem: To learn to identify an oxidation from a reduction in a Redox reaction Materials: 150–ml beaker 1 M HCl (hydrochloric acid) Mossy Zinc Method: 1. I poured about 100 ml of HCl solution into a beaker and felt the outside of the beaker. I recorded my observations in the Data/Observation section. 2. I added a few pieces of zinc into the acid. I noted the change in the color of the zinc pieces and felt the change in the temperature of the beaker. All the observations were recorded in the data/observations. 3. I lit a long wooden splint and put the flame over but not into the acid in the beaker. Observations were recorded. Data/Observations: 1. The beaker felt “normal”. It was not warmer or cooler than the room temperature. 2. The shinny piece of zinc turned dark almost immediately after they were put into the acid. The zinc pieces became tiny flakes. The beaker felt a little warmer than before. 3. When the flame of the wooden splint was placed over the acid, I heard popping noises. When I looked more carefully, I saw little puffs of fire over the acid. Conclusions: 1. The reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid is exothermic because the beaker felt a little warmer than before after the reaction. The energy must have come from the heat released by the reaction. 2. One of the products is hydrogen as it burns with a pop in the air. (A test for hydrogen) 3. Zn + 2HCl 4. HCl (g) ZnCl2 + H2 (gas) H+1 (aq) + Cl–1 (aq)

5. (a) Oxidation is chemical reaction in which electrons are lost or are a product. Zn Zn+2 (aq) + 2 e-1

(b) Reduction is a chemical reaction in which electrons are gained. 2 H+1 (aq) + 2 e-1 (c) Zn 4 H2 (g) Zn+2 (aq) + 2 e-1

Add)

2 H+1 (aq) + 2 e-1

H2 (g) Zn+2 (aq) + 2 e-1 + H2 (g)

Zn + 2 H+1 (aq) + 2 e-1

Canceling the 2 e-1 on both sides of the equation Zn + 2 H+1 (aq) Zn+2 (aq) + H2 (g)

This equation shows only those ions/atoms that were involved in the chemical change. The chloride ions (Cl–1 ) did not changed and therefore were not shown. The above equation is often referred to as the net ionic equation.

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Activity 2 Problem: To determine the electrical conductivity of some solutions Materials: 150–ml beakers Distilled water Rubbing alcohol 0.5 M NaCl solution 0.5 M HCl hydrochloric acid solution 0.5 M KNO3 solution Method: 1. Fill a beaker half full with one of the five liquids listed above. 2. Use the Conductivity Indicator to test the conductivity of the liquids one at a time. Be sure that you wash and rinse the probes of the Indicator with distilled water between uses. Record your observations in your data table. Data/Observations Solutions Conductivity Conclusions: 1. Explain how the Conductivity Indicator works. 2. Explain what are ionic substances at the atomic level? 3. Explain what are covalent substances at the molecular level. 4. According to your results some solutions are conductors. Explain, at the atomic level, how they conduct electricity. 5. What are electrolytes and non–electrolytes? How are they similar or different from ionic and covalent substances? Explain. 6. Go to the lab and do the following: (a) Put about 150 ml of 0.5 M BaCl2 solution in a beaker and leave the probes of the Conductivity Indicator in the solution. Is the solution a conductor? Record your observations. (b) Use a dropper to add one drop of 0.5 M Ag2(SO4) solution to the solution in the beaker. Use glass stirrer to mix the solutions gently. What do you notice about the brightness of the light bulb of the Conductivity Indicator? Do you see any changes in the beaker? Record your observations. (c) Continue to add, one drop at a time, the Ag2(SO4) solution to the beaker and stir it gently and continuously. What do you notice about the solution in the beaker and the brightness of the light bulb? Record your observations. Explain, at the molecular level, what you see in doing steps (a) to (c). Does it help 6 Distilled Water Rubbing Alcohol 0.5 M NaCl 0.5M HCl 0.5MKNO3

you better understand why a solution is a conductor?

A Sample Report Chemistry: Activity 2 Problem: To determine the electrical conductivity of some solutions Materials: 150–ml beakers Distilled water Rubbing alcohol 0.5 M NaCl solution 0.5 M HCl hydrochloric acid solution 0.5 M KNO3 solution Method: 1. I filled a beaker half full with one of the five liquids listed above. 2. I used the Conductivity Indicator to test the conductivity of the liquids one at a time, and I washed and rinsed the probes of the Indicator with distilled water between uses. Observations were recorded in my data table.

Data/Observations Solutions Conductivity Conclusions: Distilled Water No Rubbing Alcohol No 0.5 M NaCl 0.5M HCl Yes Yes Power Source 0.5MKNO3 Yes Light Bulb

1. The schematic diagram of the Indicator may be as shown: When the two probes are connected by a wire, the circuit is closed and the electric current is able to go through the light bulb causing it to light up. When the probes are placed in a beaker of solution, if the bulb glows, the solution is a condcutor. If the bulb does not glow, the solution is a non–conductor. (When a student gives this explanation, it may be satisfactory but it also opens to more questions. For example, a metal wire is different from a liquid. Electrons can run through a wire, but how do they “pass” through a solution?)

Probes

2. In a chemical reaction when some electrons of one atom are lost to another atom, ions are formed. The atom that loses the electron becomes positively charged and the atom that gains the electrons becomes negatively charged. The charged atoms are called ions. These ions are held together by their electrical charges, and the new product is called an ionic substance. For example, when Na atoms react with Cl atoms, each Na atom loses an electron to form Na+1 ion, and a Cl atom gains the electrons lost by a Na atom to become Cl–1 ion. The new product is 7

NaCl, an ionic compound. A similar reaction can take place between two groups of atoms. For example, the group of atoms NH4 can lose an electron to the group of atom NO# to form NH4+1 ion and (NO3)–1 ions to form an ionic compound of NH4NO#. ( Are ionic substances likely to be solids? Why? Are their melting and boiling points likely to be high? Why? ) 3. A covalent compound is formed when two atoms react chemically by sharing each other electrons to form a new compound. The co–attraction for each other electrons holds them together in a group called a molecule. For example, a hydrogen atom shares a pair of electrons with a chlorine atom to form the molecule HCl. (More questions about electrons–sharing can be asked. For example, is the electron–sharing even between the two atoms? What if the sharing is not even, meaning that atom has a stronger hold the electrons than the other, what would happen to the molecules?) 4. When an ionic substance is dissolved in water, the ions are free from each other and free to move about in the solution. The presence of free–moving ions makes the solution a conductor. Sodium chloride is an ion substance, and its solution is a conductor. HCl is not an ionic substance, but its solution also conducts electric current. It means that HCl solution must contain ions. (How do the ions actually conduct electric current? Why does a solution of HCl have ions?) 5. Chemical compounds whose water solutions conduct electric current are called electrolytes. Therefore, all ionic substances are electrolytes. Some covalent substances such as HCl do form ions in water solution, and these compounds are also called electrolytes. 6. Go to the lab and do the following: (a) Put about 150 ml of 0.5 M BaCl2 solution in a beaker and leave the probes of the Conductivity Indicator in the solution. Is the solution a conductor? Record your observations. (b) Use a dropper to add one drop of 0.5 M Ag2(SO4) solution to the solution in the beaker. Use a glass stirrer to mix the solutions gently. What do you notice about the brightness of the light bulb of the Conductivity Indicator? Do you see any changes in the beaker? Record your observations. (c) Continue to add, one drop at a time, the Ag2(SO4) solution to the beaker and stir it gently and continuously. What do you notice about the solution in the beaker and the brightness of the light bulb? Record your observations. Explain, at the ionic level, what you have observed in doing steps (a) to (c). Does it help you understand better why a solution is a conductor? (Do all ionic solids dissolve in water?)

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Activity 3 Problem: To make an electrochemical cell (battery) Materials: A carbon (graphite) electrode C (s) A zinc electrode Zn (s) An aluminum electrode Al (s) An iron electrode Fe (s) 0.5 M HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid solution A voltmeter 350 ml beaker Method: 1. Obtain a zinc and a carbon electrode. Use a piece of fine sand paper to clean the Zn until its color is even. Record its colors in you data table. 2. Using the wire with alligator clips to connect the Zn electrode to the positive terminal of the voltmeter and another wire to connect the carbon electrode to the negative terminal of the voltmeter. Now place both electrodes into the beaker of HCl (aq) to make an electrochemical cell. Don’t let the electrodes touch each other at any time. 3. What does the voltmeter read? Record you reading in you data table. If you cannot read the meter, reverse the connections from the electrodes to the meter. Note which terminal is connected to the Zn electrode for the meter to show a reading. Record all your reading and observations in your data table. 4. Leave the electrodes in the solution for about 2 minutes. Describe any visible changes to the electrodes and the solution. Record them in your data table. 5. Repeat steps 1 – 4 with aluminum/carbon electrodes and with iron / carbon electrodes. Record all you observations in the data section 6. Disconnect the electrodes from the voltmeter. Rinse them under water, dry them and leave them on the table. Discard the solution and clean the beaker. Data/Observations: Voltage of the cell Voltage of the cell Voltage of the cell With Zn and C With Al and C with Fe and C

Conclusions: 1. Graphite will not react with the hydrochloric acid and it is used because it is a good 9

conductor of electricity, but all the metals reacted with the acid. Write a balanced equation for each metal reacted with HCl. 2. For each of the above redox reaction, write the balanced equation of the oxidation half reaction and the reduction half reaction. Which half reactions show that electrons are a product? 3. The voltmeter gives a reading when a flow of electrons passes through it. Why did you have to reverse the electrode connections to the meter before you get a reading? 4. When the voltmeter gave a reading with Zn and C electrodes connecting to it, it meant that a flow of electrons had passed through it . Where did the electrons come from and why did they move through the voltmeter? Explain. 5. Did you get the same voltage reading in all three cells? Why or why not? Explain. 6. Why were you asked not to allow the electrodes in a cell to touch each other in Step 2 in the Method? 7. If an electrochemical cell is made with Zn and Iron electrode, will the voltmeter show any reading? Go to the lab and make a cell with Zn and Fe, and explain your observations. 8. If you were to make a cell with Fe and Al, which electrode would you connect to the positive terminal of the voltmeter to get a reading? What would be the reading based on the results you got from this activity? Go to the lab and make a cell with Fe and Al and see if your answers are correct. 9. Having made the cell with Fe and Al predict the voltage of a cell made with Al and Zn. Explain how you made such a prediction. 10. Can you make an electrochemical cell by replacing the Hydrochloric acid with distilled water? Why or why not? Explain your answer. Now go to the lab and make a cell with distilled water. Is your answer correct? Explain. 11. If you were to use a solution of NaCl instead of HCl (aq), do you think the cell would produce electric current? Explain your answer. Now, go to the lab and make a cell with NaCl solution. Does the cell work? In general, what kind of solutions would you use to make an electrochemical cell?

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A Sample Report Chemistry Activity 3 Problem: To make an electrochemical cell (battery) Materials: A carbon (graphite) electrode C (s) A zinc electrode Zn (s) An aluminum electrode Al (s) An iron electrode Fe (s) 0.5 M HCl (aq) hydrochloric acid solution A voltmeter 350 ml beaker Method: 1. I obtained a zinc and a carbon electrode and sanded the Zn electrode until it was a bright silver color. I recorded my observations. 2. I connected the Zn electrode to the positive terminal of the voltmeter with a wire and the carbon electrode to the negative terminal of the voltmeter. I then placed both electrodes into the beaker containing about 200 ml of HCl (aq) to make an electrochemical cell. Care was taken not to allow the electrode to touch each other. 3. The voltmeter needle went off to the side of the dial that had no calibrations. After connecting the Zn electrode to the negative terminal and the carbon electrode to the positive terminal, the voltmeter gave a reading and I recorded in the data table. 4. The zinc electrode that was in the HCl solution turned black, and the color was noted in the Observation. 5. Steps 1 – 4 were repeated with aluminum/carbon electrodes and with iron / carbon electrodes. All observations and voltage readings were recorded 6. All electrodes were washed in water and dry. Data/Observations: 11

Voltage of the cell Voltage of the cell Voltage of the cell With Zn and C With Al and C with Fe and C 0.81 v Conclusions: 1. Zn (s) + 2 HCl (aq) 2 Al (s) + 6 HCl (aq) Fe (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g) FeCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) 1.66 v 0.41 v

2 Electrons are a product in Oxidation half reactions Zn(s) Al (s) Fe(s) Zn+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Al+3(aq) + 3 e–1 Fe+2(aq) + 2 e–1

Reduction half reactions for all three redox are the same. 2 H+1(aq) + 2 e–1 H2(g)

3. The voltmeter gives a reading only if the electron–flow is from the negative terminal through the meter to the positive terminal. It appears that electrons flow from the Zinc electrode through the meter to the carbon electrode. (The question about the right hand rule on the current flow and the magnetic field direction may be asked here.) 4. According to the oxidation half reaction in Question 2 , the zinc atoms loses electrons to become water soluble Zn–2 ions. Left on the zinc electrode are electrons. Since all the electrons are negatively charged, they repel each other. When a wire connects the zinc electrode to the carbon electrode, the electrons will move through the wire where the resistance is less to the carbon electrode. This flow of electrons is the electric current provided by a battery. 5. The readings are different. It could mean that some metals lose electrons more readily than the other. A metal that loses electrons easily will build up a higher concentration of them on the electrode, and they will repel each other with a greater force. Electrons being pushed by a greater force has are said to have a greater voltage. (Questions about emf may be asked here.) 6. If the electrodes are in direct contact with each other, electrons will follow the path of least resistance to flow from one electrode to the other without going through the external wire. The battery is said to be short-circuited. 7. The zinc metal appears to give up their electrons more readily than the iron metal. When the two metal is put in beaker of electrolyte solution, the concentration of electrons will be higher on the zinc electrode than on the iron electrode. Electrons will flow from Zn to Fe through the external wire. Because zinc’s electrons push with a force of 0.81v and the iron’s electrons push back with a force of 0.41v, my prediction is that the electrons will flow from zinc to iron with a net force of 0.40v. (Students will go to the lab to make a Fe/Zn cell to verify their prediction here.) 12

8. The Voltmeter reading of a Fe/Al cell will probably be 1.66v – 0.41v = 1.25 v. To get a reading the Al electrode will be connected to negative terminal. (Students will go to the lab to make a Fe/Al cell to verify their prediction here.) 9. The voltmeter reading of a Al/Zn cell will probably be 1.66v – 0.81v -= o.85v. (Why?) 10. Hydrochloric acid is a conductor and will allow the electrons to complete the circuit. However, water in not a conductor. The circuit will be open and the cell will not be able to provide an electric current through the external circuit. (Students will make a cell with distilled water to check their answers.) 11. NaCl solution can be used to replace HCl because NaCl solution is a conductor. In general any electricity conducting solutions can be used. (Students will make a cell with distilled water to check their answers.)

Activity 4 Problem: To determine the metal activity series of five metals Materials: Iron, zinc, aluminum, copper, and lead electrodes Voltmeter 350 ml beakers Fe(NO3)2 (aq), A Voltmeter Zn(NO3)2 (aq) Al(NO3)3 (aq) Cu(NO3)2, (aq) Zn Pb(NO3)2 (aq) Electrode NH4(NO3) (aq) Salt Bridge With Zn(NO3)2 NH4NO3 Solution Cotton Plug Method:

Fe Electrode

Fe(NO3)2 Solution

Make a cell using all possible combinations of two different metal electrodes and their respective solutions as shown in the diagram above. You will use the same salt bridge for all your cells. In each case record in your data table the voltage given by the voltmeter and the direction of the electron flow.

Data/Observations: Battery with Zn & Fe Voltage Electron flow through the external wire From 13 to

Zn & Al Zn & Cu Zn & Pb Fe & Al Fe & Cu Fe & Pb Al & Cu Al & Pb Cu & Pb

From From From From From From From From From

to to to to to to to to to

Conclusions: 1. Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which electrons are lost. Another way of stating it is that oxidation is a reaction in which electrons are a product. Write the balanced oxidations for all the cells. 2. Reduction is the chemical reaction in which electrons are gained. Write the balanced reductions for all the cells. 3. The chemical that loses electron in oxidation is called a reducing agent, and the chemical that gains electron in reduction is called an oxidizing agent. Explain why electrons always flow from the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent through the external circuit, 4. Explain the function of the salt bridge. (Hints: When Zn(NO3)2 is dissolved in water, it forms Zn+2 ions and (NO3)–1 ions. These ions are free to move about in solutions. Unless a barrier is solid and impermeable, the ions are small enough to pass through porous barrier such as cotton or clay. ) 5. Based on the data you have collected, rank the metals from the most active to the least active. Compare your results with those given in your textbook. Are they the same?

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Sample Report Chemistry Activity 4 Problem: To determine the metal activity series of five metals Materials: Iron, zinc, aluminum, copper, and lead electrodes 350 ml beakers Fe(NO3)2 (aq), Zn(NO3)2 (aq) Al(NO3)3 (aq) Cu(NO3)2, (aq) Pb(NO3)2 (aq) A voltmeter A salt bridge with NH4NO3 solution Method: I followed the diagram and made a cell with Zn and Fe electrodes. I measured and recorded voltage of the cell with my voltmeter. As the electrons flew from the positive terminal of the voltmeter to the negative, I also recorded the electron flow direction in the table below. I repeated the above steps with all possible pairs of given electrodes

Data/Observations: Battery with 1 2 Zn & Fe Zn & Al Voltage 0.32 v 0.92 v Electron flow through the external wire From From Zn Al 15 to to Fe Zn

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zn & Cu Zn & Pb Fe & Al Fe & Cu Fe & Pb Al & Cu Al & Pb Cu & Pb

0.89 v 1.10 v 1.24 v 0.58 v 0.31 v 2.02 v 1.34 v 0.26 v

From From From From From From From From

Zn Zn Al Fe Fe Al Al Pb

to Cu to to to to to to to Pb Fe Cu Pb Cu Pb Cu

Conclusions: Questions 1 and 2: Oxidation half reaction Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6 Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10 Zn (s) Al(s) Zn (s) Zn (s) Al(s) Fe (s) Fe (s) Al(s) Al(s) Pb (s) Zn+2(aq) + 2 e– Al+3(aq) + 3 e–1 Zn+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Zn+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Al+3(aq) + 3 e– Fe+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Fe+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Al+3(aq) + 3 e–1 Al+3(aq) + 3 e–1 Pb+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Reduction half reaction Fe+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Zn+2(aq) + 2 e– Cu+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Pb+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Fe+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Cu+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Pb+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Cu+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Pb+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Cu+2(aq) + 2 e–1 Fe(s) Zn(s) Cu(s) Pb(s) Fe(s) Cu(s) Pb(s) Cu(s) Pb(s) Cu(s)

3, Since the anode produces electrons in the reaction, it will always have a greater concentration 16

of electrons than the cathode. The negative charges the electrons carry will repel them away from each other through the external circuit to the cathode. 4. When the electrons move from the anode to the cathode, the solution in which the anode is submersed will become positively charged. To maintain neutrality negative ions in the solution where the cathode is must move through the salt bridge to balance the electron loss. At the same time the electrons in the cathode are being gained by the metal ions to form neutral atoms, the solution where the cathode is will become more negatively charged. Positives from the anode solution must move through the bridge neutralize the solution. 5. From the most active to the least active metal: Al Zn Fe Pb Cu (Why?)

Activity 5 In making an electrochemical cell, a redox reaction, more accurately the oxidation part of it, is used to generate an electric current. This process can be reversed. Electrons can be used forced into a cell to produce a chemical reaction. This reverse process is called electrolysis. In this activity, you will electrolyzed water to make hydrogen and oxygen. Problem: To produce hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water Materials: Steel electrodes Connecting wires with alligator clips Beaker Test tubes Na2CO3 (s) Connecting Wire Batteries Connecting Wire

Steel electrode

Steel Electrode

Inverted test tubes Filled with water Method: 1 Set up your equipment as shown in 17

the diagram. Fill the beaker & test tubes with water. 2.Connect the electrodes to the battery. If no bubbles are seen to escape from the electrodes into the test tubes, add solid Na2CO3 to the water in the beaker and stir the water with a stirring rod until all the solid is dissolved Connect the electrodes to the battery and record your observations. 3.When one test tube is filled with a gas, disconnect the battery. Insert a stopper into the mouths of the test tubes while the mouths are till under water. 4.Test the gas in the full test tube for hydrogen. Record you observations. 5.Test the gas in the half full test tube for oxygen. Record your observations Data/Observations: Conclusions: 1. What gas was produced by the negative electrode? Explain why? Write the balanced equation for this reaction. Is the negative electrode an anode or a cathode? 2. What gas was produced by the positive electrode? Explain why? Write the balanced equation for this reaction. Is the positive electrode an anode or a cathode? 3. Use the equations of the two half reaction to write the equation of the complete redox reaction. 4. Explain what is electrolysis. 5. Why was Na2CO3 needed in the electrolysis of water? Explain. (Hints: Is water a good conductor of electricity?) 6. Explain why electrolysis of solid sodium does not work while the electrolysis of molten NaCl produces sodium and chlorine gas?

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A Sample Report Chemistry: Activity 5 Activity 5 Problem: To produce hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis of water Materials: Steel electrodes Connecting wires with alligator clips Battery Beaker Test tubes Connecting Wire Na2CO3 (s) Steel electrode Batteries Connecting Wire

Steel electrode

Inverted test tubes filled with water Method: 1 I set up the electrolysis equipment as shown in the diagram and I filled the beaker & test tubes with water. 2.I connected the electrodes to the terminals of the battery, but I did not see any bubbles rising from the electrodes. I added solid 19

Na2CO3 to the water in the beaker and stirred the water with a stirring rod until all the solid was dissolved. I connected the electrodes to the battery and recorded my observations. 3.When one test tube was filled with a gas, I disconnected the electrodes from the battery. I insert stoppers into the mouths of the test tubes while the mouths were till under water before I removed them from the water. 4. I tested the gas in the full test tube for hydrogen and record my observations. 5. I tested the gas in the half full test tube for oxygen and recorded my observations Data/Observation 1. When the beaker and the test tubes were filled with distilled water, nothing happened when the electrodes were connected to the battery. 2. When Na2CO3 (s) was added to the water, the water turned cloudy at first and became clear after much stirring. 3. Noting seemed to happen after the addition of Na2CO3 (s) until the test tubes were lifted up so that the mouths were about 1 cm above the tips of the electrodes. Bubbles rose from the tips of the electrodes into the test tubes. 4. The test tube with the negative electrode seemed to fill up more quickly. 5. When the test tube with the negative electrode is complete filled, I disconnected the electrodes form the battery and stoppered both test tubes with rubber stopper before removing them out of water. The test tube over the positive electrode appeared to be less than half filled with a gas. 6. The gas in the full test tube burned with a popping sound when a flaming wooden splint was placed over the mouth of the test tube. The gas in the test tube reignited the glowing splint when it was inserted into the test tube. Conclusions: 1. According to the test results, the gas produced by the negative electrode is hydrogen. Water dissociates into H+ ions and OH– ions. The negative electrode has a high concentration of e–, which attract the H+ ions toward it. When The H+ ions accept the e– , they become H2 gas. 2 H+ + 2 e – H2 The equation shows that electrons are gained by the hydrogen ions. By definition this is a reduction. The electrode is called cathode. 2. According to the test results, the gas collected in the test tube with the positive electrode is oxygen. Since OH– ions are negative, they are attracted to the positive electrode, where the ions gives up an e– to become oxygen. 4 OH– O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e–

In this reaction because electrons are lost, the reaction is an oxidation. The electrode at which oxidation takes place is called an anode. 3. In a redox reaction the loss and gain of electrons must be equal. Since the reduction in Question 1 shows a gain of 2 electrons while the oxidation in Question two shows a loss of 4 electrons, I need to multiply first equation by 2 before adding it to the second equation. 2 × ( 2 H+ + 2 e – 20 H2 )

4 H+ + 4 e – 4 OH– 4 H+ + 4 OH– (Why is there water on the left side of the equation?)

2 H2 O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e– 2 H2 + O2 + 2 H2O

4. The process, where electrical energy is used to produce a chemical change, is called electrolysis. 5. Distilled water was not a conductor as I found in Activity 2. For electrolysis to take place the solution must be a conductor. Since Na2CO3 is an ionic compound, its solution is a conductor. Water molecules are changed when electricity passes through the solution. (When Na2CO3 is dissolved in water, there will be Na+ and CO3–2 ions, why are they not attracted to the electrodes to form new products?) 6. In solid NaCl, the ions are not free to move. When electricity is passed into the solid, the ions cannot move to the electrodes to be oxidized and reduced. Once it is melted the ions are free to move and electrolysis can take place.

Test on Oxidation–Reduction Reaction Part 1 Lab Practical Test

1. Follow the directions given below to electroplate a piece of copper with zinc.. Pour about 400 ml of 0.5M Zn(SO4) solution into a 600 ml beaker. Use the non–metallic scouring pad to clean the two copper electrodes until they shine. Place the two electrodes into the zinc sulfate solution, but be sure that they don’t touch each. Record all your observation on a piece of paper and then explain the reasons for all the changes that occur where the electrons pass through 2. Go to the lab and do the following: (a) Put about 150 ml of 0.5 M BaCl2 solution in a beaker and leave the probes of the Conductivity Indicator in the solution. Is the solution a conductor? Record your observations. (b) Use a dropper to add one drop of 0.5 M Ag2(SO4) solution to the solution in the beaker. Use a glass stirrer to mix the solutions gently. What do you notice about the brightness of the light bulb of the Conductivity Indicator? Do you see any changes in the beaker? Record your observations. (c) Continue to add, one drop at a time, the Ag2(SO4) solution to the beaker and stir it gently and continuously. What do you notice about the solution in the beaker and the brightness of the light bulb? Record your observations. Explain, at the molecular level, what you see in doing steps (a) to (c). What is the necessary requirement for a solution to be a conductor? 21

3. What is the function of a salt bridge? Can you substitute the bridge with a copper wire? Go to the lab and make a cell with a wire. Does the cell function? Why or why not? Explain. 4. In an ionic solid, the ions are held together by their opposite charges. To break the bonds, attractive forces, between the ions, energy is needed. Heat energy is often used to beak the bonds. You can “see” the bonds being broken when the solid changes into a liquid because the ions are no longer held together. Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 is an ionic solid. If you added it to water, you will notice the solid dissolves in water. The bonds between the ions must have been broken, but where does the energy come from? Before answering the question, go to the lab and dissolve a tea–spoon of solid NH4NO3 in about 100 ml of water. What observations lead you to your answer? Part 2 Multiple Choice Questions (d) Salt solution (e) Peanut oil

1. Which of the following is an electrolyte? (a) NaNO3 (b) ethanol (c) vinegar

2. Which of the following gases supports combustion but will not burn? (a) Hydrogen (b) oxygen (c) nitrogen (d) carbon dioxide (e) carbon monoxide 3. In the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid, the oxidizing agent is (a) hydrogen. (b) magnesium chloride. (d) hydrochloric acid. (e) magnesium. 4. In the electrochemical cells made with zinc in zinc nitrate and aluminum in aluminum nitrate, the reducing agent is: (a) zinc (b) zinc nitrate (c) aluminum (d) aluminum nitrate 5. Which of the following reactions is NOT a redox reaction? (a) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (g) (b) 2 Al (s) + 3 Cl2 (g) (c) NaCl (s) (d) 2 CuO (s) + C (s) + heat Part 3 Balancing Equations 2 AlCl3 (s) Na+1 (aq) + Cl–1 (aq) CO2 (g) + 2 Cu (s)

1.The equation for the reaction between aluminum and hydrochloric acid is as follows: Al (s) + 3 HCl (aq) AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2 Write the balanced oxidation half reaction below: 2. The two half equations of a reactions are: Cu+2 + 2e– Cu0 0 Al Al+3 + 3e– Write a balanced equation for the redox reaction. Part 4 Essay Questions

1. Why does an electrochemical cell need an electrolytic solution? Explain. 22

2. In an electrochemical cell, is one electrode positively charged and the other negatively charged? Explain. 3. In an electrochemical cell, electrons always flow from anode to cathode. Why? Explain. 4. Based on their atomic structure why do you think that one metal is more active than the other? 5. The Conductivity Indicator that you used in Activity 2 is run with a low voltage current. Why? 6. Will there be a chemical reaction between Cu metal and Zn(NO3)2 solution? Based on your understanding of the Metal Activity Series explain your answer. 7. In the electrolysis of a water solution of NaCl, what would expect to be the product at the negative electrode? Explain your answer. 8. Two carbon electrodes are put into a beaker of CuSO4 solution. If the two electrodes are connected to a battery, describe what may see at the negative electrode. Explain your answer.

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