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The Exponential Form of a Complex Number

Introduction

10.3

In this block we introduce a third way of expressing a complex number: the exponential form. We shall discover, through the use of the complex number notation, the intimate connection between the exponential function and the trigonometric functions. We shall also see, using the exponential form that certain calculations, particularly multiplication and division of complex numbers, are even easier than when expressed in polar form. The exponential form of a complex number is in widespread use in engineering and science.

x be able to convert from degrees to radians

Prerequisites
Before starting this Block you should . . .

y understand how to use the Cartesian and polar forms of a complex number z be familiar with the hyperbolic functions cosh x and sinh x

Learning Outcomes
 understand the relations between the exponential function ex and the trigonometric functions cos x, sin x  interchange between Cartesian, polar and exponential forms of a complex number  understand the relation between hyperbolic and trigonometric functions

Learning Style

After completing this Block you should be able To achieve what is expected of you . . . to . . .  allocate sucient study time

 briey revise the prerequisite material  attempt every guided exercise and most of the other exercises

1. Series Expansions for Exponential and Trigonometric Functions


We have, so far, considered two ways of representing a complex number: z = a + ib or z = r(cos + i sin ) Polar form In this block we introduce a third way of denoting a complex number: the exponential form. If x is a real number then, as we shall verify in Block 16, the exponential number e raised to the power x can be written as a series of powers of x: ex = 1 + x + x2 x3 x4 + + + ... 2! 3! 4! Cartesian form

in which n! = n(n 1)(n 2) . . . (3)(2)(1) is the factorial of the integer n. Although there are an innite number of terms on the right-hand side, in any practical calculation we would only use a nite number. For example if we choose x = 1 (and taking only six terms) then e1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 + + + 2! 3! 4! 5! = 2 + 0.5 + 0.16666 + 0.04166 + 0.00833 = 2.71666

which is close to the accurate value of e = 2.71828 (to 5d.p.) x2 x3 We ask the reader to accept that ex , for any value of x, is the same as 1 + x + + + ... 2! 3! x and that if we wish to calculate e for a particular value of x we will only take a nite number of terms in the series. Obviously the more terms we take in any particular calculation the more accurate will be our calculation. As we shall also see in Block 16, similar series expressions exist for the trigonometric functions sin x and cos x: x 3 x5 x7 sin x = x + + ... 3! 5! 7! x2 x 4 x 6 cos x = 1 + + ... 2! 4! 6! in which x is measured in radians. The observant reader will see that these two series for sin x and cos x are similar to the series x for e . Through the use of the symbol i (= 1) we will examine this close correspondence. In the series for ex replace x on both left-hand and right-hand sides by i to give: ei = 1 + (i) + (i)2 (i)3 (i)4 (i)5 + + + + ... 2! 3! 4! 5!

Then, as usual, replace every occurrence of i2 by (1) to give 2 3 4 5 i + + i + ... 2! 3! 4! 5! which, when re-organised into real and imaginary terms gives, nally: ei = 1 + i e i = 2 4 3 5 + ... + i + ... 2! 4! 3! 5! = cos + i sin 1 2

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

Key Point e = cos + i sin


i

Example Find complex number expressions, in Cartesian form, for (i) ei/4 (ii) ei
(iii) ei Solution (i) according to our Key Point ei/4 = cos + i sin = 4 4 (ii) ei = cos(1) + i sin(1) = 0.540 i(0.841) (iii) ei = cos + i sin = 1 + i(0) = 1 Now do this exercise Use four terms in the series representation for cos x to obtain an approximation to cos 45 . Answer

1 2

1 + i 2

dont forget: use radians

2. The Exponential Form


Since z = r(cos + i sin ) and since ei = cos + i sin we therefore obtain another way in which to denote a complex number: z = rei , called the exponential form. Key Point The exponential form of a complex number is z = r e i in which r = |z | and = arg(z )

Example If z = rei and w = tei then nd expressions for (i) z 1 (ii) z (iii) zw
Solution 1 1 = ei using the normal rules for indices. i re r (ii) Working in polar form: if z = rei = r(cos + i sin ) then (i) If z = rei then z 1 = z = r(cos i sin ) = r(cos() + i sin()) = rei since cos() = cos and sin() = sin . In fact this reects the general rule: to nd the complex conjugate of any expression simply replace i by i wherever it occurs in the expression. (iii) zw = (rei )(tei ) = rtei ei = rtei+i = rtei(+) which is again the result we are familiar with: when complex numbers are multiplied their moduli multiply and their arguments add. We see that in some circumstances the exponential form is even more convenient than the polar form since we need not worry about cumbersome trigonometric relations. 3
Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

Try each part of this exercise Part (a) Express the following complex number in exponential form: z = 1 i. Answer Part (b) Express the following complex number in exponential form: z = 2 + 3i. Answer Part (c) Express the following complex number in exponential form: z = 6. Answer

3. Hyperbolic and Trigonometric Functions


We have seen in Section 1 that ei = cos + i sin It follows from this that ei = cos() + i sin() = cos i sin Now if we add these two relations together we obtain ei + ei 2 whereas if we subtract the second from the rst we have cos = e i e i 2i These new relations are reminiscent of the hyperbolic functions introduced in Block 4.2. There we dened cosh x and sinh x in terms of the exponential function: sin = e x e x ex + ex sinh x = 2 2 In fact, if we replace x by i in these last two expressions we obtain cosh x = ei + ei e i e i cos and sinh(i) = i sin 2 2 Although, by our notation, we have implied that both x and are real quantities in fact these expressions for cosh and sinh in terms of cos and sin are more general. cosh(i) = Key Point If z is any complex number then cosh(iz ) = cos z or, equivalently, if we replace z by iz cosh z = cos(iz ) and i sinh z = sin(iz ) and sinh(iz ) = i sin z

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

Now do this exercise If cos2 z + sin2 z = 1 for all z then, utilising complex numbers, obtain the equivalent identity for hyperbolic functions. Answer Further analysis similar to this leads to Osbornes rule: Key Point Osbornes rule: Hyperbolic function identities are obtained from trigonometric identities by replacing sin by sinh and cos by cosh except that every occurrence of sin2 is replaced by sinh2 .

Example Use Osbornes rule to obtain the hyperbolic equivalent of 1 + tan2 = sec2 .
Solution 1 sin2 = . Hence if Here 1 + tan = sec is equivalent to 1 + 2 cos cos2
2 2

sin2 sinh2 then we obtain 1 1 sinh2 = 2 cosh cosh2

and

cos2 cosh2

or, equivalently,

1 tanh2 = sech2

More exercises for you to try 1. Use four terms of the series expansions for ex and sin x to obtain approximate values for e1.2 and sin 57 . Compare with the accurate values. 2. If sin 2z = 2 sin z cos z obtain the corresponding expansion in terms of hyperbolic functions. 3. Express the following complex numbers in Cartesian form (i) 3ei/3 (ii) e2i (iii) ei/2 ei/4 . 4. Express the following complex numbers in exponential form (i) z = 2 i (ii) z = 4 3i (iii) z 1 where z = 2 3i. Answer

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

4. Computer Exercise or Activity


For this exercise it will be necessary for you to access the computer package DERIVE. In DERIVE the basic complex object i is denoted by i. You can use this in any expression by keying ctrl +i or by clicking on the i icon in the Expression dialog box. The conjugate of a complex number z is written conj(z) in DERIVE and the modulus of z is written abs(z ). DERIVE will help you verify your complex number solutions to the Block exercises. DERIVE can be used to obtain the series expansions for ex , sin x and cos x seen in this block, but also of other functions. To obtain these expansions all you need do is to dene the function and then go into Calculus:Taylor series window. Choose the appropriate variable. Choose your expansion point (this is likely to be 0 in the present work). Finally choose a value for order; this represents the highest power of your variable required. DERIVE will respond with the appropriate series (usually presented in decreasing powers). As an example let us suppose we wish to calculate cos using four terms of the series expansion given on page 2. We would key 4 in Author:Expression cosx. Then we would key Calculus:Taylor series choosing order 6 (which will give four terms). DERIVE responds with x6 x4 x2 + +1 720 24 2 Then choose Simplify:Substitute for:Variables and key in /4. Finally choose Simplify:Approximate and (with 6 digits of precision) DERIVE responds with a value 0.707103.

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

End of Block 10.3

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

You should obtain cos 45 0.707103 since cos 45 = cos(/4) (using radians) and so: (/4)2 (/4)4 (/4)6 cos 1 + 4 2! 4! 6! 0.61685 0.38050 0.23471 + = 1 2 24 720 = 0.707103 (the accurate value is 0.707107)

Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

z=

2ei7/4 (or, equivalently,

2ei/4 )

Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

z=

13ei(0.9827) .

Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

10

z = 6ei . Back to the theory

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Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

You should obtain cosh2 z sinh2 z = 1 since, if we replace z by iz in the given identity then cos2 (iz ) + sin2 (iz ) = 1. But as noted above cos(iz ) = cosh z and sin(iz ) = i sinh z so the result follows. Back to the theory

Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers

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1. e1.2 3.208 5d.p.)

(accurate: 3.32011 to 5d.p.)

sin 57 0.83865 (accurate: 0.83867 to

2. sinh 2z = 2 sinh z cosh z 3. (i) 1.5 + i(2.598) (ii) 1 (iii) 0.707 + i(0.707) 4 (i) 5ei(5.819) (ii) 5ei(5.6397) (iii) 2 3i = 13ei(5.300) therefore 1 1 = ei(5.300) 2 3i 13

Back to the theory

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Engineering Mathematics: Open Learning Unit Level 1 10.3: Complex Numbers