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Flat Glass Manufacture and Fabrication
Float Glass Process
Æ Inexpensive Æ High Quality
Æ Thermal Performance Æ Windows are as good as walls
Glass Engineering 150:312 Ceramics and Materials Engineering
Professor Richard Lehman CCR-103 School of Engineering
Result: Drastic change in the way we live And the same for automobiles.
Æ First people to realize what could be done with glass when it is hot and plastic. Æ Made vessels for cosmetics and perfumes by forming molten glass around a shaped core.
Æ Window glass processes have all depended on forming a sheet by stretching a lump of molten glass. Æ They all have the characteristics of brilliant fire finish. Æ Three processes - crown, cylinder, and drawn - have been used.
Æ By Roman times glass being blown and molded, cut and engraved, and painted.
Æ Developed by Syrians in 7th Century. Æ Blow bubble- attached iron punty opposite the blow pipe, remove blow pipe, spinning-centrifugal force flattens bubble to circular disk. Æ Most commonly used up to the middle of the 19th century (i.e., mid-1800's). Æ The crown or disk was spun after the initial blowing and shaping stages on the end of an iron rod. Æ Thin, transparent, circular plate of glass - attached at center - result of heat and centrifugal force. Æ Disk diameter size 1.4 meters (55") usual - 1.8 meters (71") maximum. Æ Waste high - cutting square panes from circular disk. Æ Each crown had a bullion in the center where rod was attached.
Æ Main achievements were colored glass windows.
Last 50 to 70 Years
Æ Only then was there any appreciable advances in the development of flat glass for windows.
Only two basic methods of forming flat glass through the ages (prior to float glass):
Æ Window glass processes Æ Plate glass process
ntroduction to Glass Technology
Æ First introduced in 12th or 13th century. Æ Next advance came in mid-19th century. Æ Removed size limitations of crown - could make much bigger panes. Æ Process involved blowing a large cylinder which was allowed to cool before being split and flattened by heavy wood block. Æ Cylinders were blown and then swung in a trench: the cylinder became longer and air was blown into it to maintain its shape. Æ Cylinders usually about 1.6 meters (63") long and 0.3 meters (12") across. Æ Process mechanized somewhat until cylinders up to 4 meters (13') long and 0.6 meters (24") in diameter could be blown.
Æ Sheet or window glass production was first mechanized on a large scale in early 20th century (circa 1903). Æ American Window Glass Company developed method for mechanical blowing of cylinders. Æ Up to 13.4 meters (44') long and 1 meter (40" = 3') diameter. Æ A blowpipe with a flanged metal disk or bait fixed to it, lowered into molten glass
9 9 9 9 bait slowly raised between guiding shafts drawing up a cylinder of glass with it compressed air blown down the pipe, kept diameter constant speed of drawing determined thickness glass lowered to form, split, flattened, and annealed.
Æ Although very large quantities of sheet glass could be produced, quality inconsistent, relatively slow and laborious, considerable waste of time and material. Æ Process was discontinuous, cylinders had to be split and flattened, which was both costly and harmful to the surface. Æ Quality poor
9 gatherer introduced cord and bubble 9 flattening operation introduced surface defects.
Machine Draw Processes
The logical evolution was to draw a flat sheet rather than a cylinder. Fourcault Sheet Draw Process
Æ The modern sheet glass process was first developed by Fourcault circa 1914 in Belgium. Æ Sheet of glass is drawn vertically through a "debiteuse", a refractory block with a slit across its width immersed in the molten glass. Æ Glass rises through the slit under hydrostatic pressure and a bait is used to raise the sheet. Æ Main problem is to prevent "waisting in" - achieved by passing edges of ribbon between cooled rollers. Æ Thickness determined mainly by speed of draw and glass temperature in the drawing kiln.
"debi" had to be replaced every 3 to 4 months.S.54 to 4. Machine Draw Processes Fourcault Process Advantages Æ Machine is relatively simple and the glass is therefore inexpensive.0 meters (8.A.2'). Æ Glass had an “orange-peel” texture on one surface . Machine Draw Processes Colburn Process Æ Running in parallel development with the Fourcault process in Belgium was the Colburn process in the U. Æ Surface of glass has "fire-finish” Æ The fire-finish surface is achieved by letting the glass cool down on its own without touching anything solid while soft. Æ 1916-1917 Libbey-Owens Sheet Glass Co. Installed several machines. Æ Solidified ribbon of glass has a certain amount of distortion that cannot be avoided because of small differences in viscosity due to chemical and thermal inhomogeneities.3 to 13. Æ The thickness of the ribbon of glass drawn is controlled by the viscosity so that even small inhomogeneities cause variations in thickness of the finished sheet. Æ Sheet widths range from 2. the maximum being about 1 meter greater than is possible on the Fourcault process. Æ Process 9 molten glass is cooled in its passage from the melting tank to the drawing chamber 9 reheated for a straight upward pull of about 1 meter 9 subsequent bending over a roller 9 moved horizontally into a lehr. Æ Because of erosion and corrosion.ntroduction to Glass Technology Machine Draw Processes Fourcault Process Disadvantages Æ Because of temperature conditions in drawing chambers and tendency of glass to devitrify. process has to be stopped at frequent intervals and drawing chamber temperatures raised to remove accumulated devitrified glass.
.7') high. Æ Like the Fourcault process. but the debiteuse with its slit is replaced by a submerged refractory slab called a drawbar. converted Fourcault to Asahi Process. W.V. Æ Principal feature is that high quality sheet glass in a wide range of thickness (0. Æ The glass ribbon is drawn freely from the surface of the molten pool with the drawbar allowing more flexible temperature adjustment since it acts as a radiation shield. Æ Width is maintained by knurled water cooled rollers which mark only the edges.Asahi Glass Co.Japan Æ Patent filed 10/20/70. patent issued 6/19/73. Clarksburg.. it is a vertical drawing process.7 to 6 mm) can be produced efficiently through a simple and low-cost remodeling of a Fourcault plant. Æ Pairs of coolers can be inserted on top of each other and this permits a higher working temperature in the channel . Æ Glass flows over both sides and joins together as it is drawn downward.so there is less tendency to devitrify than in the Fourcault Process. Æ Glass at approximately 750o C [1380o F]. purchased by Asahi Glass. Æ Licensed to 13 sheet makers around the world (128 machines). Æ Use for technical sheet glass Æ Modified and used extensively for LCD screens. Machine Draw Processes Asahi Process .ntroduction to Glass Technology Machine Draw Processes Pennvernon (or PPG Process) Æ Developed by PPG Æ Patented in 1926 Æ Generally recognized as the most successful of the sheet drawing processes. Æ West Virginia Sheet Glass. Æ Drawing elements are pair of refractory rollers submerged called A-block and an edge former called Edge-block. Æ Drawn up annealing tower approximately 13 meters (42. production started in 1980. Machine Draw Processes Corning Overflow Process (Down draw process) Æ Glass enters a long narrow trough. .
and then polished. blowing or pulling it. Æ Plate glass had ground and polished sides -. The Development of Plate Glass Table Cast Æ Molten glass was poured onto the table and then rolled by a traveling roller into a plate. ground flat. Æ The window processes also made only a comparatively thin glass.ntroduction to Glass Technology The Development of Plate Glass Glass made by the window processes was it was full of distortion. Æ Annealed. Æ All window methods involved stretching the molten glass whether by spinning. Æ The Plate Process was developed to meet these requirements.no distortion Æ Plate glass was thick and had the necessary strength . and polishing was done with rouge. Æ Results were good. and this stretching converted inhomogeneities into distortion. but process was time-consuming and expensive Coaches and large shop windows required distortion-free glass. Æ Grinding involved several stages using finer and finer sand.
Æ Acknowledged as the final and most remarkable development in the long history of plate glass manufacture.but it was then rolled into a sheet between mechanical rollers. Æ Glass still melted in pots . improvements led to speed of 300 m/h in 1946. Æ Cut glass plates mounted onto a series of tables which moved through the grinders and polishers. where it was shown that glass could be rolled continuously. table dropped into a tunnel and returned to accept another plate of glass.first used in 1935. Continuous Rolled Æ First breakthrough came from Ford in America. Æ A machine that could grind the ribbon of glass on both sides simultaneously as it came out of the annealing lehr before it was cut into plates. Twin Grinding: Æ During the early 1930's. . Æ In the machine a continuous ribbon of glass about 300 meters long was ground on both surfaces at the same time with enormous grinding wheels fed with progressively finer sand. rather than being cast onto a table and then rolled. The Development of Plate Glass Continuous Grinding and Polishing: Æ In 1923 Pilkington introduced the first continuous grinding and polishing machine. Æ Pilkington developed a process that successfully combined a continuous melting furnace with the continuous rolling of a ribbon of glass. Æ Process speed started at 66 m/h. at end of process.ntroduction to Glass Technology The Development of Plate Glass Bicheroux Process Æ Introduced in 1920's (just after 1st World War). developed by Pilkington . Æ Made smoother sheet with a consequent saving in time and material in the grinding process.
Æ James Hartley developed a method for patent rolled plate glass in 1847. Sheet Glass-(Window Glass) Æ Was inexpensive Æ Could make glass which retained its natural brilliance without the need for grinding and polishing. Æ Glass ladled straight from melting pot onto casting table and rolled flat (also a pattern could be engraved on the table and transferred to the glass on rolling). . Æ Hartley had eliminated the stage of refining the glass (in a cuvette) before pouring it. but Æ glass wastage was 20% of production. and when colored. Æ high capital and operating costs. Æ A second pair of rollers impressed a pattern on one side of the sheet after it had been formed by the first pair of rollers. Æ Hartley's glass was translucent. Æ Filled a need for a strong.ntroduction to Glass Technology Patterned and Wire Glass Table Cast Æ Developed along similar lines as plate glass. less so in USA Æ Pattern glass manufacturing continues by roll processing Æ Some secondary patterning of float glass The Transition to Float Glass Plate Glass Æ Met all demands for thick and thin distortion-free windows. but: Æ Could not make the high quality products free from distortion Dream: Æ Combine the best of the two. and as a result was able to patent the process although it was just like plate otherwise. loss from grinding and polishing. Æ Make glass with fire polish inexpensively and with the distortion-free quality of polished plate. Æ Dream achieved in 1959 with the commercialization of the Float process. Æ Wire glass was developed later 9 Catastrophic failure protection 9 Still used widely today as security glass Patterned and Wire Glass Rolled and Continuous Rolled: Æ By 1884 double roller machines were in use. but not transparent. Æ Pattern glass very popular in Europe. was in great demand for churches. cheap product for skylights and for roofing railway stations. Æ Developments of this double rolling machine continued to be used until the 1950's when the continuous casting process (for plate) quickly led to continuous rolling of patterned and wired glasses.
barriers. Æ Equilibrium thickness of glass-ribbon is 7 mm. Æ Key to patent: glass delivery and wetback area. Problem: stationary glass in melter and forehearths below Tliq .ntroduction to Glass Technology The Transition to Float Glass Float Process Description Æ A continuous ribbon of glass moves out of the melting furnace and flows along the surface of an enclosed bath of molten tin. 104 poise. edge rolls and top rolls control ribbon position Æ The glass ribbon. Æ Ribbon is held in chemically controlled atmosphere at a high enough temperature for a long enough time for the irregularities to melt out and for the surfaces to become flat and parallel. Key Issues in Flat Glass Processing Defect origins: tank. forming process Glass surface contact Æ Fire polish. the greater the chance of devitrification Æ must avoid for product quality issues The Float Process Æ Conditioned glass falls freely over spout lip onto molten tin bath Æ Flat bath is steel casing lined with refractories Æ Nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere prevents oxidation Æ Temperature profile is maintained in the bath by radiant heaters and water coolers Æ Guides. is taken off the tin bath and travels to a horizontal annealing lehr Æ Entrance temperature is 1050o . so is the glass. crystals start to grow spontaneously (devitrification) Æ the greater the time spent by the glass under Tliq. Exit temperature is 600o . Æ A ribbon is produced with a uniform thickness and bright fire polished surfaces with no need for grinding and polishing. Æ Ribbon is then cooled while on the molten tin until the surfaces are rigid. when sufficiently cool. where it eventually is cut off. roll or float Æ Cool to freeze in new geometry Principal Forming Forces Æ Viscosity/gravity Æ Traction Æ Friction Æ Surface tension Key Issues in Flat Glass Processing Each process has optimum forming viscosity (and temperature) Liquidus temperature Æ below Tliq. forming machinery. Thin skin of glass that has passed over refractory flows preferentially outward and ends up in outer border of ribbon. liquidus is 995o C. handle when cool or by edges for drawn glass Æ Smooth metal rollers for rolled glass Æ Float on molten tin for float glass Forming Æ Draw. 1011 poise. Æ Because the surface of the molten tin is flat.
Æ DROSS: Solubility of oxygen in tin increases with temperature. On reheating for bending or tempering this can oxidize to give a wrinkled surface with a bluish haze.0 . Horizontal Ribbon -Annealing.4-30 mm Æ Widths to 3. Æ Nevertheless. which is precipitated as stannic oxide dross at the cold end.ntroduction to Glass Technology Typical Float Furnace Parameters Area: Pull: Pull/Area: Salt Cake: Hot Spot: Backwall: Difference: Redox Number: 165 m2 [1777 ft2] 500 tonnes/day 3 tonnes/m2 1.30 FLOAT GLASS PROCESS Float glass advantages High Optical Quality Æ No waviness Æ Fire polished surface Æ Thickness range 0.7% of sand 1620o C 1480o C 140o C 20 . increasing the tin vapor pressure.2. UV fluorescence. At the hot end tin dissolves oxygen. a protective atmosphere is used [N2. H2]. the bath is sealed. color changes are still inefficient Oxygen Cycle Æ To prevent tin oxidation. Æ Tin speck: tin compounds condense on the cooler parts of the bath roof and fall onto the ribbon. but High Capital Costs .5 m Æ Capacity 150-700 tons/day The Tin Bath Tin is the only suitable material based on: Æ Cost Æ Vapor pressure Æ Toxicity Æ Chemical inertness to glass Æ Commercial grade Efficient Process Æ Couples well to melting furnace Æ Ribbon width can be set to match product requirements Æ Only waste is 5 cm strip on ribbon edges Æ But. Cutting and Handling Simplified Low Labor Requirements. The dross floats on the tin under the glass ribbon. Æ TIN BLOOM: Bottom of glass ribbon takes up thin layer of stannous oxide. some oxygen can enter the bath.
5 6.5 9.9 x 10-2 55 1.6 x 10-3 7.1 5. Æ Hydrogen reduces it to tin Æ Tin condenses and drops onto the glass surface.9 6.ntroduction to Glass Technology The Tin Bath Sulfur Cycle Æ Sulfur is extracted from the glass and vaporizes as tin sulfide.8 10.5 0.9 x 10-4 Remedies Æ reduce sulfur in glass compositions Æ minimize cold surface availability by proper bath roof design Æ remove tin sulfide from vapor Volatilization of Oxygen and Sulfur from Dilute Solutions In Tin Impurity in tin none oxygen sulfur Main component of vapor tin stannous oxide stannous sulfide 1000 ppm by weight 1000 ppm by weight Tin in saturated Vapor at 1027 [mg/m 3] 0.1 27 7.5 9.9 16 1.3 3 100 Flat Glass Fabrication Flat glass products and their application in architecture and automotives . Criteria Determining the Choice of A Support Metal for the Float Bath Melting point C Required value bismuth gallium indium lithium lead thallium tin <600 271 30 156 179 328 303 232 Boiling point C >1050 1680 2420 2075 1329 1740 1460 2623 Estimated Density at 1050 C [g/cc] >2.5 Vapor Pressure at 1027 C [torr] <0.
room-temperature 9 These are high performance coatings 9 Large capital expense for Leybold-Heraeus equipment.500 psi 9 (Edge Compression not in standard) Chemically strengthening Æ Ion exchange between small sodium ions and larger potassium ions Æ Performed in a molten salt bath Æ Applications 9 Thin glass (less than 1/8") 9 Cannot be strengthened by thermal tempering. Æ Heat-Strengthened 9 Surface Compression 3.000 psi or more 9 Edge Compression 9.500 to 7. Atoms are ejected and land on glass. or equiv. Æ Enameling 9 Spandrel 9 Decorative 9 Industrial . Line of sight. medium performance. durable.ntroduction to Glass Technology Single Lite Processes Coatings Heat Treating Æ Fully Tempered 9 Surface Compression 10. Æ Sputtered 9 Ar+ ions hit a negatively charged target of coating material. 9 Planar-magnetron sputtering 9 Vacuum.700 psi or more Single Lite Processes Æ Pyrolytic 9 Fired coating applied during manufacturing or in a tempering oven 9 Hard.
Water Jet 9 Manual. Single Lite Processes Other Unit Operations Æ Bending 9 Annealed 9 Heat-treated Æ Edge Work 9 Grinding 9 Polishing Æ Cutting --Rectangles. etc. Patterns Double Pane Insulating Glass [IG] Units Air or gas gap for thermal isolation For 6 mm glass. Other shapes 9 Conventional vs. Æ Air vs. Slots Multi-Lite Processes Laminating . Applied Argon Bending . Quad. Automated. Computer Æ Drilling . but more expensive Glass Good seal required to retain argon Aluminum tube spacer Desiccant beads (alumina) in aluminum spacer channel remove Polysulfide moisture Polyurethane Hot melt butyl Seal failure is fatal. Notches.Holes.Double.Colors.ntroduction to Glass Technology Tinting of Glass with Films Films can: • Cut 12% to 93% of the incoming light • Eliminate 99% of ultraviolet • Cut up to 76% of the solar heat gain • Apply to #2 surface. Insulating Glass [IG] Units . typically 12 mm gap Argon gas is a better insulator than air. Insulating Desiccant [Molecular sieve] .Glass-Glass Æ PVB Æ Resin Æ Glass-Polycarbonate Æ Artistic. Gas filled Æ Films -. Pictures. Triple. Circles.Suspended.Laminated.
Surfaces #2 and #3 are 1 retained in pristine 2 state. Glass for Commercial and Residential Architecture Vision Glass Æ Color 9 clear 9 tint 9 reflective Æ Security 9 bullet-resisting 9 detention/prison glazing Interior of Building Æ Thermal Performance 9 9 9 9 insulating glass units low-E coatings reflective coatings films Æ Fire Rated 9 Wired Glass 9 Low Expansion transparent Ceramics 9 Gels 9 Laminates Æ Acoustical Performance 9 insulating glass units 9 laminated glass Æ Safety Glazing Codes 9 Fully tempered 9 laminated 9 films . must be durable. e. but can weather.ntroduction to Glass Technology Double Pane Insulating Units Triple Pane Insulating Units Double seal construction Third pane provides greater insulation Surface reflections are 50% higher Principally used in cold climates. 3 #2 & #3 add strength 4 and are useful for fragile coatings. Coatings applied to Exterior of this surface give Building maximum visual impact. Double seal for enhanced unit integrity Polyisobutylene Primary Seal Argon Butyl Rubber [Hot melt] Secondary Seal Surface Identification in Architectural Units #1 Surface faces the exterior. Canada and Scandinavia.g.
applied New Products and Trends Æ Electrically-heated windshield Æ Head-up display Æ Encapsulation Æ Larger. polished. advertising.ground.suspended.non-stick coatings Æ Glass walls can be used to create images -decorative. beveled. logos . base glasses and/or coatings Æ Self-cleaning . Solvent-based adhesive Æ 2nd surface only Duranar DTG Æ Duranar paint colors baked on Æ Intermediate strength Æ 1st or 2nd surface Automotive Products Automotive Æ Tempered Æ Laminated Æ Heat-Strengthened Æ Silk-screened Æ Coatings Æ Films New Architectural Products Switchable Glazings (Variable light transmission) Æ Liquid crystal laminates Æ Suspended particle displays Æ Electrochromics Æ Photochromics Improved Thermal Performance Æ Lower emissivity pyrolytic coatings Æ New spacer materials for insulating glass units Æ Aero-gels .ntroduction to Glass Technology Glass for Commercial and Residential Architecture Spandrel Glass (Non-vision areas) Æ Ceramic frit 9 Fired-on Lead or Lead-free 9 Can apply to any surface Glass for Commercial and Residential Architecture Mirrors Æ Wet-chemical deposition Æ Sputtered Æ Transparent (2-way) mirrors Æ Silicone Paint-Water-based 9 9 9 9 Drying oven Many colors Soft 2nd surface only Decorative Æ Sand-blasted Æ Chemical etching Æ Colored Æ Leaded Æ Edge work . shapes Æ Glue chip Æ Molded Æ Coatings Opacifiers Æ Polyethylene Æ Polyester Æ Water-based adhesive vs. complicated shapes Æ Color coordinated glass parts Æ Moisture sensing windshields Aesthetics Æ More color selection.transparent insulating materials Æ Films .
Vari-Tran. Gray.g r e e n Su perG ray V is t e o n [F o r d ] -V e r s a lu x B ron ze V e r s a lu x G ray V e r s a lu x G reen V e r s a lu x G ray 2000 V e r s a lu x B lu e V e r s a lu x B lu e 2 0 0 0 G u a r d ia n C le a r B ronze G ray G reen -- AFG C le a r B ron ze G ray G reen -- C a r d in a l C le a r ----- PPG Solarcool [Bronze. Evergreen. Green] RC [Blue. Gray. Solarscreen) Vacuum coating SG SG Electro-float SG DG .USA Coating Type Reflective PPG C le a r S o la r b r o n z e S o la r g r a y S o le x G r a y lit e 1 4 O p t ig r a y 2 3 LOF C le a r B ro n ze G ray B lu e . Low-E. Azurlite] LOF Eclipse [Clear. Gold] Visteon [Ford] Versalux [Bronze. Perform. B1200T AFG B lu e A z u r lit e A r c t ic B lu e -- -- -- Low E ---C r y sta l C le a r --- Sungate 500 Solarban 55 D ark G reen W a te r W h it e S o la r g r e e n S t a r p h ir e E vergreen O p t iw h it e V e r s a lu x G reen 2000 -- Energy Advantage. Blue-Green. Blue. Bronze. 100T Solarban 60 Solarban 60T Performance Plus. Solar E Comfort-E Comfort-E2 Sputter Coated Architectural Glass Products -. Graylite.USA G la s s T ype C le a r B ro n ze G ray G reen B la c k Pyrolytic Architectural Glass Products -.USA Coating Type Reflective Light and Solar Transmission and Reflectance of Selected Products Process Body Tint Single or Glass Double SG Antisun Green SG SG DG DG DG Wet Process DG Antisun Bronze Antisun Gray Antisun Green Antisun Bronze Antisun Gray PPG Solarban 550-20 Clear Reflectafloat Reflectafloat Glaverbel Stopsol Glaverbel Stopsol Suncool Silver 20/34 Suncool blue 30/39 Spectrafloat Spectrafloat Light Trans 75 50 41 65 44 36 20 Light Reflect 6 5 5 10 7 6 18 Solar Heat Trans 46 44 44 36 34 34 15 Solar Heat Reflect 5 5 5 6 7 7 15 PPG Guardian Reflective Sun-Guard (Clear. Arctic Blue. Green) AFG HiPerformance Cardinal Low-E Sungate 100. Plus HT Comfort-ES Comfort-Ti LoE 178 LoE 172 LoE 145 Pyrolitic SG DG SG DG 33 29 42 38 20 30 51 44 43 43 32 34 23 16 10 12 43 34 50 42 16 21 54 42 28 29 26 29 18 18 10 12 Fabricators who sputter coat: Interpane (Reflective. Green] 2000R.ntroduction to Glass Technology Uncoated Architectural Glass Products -. Gray. Iplus) Viracon (Reflective and Low-E.
multiple silver layers (double silver) Æ Pyrolytic coating 9 Applied by manufacturer in tin bath or just after 9 Tin CPSC: Consumer Products Safety Commission Æ Northern areas: put on #3 surface to keep heat in Æ Southern areas: put on #2 surface to keep heat out .ntroduction to Glass Technology US Glass Standards/Specifications Annealed Glass Æ ASTM C 1036-91 (Reapproved 1997). Æ ASTM E774. Inc. ASCE: American Society for 345 East 47th Street New York. NY 10036 PH: 212 6424900 FX: 212 398-0023 Notes Æ Abs=Emiss.) Æ ASTM E 6.Kind HS.1 . Broward and Palm Beach Counties in Florida) Æ SBCCI Standard for Windborne Debris Impact Tests (Southern Building Code Congress International. 1-e=Reflection Æ Highly reflecting glasses Æ Convective gas kilns better for Low E glass 9 heat by conduction 9 Low E film makes heating more difficult. Standard Specification for Heat-Treated Flat Glass . and Fully Tempered Flat Glass Insulating Glass Æ ASTM E-773.51. Standard Test Method for Non-Destructive Photoelastic Measurement of Edge and Surface Stresses in Annealed. Standard Specification for Pyrolytic and Vacuum Deposition Coatings on Glass Impact (Dade.C. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures Reflective Glass Æ ASTM C 1376-97. 13~ Floor New York. NY 10017-2398 Civil Engineers PH: 212 705-7496 FX: 212 355-0608 ASTM -. 20207 PH: 301 504 0400 FX: 301 504-0124 Far IR reflective Æ wavelength of body [37 C] and home Æ Thin silver coating -. Standard Specification for Architectural Flat Glass Clad Polycarbonate Design Loads Æ ASCE 7-95. durability layer. PA 19428-2959 PH: 610 832-9500 FX: 610 832-9555 Division of Regulatory Management Washington.sputtered 9 Andersen [cardinal] sputter coats 9 Mutiple layers (10-12). Standard Specification for Laminated Architectural Flat Glass Safety Glazing Æ CPSC 16CFR1201.1984 (R1994) Standard for Safety Glazing Materials Used in Building -Safety Performance Specification and Methods of Test Glass Clad Polycarbonate Æ ASTM C 1349-96. Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units Industry Association Address Listings Low Emissivity ANSI: American National Standards Institute 11 West 42nd Street. Kind FT Coated and Uncoated Glass Glass Strength Æ ASTM E 1300-97. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Surface Stress Measuring Devices Fully Tempered and Heat-Strengthened Glass Æ ASTM C 1048-97b.American Society for Testing and Materials 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken. D. Standard Test Method for Seal Durability of Sealed Insulating Glass Units. Safety Standard for Architectural Glazing Materials Æ ANSI Z97. Standard Specification for Flat Glass US Glass Standards/Specifications Calibration of Stress Equipment Æ ASTM C 1377-97. Heat-Strengthened.17 Task Groups Stress Measurement Æ ASTM C 1279-94. Standard Practice for Determining the Minimum Thickness and Type of Glass Required to Resist a Specified Load Laminated Glass Æ ASTM C 1172-96.
less heat enters Æ Solar heat gain 9 Energy entering structure 9 I/Io Low-Emissivity Window Coatings? Oxides Single-layer conducting oxide coating (gray) Metals Double metal layer (green) Single metal layer (red). Advanced Coatings for Window Glass .ntroduction to Glass Technology Notes Near IR reflectance Æ Heat from sun Æ Need high index. UV cure from UCB Æ Autoclave PVB film Coil of Al or Fe Form spacer Add desiccant Seal Glass Stock Size Æ 130" x 204" standard Performance Parameters Æ U Value 9 Low value corresponds to highly insulating 9 =1/R Æ Shading Coefficient -. 6 mm glass.75.Measurement of heat entry 9 3 mm glass with 85% transmission =1 9 Others scaled. TiO2 Notes Intercept IG System Æ Æ Æ Æ Laminating Æ Resin process. perhaps 0. high reflectivity.
value of product sales in 1993 (1993 $M) Incr.400 Carbon dioxide emissions avoided in 2015 (million tons/year) Sulfur dioxide emissions avoided in 2015 (thousand tons/year) Nitrogen oxide emissions avoided in 2015 (thousand tons/year) 71 157 142 . 9Best performance coatings Low-Emissivity Window Coatings MARKET IMPACTS Total R&D Investment (current $ millions) Product market share in 1993 (% of units sold) Product market share in 2015 (% of units sold) Incr. present value in 1993 dollars) Value of energy savings "in the bank" as of year-end 1993 Lifetime value of savings for technologies installed through 1993 Lifetime value of savings for technologies installed through 2015 Value of annual energy savings in 2015 NET present value of technologies installed through 1993 NET present value of technologies installed through 2015 $760 $6.300 $37. can be sputtered or applied by sol-gel.300 $400 $17. Low-Emissivity Window Coatings Low-Emissivity Window Coatings ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS CONSUMER BENEFITS ($ millions.ntroduction to Glass Technology Window Coatings – Energy Ratings Soft Coatings 9Applied after manufacture.000 $5. value of product sales in 2015 (1993 $M) $3 36% 79% $630 $1100 Hard Coatings 9Applied by fusing metal oxide to hot glass during manufacture 9Tough enough for exposed surfaces Heat Mirror 9Proprietary product applied to thin polyester sheet 9Suspended between to panes in IG unit.
Low-Emissivity Window Coatings One class of high-T. the reflectance of very thin films (10-20 nm) can be suppressed by thin-film interference effects. Unlike insulated walls. Some coatings are designed to admit solar near IR (NIR) to help heat a building in a cold climate Some coatings are designed to reflect the NIR back in a warm climate. These coatings can be made highly transparent to visible radiation. hence low e. Another class comprises very thin films of noble metals. especially in cold climates. and lighting required to compensate for the effect of windows. especially silver.ntroduction to Glass Technology Low-Emissivity Window Coatings Before 1973. low-e materials consists of doped oxides of tin or indium. Adjusting the dopant level can tune the wavelength cutoff between transmittance and reflectance. cooling. Introduced in 1981. optimal windows can accept solar gain and hence provide net heating. Advances in window technology have substantially reduced those losses and have the potential to make windows net sources rather than sinks of energy. but remain reflective in the NIR. in the thermal infrared (IR) High transmittance (T) in the visible. Adding dielectric layers to the front and back of the metal layer thus reduces the reflectance of the thin film for a limited range of wavelengths. which at their best prevent the outward flow of heat. which are wide bandgap semiconductors. . Market share approximately 35% of sales Generated gas savings that are equivalent in energy to onehalf the output of oil in Prudhoe Bay. Low-Emissivity Window Coatings High reflectance. nearly 5% of the national energy consumption was attributed to windows heating. Although thick films of silver are highly reflective. Low-Emissivity Window Coatings Optimum energy conservation results from combined effort 9Multiple panes 9Low conductance gas fill 9Insulating frames Electrochromic glass coatings 9Properties of coating can be changed to meet time of day needs Cost reductions needed in manufacturing to extend use.
ntroduction to Glass Technology .
heat is desired. for example 9Less than 0. 9Less than 0.75 in Florida and Texas. .ntroduction to Glass Technology Window Coatings – Energy Ratings U-factor 9Identifies the insulating performacne of the window 9Department of Energy [DOE] specifies performance.6 – 0.40 or lower 9In northern states. 0. Maine & Montana Window Coatings – Energy Ratings Visible transmittance 9Specifies the fraction of visible light passing through window 9Usually want 60 – 80% [0.35 in the North. should be low.8] Solar heat gain coefficient [SHGC] 9In southern states. can be much higher.
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