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Key Players, Places, & Events

PLACES: (SEE DICTIONARY OF JESUS, PP. 33-46)

Palestine during life of Jesus

Bethlehem
Place of Jesus Birth (Mt 2:1; Lk 2:4)
- Native city of David (1 Sam 16) - Five miles south of Jerusalem

Nazareth
small village town Sepphoris ; known for its theater important trade route of Roman Empire (EgyptDamascus) common language: Greek following Jesus rejection in Nazareth (Lk 4:16-30) Jesus ministers in Capernaum

NAZARETH: WHERE JESUS GREW UP (MT 2:23)

Jesus & Galilee


SEA OF GALILEE

Sea of Galilee
Various Names: sea of Gennesaret (Lk 5:1) Matthew/Mark: sea of Galilee (Mt 4:18; Mk 1:16) sea (Mt 8:24; Mk 4:39) John: Sea of Tiberius (Jn 21:1; 6:1) Archeological Finds: rst century boat found beneath water near Nof Ginnosar boat mosaic dated from Jesus times also discovered in Magdala

FIRST CENTURY BOAT (GALILEE)

Key Events
Multitudes of sh (Lk 5:4-9) Fishers of men storm on the lake (Mk 4:35-41) Jesus & Peter walk on water (Mt 14:25-32) after Jesus resurrection (Jn 21:1-14)

Capernaum
Residence of Jesus during the beginning of His ministry (Mt 4:13-17; 9:1; Jn 2:12)

Capernaum
Now when Jesus heard that John had been put in prison, He departed to Galilee. And leaving Nazareth, He came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is by the sea . . . From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand (Mt 4:12-13, 17).

Several Key Events/Points


Home to Peter (Mk 1:29) Jesus calls Levi Matthew (Mk 2:13) Roman centurion healed by Jesus (Mt 8:5) Peter nds money in shs mouth (Mt 17:24-26) Jesus heals paralytic man (Mk 2:1-12) Do you also want to go away? (Jn 6:66-67, see vs. 59)

Capernaum
Peters home
Now as soon as they had come out of the synagogue, they entered the house of Simon and Andrew . . . But Simons wifes mother lay sick with a fever . . . So He came and took her by the hand and lifted her up, and immediately the fever left her. . . At evening, when the sun had set, they brought to Him all who were sick . . . And the whole city was gathered together at the door (Mk 1:29-33)

Capernaum
Peters home (contd)

Near Jewish synagogue (Mk 1:29) Open area near door (Mk 1:33) Inscriptions & testimony of early Christian travelers Located beneath 5th c. Byzantine church & 4th c. Jewish-Christian house synagogue

Bethesda
JERUSALEM SITES
Now there is in Jerusalem by the Sheep Gate a pool, which is called in Hebrew, Bethesda, having ve porches (Jn 5:2)

Garden of Gethsemane

Hear that agonized prayer of Christ in the garden of Gethsemane! While the disciples were sleeping beneath the spreading branches of the olive trees, the Son of man,--a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief,--was prostrate upon the cold earth. As the agony of soul came upon him, large blood drops were forced from his pores, and with the falling dew moistened the sods of Gethsemane, while from the pale and quivering lips came the words, "O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done (ST, Dec. 3, 1897).

Mount of Olives
Then, as He was now drawing near the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works they had seen, saying: Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the LORD! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest! (Lk 37-38)

Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives

Mount of Olives: Key Events


Jesus announces destruction of Jerusalem (Lk 19:41-44) Jesus description of end time events (Matthew 24:3) Jesus place of residence (Lk 21:37; 22:39-Gethsemane) Jesus ascends from the Mount of Olives (Acts 1:12)

Geography of Jesus Ministry


Synoptics:
1. Baptism & temptation in lower Jordan valley (Mk 1:1-13) 2. Ministry in Galilee (Mk 1:14-9:50)

Gospel of John:
1. Reveals 3-year ministry with frequent visits between Galilee & Jerusalem (Jn 2:13; 6:4; 12:1) 2. Very little mentioned regarding Galilean ministry

short excursions outside Galilean border: Tyre & Sidon; Caesarea Philippi (Mk 7:24-31; 8:27-30)

3. Journey to Jerusalem (Mk 10:1-52); & brief sojourn there (Mk 11-16)

Key Geographical Sites


Galilee Bethlehem Nazareth Capernaum Caesarea Philippi Cana Bethsaida Jericho Emmaus Bethany Jerusalem Jordan River

Key Players
See also: Desire of Ages, pp. 603-605

Pharisees
1. Dearth of historical information:

Josephus Rabbinic literature Gospels none explain who the Pharisees were

5. Leaders of the populace (masses)-most inuential sect 6. Beliefs:

2. Origins of Pharisaic party unknown 3. Pharisee traced to Hebrew word meaning separatist

adhered to non-biblical oral laws & Torah heavy emphasis upon ritual purity (meals) & tithing no association with outsiders afterlife (resurrection); fatalistic outlook (providence)

Pharisees

4. Lay association (non-priestly) who were experts of the law

Sadducees
1. Very little historical
information (Josephus; Rabbinical writings; Gospels)

5. Beliefs:

2. Mentioned sparsely in
Gospels (& NT)

Mark: those who say there is no resurrection (Mk 12:18); Acts: they deny existence of angels & spirits (23:8) Reject Pharisaical traditions observing only the Torah (written) free will (as opposed to fatalism)

3. Consisted of priestly

aristocracy though not all were Sadducees authorities stated to be Sadducees (Acts 4:1; 5:17)

4. High priest & temple

Sadducees

Scribes
1. Occurs 57 times in the Synoptics (21 times with the chief priests; 18 times with the Pharisees) 2. Depicted in NT as scholars/ interpreters/teachers of Scripture; custodians of tradition; theologians; lawyers; and major opponents of Jesus 3. Consisted of the priestly aristocracy; ordinary priests; lower clergy; and virtually every segment of society 4. Their issues with Jesus:

His claim to speak/act for God (Mk 2:7) association with undesirable elements of society-tax collectors/ sinners (Mk 2:15-17)

Scribes

Jesus, the Pharisees, & Scribes


Luke 20:45-47
Then, in the hearing of all the people, He said to His disciples, Beware of the scribes, who desire to go around in long robes, love greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts, who devour widows houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater condemnation.

Mark 7:1-23 (Matt 15:1-20) Matthew 23:1-36

1 Then the Pharisees and some of the scribes came together to Him, having come from Jerusalem. 2 Now when they saw some of His disciples eat bread with deled, that is, with unwashed hands, they found fault. 3 For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands in a special way, holding the tradition of the elders. 4 When they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other things which they have received and hold, like the washing of cups, pitchers, copper vessels, and couches. 5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked Him, Why do Your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashed hands? 6 He answered and said to them, Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: This people honors Me with their lips, But their heart is far from Me. 7 And in vain they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men. 8 For laying aside the commandment of God, you hold the tradition of men the washing of pitchers and cups, and many other such things you do. 9 He said to them, All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 10 For Moses said, Honor your father and your mother; and, He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death. 11 But you say, If a man says to his father or mother, Whatever prot you might have received from me is Corban (that is, a gift to God), 12 then you no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother, 13 making the word of God of no effect through your tradition which you have handed down. And many such things you do. 14 When He had called all the multitude to Himself, He said to them, Hear Me, everyone, and understand: 15 There is nothing that enters a man from outside which can dele him; but the things which come out of him, those are the things that dele a man. 16 If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 17 When He had entered a house away from the crowd, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable. 18 So He said to them, Are you thus without understanding also? Do you not perceive that whatever enters a man from outside cannot dele him, 19 because it does not enter his heart but his stomach, and is eliminated, thus purifying all foods? 20 And He said, What comes out of a man, that deles a man. 21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, 22 thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness. 23 All these evil things come from within and dele a man.

(Mark 7:1-23)

1 Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, 2 saying: The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses seat. 3 Therefore whatever they tell you to observe, that observe and do, but do not do according to their works; for they say, and do not do. 4 For they bind heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on mens shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their ngers. 5 But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad and enlarge the borders of their garments. 6 They love the best places at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues, 7 greetings in the marketplaces, and to be called by men, Rabbi, Rabbi. 8 But you, do not be called Rabbi; for One is your Teacher, the Christ, and you are all brethren. 9 Do not call anyone on earth your father; for One is your Father, He who is in heaven. 10 And do not be called teachers; for One is your Teacher, the Christ. 11 But he who is greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 And whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted. 13 But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut up the kingdom of heaven against men; for you neither go in yourselves, nor do you allow those who are entering to go in. 14 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 15 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel land and sea to win one proselyte, and when he is won, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves. 16 Woe to you, blind guides, who say, Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obliged to perform it. 17 Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that sancties the gold? 18 And, Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is obliged to perform it. 19 Fools and blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that sancties the gift? 20 Therefore he who swears by the altar, swears by it and by all things on it. 21 He who swears by the temple, swears by it and by Him who dwells in it. 22 And he who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God and by Him who sits on it. 23 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law: justice and mercy and faith. These you ought to have done, without leaving the others undone. 24 Blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel! 25 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you cleanse the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of extortion and self-indulgence. 26 Blind Pharisee, rst cleanse the inside of the cup and dish, that the outside of them may be clean also. 27 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitewashed tombs which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but inside are full of dead mens bones and all uncleanness. 28 Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inside you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. 29 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the monuments of the righteous, 30 and say, If we had lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. 31 Therefore you are witnesses against yourselves that you are sons of those who murdered the prophets. 32 Fill up, then, the measure of your fathers guilt. 33 Serpents, brood of vipers! How can you escape the condemnation of hell? 34 Therefore, indeed, I send you prophets, wise men, and scribes: some of them you will kill and crucify, and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues and persecute from city to city, 35 that on you may come all the righteous blood shed on the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah, son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar. 36 Assuredly, I say to you, all these things will come upon this generation.

(Matthew 23:1-36)