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Sternberg, a well-known figure in the research of human intelligence. Human intelligence is “ mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of real-world environments relevant to one’s life” (Sternberg, 1985, p. 45), which means that intelligence is how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg fought his first IQ test as a young elementary student. By his own story, he lost (Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000). A victim of test anxiety, he was saddled with a low IQ score early in school. His teachers read his test score and for the first three years of his school life expected little of him. It was only the intervention of a fourth grade teacher who disregarded tests that set him on the path to achievement. Sternberg’s theory comprises three parts: componential/analytical intelligence, experiential/ creative intelligence and practical/contextual.
Analytical thinking focuses on planning, monitoring, reflection, and transfer. Sternberg believes that Analytical Intelligence is based on connected operations of metacomponents, performance components and knowledge acquisition components of intelligence. Metacomponents control, monitor and evaluate cognitive processing. These are the select functions that command and organize performance and knowledge acquisition components. Metacomponents are used to analyze problems and pick a strategy for solving them and the performance components actually do it. Performance Components carry out strategies assembled by the metacomponents. They are the primary operations involved in any cognitive act. They are the cognitive processes that enable us to encode stimuli, hold information in shortterm memory, make calculations, perform mental calculations, mentally compare different stimuli and retrieve information from long-term memory. Knowledge acquisition components are the processes used in gaining and storing new knowledge - i.e. capacity for learning. The
or shape their environment. In . People with this type of intelligence can adapt to. There are two broad classes of abilities associated with creative intelligence: novelty skills and automation skills. Practical Intelligence can be said to be intelligence that operates in the real world. p. however unclear or subconscious they may be. it reflects how an individual connects the internal world to external reality. This means that intelligence is indicated by one's attempts to adapt to one's environment. It is also known as “Street-smarts”.strategies you use to help memorize things represent the processes that fall into this category.271).wilderdom. more intelligent individuals will move from consciously learning in a new situation to automating the new learning so that they can attend to other tasks. This aspect of intelligence reflects how the individual relates the external world to him or her. shaping of. According to Sternberg. The Creative component is the ability which allows people to think creatively and adjust creatively and effectively to new situations. This is the experiential aspect of intelligence. New tasks or situations are good measures of intellectual ability because they assess an individual's ability to apply existing knowledge to new problems. Sternberg states that Intelligence is: "Purposive adaptation to.com/personality/L2-2SternbergTriarchicTheory. 1984.html) Creative Intelligence involves insights. (http://www.html) Practical Intelligence involves the ability to grasp. Purposive means that intelligence is directed towards goals.wilderdom. A task measures intelligence if it requires the ability to deal with new demands or the ability to automate information processing. and selection of real-world environments relevant to one's life" (Sternberg. (http://www. understand and deal with everyday tasks. synthesis and the ability to react to new situations and stimuli.com/personality/L2-2SternbergTriarchicTheory.
but lacks substance in thinking. but doesn't easily communicate these ideas to others. . the creative practitioner and the consummate balancer. regardless whether those ideas are worth it or not. The Analytical Practitioner succeeds in conventional terms because high IQ is translated into practical work.measuring this aspect. the analytical creator. differentiating seven types: the analyzer. but is unable to analyze these ideas or put them into practice. mental skills attitudes and emotional factors are influential in measuring intelligence. The Analyzer manages well in academic environments. and is therefore in the best position to make a valuable contribution to society. the creator. The Consummate Balancer is able to apply all of the three intelligences as needed. The Analytical Creator is able to analyze created ideas. the analytical practitioner. but isn't likely to be very creative. The Creative Practitioner has the ability to come up with new ideas and can persuade other people of the value of these ideas. Aware that most people may differ in their general ability to use the three intelligences. Sternberg later on developed a typology of people based on his theory. The Creator produces ideas easily. The Practitioner is persuasive and may be entertaining. the practitioner. but he is unlikely to make a lasting contribution.
Student A will have developed more "S". that is. 1863-1945) was a British psychologist noted for his studies of intelligence and human skills. Even though Spearman mentions an “s” factor. The idea is that this underlying general intelligence influences performance on all cognitive tasks. A person could potentially be very intelligent in one mental function area but score very low in a different one. Spearman identifies one area of intelligence. and there was the "S" which represents a number of specific abilities. if two students (A and B) are learning to drive a car and student A is offered 10 hours of practice time. also known as g factor. but not others. There was the "G" which was for general intelligence. Therefore by judging "g" factors instead the test would overlap multiple mental function areas and thus come up with a more generalized measure of the whole mind. "S" factors on the other hand only show how intelligent the individual is in a specific mental function. an individual develops specific intelligence with personal experience.Charles Edward Spearman (London. General intelligence. refers to the existence of a general intelligence that influences performance on mental ability measures. For example. to be necessarily intelligent as per his definition of the sense of the word. the “g” factor or general intelligence factor. this doesn't mean student A is smarter than B. . while student B is offered 2 hours of practice time. Spearman developed a two-factor theory of intelligence. To Spearman. it is probable that student A will perform better when driving skills are tested. it is clear that he does not believe that persons who are intelligent in specific tasks. Spearman believed that intelligence can be measured and expressed by a single number. the specific skill for driving. such as an IQ score. According to Spearman. Unlike Sternberg who identified three areas of intelligence.
They do not provide the kind of measurement of intelligence that tape measures provide of height. Sternberg however. and nothing more.Subject A just has more experience. Sternberg has criticized IQ tests. identified individuals to be intellectual in three different areas and also identified that an individual can be intellectual in two or even all three of these areas. In contrast to Sternberg. Spearman had high regards for the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test. An intelligent person as per Spearman’s definition is one who is intellectual in all areas." . saying they are "convenient partial operationalizations of the construct of intelligence.
the ability to learn languages. and language as a means to remember information. and the final two are what Howard Gardner called 'personal intelligences' (Gardner 1999: 41-43). and appreciation of musical patterns. This intelligence includes the ability to effectively use language to express oneself rhetorically or poetically.Howard Gardner initially formulated a list of seven intelligences known as Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory. and investigate issues scientifically. (2) People have a unique blend of intelligences. Logical-mathematical intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze problems logically. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. lawyers and speakers are among those that Howard Gardner sees as having high linguistic intelligence. interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence. In essence Howard Gardner argued that he was making two essential claims about multiple intelligences: (1) the theory is an account of human cognition in its fullness. tones. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches. In Howard Gardner's words. Howard Gardner argues that the big challenge facing the deployment of human resources 'is how to best take advantage of the uniqueness conferred on us as a species exhibiting several intelligences' (ibid. carry out mathematical operations. poets. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. composition. Writers. musical intelligence. and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals. the next three are usually associated with the arts. .: 45). The first two have been typically valued in schools. cognitively speaking' (Gardner 1999: 44). The seven domains of intelligence are: linguistic intelligence. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance. The intelligences provided 'a new definition of human nature. logical-mathematical intelligence. reason deductively and think logically. spatial intelligence. it entails the ability to detect patterns. Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to spoken and written language.
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. In Howard Gardner's view it involves having an effective working model of ourselves. and highly critiqued standardized testing of intelligence. motivations and desires of other people.and rhythms. Both theories are similar in that they argue that intelligence is culturally and contextually determined. musical intelligence. It allows people to work effectively with others. spatial intelligence. fears and motivations. . salespeople. Interpersonal intelligence is concerned with the capacity to understand the intentions. Intrapersonal intelligence entails the capacity to understand oneself. interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence. Educators. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the potential of using one's whole body or parts of the body to solve problems. Sternberg’s theory is more of a cognitive approach than Gardner’s. According to Howard Gardner musical intelligence runs in an almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. Both theories are also similar in that they oppose traditional concepts that intelligence is unitary. and to be able to use such information to regulate our lives. to appreciate one's feelings. Spatial intelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space and more confined areas. Sternberg identifies three types of intelligence: analytical. creative and practical whereas Gardner identifies seven domains of intelligence: linguistic intelligence. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements. Howard Gardner sees mental and physical activity as related. logical-mathematical intelligence. religious and political leaders and counsellors all need a well-developed interpersonal intelligence.
cannot be thoroughly defined by any one definition. Emotional Intelligence however. Solvey and Mayer did the majority of the research in the Ability Based Model. understand. This person can use their varying moods to the best advantage for completing required tasks. there are three main models of Emotional Intelligence: The Ability Emotional Intelligence Model. People high in emotional intelligence are more in touch with their feelings and the feelings of others. express. A general definition of emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive. and regulate emotions. understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth.” This model proposes four main types of emotional abilities: Emotional Perception. the Trait Emotional Intelligence Model and the Mixed Emotional Intelligence Model. . Emotional Use is the ability to use emotions in order to perform cognitive activities. Emotional Perception is an individual’s ability to recognize his own emotions as well as to understand the emotions expressed in faces.The earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be traced to Charles Darwin. integrate emotion to facilitate thought. Emotional Understanding and Emotional Management. Currently. Someone with high Emotional Intelligence can use their emotions in order to help them think through a situation. There have been several models put forward in an attempt to fully describe and define Emotional Intelligence. Solvey and Mayer describe Emotional Intelligence as “the ability to perceive emotion. voices and pictures. This is the basic skill in Emotional Intelligence because an individual cannot manage emotions without first perceiving them. Emotional Use.
This model involves a range of competencies which are broken down into skill sets and which together form a person’s level of Emotional Intelligence. It is the most widely accepted and used model of Emotional Intelligence today.Emotional Understanding is the ability to perceive the shades of emotion that exist and how different emotions interact with each other. It proposes that people have a number of emotional self perceptions and emotional traits. Self Management. . Goleman proposed that these competencies are not innate. These traits are not measured scientifically. Self Awareness involves knowing how we feel in the moment and having a realistic understanding of our own abilities in order to help decision making. Accurate Self Assessment and Self Confidence. but are developed over time. The person with a high level of this ability can harness positive or negative emotions and manage them in a way that facilitates the completions of required tasks. Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence competencies are: Self Awareness. For example. many persons express anger or get angry when they are hurt or sad. The Trait Model of Emotional Intelligence marks a break from the idea that Emotional Intelligence is ability-based. Characteristics of Self Awareness include Emotional Self Awareness. Emotional Management is the ability to self regulate emotions and to regulate emotions in others. Social Awareness and Social Skills. The Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence was most famously described by Daniel Goleman. but by the individual’s report on his or her own traits. Emotional Understanding also includes comprehension of how emotions may evolve across a period of time.
Adaptability. Understanding Emotional Intelligence can prove to be very beneficial to relationships with our significant other providing that individuals act on these understandings. Communication. Social Awareness involves sensing what others are feeling. Understanding Emotional Intelligence can also be beneficial in that we may be able to control our emotions and not have our emotions control us. being able to read the complexity of social interactions. Self Management involves handling our own emotions so that it does not interfere but facilitate happenings in our lives. being able to interact well in social settings and managing these connections for the use of these connections may arise. For example. If we can detect a person’s emotion and understand why that person is feeling a certain emotion. adapting to new environments or situations and translating our goals into action. Characteristics of Social Skills include Influence. Characteristics of Social Awareness include Empathy. Social Skills involve handling emotions in respect to relationships with other people. and being able to use these skills to influence. then we can work on resolving whatever the conflict is. Teamwork and Collaboration.Characteristics of Self Management include Self Control. Achievement Orientation and Initiative. negotiate and lead. Conflict Management. Leadership. the individual will be able to control his/her anger and not have any outbursts . persuade. if an individual’s significant other has done or said something to make that individual angry. Developing Others. It also involves having the ability to delay gratification in pursuit of a goal. Building Bonds. Worthiness. recovering well from emotional distress. Conscientiousness. being able to understand situations from others’ perspective and investing in relationships with a variety of people. Organisational Awareness and Service Orientation.
or make any rash decisions in his fit of anger. sad etc. Another benefit of Emotional Intelligence is that we can understand what makes the people in our lives upset and therefore avoid doing things to hurt them. distressed. . A fourth benefit is that we can try to regulate the emotions of our significant other if he/she is angry.
com/od/cognitivepsychology/p/intelligence.wikipedia.htm http://www.html http://www.org/wiki/Triarchic_theory_of_intelligence http://www.php http://www.com/personality/L2-2SternbergTriarchicTheory.htm http://en.com/biografia/s/spearman.com/about/emotional-intelligence.biografiasyvidas.html .html http://psychology.tecweb.wilderdom.org/wiki/Emotional_intelligence http://en.org/styles/gardner.about.BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.wikipedia.talentsmart.gigers.com/matthias/gifted/sternberg.
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